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Modeling Layered Composites the Simple Way

Mark Swenson Lead Application Engineer ANSYS Mpls

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Presented at the 2012 Confidence by Design Workshop Minneapolis, MN May 8, 2012


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Agenda
Composites Overview
ANSYS Solutions for Layered Composites Demonstration Q&A

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Modeling Layered Composites the Simple Way

Composites Overview

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Composites offer tremendous weight savings, increased performance, and design flexibility

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The composites market is a relatively young, fast growing and technologically evolving market

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Designing parts with these materials can be challenging without appropriate tools

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ANSYS develops tools to thoroughly investigate composites designs up to advanced failure analysis, with unparalleled ease of use.

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Modeling Layered Composites the Simple Way

ANSYS Solutions for Layered Composites

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Developing & Delivering Simulation Solutions


Simulation Driven Product Development:
Innovative & higher-quality products Dramatic time-to-market improvement Minimize development, warranty & liability costs

Paper taken from ERA Report 99-0808 Safety on Offshore Installations - Conference Proceedings, 30 November - 1 December 1999, ISBN 0-7008-0700-4, available from ERA Technology Ltd, Cleeve Road, Leatherhead, Surrey, KT21 7SA, UK. Details of the full proceedings are available at shop.era.co.uk

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Modeling Layered Composites Efficiently


What makes composites analysis challenging?
Layered composites simulation requires:
Orthotropic material stiffness terms (Es, Gs, nus) Lamina (ply) thickness Fiber Orientation draping Understanding of stacking sequence implications Orthotropic strengths Understanding of numerous potential modes of failure and the various failure theories

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Modeling Layered Composites Efficiently


Where does ANSYS stand with composite capabilities?
ANSYS is not new to modeling composites:
Layered shell and solid elements for more than 2 decades Multi-material beams, with support for multiple layers and multiple section integrations Temp-Dep ortho material props with structural temps at each layer Composite PrepPost adds ease of use and results evaluation Integration into Workbench allows for rapid design studies VCCT and CZM, to characterize delamination and debonding for 7 years. Recent addition of progressive damage to characterize post first ply failure
Discrete/Smeared Reinforcement Solid-Shell

Shell

Layered Solid

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Cohesive Zone Model Exponential CZM Law

The bilinear tractionseparation law is used for contact elements

Debonding of a composite beam

Cohesive zone modeling to simulate debonding or crack growth


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Mat. 1

Mat. 2

VCCT is available to compute fracture mechanics parameters


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VCCT-Based Crack Growth Simulation


VCCT Examples
End Notched Flexure (ENF) Specimen

Results from published paper

ANSYS R14
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Reference: Progressive crack growth analysis using interface element based on the virtual crack closure technique by De Xiea and Sherrill B. Biggers Jr. Finite Elements in Analysis and Design 42 (2006) 977 984 ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary 14

Start of damage (layer 1)

Progressed damage (layer 1)

Progressed damage (layer 3)

Progressive Damage Analysis available at 14.0


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Modeling Layered Composites Efficiently


What do we mean by Modeling Layered Composites Efficiently?
Highlight several focus area for this discussion:
Allow for geometric design changes to model Make changes to layup, ply locations, and orientations Incorporate fluid/thermal loading directly from CFD Incorporate loading from external data or other simulations Solve structural simulations all off the same unified model Static (linear & non-linear) Buckling (linear & non-linear) Transient Dynamic Linear Dynamics Explicit (Bird Strike, Drop Test, Crash and Impact, etc.) Ease of post-processing of composite results
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Modeling Layered Composites Efficiently


How can recent advances in ANSYS facilitate composite simulations ?

Lets start with the workflow in ANSYS Workbench for incorporating composites in a typical design:
Composite PrepPost integrated into Workbench workflow Upstream changes in design propagate through to the results In this example we might look at sensitivity of geometry size, shape or layups to deformation, natural frequencies, and failure margin

Model/Cleanup

Materials, Layups & Mesh

B/Cs and Simulations

Composite Post-Processing

Design Studies

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Modeling Layered Composites Efficiently


Composites PrepPost is used to define the layup. Here we see the part thickness, cross-sections, and fiber orientations

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Modeling Layered Composites Efficiently


Defining the layup with PrepPost

Material Data Fabrics/Stackups

Oriented Element Sets Layup Area

Layup

Layup Direction

Reference Direction

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Modeling Layered Composites Efficiently


Make changes to layup, ply locations, orientations Here we change the width of the doubler shown in red

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Modeling Layered Composites Efficiently


Make parametric changes to ply dimensions

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Modeling Layered Composites Efficiently


Fiber orientation prediction and modification Use internal draping calculations Interface with Vistagys FiberSim Modify the fiber orientation to something that is actually observed on the manufacturing floor. For this we use multiple rosettes (local coordinate systems) specifying the angle to match the measured at known locations, and let PrepPost interpolate in between.
Green parallel to rosette, Blue draped prediction

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Modeling Layered Composites Efficiently


Asymmetric laminate definitions Multiple overlapping oriented-element sets used to define asymmetric layups

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Modeling Layered Composites Efficiently


Incorporate fluid/thermal loading directly from CFD (1-way and 2-way FSI)

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Modeling Layered Composites Efficiently


Incorporate, transform, and validate loading from other simulations

Data Mapping Pressure Temperature Heat Transfer Thickness Displacements


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Modeling Layered Composites Efficiently


Solve structural simulations all off the same unified model
Pressure loading, modal, and non-linear buckling example

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Modeling Layered Composites Efficiently


Solve structural simulations all off the same unified model
Pressure loading, modal, and tip load non-linear buckling

IRF - Distributed Pressure

2nd Natural Freq = 174 Hz

IRF 4 Tip Displacement

Change spar chord location, wing taper, rib position, add stiffener plies to skin Geometry, mesh, orientations, draping, properties, and results all updated

IRF - Distributed Pressure


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2nd Natural Freq = 241 Hz


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IRF 4 Tip Displacement


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Modeling Layered Composites Efficiently


Here we look at how the tip deflection and 2nd natural frequency change with the 1st rib spanwise location.

Perform what-if studies

Create response surfaces for optimization


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Modeling Layered Composites Efficiently


Ease of post-processing of composite results

Results Interrogation

Worst case failure criteria over all layers shows Hm (1) Hashin matrix Layer 1 Pick element and see stress/strain and failure through the thickness
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Modeling Layered Composites Efficiently


Explicit dynamic model uses same composite setup
Bird-Strike, Drop Test, Crash and Impact, etc. Simple setup for Eulerian mesh

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Modeling Layered Composites Efficiently


Radome Case Study

Connections

Deformations from FSI

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Failure Criteria

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Modeling Layered Composites Efficiently


Radome Case Study Bird Strike

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Summary

Composites simulations with ANSYS


Setup model one time, make changes to examine what if Look at sensitivities of design changes Investigate damage tolerance to flaws Investigate post first ply failure

Simple Drag-and-Drop Multiphysics


Easily incorporate thermal, fluids, and pressures Additional capability to import 3rd party data

Improve design fidelity by optimization

One single framework ANSYS Workbench

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