Shibendu S.

Dept. of Mechanical Engineering


31 July 2012

Machine Design


Reference Books

V.B. Bhandari, “Design of Machine Elements ”, <second edition>, Tata McGraw Hill.
J.E. Shigley, C.R. Mischke, “Mechanical Engineering Design”, Tata McGraw Hill.

Machine Design Handbook
1. 2. “Design Data”, Compiled by Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, PSG College, Coimbatore “CMTI Hand Book”, Compiled by Scientists of Central Manufacturing technology Institute, Bangalore

31 July 2012

Machine Design


Keys.Elastic failure theories. saddle.Reliability. sunk. Bending. .design for finite & infinite life.Welded Joints .Threaded Joints . Strain and Complex stresses in machine members .B. Service factor .. Fatigue failure. Axial & Combined loads .Role of CAD/CAE in Machine Design . .S system of designation of commonly used Engineering Materials .Reversed stresses. Probabilistic approach to Design etc.Design of keys like square & flat. .Cotter Joint .I. Factor of safety.Topics to be Covered Chapter Topics .Selection of Materials . woodruff keys etc. Splines Statistical Considerations in Design 31 July 2012 .Stress Concentration factor.Modern Computational Tools for Machine Design .Design of Shaft under Torsion.Mechanical properties of Engineering materials .General principles & procedures of design of machine elements . Impact stresses etc.Manufacturing & other consideration in machine design .Knuckle Joint Introduction Engineering Materials Rod Joints Plate Joints Design against Static Load Design against Dynamic Load Design of Shafts.Review of Stress. Machine Design 3 . Endurance limit etc.Basic procedure of machine design & machine element design .

chain Drive Cam Bearing Connecting rod Power Screw Shaft & Axle Riveted Joint Key Cotter & Knuckle Joint 31 July 2012 Welded Joint Machine Design Bolted Joint 4 .Design of Machine Element Gear Drive Pressure vessel Clutch IC engine parts Brake C-frame Coupling Spring Belt. Rope.

All Machines are Mechanism but all Mechanisms are not Machine All Machine Tools are Machine but all Machines are not Machine Tool 31 July 2012 Machine Design 5 . size or a degree of finish by removing metal from workpiece in the form of chips.Machine Design Kinematic Link Kinematic Pair Kinematic Chain Machine Tool One link fixed transfers Mechanism transforms Motion Mechanism Machine transfers Energy transforms Machine Machine tool is a contrivance having a combination of mechanisms/machines whereby a cutting tool is enabled to operate in a pre-conceived manner in order to produce a surface of desired shape.

of alternative materials  Determination of optimum shape & dimensions of the component on the basis of design analysis Mechanism is given Given Configuration. material & assume mode of failure 31 July 2012 Machine Design 6 . of existing mechanism  Selecting materials from no.Machine Design Design Design Analysis Inputs Design Synthesis  decision –making process Outputs determines the dimension  process of creating new configuration/ mechanism  Selecting optimum/best configuration from no.

Manufacture r Custome r General Procedure in Machine Design Identification of Need Problem definition. Design specification Collecting relevant design information & feasibility study Design Conceptualization/ Preliminary design i.e. Mechanism synthesis Modeling & Simulation Engineering Analysis CAD/CAE Design Design Optimization Design Evaluation Detail Design of Components Design Communication & Documentation Analysis Design Synthesis 31 July 2012 Machine Design 7 .

Basic Procedure of Design of Machine Element Specify functions of element Determine forces acting on element Select suitable material for element Determine failure mode (s) of element Determine geometric dimensions of element based on above failure mode Check & modify dimensions for assembly & manufacture Check design at critical cross-sections Prepare detail engineering drawing of element 31 July 2012 Machine Design 8 .

Basic Requirements of Machine Elements Broad objective of designing a machine element is to ensure that it preserves its operating capacity during the stipulated service life with minimum manufacturing & operating costs Strength Rigidity Wear Resistance Minimum Dimensions & Weight Manufacturability Safety Reliability Maintainability Conformance to Standards Minimum Life Cycle cost 31 July 2012 Machine Design 9 .

“Standards” in Machine Design Standardization Standardization is defined as obligatory norms. manufacture. testing and erection of the product Purpose of Code to achieve a specified level of safety 31 July 2012 Machine Design 10 . design. method of testing and method of marking. Standard Standard is defined as a set of specifications for parts. materials or processes Purpose of Standard to reduce the variety & limit the no. The characteristics include materials. to which various characteristics of a product should conform. dimensions and shape of the component. packing and storing of the product. of items to a reasonable level Code Code is defined as a set of specifications for the analysis.

A.N India UK USA German International Standards 31 July 2012 Machine Design 11 .I / S. In designing.I.S A.  The application of standard machine elements & especially the standard units reduce the time & effort needed to design a new machine. the aim is to use as many standard components as possible for a given machine Company Standards Types of Standards National Standards I.  Standard parts are easy to replace when worn out due to interchangeability.I. makes it possible to manufacture the standard component on mass scale in a centralized process.S / B. to a rational number.S. Standardization results in substantial saving in Designer’s effort  The standards of specifications & testing procedures of machine elements improve their quality & reliability.I.“Standards” in Machine Design Advantages of Standardization  The reduction in types & dimensions of identical components.E D.S B.

S.S. 733 : 1983 I. 1570 : I. 210 I.S. 736 : 1986 I. 4218 : 1996 Bureau of Indian Standards on “Engineering Drawing Practice for Schools & Colleges Seven grades of grey cast iron Chemical composition of various grades of alloy steel Mechanical Properties of wrought Al. 8000 I.S.“Standards” in Machine Design Indian Standards in Mechanical Engineering Design SP 46 I. Rods for general purposes Mechanical Properties of wrought Al. 919 I.S. bolts & nuts 31 July 2012 Machine Design 12 .S.S. & Al alloy Bars.S. & Al alloy Plates for general purposes Recommendations for Limits & Fits for Engineering Guide for selection of fits Geometrical tolerancing on technical drawings Designation & Dimension of screw threads. 2709 I.

Basic series R 5 series R 10 series R 20 series R 40 series R 80 series Common Ratio 101/5 101/10 101/20 101/40 101/80  French Engineer Charles Renard first introduced Preferred Numbers in the 19th century.0 1.0.25 HP to 5 HP to cater to the need of different customers.0 1.12.6. 6.09.  Preferred numbers are used to specify the ‘sizes’ of the product in these cases.0. it is necessary to decide what capacities will cover a certain range efficiently with minimum number of sizes.3. 1. a company want to manufacture seven different models of electric motors ranging from 0. 4. % increase in steps 58% 26% 12% 6% 3% Preferred Numbers [in between 1 to 10] 1.06 1.1.0 1. 5.Preferred Numbers  When a machine is to be made in several sizes with different powers or capacities. 1.12.12 1. 1.….  For example. 4. 3.25.0 1.25.0. ……………………………………. 31 July 2012 Machine Design 13 . ………. 8.  The system is based on the use of geometric progression to develop a set of numbers.3.2.26

the customer will naturally attracted towards the most appealing product. The external appearance of the products is a cumulative effects of number of factors : Form Step Stream Taper Shear Sculpture Colour Surface finish & Tolerances Materials Manufacturing Methods Relationship between Functional requirement & Appearance of the Product  In many cases.Aesthetic Considerations in Machine Design When there are a number of products in the market. durability and cost. which are aesthetically pleasing. having the same qualities of efficiency. which are aesthetically pleasing. functional requirements result in shapes. The external appearance is an important feature. which not only gives grace and luster to the product but also dominates the sale in market. Automobiles Household Appliances Audio Visual Equipments Industrial Design The job of an Industrial Designer is to create new forms & shapes.  Chromium plating on the household appliances is for corrosion resistance rather than for pleasing appearance 31 July 2012 Machine Design 14 . The evolution of the streamlined shape of the boeing is the result of studies in aerodynamics for effortless speed.

Ergonomists have carried out experiments to determine the best dimensions of driver’s seat.  Layout of instrument dials & display panels for accurate perception by the operators  Design of hand levers & hand wheels. the most convenient hand or foot pressure or dimensions of levers and hand wheels. physiological and psychological principles to solve the problems arising from Man-Machine relationship. Topics of Ergonomic studies in machine design  Anatomical factors in design of driver’s seat. 31 July 2012 Machine Design 15 .Ergonomic Considerations in Machine Design Ergonomics is defined as the relationship between Man & Machine and the application of anatomical.

Customer’s requirement Design Office Production Department Sales & Service Department Manufacturability & Testability Cost. Maintainability & safety 16 .Concurrent Engineering: Simultaneous Design Process Sequential Design Process Marketing Department Concurrent Engineering Concurrent Engineering is defined as the design process that brings both design & manufacturing engineers together during the early phases of the design process. Sales & servicing Design Engineering : Concurrent Engineering Concept 31 July 2012 Ergonomics & Appearance Machine Design Reliability.

31 July 2012 Machine Design 17 .

Motivation Most Economic Requirements Most Productive Improved Quality Successful entry of a product into the market can best occur if it can complete the above cycle in the shortest possible time & at the lowest cost while maintaining very high product quality & reliability CAD CAE CAM Computer Aided Design Computer Aided Engineering Computer Aided Manufacturing VP & VR 31 July 2012 Virtual Prototyping & Virtual Reality Machine Design 18 .

CNC machinists. Simulation. 31 July 2012 Machine Design 19 .  is the use of wide range of computer based tools that assist Production Engineers & Tool and Die maker. Vibration analysis using FEM  Thermal & fluid flow analysis using CFD  Kinematic & Dynamic Analysis & Simulation  Analysis tools for manufacturing process simulation  Optimization of the product or process  is the use of wide range of computer based tools that assist Engineers & other Design Professionals in their design activities. develop and optimize the product or process. Manufacturing.  is to design.  CAE areas:  Stress analysis. Analysis. develop and optimize the product.  is to design. Planning etc. is the use of Information technology/ computer based tools for supporting Engineers in tasks such as Design. Optimization. in the manufacture or prototyping of products.

Testing. & Analysis of 3-D CAD models prior to creating any physical prototype  Visualization Models : greater communication. CFD].  Manufacturing Evaluation  Assembly analysis  Human factor analysis 31 July 2012 Machine Design 20 . productivity & efficiency through realistic graphical modelling based on full colour. dynamic viewing of models from any userspecified angle & orientation. Motion analysis.Motivation Most Economic Requirements Most Productive Improved Quality Successful entry of a product into the market can best occur if it can complete the above cycle in the shortest possible time & at the lowest cost while maintaining very high product quality & reliability VP : Virtual Prototyping VP is about Presentation.  Fit & Interference checking of mechanical assemblies  Testing & Verification of functions & performance : Structural & Physical phenomena analysis [FEM. natural texture & appearance.

CATIA NX (UniGraphics + IDEAS) PRO-ENGINEER SOLID WORKS SOLID EDGE INVENTOR Mechanical DESKTOP MasterCAM SolidCAM SmartCAM 3-D modeling & manufacturing simulation 31 July 2012 Machine Design 21 .CAD-CAM-CAE Software CAD/CAM/CAE software Purpose 3-D modeling. analysis & simulation etc.

Crash simulation Finite Element Analysis. Crash simulation Computational Fluid Dynamics Altair Hyper Mesh 31 July 2012 Meshing for Finite Element Analysis Machine Design 22 .CAD-CAE Software CAE software ADAMS SimDESIGNER with CATIA Visual NASTRAN Working Model ANSYS NASTRAN ABAQUS LS-DYNA DEFORM PAMCRASH FLUENT Purpose Multi-body dynamic analysis & simulation Multi-body dynamic analysis & simulation Multi-body dynamic analysis & simulation Multi-body dynamic analysis & simulation Finite Element Analysis Finite Element Analysis Finite Element Analysis Finite Element Analysis. Crash simulation Finite Element Analysis.

control Design calculation Mathematica MathCAD Maple TK Solver Excel 31 July 2012 Machine Design 23 . design optimization.Computational Tools Software MATLAB Purpose Design calculation. dynamic analysis & simulation.

Optimization module Geometric modeling. Customized programs & Package Geometric modeling. conceptualization visualization Modeling & Simulation Design Analysis Design Optimization Design Evaluation Design communication & documentation Geometric modeling. NASTRAN. MATLAB… CATIA… CATIA…. AutoCAD… Geometric modeling. SolidWorks.CAD-CAE Tools Design Phase Design Required CAD-CAE Tools Related Software (s) CATIA. visualization. ADAMS…. Graphics aids. Inventor… CATIA…. CATIA…. Analysis Package. Simulation Package Geometric modeling. Drafting package 31 July 2012 Machine Design 24 . Graphics aids. NX. visualization Geometric modeling. Pro-E. ANSYS… CATIA…. Solid Edge.

CAD-CAE Tools Performed computation on high end computer CAD 3-D CAD model Pre-Processor Solver CAE Post-Processor Define the model & environment factors to be applied Display results in graphical form using visualization tools 31 July 2012 Machine Design 25 .

Class Test Problem # 1.Assignment # 1 1. 3. What is Standardization & what are the advantages of standardization? Give examples of Indian standards for commonly used engineering materials. 2008 31 July 2012 Machine Design 26 . What are preferred numbers? How many basic series are used? What is R10 series? Develop R 10 series from 2 to 20. What is an industrial design? What is the relationship between functional requirement and external appearance of the product. the different steps involved in machine design process & in design of machine elements? What are the basic requirements of machine elements? 2. Last date of submission : 08th February. 6. Explain with example. Distinguish between design synthesis and design analysis. Explain the functional area of a basic CAD-CAE system & their applications & benefits in machine design process with examples. 10. 8. What is the scope of ergonomics in machine design? 7. Distinguish between sequential design and concurrent engineering. 5. Class Test Problem # 2. 9. 4. Define ergonomics.

Thank You 31 July 2012 Machine Design 27 .

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