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Reading Toolkit

Reading Toolkit

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Published by TCI
College and career readiness plays a prominent role in the Common Core standards. Examine the ELA Anchor Standards Grades 6-12 (p. 57 of pdf). How can the content areas, such as social studies, support these ten anchor standards? What resources can teachers put together to concentrate on the reading skills needed to uncover the rich content of their course? TCI has a Reading Toolkit that could be part of your answer.

Visit TCI at www.teachtci.com to learn more about how a company of teachers can help you bring learning alive!
College and career readiness plays a prominent role in the Common Core standards. Examine the ELA Anchor Standards Grades 6-12 (p. 57 of pdf). How can the content areas, such as social studies, support these ten anchor standards? What resources can teachers put together to concentrate on the reading skills needed to uncover the rich content of their course? TCI has a Reading Toolkit that could be part of your answer.

Visit TCI at www.teachtci.com to learn more about how a company of teachers can help you bring learning alive!

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Reading Toolkit To the Teacher

Reading skills are critical to students’ success in all areas of study. In social studies, students will have great difficulty learning and understanding history if they struggle with reading comprehension. This Reading Toolkit provides basic tools for supporting students who need additional guidance and structure. It includes • a Prereading Guide that can be used before any chapter. • instructional pages on understanding organizational text patterns. • instructional pages that develop comprehension strategies. • instructional pages that focus on vocabulary development. Make the following pages available to your students as an independent tutorial, for class instruction, or for use with peer tutoring.

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Prereading Guide
What is the title of the chapter? List the section heads and the key terms below. Section Heads Key Terms

Quickly sketch or describe three images from the chapter. Write a one-sentence caption that explains how you think each image relates to the chapter.

Based on the information above, what predictions can you make about the main idea of the chapter?

Read the chapter summary. Write one sentence that explains what you think is the main idea of the chapter.

Ask questions to help focus and guide your reading.

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Organizational Text Patterns
Expository texts, such as chapters in textbooks, have different organizational patterns. These patterns, or structures, can often be identified by signal words.
Text Pattern: Cause and Effect What is it? Text organized to show cause and effect identifies the reasons that

events occur and their results.
How to do it. Signal words that help identify a cause and effect pattern include

the following: as a result effects of how leads to thereby because for if . . . then may be due to therefore consequently for this reason in order to so thus due to hence is caused by so that when . . . then

Try it. Read the following passage. Then list causes and effects in a graphic

organizer like the one below. As a result of the Civil War, many Americans began thinking of the United States as one country, rather than as a collection of sovereign states. Slavery no longer existed because of the war. There were terrible costs, though. Due to the war, more than 620,000 soldiers lay dead. Croplands lay in ruins. It would take generations for the South to recover.
Graphic Organizer: Cause and Effect Cause Effect

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Organizational Text Patterns
Expository texts, such as chapters in textbooks, have different organizational patterns. These patterns, or structures, can often be identified by signal words.
Text Pattern: Compare and Contrast What is it? Text with a compare and contrast organizational pattern tells about

the similarities and differences of two or more objects, places, events, or ideas.
How to do it. Signal words that help identify a compare and contrast pattern

include the following: although but either . . . or in comparison more . . . than similarly as well as by contrast even though in the same way on the other hand still as opposed to compared with however just as otherwise unlike both different from instead of like similar to yet

Try it. Read the following passage. Then list similarities and differences in a

graphic organizer like the one below. Both the Union and the Confederacy had advantages and disadvantages going into the Civil War. The North had a larger population and more factories and railroads than the South, but it lacked strong military leadership. The South had serious economic problems, but it had capable generals and the advantage of fighting a defensive war.
Graphic Organizer: Compare and Contrast
Write characteristics of Topic 1 here. Write characteristics of both topics here. Topic 1 Topic 2 Write characteristics of Topic 2 here.

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Organizational Text Patterns
Expository texts, such as chapters in textbooks, have different organizational patterns. These patterns, or structures, can often be identified by signal words.
Text Pattern: Proposition and Support What is it? Text with a proposition and support organizational pattern presents

an argument with supporting examples.
How to do it. Signal words that help identify a proposition and support pattern

include the following: additionally conclusively for instance if . . . then never because consider furthermore in fact not only . . . but believe first generally it could be argued often clearly for example however most convincing this means

Try it. Read the following passage. Then list a proposition and supporting exam-

ples in a graphic organizer like the one below. The Articles of Confederation did not establish an effective form of government because Congress’s powers were limited. Not only was Congress not allowed to impose taxes, but Congress had to ask the states for funds to do anything. Too often, the states ignored the requests. Additionally, Congress could not intervene to resolve disputes between individual states. It could be argued that Shays’s Rebellion best shows the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation. When a group of farmers seized the weapons at a national arsenal, Congress did not have an army to stop them. The state militia had to restore order.
Graphic Organizer: Proposition and Support Proposition:

Support:

Support:

Support:

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Organizational Text Patterns
Expository texts, such as chapters in textbooks, have different organizational patterns. These patterns, or structures, can often be identified by signal words.
Text Pattern: Sequencing What is it? Text organized to show sequencing relates a series of events or steps

in a process in time order.
How to do it. Signal words that help identify the sequencing pattern include

the following: after finally later previously third afterward first meanwhile second today before following next since until during initially not long after soon when earlier last now then

Try it. Read the following passage. Then show the sequence of events in a graphic

organizer like the one below. Article V of the U.S. Constitution lays out several methods for amending the Constitution. All but one of the Constitution’s 27 amendments have followed the same process. First, a bill to amend the Constitution is proposed in Congress. Next, the amendment needs approval of a two-thirds majority of the House of Representatives. If it does not receive a two-thirds majority, the amendment process does not continue. After the House of Representatives has approved the amendment, the Senate must approve the amendment by a two-thirds majority. In some cases, amendments have passed the House of Representatives, but have not received enough votes in the Senate. If successful in both the House and the Senate, the amendment is then sent to the states for approval. At this point, three-quarters of the state legislatures must ratify the amendment in order for it to become law.
Graphic Organizer: Sequencing

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Comprehension Strategy
Comprehension strategies help you better understand and remember what you read.
KWL: Know / Want / Learned

Follow these steps to fill in the graphic organizer: Step 1: Brainstorm what you know about the topic of the chapter. Step 2: Create questions that show what you want to find out when you read this chapter. Step 3: Read the chapter. Make a list of the important details that you learned. What I Know What I Want to Find Out What I Learned

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Comprehension Strategy
Comprehension strategies help you better understand and remember what you read.
REAP: Read / Encode / Annotate / Ponder

Follow these steps to complete the graphic organizer below as you read the chapter: Step 1: Read (R) the text. Write the title of the chapter. Step 2: Encode (E) the text. Use your own words to describe the main idea of the chapter. Step 3: Annotate (A) the text. Summarize at least three important points from the chapter. Step 4: Ponder (P) the text. Write down at least one question that you now have after reading this chapter. R E

A

P

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Comprehension Strategy
Comprehension strategies help you better understand and remember what you read.
SQ3R: Survey / Question / Read / Recite / Review

Follow these steps to read the chapter: Step 1: Survey the chapter by looking at the title, subheads, captions, and illustrations. Read the introduction. Step 2: Question. Turn the title and subheads into questions to focus your reading. Look up the meaning of any new vocabulary. Step 3: Read. Search for answers to your questions. Step 4: Recite. Recite the answers to your questions aloud or in writing. Reread if you have any unanswered questions. Step 5: Review. Look over the chapter and summarize what you have learned.

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Vocabulary Development
Illustrated Dictionary Chapter ______

Follow these steps to create an illustrated dictionary for your Key Content Terms: Step 1: Choose a Key Content Term. Step 2: Draw a diagram, word map, or other graphic organizer that shows how the term relates to something you already know or to another key term in this chapter or in a previous chapter. Write the term in bigger or darker letters than you use for any other words. Step 3: Find the definition of each term, and summarize its meaning in your own words. Step 4: Write a sentence that uses the term. Step 5: Repeat for all the other Key Content Terms. Sketch/Diagram In Your Own Words In a Sentence

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Vocabulary Development
Rate Your Knowledge Chapter ______

Follow these steps to rate your knowledge of the Key Content Terms: Step 1: Use one spectrum for each Key Content Term. Rate your knowledge of each term by marking the appropriate place on the spectrum. Below the spectrum, write anything you know about the term. Step 2: Find out what others know about each term by asking another person (for example, a classmate, friend, parent, or teacher). Write down what you learn on the back of this sheet or on a separate sheet of paper. Step 3: Find the definition of each term. Then, on the back of this sheet or on a separate sheet of paper, write a sentence that uses each term.
Term:

1
Unfamiliar

2

3

4

5
Very familiar

Term:

1
Unfamiliar

2

3

4

5
Very familiar

Term:

1
Unfamiliar

2

3

4

5
Very familiar

Term:

1
Unfamiliar

2

3

4

5
Very familiar

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Vocabulary Development
Word Grids Chapter ______

Follow these guidelines to create a Word Grid for each of your Key Content Terms: Box 1: List a Key Content Term from the chapter. Box 2: Find the definition of the term and summarize its meaning in your own words. Box 3: Add related information, such as examples, facts, synonyms, sayings, or a category to which the word belongs. Box 4: Add contrasting information, such as antonyms, or words with opposite meanings.
1. Key Content Term 2. In Your Own Words

3. Related Words or Ideas

4. Contrasting Words or Ideas

1. Key Content Term

2. In Your Own Words

3. Related Words or Ideas

4. Contrasting Words or Ideas

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Vocabulary Development
Word Pyramid Chapter ______

Follow these guidelines to create a Word Pyramid for each Key Content Term: Row 1: List a Key Content Term from the chapter. Row 2: Describe the term in your own words. Row 3: Compare the term to one thing it is similar to and contrast the term with one thing it is different from. Row 4: Draw or list things that the word brings to mind. That is, “associate” the word with things you already know.

Word

Word

Describe

Describe

Compare/Contrast

Compare/Contrast

Associate

Associate

Word

Word

Describe

Describe

Compare/Contrast

Compare/Contrast

Associate

Associate

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