Studies on Photocatalytic Oxidation of Industrial Waste Water
Mr.Nileshkumar J. Thanvi
(M-Tech. Chemical Second Year)
Prof.S.V.Khedkar C.O.E.T. Akola.
Department of Chemical Engineering College of Engineering & Tech., Babhulgaon, Akola (M.S). S.G.B.A.University, Amravati. A Synopsis submitted for the partial fulfillment of Master of Technology Degree Course in Chemical Engineering. Session: 2011-2012
A large number of organic substances are nowdays introduced into the water system from various sources such as industrial effluents, agricultural runoff and chemicalspills. Their toxicity, stability to natural decomposition and persistence in theenvironment has been the cause of much concern to societies and regulation authoritiesaround the world.  Dyes, phenols , pesticides, fertilizers, detergents, and other chemical products are disposed of directly into the environment, without being treated, controlled or uncontrolled and without an effective treatment strategy . Steps should be taken for recycling wastewater of the various industries, as water has now become a key symbol of protest around the world and is seen as the most serious social and political issue of this generation. The appearance of compounds that are difficult to degrade by conventional chemical or biological methods (toxic, mutagenic, carcinogenic pollutants) in natural waters recently created a pressing need for the development of efficient water-treatment processes. The search for a solution to this problem has involved extensiveexaminations in the field of advanced oxidation processes (AOPs). In chemicaloxidation processes, reaction mechanisms change structure, and chemical properties of the organic substances. Molecules break in smaller fragments; higher percent ofoxygen appears in these molecules in form of alcohols, carboxylic acids etc. oxidationof organic compounds with oxidation such as ozone or OH. Radicals usually yieldsmore oxidized ones which are in most cases more easily biodegradable than the former ones. This is the general idea that yields to the combination of a chemical oxidation processes. Oxidation with ozone or hydrogen peroxide has been found to be an important alternative to chlorination, because the oxidation does not result in toxicchlorinated organic compound .Advanced OxidationTechnologies (AOTs),including Advanced Oxidation Process (AOPs).
1.1AIM AND OBJECTIVE AIM
To study the effect of light on the pollutants present in water. To study the effect of light in combination with catalyst like TiO2. To study and design a suitable UV assisted treatment process for industrial wastewater.
OBJECTIVES To investigate and removal of organic pollutant from wastewater. To degrade textile effluent ORdecolorization of a Reactive Dye. To reduce the harmful effect of textile effluent. To study the effect of time irradiation of UV light towards degradationactivities To study the effect of catalyst concentration towards the photocatalyticdegradation. To remove or to degrade harmful chemical present in wastewater.
1.2 SCOPE OF STUDY
The work in this project will be focused on the potential utilization of UV radiation and catalyst which produces •OH radicals with water.Photocatalysis are the combination of using a catalyst and UV or visible light for the treatment of wastewaters pollutants. When illuminating a photocatalyst using UV or visible light, various organic compounds (e.g., aromatic, organochloride and organ phosphorous compounds) can be oxidized and mineralized at the photocatalyst surface or oxidized in solution ambient and atmospheric conditions.Photocatalysis is one of the most important advanced oxidation technologies. It is used for oxidative treatment of wastewater containing various organic and inorganic compounds. Various physical, chemical and biological pre-treatment and post-treatment techniques have been developed over the last two decades to remove color from dye contaminated wastewaters in order to cost effectively meet environmental regulatory requirements. Chemical and biological treatments have been conventionally followed till now but these treatment methods have their own disadvantages. The aerobic treatment process is associated with production and disposal of large amounts of biological sludge, while wastewater treated by anaerobic treatment method does not bring down the pollution parameters to the satisfactory level and activated charcoal adsorption and air stripping methods simply transfer the pollutants from one medium to another. They either transfer it to the atmosphere, which causes air pollution, or to a solid which is often disposed of in landfills or must be treated in an energy-intensive regeneration process. Merely transferring toxic materials from one medium to another is not a long term solution to the problem of hazardous waste loading on the environment These methods rely on the formation of highly reactive chemical species that degrade more number of recalcitrant molecules into biodegradable compounds and are called advanced oxidation processes (AOP‟s)
2. LITERATURE REVIEW
Industrial development is pervasively connected with the disposal of number of toxicpollutants that are harmful to the environment & the human and are also not easily degraded in nature. Wastewater generated from industries which degrades local streams with bacteriaand other pollutants, threatening human health, landmass fertility, and our environment. In order to meet international standards treatment of industrial water containing pollutants is mandatory. The removal of organic pollution from water supplies has traditionally been effected by adsorption with activated carbon. For this reason attention is being given to alternative photocatalytic oxidation processes for water treatment, frequently referred to as advanced oxidation processes. The object of destructive oxidation processes is to mineralize organic contaminants, i.e., convert them to carbon dioxide, water and the oxidised inorganic anions of any heteroatoms present. These processes frequently include the addition of oxidizing agents such as hydrogen peroxide,TiO2 ,ZnO etc in the presence of a UV light. Hydroxyl radicals are known to be involved in most of these processes.
2.1.1ADVANCED OXIDATION PROCESSES:
In 1987, Glaze defined AOPs as “near ambient temperature andpressure water treatment processes which involve the generation of hydroxyl radicals in sufficient quantity to effect water purification”. The hydroxyl radical (•OH) is a powerful, non-selective chemical oxidant (Table 1), which acts very rapidly with most organic compounds.The reaction rate constants of molecular ozone with different organic compounds.These reaction rate constants vary in quite a wide range from 0.01 to 104 M–1 s–1. Once generated, the hydroxyl radicals aggressively attack virtually all organic compounds. Depending upon the nature of the organic species, two types of initial attack are possible: the hydroxyl radical can abstract a hydrogen atom from water, as with alkanes or alcohols, or it can add itself to the contaminant, as in the case of olefins or aromatic compounds. Methods Available for generating OH radicals:- Several methods are available for generating OH radicals. These include both nonphotochemical and photochemical methods: 1. 2. 3. 4. Ozonation at elevated pH (>8.5) Ozone + hydrogen peroxide (O3/H2O2) Ozone + catalyst (O3/CAT) Fenton system (H2O2/Fe2+)
5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.
O3/UV H2O2/UV O3/H2O2/UV Photo-Fenton/Fenton-like systems Photo catalytic oxidation (UV/TiO2) Sonophotocataytic oxidation Table 1.Relative oxidation power of some oxidizing species 
Sr.No 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.
Oxidizing Species Chlorine Hypochlorous acid Permaganate Hydrogen Peroxide Ozone Atomic oxygen Titanium Dioxide Hydroxyl radical
Relative oxidation Power 1.00 1.10 1.24 1.31 1.52 1.78 2.35 2.05
A common reaction is the abstraction of hydrogen atom to initiate a radical chain oxidation:  RH + •OH → H2O +•R(1) 2•OH → H2O2 (2)
R + H2O2 → ROH + •OH(3)
R + O2 → ROO•(4)
ROO• + RH → ROOH + R•(5)
2.1.2 PHOTOCATALYSIS 
Photocatalysis is defined as the acceleration of a photoreaction in the presence of a catalyst, while photolysis is defined as a chemical reaction in which a chemical compound is broken down by photons. In catalyzed photolysis, light is absorbed by an adsorbed substrate.Photocatalysis on semiconducting oxides relies on the absorption of photons with energy equal to or greater than the band gap of the oxide, so that electrons are promoted from the valence band to the conduction band: Semiconductor +hv h++e-
2.1.3 PHOTOCATALYTIC TREATMENT OF PRIORITY POLLUTANTS T.E. Agustina and H.M. Ang (2005) gave a synergistic effect of photocatalysis and ozonation for the treatment of wastewater that contain recalcitrant organic compounds, such as organohalogens,organic pesticides, surfactants, and colouring matters, wastewater engineers are now required to develop advanced treatment processes. A promising way to perform the mineralization of this type of substance is the application of an advanced oxidation process (AOP‟s).  The photocatalytic degradation and oxidation to carbon dioxide of aqueous phenol solutions have been studied (R.W. Matthews and S.R. McEvoy (1992)) using natural sunlight in geometries simulating shallow ponds. The photo catalyst was titanium dioxide freely suspended in the solution or immobilized on sand or silica gel. Photo degradation rates were approximately three times faster with the free suspension than with the immobilized catalyst under the same conditions, and were dependent on the time of the year and the time of the day. The seasonal variation correlated roughly with seasonal solar irradiance tabulations for the UV component of the spectrum.  Advanced oxidation processes (AOP‟s) are used for the treatment of wastewaters containing non-easily removable organic compounds (Marc Pera-Titus et al. (2003)). Chlorophenols (CPs) are a group of special interest due to their high toxicity and low biodegradability. Data concerning the degradation of CPs by means of AOP‟s reported during the period 1995–2002 are evaluated in this work. Among the AOP‟s, the following techniques are studied: processes based on hydrogen peroxide (H2O2+UV, Fenton, photoFenton and Fenton-like processes), photolysis, photocatalysis and processes based on ozone (O3, O3+UV and O3+catalyst). Half-life times and kinetic constants for CP degradation are reviewed and the different mechanistic degradation pathways are taken into account.  The photochemical oxidationof phenol and chlorophenol aqueous solutions in a batch recycle photochemical reactor using ultraviolet irradiation, hydrogen peroxide and TiO2 (as photocatalyst) was studied. The study showed that the combined treatment process was the most effective process under acidic conditions and showed a higher rate of degradation of phenol and chlorophenol at a very short radiation time. The reaction was found to follow the first order kinetics and was influenced by the pH, the input concentration of H2O2 and the dosing amount of the TiO2 photocatalyst. The results indicate maximum 74.6% and 79.8% degradation of phenol and chlorophenol respectively within 90 minutes of radiation time.
A comparative study of the treatment of raw and biotreated (upflow anaerobic sludgeblanket, UASB) textile dye bath effluent using advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) is presented. The AOPs applied on raw and biotreated textile dye bath effluent, after characterization in terms of COD, colour, BOD and pH, were ozone, UV, UV/H2O2 and photo-Fenton. The decolorization of raw dye bath effluent was 58% in the case of ozonation. However it was 98% in the case of biotreated dye bath effluent when exposed to UV/H2O2. It is, therefore, suggested that a combination of biotreatment and AOPs be adopted to decolorize dye bath effluent in order to make the process more viable and effective. Biodegradability was also improved by applying AOPs after biotreatment of dye bath effluent. A process of pesticide removal from industrial waste water using Fenton‟s reaction has been analyzed. Most of the pesticide were completely degraded at H2O2 concentration of 2.5 gm/dm3; however, only at 5g/dm3 were all examined pesticide completely removed and the result repeatable. Organo-chlorine pesticides were removed with efficiency of more than 90%.
3. MATERIALS AND METHODS:3.1 MATERIALS: INDUSTRIALWASTEWATER(textile , pharmaceutical,fertilizer,etc) and
Synthetic Waste water of (phenol, Dyes, oxalic acid, humic acid,etc)
CATALYST(H2O2, ZnO of Merck Chemical)
UVLIGHT(8volt, 11 inch, ofOsramCompany) and its assembly. pH METER pH of the solution was monitored by, pH Meter AIR SPARGER Air is continuously supplied during experiments in UV reactor order to oxidize the organic matter.
Analysis of sample will be done by UV Spectrophoto Meter.
3.2 Method Experimental Procedure
As shown in below figure UV reactor consist of UV lamp, UV lamp chock, and UV lamp glass Sleeve, electrical Connection, Effluent holding glass cylinder. Glass cylinder
which holds effluent is rapped with aluminumfoil, which acts as reflector for UV rays to transmit it back.UV lamp is placed in glass sleeve as shown in figure.A known quantity of effluent is taken in glass cylinder and hydrogen peroxide is added which act as catalyst. The mixture is irradiated with UV light for known period of time. The degradation of pollutants is than measured with the help of UV spectrophotometer. Tentative Experimental set-up of PhotocatalyticReactor:UV lamp electric supply UV lamp chock
Glass Cylinder Glass Sleeve For UV Tube UV Tube
EFFECT AND PRECAUTION:Effect of UV light Exposure of UV lightis harmful to the skin and eyes. Excessive UV light exposure cause painful sunburn, accelerate wrinkling and increase the risk of skin cancer. UV light causes eye inflammation, cataracts, and retinal damage. Precaution while handling UV light A person handling UV light must cover his body fully. Eye must be cover with UV light barring goggles. Hand must be covered with gloves. Face must be covered with cloth mask. Body parts which are bare must be applied with sunscreenlotion.
PROBABLE OBSERVATIONS: Colour change Turbidity
OBSERVATION TABLE:Sr.No Sample Catalyst Initial Final Light Contact Time (min)
concentration concentration Power (W)
PROBABLE RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
The photocatalytic degradation of waste water sampleunder UV irradiation employing H2O2.Photocatalysis by H2O2involves under UV light excitation the generation of e- and h+ in the conduction and valence band, respectively. These species undergo charge transfer reactions across the interface with oxygen, water and organic pollutants. The reaction of h+ with -OH or H2O leads to the generation of reactive. OH radicals having, which are powerful oxidants attacking the recalcitrant organic compounds of interest. [1,11]
Photocatalysis is a promising technique, for the photodegradation of various hazardouschemicals that are present in industrial wastewater and it mineralize the organic contaminants, into final end product. Photocatalysis is eco-friendly way to reduce thepollutants load of wastewater.The advanced chemical oxidation processes used successfully in the removal of organic pollutants from its aqueous solution which is helpful to determine the optimum conditions for their removal from industrial wastewater containing organic pollutants with high removal efficiency.While at neutral and basic pH there was a major contribution of the free radical pathway and the addition of hydrogen peroxide can promote or inhibit the reaction of free radical. Method can be used as a preliminary step prior to a biological wastewater treatment. The biodegradability of the treated waste increased with increasing in hydrogen peroxide this revealed that destruction of organic pollutants. Photocatalysis offers some significant advantages over competing technologies such as adsorption on activated carbon in those areas where photocatalysis can
compete.Photocatalysis could become even more viable by increasing the intensity of the source used to activate the catalyst.
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Student Signature (Mr.NileshKumar Thanvi)
Guide Signature (Prof.S.V.Khedkar)