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Issue Specific Housing
2 3 B .1 3 .2. 2 F Inclusive Housing What is Inclusivity? Historical Overview Today‟s Exclusive City The Case for a More Inclusive City Inclusivity at the local level Inclusive Complexes 01 | Inclusive Housing 2. 2 3 A . 2 3 C .1 . 2 3 E . 2 3 D .
undivided: gained their exclusive attention. There are different interpretations of inclusivity. including the extremes as well as the area between 4. ex·clud·ing. that is. religious or ethnic differences . 7. or including different social and economic groups The level of inclusivity can be measured by: 1. The physical proximity between different groups 2. keep out. Not divided or shared with others: exclusive publishing rights. incompatible: mutually exclusive conditions. Not accompanied by others. 2 3 A . ex·clu·sive 1. Excluding some or most. 2 3 C . Including all social groups: socially inclusive. Not allowing something else. the fact or policy of not excluding members or participants on the grounds of gender. etc. Not including specified extremes or limits. What we term super-inclusivity. but only area between them: 20-25.v.3 . 22. including (almost) everything within its scope 2. The court excluded the improperly obtained evidence. Politics & Diplomacy) 1. or accepted. Excluding or tending to exclude: exclusive barriers. The property of being inclusive. To put out. expensive: exclusive shops. Complete. reject: 4. 6. 8. In the western context inclusivity has generally come to mean inclusion of the aged and the disabled. 3. considered. disability. ex·clud·ed. bar: 2. 2 3 E . single or sole: your exclusive function. Including all economic groups: economically inclusive. 2. 2 3 D . inclusivity (Social Welfare) (Sociology) (Government.1 Economic status and occupation Caste syste m Cultural. a jar sealed to exclude outside air. 23 and 24. as from membership or participation: an exclusive club. 5. class.1 A What is inclusivity? ex-clude tr. ex·cludes 1. 02 | Inclusive Housing 2. 21. Catering to a wealthy clientele. 3. 5. The level of social interaction between the different social or economic groups inclusive 1. 2 3 B . • Including future residents in the entire design process • Including different groups of people: 1. exclusive. To prevent from being included. expel. 4. religious and cultural integration. while in most of the developing world it implies economic. Numbers 1 to 10 inclusive inclusiveness (uncountable) 1. To prevent from entering. An inclusive list of Wiki formats 3. race. Household structure Education Sexual orientation Disability Age Inclusiveness can be better defined by first defining exclusiveness. an immigration policy that excludes undesirables. 2 F 2. but not necessarily economically 2. sexuality. but not necessarily socially 3.
Exclusive Housing is housing which is inclusive to only one (or some) particular social or economic groups. disabilities. 2 3 B . religious and cultural integration. 2 3 D . whether of different economic strata. Inclusive housing does not try to equalize everyone and bring them to the same socio-economic level. sex. 2 3 E . New Delhi. In the western context inclusivity has generally come to mean inclusion of the aged and the disabled. 2 3 C . Unitech (bottom left) has a range of ‘luxury’ homes to choose from. This report shall discuss economic inclusivity. or even sexual preference. Another interpretation of inclusive housing is to integrate the surrounding site conditions and residents with the designed housing. religious beliefs. 3 . for example. For the purpose of this study we shall consider the opportunity social inclusiveness important. Leading from the different interpretations of inclusivity. Jain only buildings in Mumbai. though there are many cases of housing being exclusive to a particular class or religion. a community can be either socially inclusive or economically inclusive.1 . Thus. The level of Spatial Integration The proximity between different economic groups can range from adjacent apartments on the same floor or adjacent plots to nearby sectors or zones exclusive to one income level. Super-inclusive housing would include all groups of people. It thus excludes everyone else not belonging to these groups. while in most of the developing world it implies economic. In today’s scenario the criteria is generally the spending power. jobs or professions. Amrapali SkyBungalows (bottom right) offer private lifts and separate staff lifts. there are also different interpretations of inclusive housing: Socially inclusive or economically? The super-inclusivity discussed earlier is not feasible. One might claim that spatial proximity would automatically result in social interaction. while others say that just spatial proximity is sufficient. generally. but rather accepts and respects their differences. 03 | Inclusive Housing 2. Inclusive Housing is thus housing which is not exclusive to any particular social or economic group. 2 3 A . familial and household structure. Inclusive housing can also mean involving the future residents in the entire design process. but present examples of apartment buildings leave this open to argument. Human communities centre on the existence of a shared interest that enables trust. There have also rare instances of extraordinarily exclusive housing. Some sources consider the existence of a ‘community’ paramount (and so only living next door is not inclusive). such as vegetarian-only in Soami Ngar. 2 F Most current housing is geared towards exclusivity. The level of Social Interaction There is debate regarding the extent of social interaction required. age.
These neighborhoods were cul-de-sacs with houses on both sides. an apartment house having an area of 73sqm. 2 3 C . This also reflected in architecture and housing. there was more prosperity and stability. by the 7th century AD. located in occupationally divided sectors. [1100AD to 1500AD] In the medieval city. as soon as agriculture became the way of life. Mesopotamia and Egypt. the castle or palace was located at one end. 2 3 A . church in the center surrounded by the market. followed by the Saiyids. Some examples are Vienna and Berlin. with the necropolis being central. which had more time to interact with each other. which is where the basic neighborhood concept started. Hence. However. surrounded by a ring of richer settlements. There was a segregation of the aristocracy and the peasant. settlements like Catalhuyuk were extremely compact. Especially pre-classical civilizations . 2 3 E . . and yet exclusive. with common walls and equality in society. who were the noblemen and then the artisans and agriculturalists. However. Tribals were highly honoured. Though initially.1B(a) Historical Overview: Inclusivity in Housing Global [Before 3500BC] During the Palaeolithic times. apart from the nobility and peasantry – the clergy. 2 3 D . Important examples include Damascus and Jeruselam. Similar strategies were used in Roman cities too. the an intellectual and artistic revolution took place because of which a new type of class arose. the stability led to larger communities. [3500BC to 200AD] The Greeks were the first to plan consciously on the basis of unity despite segregation. eventually. i. unhygienic housing. further skirted by the poor. had an established social order. not farming or other physical strains. they were inclusive in a sense. Islamic cities took form. 2 3 B . Division of neighborhoods was on the basis of lineage. The common man lived in densely packed. reflecting in the arrangement of dwellings. (Top) 3D of a Roman Insula (Bottom) A typical medieval city 04 | Inclusive Housing 2. homogeneous and extremely close-knit for safety from wild animals. the medieval city was just cleaned and beautified further with gardens and avenues. [700AD onwards] In the middle-east. with the presence of a leader and his followers. leading to disputes and distinctions as well. no major planning changes were made.e. with the richer people inside the walled city and poor squatters outside. which developed their own typology for housing – the Roman insula. Hippodamian planning was based on occupational sectors but provided community spaces for ample exchange of ideas and to promote the feeling of community.3 . the city exploded out of the walls.1 [1500AD to 1700AD] With the renaissance. which was the main place for interaction. This is when social stratification started. for example. 2 F 2. communities were small. and only one gated entry. These people were involved in mentally/intellectually demanding tasks. Eventually.
Socially Inclusive These tenements were. The Revolution reshaped the urban environment. without even sanitation facilities or water supply. In some cases.1 . but they were certainly economically exclusive. Garden Cities The building of new towns was encouraged. 4. The “garden city” settlements of Letchworth (1903) and Welwyn (1920). 3. these advancements are happening at an exponential rate with mobile phones. Settlements grew around the factories. The Revolution had many important social and economic consequences. and factory cellars. Some impacts are as follows: • Awareness and Globalization: People today are more informed and there is a dilution of strict traditional prejudices with a more universal attitude. 2 3 C . On the other hand. people were being induced to move out of the industrialized towns and cities in order to decongest them. These homes would share toilet facilities. Other workers lived in sheds. communal facilities provided by some housing provided opportunity for greater social interaction within the core (not necessarily inclusive) group of residents. in a way. today. as a response to the overcrowded and polluted conditions evident. This means people by nature have become a little more accommodating and thus. a less dependant society. socially inclusive because they were shared by people from different social backgrounds (but similar economic ones). and agriculture. have open sewers and would be at risk of damp. 2 3 B . industry. railway yards. or farmland areas. 2 3 A . 2 F Technology and Communication Technological advancements have had a great impact on social structure. especially in cities. Migration While industrial workers were paid higher wages than farm labourers and there was thus an economic incentive for individuals to find industrial jobs and move into industrial towns.Industrial Revolution The Industrial Revolution was a period from mid-18th century to early 19th century when major changes in modes of production and technology occurred. Early Housing Living conditions during the Industrial Revolution varied from the splendour of the homes of the owners to the squalor of the lives of the workers. have reduced the need for people to pas time by spending it with others – All in all. gadgets such as televisions etc. 05 | Inclusive Housing 2. housing was provided to workers by their employers. By the 19th century people were moving to cities in unprecedented numbers. However. 2 3 D . 2 3 E . Decongesting Industrial Towns and Cities By the early twentieth century. 3 . the printing press and industrialization. which has directly affected housing as well. Poor people lived in very small houses in cramped streets. built according to his ideas. and which contained proportionate areas of residences. not least by concentrating workers in the new industrial towns and suburbs linked and supplied by railways. inclusive. 1. • Lack of personal interaction: Communication through internet and phone calls has reduced personal faceto-face communication. Also. The Post-industrialized Society The post-industrialized new towns were socially inclusive to an extent. The founding of new communities had been pioneered in Britain by town planner Sir Ebenezer Howard. This synergetic relationship can be seen from the discovery of fire to the advent of agriculture and more recently. computers and the internet becoming commonplace. had been designed as self-contained cities that were protected from urban encroachment by greenbelts. 2. socially.
say Hindus or Muslims. making it the main artery for trade and interaction. • However. • The British lived in separatist colonies. This setup promoted the nurturing of a symbiotic personal relationship between the owners and the servants (such as gardener. •They consisted of four distinct quarters. cook etc. called Mohallas.1 Main House British colonial rule • During the Raj. the marketplace with the traders and merchants. though in varying degrees. which was evident in the difference of dwelling sizes. as they taxed them for not being Muslim. This clearly stratified society into distinctly different built identities. • Despite these differences. if relative. • The streets were meant only for pedestrians or animals. separated by the main thoroughfares.1B(a) Historical Overview – Inclusivity in Housing Indian Indus Valley Civilization Although some houses were larger than others. Garden . though a sense of community was still missing. economic and vocational exclusivity is apparent from the basic planning of such villages.3 . except that there were a variety of cultural pockets. in the „Pols‟ of Gujarat. with a servants quarter at the back and a boundary wall all around. high density one. the settlement was a low rise. Servant’s quarter 06 | Inclusive Housing 2. This vocational planning was the basis of most cities that came up later. had settled in and around Delhi and parts of North India. These societies tended to alienate the local Hindu population. due to the absence of any other cultural group. Indus Civilization cities were remarkable for their apparent. with Indians in neighboring „black towns‟. Citadel Kshatriya/ Brahmin Market place Vaishya Mughal • Delhi‟s old city furthered the idea of the Vedic village. based on the caste system. Vedic •These settlements. 2 F 2. 2 3 D . often referred to as „white towns‟. egalitarianism. which were exclusive to a particular religious group. 2 3 B . (Top) Plan of a Vedic village – division based on caste and occupation (Bottom) Colonial Bungalow of Delhi Tuglaqs The Muslim invaders since the 12th century AD. inclusivity was not the order of the day. • A similar situation is found even today. All the houses had access to water and drainage facilities. 2 3 E . 2 3 A . excluding the lower classes. 2 3 C .. Even newer cities like New Delhi were planned majorly for the aristocracy and the car. Obviously. were automatically socially inclusive. one of the earliest on Indian soil. though clear social levelling is seen in personal adornments. the middle class (vaishya) quarter. the colonial bungalow was the most common „housing‟.) These houses were inclusive within themselves. the upper class (kshatriya and brahmin) quarter and the citadel. economic disparity existed within these mohallas. especially in New Delhi. •However. This gives the impression of a society with relatively low wealth concentration. This was characterized by a single story house.
Today there is more homogeneity in society. designed by the rich. by many more cities. than there was pre-liberalization. as discussed earlier. • Intolerance towards the informal Modern planning often advocated elevational control and repetition of elements. which resulted in the rise of the „middle class‟. 2 3 B . preventing smaller businesses from coming up. which had been catching on in the west for the first part of the 20th century. between the owner and the servants. 2 3 A .Pre-independence Planning The only significant colonial planning concept was the one that Lutyens adopted for the design of New Delhi. there was some amount of inclusivity. The experiment started with Le Corbusier‟s Chandigarh and was replicated. with some modifications. Thus. which resulted in the ouster of the poorer masses to the city periphery.1 . Also urbanization has increased. • Largely administrative and residential. for the rich Post-independence Era With the end of British rule. the new city had wide avenues and a very low density land use. This led to a great divide between the rich and the poor. 2 3 C . (Below) Plan of Lutyens Delhi. • The houses were primarily for the rich and the „poor‟ were left behind in Shahjahanabad. The major breakthrough came with liberalization in 1991. certain parts of the city would be specifically reserved for a certain kind of housing. which was naturally reflected in housing as well. came as the answer to new age planning. which was certainly not inclusive. Liberalization  Post-Independence. what existed was a „License Raj‟ with stringent rules and regulations. 2 3 E . 2 3 D . which means more poor people are migrating from villages to cities. which basically led to widespread corruption. Modernism. the desire to start on a tabula rasa became widespread. 2 F Residentia l Commerci al Official (above) Mixed land-use pattern (above) Seggregated land-use pattern 07 | Inclusive Housing 2. Some of the major impacts of modern planning on the inclusivity of a city. Informal construction was looked down upon and often removed or shifted outside the city to „beautify‟ it. were: • Gentrification As seggregation of land use took place. • However. within a bunglow. This not only killed diversity but slowly led to inflated land prices. the city has to become more inclusive than it ever was 3 .
Achieving inclusivity on the local level. These areas do not receive adequate infrastructure and development funding and focus as compared to more affluent areas. They would also help develop and be employed in local markets and other commercial areas serving HIG and MIG groups. Examples are: • Parks and green spaces. The richer groups also benefit by having closer market areas. most times without even the most basic of services. which also directly offer employment to LIG and EWS groups • Shared facilities like places of worship. Bus depot market Press Enclave Rd. most LIG and EWS residents would find work in HIG and MIG areas in the service and informal sectors: for example as household help or daily service providers. (Bottom) open space as buffer. hospitals. Employment and Commute Most residents of HIG and MIG groups and some of the LIG group would travel to the commercial/ office centres for work. Buffer Spaces When different economic groups live close together. 2 3 B . fruit and grocery vendors. integrating neighbourhood types on the local level –which automatically results in a more inclusive development. the characteristic and design of the buffer space or neutral zone separating them become of paramount importance. Hauz Rani and Saket separated by different buffer spaces. and thus become even worse places to live. • Transport nodes like metro stations.1 . Thus. 2 3 E . These spaces. At some point the DDA ‘sports complex’ was at a stage of development when it constituted three large fields without any barriers distinguishing the open spaces. the camaraderie was lost and the two neighbourhoods almost became hostile to each other for a time. Having these different residential areas close-by reduces commuting time. 2 3 A . 2 F 2. etc.1 E Inclusivity at the local level Inclusivity needs to be achieved on the local level amongst HIG. again reducing commuting time. (Right) Malviya Nagar. which offer equal recreational opportunities for all economic groups • Markets and commercial areas. Saket residents and the Hauz Rani villagers moved freely throughthe area and the DDA constructed a paved pedestrian path and bridge which Saket with Hauz Rani. Afluent Saket neighbours Hauz Rani -a predominantly Muslim urban village.and the two are separated by the Press Enclave Road. LIG and EWS neighbourhoods. Hauz Rani Saket Shivalik Jal Board open Police station Metro Malviya Nagar 10 | Inclusive Housing 2. that is. Children from Saket played football every evening with their peers from Hauz Rani. MIG. Since only Saket residents could afford the complex. expense and effort.3 . 2 3 D . On the other hand. 2 3 C . both ‘no –man’s land’ and so ‘everyone’s land’ should be areas where all economic groups can interact. Infrastructure and development for all In most modern cities the trend has been the displacement and shift of the underprivileged either towards the periphery of the cities or into areas which are “environmentally degraded” and thus do not provide viable living conditions for the rest of the masses. roads and paths Hauz Rani and Saket The importance of buffer spaces can be understood by considering the case of Hauz Rani in South Delhi. having neighbourhoods comprising of different economic backgrounds next to each other ensures that development benefits are equally distributed and shared by all communities and not accrued to only one. or as vegetable. In the early1980s the DDA appropriated most of the marshy land which was the site of the historical Hauz to construct the Saket Sports Complex. In 1990 the interim sports complex was razed and supplanted by a more elaborate version.is also more convenient for all.
The only possible reason for these groups of people to want to live in such close proximity. consider a scenario where the complex houses people with very large background differences in (say EWS and HIG or MIG). which makes for a socially and economically sustainable system. This means that even plot sizes and house typologies are decided unanimously within the group of people. owing to a law which makes it mandatory for a builder to provide a certain percentage of EWS or LIG housing. but also within themselves. 2 F • Low rise High Density development: High rises tend to have higher building and maintenance costs (Left) Doon Trafalgar. the varied plot sizes as well as service cores (stairs. It is possible to have people from different economic backgrounds residing in the same housing complex.1F Inclusive Complexes Talking of housing complexes. or MIG and LIG) are „neighbors‟. • Variation in unit size: This automatically brings in a range of plot or apartment sizes. The only way a housing complex can maintain inclusivity is by making sure that the poor do not feel the urge to sell their flat/plot and move out. This leads to problems of overcrowding and unsanitary conditions. but also in terms of the amount of money one wants to spend. which is then left free to be inhabited by people.)are provided. This is because. In short. They usually. The house itself is upto the inhabitant to build. and families from weaker sections of society tend to increase in size. the possibility of dividing a space into larger number of usable units is extremely advantageous. Now. 2. For instance. 2 3 A . 2 3 B . The factors which are imperative for inclusivity to be achieved within a housing scheme are: 1. when building for MIG or HIG groups. Both groups are usually not dependant on each other in any other way. This can be achieved in the following ways: • Additive Housing: Incase of plotted housing. is if the poor work for the rich. Social Interaction or Employment Consider a scenario where people from slightly different economic backgrounds (say MIG and HIG. when need be. More often than not. a one bedroom studio apartment may be designed such that on the birth of a child. • ‘Self help’ model: This is a development strategy in which basic services such as plumbing and electricity are provided in an otherwise empty site. electricity etc. • Credit/Loan assistance: These are small loans (microfinance) which are given to low income families so that they can get a house without any delay. This is one of the most common typologies of housing complexes. whereas the poor are given a small subsidy on their smaller units. Dehradun. This can also be done by following a set of guidelines or ideas for adding to one‟s unit. is the desire for social engagement and shared community spaces. This is an application of that. The unit should be affordable in the long term as well. the only way the housing can be inclusive. without inconveniencing either party. if adequate space is left. water. . 2 3 D . or even houses. which translates to a variety of ranges. the EWS housing is reserved for servants who work for the people from the MIGs and HIGs. In this method the builder still makes a net profit as all subsidy negotiations are within the same set of units. except with proper services. 3 . Such a mix of housing is possible with variation in plot or apartment size. 2 3 E . These flexibilities allow personalization. 3. (Right) Artist’s colony. Affordability within a housing complex can be achieved in the following ways: • Cross Subsidy: This is done by charging the rich with market rates (or auctioning). not only in terms of tastes. Belapur. potentially caused by inadequate finances. The crux of the idea is that traditional settlements were also unplanned and hence more sustainable. the same apartment can be divided into two bedrooms. land prices are constantly increasing. 2 3 C . Here. • Flexible spaces: In case of apartments. inclusivity is not only something that they ought to achieve with their surroundings. Incremental Development Affordability on the face of it is one thing. there is a scope of adding to one‟s dwelling.2. Housing complex with reserved EWS units. Incremental housing with variation in plot size 11 | Inclusive Housing 2. housing will only be inclusive if the poor see it as a long term investment. Affordability A housing complex can only be considered inclusive if atleast some of its units are affordable by a range of economic groups. cannot afford to buy another bigger space/plot.1 • ‘Site + Services’ model: In this model.
2 3 A . • Low rise high density development model has been adopted with tallest buildings being commercial centers at the ends of the spine. 12 | Inclusive Housing 2.5% Road space 8. 2 3 B . Ahmedabad) Client: Indore Development Authority Year of Completion: 1989 Site Area: 85 sq km (8.94 sqm for HIG The architect designed a large number of combinations for the dwellings so that maximum diversity could be achieved. Affordability • Only services (connections + core) have been provided on site. Also.32 sqm for EWS to 613.5 HA) Ground Coverage: 58% Residential 6. 2 3 D . of Dwellings: 6500 plots (6 sectors) Population: 60. HIG-9%) Type: Site + Services • ‘Spine and cluster’ settlement: There is a main arterial road which is a very important economic stimulus. 2 3 E . • Cross subsidy has been provided for EWS and LIG groups by selling HIG plots on market value and auctioning the land for commercial purposes. The possibility of vertical expansion and peripheral additions was kept in mind. • Most houses have the „otta’ (outdoor platform) in front. for more flexibility in terms of budgets and materials. MIG-14%. Indore Architect: Vaastu Shilpa Foundation (B. which are 5 storeys high. • A variety of plot sizes have been provided. which binds the colony together. 2 3 C . The actual building is left upto the buyer. which becomes a place for social interaction and enlivens the street. Doshi. 80 prototype houses were built by Doshi just as guidelines which may or may not be followed for future development. from 35.3 . 2 F Case Study Social engagement and dependency Incremental development Project: Aranya Community Housing. clusters tend to provide middle spaces which are a great for community activities.000 (EWS-65%.Aranya (above) Plots with basic services only (above) Street view in Aranya .1 (Above) Site plan .15% Open spaces No.V. for vendors etc.73% Commercial 23. LIG-11%.
2 3 C . 2 F Economic zoning This „Zoning‟ has been done to achieve a greater variety of plots and prices. 2 3 E .1 . 2 3 D . 2 3 B . 2 3 A . •HIG groups have been placed near the highway •MIG is near the arterial road •EWS and LIG are in the middle 13 | Inclusive Housing 2.3 .
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