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In a formal debate, the affirmative and negative sides have their respective duties and responsibilities. Briefly, the affirmative role is to present the necessity, beneficiality, and practicability of the given proposition. They have the burden of proof and must present and maintain a prima facie case. The affirmative side must persuade the judges that the sum total of their arguments is adequate to affirm the resolution, beyond the attempts of the negative side to destroy any of its essential elements. The negative role, on the other hand, is to cast a “shadow of a doubt” on the given proposition. The negative may choose to attack any or all of the three essential elements of the proposition. If they successfully convince the judges that the proposition is not necessary, beneficial, or practical, then they have won the match. There are numerous options available for the negative side to achieve this. They may propose a better alternative, defend the status quo, or convince the judges that the affirmative’s proposal is unnecessary, unbeneficial, and/or impractical.
Debaters are judged according to their ability to persuade, on the soundness of the arguments that they present, and on their debating skills. For the purpose of this tournament, we have set three (3) elements as criteria for judging:
Analysis and Evidence
40% 30% 30%
Reasoning and Refutation Delivery -
For a total of 100%
To get the team’s overall rating; the average of the two speakers shall be acquired. The judge shall then declare whether the affirmative or negative side won based on the respective judge’s scoring of the teams. The team that gets majority of the votes from the judges will be declared the winner of the match. The board of judges will be given time to deliberate before announcing the winner.
NOTE: Unlike other forms of debate, the Modified Oregon-Oxford format implemented in the Pi Sigma Fraternity Open Debate Tournament gives a premium place on thorough and in-depth knowledge of the given proposition. Thus, Analysis and Evidence is given the greatest weight in the criteria. The other elements of the criteria are definitely important, but cannot stand alone without the research, which the arguments and contentions must be based on.
GUIDE QUESTIONS REGARDING DEBATE CRITERIA
Refutation is defined as the process of weakening or destroying an opponent’s arguments. In the case of the debate. it refers to the ability of the debaters to identify the major issues and arguments pertaining to the proposition. Does the debater use cogent thinking? How capable is he/she in drawing logical inferences from existing data? Does he/she show the capacity to reason for him/herself? REFUTATION It is important for a debater to refute the arguments presented by the opposing side while at the same time expertly defend his/her own case. What is the quality of evidence? Is there too much reliance on opinion and not enough on fact? Is the evidence relevant and timely? REASONING Reasoning refers to how logical. ANALYSIS Analysis refers to the breaking down of a subject into its constituent parts. coherent and organized the debater is in presenting his or her arguments. we are laying hereunder a basic definition of the various elements and some guide questions. Does the debater recognize the crucial areas of agreement and disagreement? . Has the debater found the issues that are critical? Do these issues have the potency to decide whether one accepts or rejects the resolution? Does the debater know what he must do to destroy a case or establish one? EVIDENCE Research plays an important role in the debate process as debaters try to find not only sufficient evidence but also the most potent and relevant evidence that would support their analysis and conclusions. This should only serve as a general guide.To further understand the debate criteria. and the judges may resort to their own interpretations of the criteria if they deem it necessary.
in a club 2. through spoken or written speech. in a court of law Characteristics of propositions good for debate 1. must be interesting . must be susceptible to only one interpretation 4. institution and principles. persuasion. to believe or act as we wish them to believe or act. Forms of proposition: 1. it must express only one of the judgment 3. The subject of an argumentation is what we referred as PROPOSITION.Is of fundamental importance to human relationships. Does the delivery enhance the argumentation? Is it intelligible. interesting and persuasive? argumentation/oregon-oxford debate ARGUMENTATION . must be debatable 8. It is the process of influencing the belief or behavior of a hearer or reader. through the medium of reasoned discourse. should avoid abstractions and generalizations 6. in a municipal council 4. must be concise and simple 7. by supplying him with reasons and stirring his feelings. it must be in a form of an assertion 2. must be unprejudiced 5. . It is an art that one creates belief. and practical argumentation.is generally defined as “the art of influencing others. must be so worded that the burden of proof must be on affirmative side 9.How effective is the debater in destroying or weakening an opponent’s argument? Does the debater know what to do to destroy a case or establish one? DELIVERY Delivery refers to the debater’s skill in speaking.It is the belief of a person that determines his attitude towards men. in a parliamentary body 3.
There are two (2) sides in this format: the Affirmative and the Negative. . . This is the format of choice for topics requiring more than superficial research. one Rebuttal-Summation speech and gets to crossexamine his opponent. the debate takes the appearance of a courtroom trial where the advocate is subjected by his opponent to a series of questions with the aim of exposing fallacious arguments and clarifying issues.must not be too wordy and must be impartial Objectives of Interpellation: 1. .be stated in the affirmative.should be debatable.concise and simple. high schools and colleges all over the country. To clarify points in the opposing team’s position 2.should embody only one act of judgment or central idea and . Each speaker delivers one constructive speech. define the topic (if affirmative). . . Propositions is the topic or issue under the consideration which the debater must establish or overthrow according to his side. FIRST SPEAKER Overview It is the job of the first speaker to introduce their team's case. Each team has two speakers and one scribe. A debate moderator enforces the rules to ensure the debate’s smooth conduct. Proposition of policy deals with the question “Why should this be done?”. To set up arguments for the use in the subsequent speeches by the speaker or his teammates. Propositions of fact deal with the question “Is this true?” Phrasing the Proposition: The Proposition… . To obtain damaging admissions from the opposing team themselves 4. this format involves the use of specific information in the form of evidence to support arguments. During interpellation. Propositions are classified under (1) policy or (2) fact.OREGON – OXFORD DEBATE The Oregon – Oxford debate is a traditional debate format used in elementary. rebut (if negative). outline the team split and to let the audience know what direction your case is going in. To expose factual errors or unscrupulous assertions by the opposition 3.must state the proposed policy and not defend the status quo. The Affirmative proves the validity of the issue or topic called the PROPOSITION while the Negative disproves it.
Show team split . Line that rhyme or are hammy will not make you popular with adjudicators.The team split is the part of a first speaker's speech that says what all their team-mates are going to say.The team line is a section where many debaters slip up. Save it for class debates. intershool adjudicatorsHATE it! FIRST NEGATIVE The job of first negative: Fix any problems with definition . as well as the specific arguments. will be speaking about the rising rates of ADHD in children who watch television.The First Negative should attack the core argument of the affirmative team. According to the DAV (Debating Association of Victoria). not just individual words. A team split would sound something like this: "I will be speaking about the excessive amounts of television that children watch today. Give arguments to show why their definition is the most reasonable definition. The definition should define the whole phrase. Rebut the arguments presented by the Affirmative. Mr Michael Smith. The team line should summerise the arguments of your team. Dos and Dont's for First Speakers: Do make your team line interesting and thought-provoking. 2. they must prove to the adjudicator that they has the most reasonable definition. Mr Thomas Fennacelli. these are the three steps for a definitional challenge: 1. Clearly state the alternative definition being proposed by the Negative. will summerise our team's case". Don't make your team line rhyme and childlike. Our third speaker.See First Affirmative.FIRST AFFIRMATIVE The job of first affirmative: Define topic . Key words may have to be individually defined though. If the negative team wishes to challenge the definition. Don't feel like you have to have one team line. these problems must be resolved immediately. Our second speaker. you will look very silly and consequently be marked down by the adjudicator. Do give the split at the start of your speech. usually after team line and definition. 3. Alter it slightly from speaker to speaker to make it less repetitive and boring! Do plan ahead with things like team splits. In defining. you should clearly specify the important issue(s). .If the negative team has any disagreements with the affirmative's definition. If two or your speakers talk about the same thing. Introduce team line . Rebuttal . Team lines like "Space exploration is not a sensation" will lose you points in interschool debates.This is very important. Show team split .
Rules on an Oxford-Oregon Debate: Format of Debate .3. To rule on points of clarification about the issues or questions and answers made during the Interpellation.Constructive SpeechThird Affirmative . however. Whether or not it is Necessary? (Necessity)B.8. Answers should equally be brief. based on their discretion.Constructive SpeechSecond Negative . neither the questioner nor his opponent may consult a colleague. Your opponent may refuse to answer ambiguous.Constructive SpeechThird Negative . Questions should primarily focused on arguments developed in the speech of your opponent. Remember. matters relevant and material to the proposition are admissible.4.2. click here.30%C.Guides for Constructive SpeechSpeech types of Constructive Speech may be:1. then attack the arguments of second affirmative.ConstructiveSecond Affirmative . Consider cross examination an information exchange period . If not familiar with the fallacies of logic. may qualify his answer why yes or why no. Consultation should be done before but as quietly as possible.Tips on Interpellation and RebuttalCROSS EXAMINATION The cross-examination period of a debate is a time when the person who is not going to speak next in the constructives questions the person who has just finished speaking.Constructive SpeechFirst Affirmative Interpellation of the first negative speakerSecond Affirmative . Interpellation . To reveal the issue involve the debate.2. To see to it that the debate is orderly and follows the rules of parliamentary procedures. However.Interpellation of the second negativeThird Affirmative . Cross examination may serve six objectives: To clarify points .25%B. the debater may counter arguments directly by stating what arguments or statement is incorrect or false. Rebuttal 15%The judges. Rebuttal speaker should point out clearly the fallacies committed by his opponent stating clearly what particularly statement or argument constitute said fallacy.30%D.Interpellation of the third negativeRebuttal of the Team Captain of the Negative SideRebuttal of the Team Captain of the Affirmative SideDurationConstructive Speech: Minimum of five (5) and maximum of seven (7) minutesInterpellation: Five (5) minutesRebuttal Speech: Three (3) minutesIssues for DebateA. Mix method of memory and conversational or dramaticPoise. To give the speakers a one-minute warning with the ringing of the bell once before his/her time is up.Constructive SpeechFirst Negative .Rules on Interpellation1.Oxford-Oregon TypeThree Speakers from each sideFirst Affirmative .3. Questioner and opponent should treat each other with courtesy.Interpellation of the third affirmativeThird Negative . Both speakers stand and face the audience during the question or Interpellation period.B. opponent if he choose. A questioner should not comment on the response of his opponent.it is not the time to role play lawyer. gestures. Questioners should ask brief and easily understandable question.5. Role of the ModeratorThe moderator of the debate has the following duties:1.Role of the Timer1. Extemporaneous4. irrelevant or loaded questions by asking the questioner to rephrase or reform his question. then attack the specific points of the first affirmative. Reading Method2. Whether or not it is Beneficial? (Beneficiality)C. Questioner may not cut off a reasonable and qualifying answer. The winning team shall be determined by the majority decision of the Board of Judges. To time the speakers and debaters accurately. Once the questioning has begun. Delivery . Rules on Rebuttal SpeechA. The second negative rebuttal should make up a third of their speech.Second Speaker SECOND SPEAKER Overview It is the job of the second speaker to present the bulk of the argument and to rebut the opposition. Evidence .Interpellation of the first affirmative SpeakerFirst Negative .Interpellation of the second affirmativeSecond Negative . Categorical questions answerable by yes or no is allowed. Rebut Second Affirmative: The second affirmative should clearly identify the major areas of disagreement in their rebuttal. the second speaker must defend their team's defintion. Memory Method3. Second Negative: The second negative should argue against the main points of the affirmative team. Second Affirmative & Negative What the second speaker should do: Defend the definition (if neccesary) . Whether or not it is practical? (Practicability)Criteria for JudgingA. and3. For more informtion.”7. audience contact and voice projection are highly recommended.If there are still issues with the definition. you are trying to prove that your definition is the most reasonable.6.2. but he may cut off a vervous response with a statement such as a “thank you” “that is enough information” or “your point is quite clear” or “I’m satisfied. To prevent the debaters from exceeding the time allotted to them by ringing the bell twice. shall have the authority to determine who will be the Best Speaker and Best Debater.
counterplans) are more likely given lots of internal links?3. right?"5.11.9. 4."Don't try to go for everything.To expose errors To obtain admissions To setup arguments To save prep time To show the judge how cool you are so they WANT to vote for you. Address the judge. Avoid rereading evidence that has already been read in constructives. This is safe. Qualify your answers. Don't say"I don't know. Mark your flow/notes as to what you want to question them about. Then trap them. Most debaters tend to ignore the value of good cross-examination. Don't avoid what the other team said. effective cross-examination of the opponents can play an important psychological role in winning the ballot of the judge. Concise A. Don't go for everything. don't make it too obvious. answer questions actively and with confidence whenever you can. say you will give a hypothetical A. but don't re-read it. This is not the time to lose the judge on the flow. What matters is the type of argument that is extended or dropped in rebuttals-this will determine the winner of the round. Face the judge/audience. 30% of the entire debate is spent in cross-examination -. you will stumble and not get through as much.2. Avoid open ended Qs unless you are sure they are clueless. GUIDELINES FOR ASKING QUESTIONS: 1. Not only is there less time within each speech.5. Be dynamic. Approach things from a non-obvious direction. Cross-examination will indicate to the judge just how sharp and spontaneous the debaters are. 2.10. even if it is just an attempt to clarify. we win. If you dropped an argument in a prior speech that you think was important don't act like your losing. You must be explaining and telling the judge why these issues win the debate. You must clash directly with their responses. Try and not answer hypothetical Q. Answer based on your position in the debate so far.. Keep options open.10. . Use signposting . Don't telegraph your argument. Which outcomes (disads.. Don't be a blabbering motormouth. Make sure the judge knows where you are on the flowsheet.4. Which arguments have more weight at the end of the round?2. 12. and judges would agree that rebuttals are the most difficult and yet the most important parts of the debate.6. Don't make new arguments. What about the quality of evidence? Here are some other helpful hints: 1. This is the one opportunity the audience/judge has to compare you with opponents side-by-side. Have questions and be ready to go.emphasize the difference if they are rude. Answer only relevant questions.7. but each debater has to sort through all of the issues to determine which ones are the most important ones! What a debater does or does not do in rebuttals will decide who wins the debate. 10. 3." REBUTTALS Most debaters. Invisible bias will always occur in a debate round and judges would always like the sharpest team to win. Politeness is a must -. 5. Don't whine to the judge about fairness or what the other team might have done that you think is unethical. Remember. Avoid reading evidence only. You can't make 12 responses to each argument in a few minutes. 7. Debaters don't have to do that and just because a team may have dropped a point or an argument is not an automatic reason to vote against that team. Speak quickly but not beyond your ability. Avoid"lumping and dumping. 6. 9. Make responses and beat them.8. Cross-apply arguments you made somewhere else in the debate to answer it. Make Q seem important.3. Be specific and logical about winning issues.6. If nothing else. Beat the other team's arguments and tell the judge why your arguments are better. Avoid repetition. Think about these four issues when rebuttals happen: 1. Signal each other.11. Be willing to exchange documents read into the debate. Good. You can read new evidence but you can't run new disadvantages or topicality responses. You are limiting to extending the positions laid out in the constructive speeches."So. You can make reference to it by referring to it. 8.it should be a meaningful and essential part of the debate. don't tag-team. Don't make promises of what you or your partner will do later. CX answers must be integrated into your arguments made during a speech. Refer to something you have already said whenever possible. What about time frame-what happens first?4. 11. Don't just repeat your constructive arguments. Choose arguments which you want to win. not your opponent. Cross-apply arguments. Indicate the object of your Q3. If you speak too fast. If they demand. Extend those arguments that you need to win. debaters tend to underestimate the importance that cross-examination may have on the judge.9. Very few debaters (especially beginners) can hope to extend everything that happened in the constructive speeches.7. The image you project will be very important to the audience/judge. Don't jump from issue to issue at random. Don't ask Q they won't answer properly. Be organized.4."say"I am not sure at this time. Ask a short Q designed to get a short A2. coaches. GUIDELINES FOR ANSWERING QUESTIONS: 1..8. Avoid passing ships. Use issue packages. Organize your arguments into issue packages.
Persuasion -. This honest admission can win a measure of respect. interviews.Advantages: can be very powerful because often the writer is addressing an audience who agrees with his or her values. problems -. ethics -. Use neutral terms to make distinctions. you will have difficulty getting people to accept your points because in the process they will have to accept your insults as being valid.build common bridges with your audience by demonstrating past cooperation. Although no technique will magically convert opponents into supporters. excerpts from trial transcripts. lawyers persuade.play the devil's advocate and determine what negative stereotypes your audience may have about you and your ideas.instead of attempting to pretend there is no conflict. executives persuade. and explain a point of view is critical in almost every business and profession. openly state that your view may differ from your readers. and expert analysis of evidence might persuade an appeal court to order a new trial for a criminal defendant. The ability to state an argument.which uses images. and capital punishment -. change our behavior.Avoid making judgmental statements -. and suggest reforms to local politicians. sensations. consider your audience carefully.Responsibly summarize the opposing viewpoints -.do not label your reader's ideas with negative language. can backfire. If you label your ideas as being intelligent and your readers' as being naive. But almost everyone will agree to try to open minded and receptive to new ideas. An article on homeless children might use the narrative of a single homeless boy to attract attention then provide statistics to illustrate the severity of the problem and outline possible solutions.Work to overcome negative stereotypes -.logic. abortion.Advantages: provides evidence needed for major decisions. vote for a candidate. you force your readers to agree with you and demonstrate your fairness. An extensive review of court proceedings.which rests on appealing to shared values to motivate. Essays frequently mix factual support with emotional appeal based on human interest. A football coach might persuade players to see themselves as role models to children and not drink or swear in public. Avoid repeating arguments you have heard on television or read about in newspapers or magazines. justify expenses. or shock appeals to lead readers to react in a desired way.ADDRESSING READER OBJECTIONSPerhaps most challenging is attempting to persuade a hostile audience.Disadvantages: depends on readers sharing the values of the writer.Argumentation: WHAT IS ARGUMENTATION? We are constantly encountering people trying to persuade us to buy products and services. you can overcome a measure of hostility and influence those who may still be undecided with a few approaches:Openly admit differences -. SELECTING TOPICS FOR PERSUASIONEffective persuasion depends on selecting workable topics. people you anticipate have negative attitudes toward you. In your career you will have to motivate employees. accept political judgments.Ask your readers to keep an open mind -. statistics.is perhaps the most important writing you will attempt in freshman English. As students you will have to write persuasively to influence your readers. influence others. the organization you might represent. influence clients.Disadvantages: can be boring and require a high degree of attention on part of the reader.which uses facts. especially group decisions. Consider which of the three appeals -. writers often use more than a single appeal. Then work to include examples.the attempt to influence readers' views and opinions -.Logic -.by fairly restating your opponents' views. In general.In developing a persuasion paper. anticipating possible objections and addressing them in your paper.unless you can develop a new angle. Sales representatives persuade.will be most effective.Advantages: often produces immediate resultsDisadvantages: has limited impact.Ethics -. provides limited factual support for readers to share with others.don' t demand or expect to convert readers. evidence. avoid topics like gun control. When you graduate you will need to write a resume and persuasive cover letter. An appeal by a Muslim cleric may have little effect on Catholics or Buddhists.Point to shared values. surveys.Emotion -. censorship of the Internet why readers should monitor their cholesterol taxing Internet commerce why America should/should not restrict immigration sex education why consumers should protect their computer files need for stalking laws why America should/should not have national health television violence insurance drunk driving laws why Americans should donate organs welfare reform why companies should provide employee daycare .To be effective. evidence in your presentation to counter these negative impressions. or the ideas you will advocate. emotion. experiences. or scientific tests to support a point of view. references. A television commercial featuring suffering children accompanied by an 800-number might persuade viewers to make donations.
and emotional appeals in your essay. The fact that an educational policy works in Japan does not mean it will work in the United States. These topics will force you conduct individual research rather than relying on items you have read in the press or seen on television.mandatory car insurance why America should/should not pay its UN dues school choice why NATO should/should not intervene in internal school prayer conflicts political campaign reform why smokers should/should not be able to sue legalizing marijuana tobacco companies GETTING STARTEDCONSIDER YOUR PERSONAL EXPERIENCERather than select a political or social controversy.CONSIDER YOUR READERS Address the needs. neighbor. Make sure that any conclusions are based on sufficient evidence and not coincidence or simple circumstance. Don't assume you can convince readers by hurling accusations. leaving a bar on Tuesday. and emotional appeals?6. and quotes taken out of context. Comparisons form weak arguments. customer. DIVISION AND CLASSIFICATION. COMPARISON. Consider their likely attitudes toward your argument and the type of evidence they will need to accept your point of view. and buying a six pack on Wednesday does not prove that the person has a drinking problem or even drinks alcohol at all. governors debate. a clear working thesis gives your first draft focus. were tenets of both Nazism and Communism. better security at a local mall. "The outmoded computer systems must be replaced.REVIEW YOUR PAPER FOR LAPSES IN CRITICAL THINKINGRead your paper carefully to determine if you maintained critical thinking. colleges and all over the country.* False Analogy. You cannot argue. The fact that you spot a fellow student walking into a liquor store on Monday. sentimental. youtube debate. they rarely provide convincing evidence. biases. Avoid overdramatizing your case by offering readers only two alternatives.* False dilemma. A Debate Moderator enforces the rules to . employer. Although they may useful to illustrate an idea.There are 2 sides in this format : the Affirmative and the Negative. Avoid insulting remarks. avoid making absolute claims that can be dismissed with a single exception. Blend logical. it is better to use more than one. * Read your paper aloud or use peer review to examine your argument for unsupported claims or inappropriate statements. Do you avoid preaching to the converted? Will only those who already agree with you accept your arguments?8. a centralized financial aid office on campus. Most readers will immediately recognize the weakness of such an unrealistic argument. Don't attack the personality of opposing authorities or reject an idea because someone controversial supports it. Is your message clearly defined?2. Although it is important to convince readers by making a strong impression. parliamentary debate rules.PLACE YOUR STRONGEST POINTS AT THE BEGINNING OR ENDINGRemember that reader attention is strongest at the beginning and end of a paper. Do you make it easy for undecided readers to accept your position without feeling manipulated or patronized?9. review your personal experience. The Affirmative proves the validity of the issue or topic called the Proposition while the Negative disproves it. . statistics. National health care. high school debate. presidential debate. or government agency that revealed a problem or called for action? You may wish to argue for better daycare. HAVE YOU TESTED YOUR ARGUMENT WITH PEER REVIEW? Cross-Examination/Oregon-Oxford/Forensic Debate . We must approve school choice or see an an entire generation of children condemned to illiteracy. REVIEW THESE POINTS1. ARGUMENT AND PERSUASION CHECKLISTBEFORE SUBMITTING YOUR PAPER.* Begging the question. or propagandist appeals?7. Avoid assuming elements that must be proven. and knowledge base of your readers.LIMIT THE SCOPE OF YOUR ARGUMENTA short paper may not allow you to fully address all aspects of a complex subject. ethical. ethical. * Hasty generalizations.* Avoid topics that are so emotionally charged that you cannot be objectiveDO NOT MISTAKE PROPAGANDA FOR ARGUMENTEffective argument is based on reason. such as stating. Have you had dealings with a college. The fact that a celebrity or single expert supports your argument is not convincing evidence. Do you anticipate reader objections and alternative points of view?5." until you prove that the system is indeed outdated. Do you avoid overstated. Do you support your views with adequate evidence?4. Do not place your most important arguments or evidence in the middle of the essay where readers may overlook it.STRATEGIES FOR IMPROVING ARGUMENTATIONUSE MORE THAN ONE APPEAL Because each appeal has advantages and disadvantages. or more computers in the college library. Look for evidence of logical fallacies or weaknesses:* Absolute statements. for example.People who began smoking after cigarette packages and advertising were required to post the Surgeon General's warning against smoking should not be allowed to sue tobacco companies for smoking-related illnesses.USE MODES SUCH AS NARRATION. Do you balance the strengths and weaknesses of logical. The fact that Prohibition failed to curb alcohol consumption does not mean that crack should be legalized.traditional debate format used in elementary. OR CAUSE AND EFFECT TO ORGANIZE IDEASYou can compare pro and con statements using comparison and contrast or use narration to relate a case or incident. You may make your task easier by clearly defining the scope of your paper:Apex Engineering should provide basic daycare for full time employees working first shift on weekdays. house debate rules.* Basing arguments on personalities.STATE YOUR THESIS CLEARLYArgumentation requires a clearly worded thesis. Does your paper meet reader needs? Do you provide the support they need to accept your thesis?3. Although your thesis may change as you work on your paper. Don't presume that readers will be impressed by citing endorsements by famous people. Each team has two speakers and one scribe.
Whether or not it is Beneficial? (Beneficiality) C. gestures. may qualify his answer why yes or why no. Your opponent may refuse to answer ambiguous. However. opponent if he choose. A questioner should not comment on the response of his opponent.30% D. Questioner and opponent should treat each other with courtesy. Interpellation .Constructive Speech First Affirmative . Delivery . Questions should primarily focused on arguments developed in the speech of your opponent. based on their discretion. Memory Method 3.Constructive Speech Second Negative . 6. Whether or not it is practical? (Practicability) Criteria for Judging A.Constructive Speech Third Negative .ensure the debate’s smooth conduct. shall have the authority to determine who will be the Best Speaker and Best Debater. audience contact and voice projection are highly recommended. 4. Questioner may not cut off a reasonable and qualifying answer.Interpellation of the first affirmative Speaker First Negative .Interpellation of the second affirmative Second Negative . Whether or not it is Necessary? (Necessity) B.30% C. Rules on Interpellation 1. Answers should equally be brief. Reading Method 2.Constructive Speech First Negative . 3. The winning team shall be determined by the majority decision of the Board of Judges. neither the questioner nor his opponent may consult a colleague. Categorical questions answerable by yes or no is allowed. Extemporaneous 4. Mix method of memory and conversational or dramatic Poise. .Oxford-Oregon Type Three Speakers from each side First Affirmative .” 7. matters relevant and material to the proposition are admissible.Interpellation of the third negative Rebuttal of the Team Captain of the Negative Side Rebuttal of the Team Captain of the Affirmative Side Duration Constructive Speech: Minimum of five (5) and maximum of seven (7) minutes Interpellation: Five (5) minutes Rebuttal Speech: Three (3) minutes Issues for Debate A.Constructive Second Affirmative . irrelevant or loaded questions by asking the questioner to rephrase or reform his question. Consultation should be done before but as quietly as possible.Interpellation of the third affirmative Third Negative . Once the questioning has begun. Evidence . Both speakers stand and face the audience during the question or Interpellation period.25% B.Interpellation of the second negative Third Affirmative . 5. however.15% The judges. but he may cut off a vervous response with a statement such as a “thank you” “that is enough information” or “your point is quite clear” or “I’m satisfied. Questioners should ask brief and easily understandable question. 2. 8.Constructive Speech Third Affirmative . Guides for Constructive Speech Speech types of Constructive Speech may be: 1. Rebuttal .Interpellation of the first negative speaker Second Affirmative . Format of Debate .
Mark your flow/notes as to what you want to question them about. 6. not your opponent. If nothing else. CX answers must be integrated into your arguments made during a speech. 2. To show the judge how cool you are so they WANT to vote for you. 3. Don't telegraph your argument.emphasize the difference if they are rude. Avoid open ended Qs unless you are sure they are clueless. To prevent the debaters from exceeding the time allotted to them by ringing the bell twice. Cross-examination will indicate to the judge just how sharp and spontaneous the debaters are. To rule on points of clarification about the issues or questions and answers made during the Interpellation. 7. Tips on Interpellation and Rebuttal CROSS EXAMINATION The cross-examination period of a debate is a time when the person who is not going to speak next in the constructives questions the person who has just finished speaking. To see to it that the debate is orderly and follows the rules of parliamentary procedures. 4. 8. To time the speakers and debaters accurately. don't make it too obvious. Most debaters tend to ignore the value of good cross-examination. 10. Be dynamic.it is not the time to role play lawyer."So. To clarify points 2. Politeness is a must -. To setup arguments 5. Good. the debater may counter arguments directly by stating what arguments or statement is incorrect or false. B. Cross examination may serve six objectives: 1. 11. 30% of the entire debate is spent in cross-examination . 9. Indicate the object of your Q 3. Ask a short Q designed to get a short A 2. To expose errors 3. To save prep time 6. Face the judge/audience. right?" 5. GUIDELINES FOR ANSWERING QUESTIONS: . debaters tend to underestimate the importance that crossexamination may have on the judge.Rules on Rebuttal Speech A. Consider cross examination an information exchange period . To obtain admissions 4. effective crossexamination of the opponents can play an important psychological role in winning the ballot of the judge. To reveal the issue involve the debate. This is the one opportunity the audience/judge has to compare you with opponents side-by-side. Have questions and be ready to go.it should be a meaningful and essential part of the debate. answer questions actively and with confidence whenever you can. Don't ask Q they won't answer properly. If not familiar with the fallacies of logic. Rebuttal speaker should point out clearly the fallacies committed by his opponent stating clearly what particularly statement or argument constitute said fallacy. Make Q seem important. Then trap them. and 3. Role of the Timer 1. even if it is just an attempt to clarify. we win. GUIDELINES FOR ASKING QUESTIONS: 1. 2. Remember. The image you project will be very important to the audience/judge. Invisible bias will always occur in a debate round and judges would always like the sharpest team to win. Role of the Moderator The moderator of the debate has the following duties: 1. Approach things from a non-obvious direction. To give the speakers a one-minute warning with the ringing of the bell once before his/her time is up.
you will stumble and not get through as much. This is not the time to lose the judge on the flow. but each debater has to sort through all of the issues to determine which ones are the most important ones! What a debater does or does not do in rebuttals will decide who wins the debate. Avoid passing ships. Address the judge."Don't try to go for everything. coaches. Try and not answer hypothetical Q. If you dropped an argument in a prior speech that you think was important don't act like your losing. 7. 4. 5. Make responses and beat them. Crossapply arguments you made somewhere else in the debate to answer it. Debaters don't have to do that and just because a team may have dropped a point or an argument is not an automatic reason to vote against that team. Think about these four issues when rebuttals happen: 1. You can make reference to it by referring to it. Speak quickly but not beyond your ability. Which outcomes (disads. You can read new evidence but you can't run new disadvantages or topicality responses. Be specific and logical about winning issues. Keep options open. 9. Don't go for everything.. Avoid"lumping and dumping. This is safe. 2. Choose arguments which you want to win. Beat the other team's arguments and tell the judge why your arguments are better. Answer based on your position in the debate so far. Cross-apply arguments. don't tag-team. Be organized. If you speak too fast. Answer only relevant questions. 5. Refer to something you have already said whenever possible. 6. 10. Don't be a blabbering motormouth. 6. What matters is the type of argument that is extended or dropped in rebuttals-this will determine the winner of the round. counterplans) are more likely given lots of internal links? 3. 4. say you will give a hypothetical A." REBUTTALS Most debaters. 8. but don't reread it. Signal each other. Don't say"I don't know. Don't make new arguments. Extend those arguments that you need to win. If they demand.. 11. 10. 11. Which arguments have more weight at the end of the round? 2. 8.1. You must clash directly with their responses. Avoid rereading evidence that has already been read in constructives. Avoid reading evidence only. 2. Avoid repetition. You must be explaining and telling the judge why these issues win the debate. Oregon-Oxford debate Overview . Organize your arguments into issue packages. and judges would agree that rebuttals are the most difficult and yet the most important parts of the debate.. Not only is there less time within each speech. You are limiting to extending the positions laid out in the constructive speeches. Concise A. Very few debaters (especially beginners) can hope to extend everything that happened in the constructive speeches. Don't avoid what the other team said. You can't make 12 responses to each argument in a few minutes. Don't jump from issue to issue at random. Use signposting . What about time frame-what happens first? 4. Don't just repeat your constructive arguments. Don't make promises of what you or your partner will do later. Use issue packages. Don't whine to the judge about fairness or what the other team might have done that you think is unethical. 12. 7. Qualify your answers. Make sure the judge knows where you are on the flowsheet. 3. What about the quality of evidence? Here are some other helpful hints: 1. 3."say"I am not sure at this time. 9. Be willing to exchange documents read into the debate.
What is Debate? Debate is basically a response to a problem. Case-building before research The team should build their case first before undergoing research when the issue has already been widely discussed and debated. Objectives of Debate • Main Objective * To resolve the issue intelligently at the end of the debate Specific Objectives * To have a comprehensive grasp of issues * To be able to prepare a case which tackles the P. * Positively-stated.Home Photos Photo Album Tourneys Sample Motions Reference sites Speeches Debate Basics it's all 'bout us Matterload tag it credits Oregon-Oxford Debating History of Debate Objectives The Resolution Research Case-building Parts of the Debate Speaker Roles The Constructive Speech Debate during the Olden Days It was in 5th Century B.C. in Syracuse a city from Ancient Greece has gone through war and revolution. Research Research first before case-building The team should research before building their case if the issue is new and is still developing. People struggled for peace and order. The Resolution • • Stated as: Let it be resolved that (LIBRT):______________. N and B. Case-building BURDEN OF EACH TEAM Affirmative – Burden of Proof Must establish a prima facie case Must prove all aspects of their case to win . * Stated in a way that alters the status quo. Characteristics: * Usually about a policy. It is a competition using words and logic. It is to change people’s minds and actions through our words and power of conviction. A particular concern for them was land ownership for lands were claimed through memory.
Can not win based on the inability of the negative to prove its case. VI. What is the status quo? 2.3 minutes Rebuttal The summary and defense of each team’s arguments and evidence. Conclusion 1st Speaker (Negative Side) I. Beneficiality – advantages or disadvantages of adopting or rejecting the resolution. Define the terms B. Give the status quo 1. You could repeat the argument after your A. B. State the proposition of the affirmative A. includes matter of: *law *clamor *finance Necessity – need for the proposition. N. What is wrong with it? C. then strengthen each one Always give transition. State the proposition A. or b of the affirmative’s case Can not discuss anything that the affirmative did not bring up ASPECTS OF THE CASE Practicability – feasibility of a proposition. includes. discusses the presence or absence of an inherent flaw in the status quo. Team Split Caseline State all your arguments first Go back. to be delivered by either the scribe or the team captain – 6 minutes Speaker Roles 3 Speakers Practicability speaker Necessity Speaker Beneficiality 1 Scribe 1st Speaker (Affirmative Side) I. V. Introduction II. C. Introduction II. State your stand IV. * specific beneficiaries *specific benefits Parts of the Debate Constructive Speech The presentation of each team member’s arguments and evidence for each aspect of the case – 5 minutes each Interpellation The opportunity for each debater to ask and answer questions regarding their speeches . explanation. Negate/show the clash with the . Negative – Burden of Rebuttal Must destroy either the P.
2. State the proposition A. A. B. V. Introduction II. Where was the clash? I. What have they said? Why is it right? I. B. Rebuttal of the Opposing team What have they said? Why is it wrong? Fallacies committed A.’s arguments Caseline (same as the 1st spkr-aff) Conclusion (same as the 1st spkr-aff) Rebuttal Speaker (Affirmative and Negative) I. C. Strengthen arguments by giving more examples or elaboration. IV.given III. C. Summary Restate all the arguments of each speaker 1. Conclusion . What has happened in this debate? B. proposition Rebut the 1st speaker of the affirm.
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