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NATIONAL SECURITY AGENCY CENTRAL SECURITY SERVICE

FORT GEORGE G. MEADE, MARYLAND 20755-6000

Serial: MDR-43632 7 May 2004

This responds to your request of 8 February 2004 for the Mandatory Declassification Review of "A Brief History of the Signal Intelligence Service" by William F. Friedman, 29 June 1942. We have determined that the· enclosed document does not contain any classified or exempt NSAlCSS information; therefore, your request is granted in full. Sincerely,

LINDA L. HUFFMAN . Chief Declassification Services Encls: als

rCt17·:;

A .BRIEF EIsTOBY

OF !H3 SIGmL

DITZ".a...LIGENCE sERVICE / .: . '. l~ TIJAII

....... c..-

~

G-u...... ...... __,

,--'

q II2

.,-'
1918 .. ', .

'1.

.Prior

to June
a:cti~ti~s

i911~~epa.rlment 'Wha.tso~er.

of the 'Govermnent conducted

cryptB.llal.ytio a oonsidenbls

amcw:rl: ~

e. p!.triotio
:/ Riverbrulk

e!Iterprise
Laboratories'

"WOrk elang these lines: m.s oonducted purely as .:.: ':. . - '. at his ov.n eXpense by ~ •. G90rge Fabyan~ whose.
at: Gens,va.~ Illinois, .. ~~~:n2:ed ..::....,.
-

..

Fra:n June 1916 to about, ... ~ _."

lbi,y

a

BIllS.ll

group ~. .

."

. ..~::... ~ ~.: ."':.-;

':;~.fairly

well-:-trained

cryptana.l~ts

to

"lmrk~p~;~uch

o'~des and ciphers

':":~~"~~.~~.'_~.: ..•. ';:...-,;~~~;~~~~;~~{f :.~... ' .....
.... ...; _.:..
~~g;~:;;;.g.:;;::;
,:"::':''-'" , ....

.

:~~~~~:.~.:.::::~:

as "Were:!'o~ded :.'~"undersi&n . ed

by the jfar.

lIs;7Y. sta.te~.,·~d./~.~.stiCeDepart:nents o~er.~.~~~~~d. of: t.~e .:inception a.~~~~~.-·~;:.a tra.i~g of. this year

•. -~~~

ilmi~I~

direc~~~;,.~~~ crypt~ytic' Laboratories therea~'in -. f:i:om thet~e 1919.except·for at

~~ ~~: ..~:~,.'....:"'::'" VIOrk UDtil

RiverbaIlk .;~.; its·.cl~se

" :.:""-<~.r..

/:~;i >.. ,:
'.
..

~t~~il~fl~
. .

v.nen he was:'
-,

..:
..
..

,.

'lst

Lieut •• 1!ID. serving 2. In' June 1917 the by Colonel Lieut.,

GB:Q-AEP,iD the

Gen..s.n

~ .~
'

: ,,,:,

code solving. c!'

sectic.n.

cryptanal}-tio

activ1t:tet:

t~~·W~ 'Dep~~trt;
o~]i.

'were initiated Y~dley state

Van. DeD:Sll. G-2. with the
,

com;ti.ssioning

o.

: t~~~~W~~~~~ .. ....-...
:::
':.":.

:::::.:

.

as 1st

'.

UID.

Yardle::r. -mo b.d been a telegrapher
'

at the:,

Dapar-b:ient and had taken enployees to assist

scme il:rl;srest

in cl7.?tog!'!!.phy, ~'lII.s given and by the desigrut.ted as i::ldica.ted

t-wo civilian
autumn,

hilli.

The "Work gre7f repidly or~i%ed as a section

of 1917 the

increased

sta.f'!'·70'8.S ·into

as !OIT-S. \>!hich·Tm.s subdivided very briefly (1) was what "ould largest net of the belaw: .'.....

6 subsections
';.

with 'duties

Code and cipher now be called subsections of

solution

subsection. subsection.

This

subsection It was the
sr..:...:::

the cryptenal;rtic

~:r-8 and

perfoI'l:led the

cr:;';ltanalytic Governr:ent:-~-

7rork

onlyf"or

the "\'Iar Departltent

but also ~

.ill ot::~r

~ '.:§! ill I == _.==.i:--(ra='»:t -~e ...._._._~ F .\: ;. . -""!ill ~ ..
..:~;; =
_mo,

i~

l:.z

1 q j 1~ ~ ......., -- ..
1

':::::::::::::,"

~':':':::.:.:~:,::.:;.:
On ..... uu:'

~:.:

_

::

~

:.:.:.:.:.:.~~.::.:;:: :::::::::.~~':':.~

~.x~:.~~;~;.:.:.;.

I---·~·--".
I'~

--.,.
~.

and Post9.l, which ~

.:!:h!mse'08.rate or;rcmizations •

. (2)

.Code and cipher cocpUation subsect.iori. - Despite the fact
.... -..

that under.Armyregiil.B:tions.the ~ol!!pi1ationand revision. 01' cod~s ~~a.s .. a
:

:1'unction 01' the Cl-.ief. ignal..Ol'l'icer, ccm:pilatioIi activities S Signa.~ Corps wer~·ap~ent~
--'
."

under ··the- .
.'_'-

··~:::~·:~~ribuDd state.
.:

Ini"ormationhaving been
.

received that the ~ansPos~~~~~d···co~:t~s:Of ·th~·i'lar De~nt

:,., .....

-.

.

_.

·T~le~ph·. _.. .

Code)MI-Sdee~ed ~~.advisabl~ to· establish

a·code cow.pilation:subsect~on, Int.elli~~J~~··:'··: ...

and that subsecti~~ pr~uc·e~ :~·~ve;~ ~~des' such as Uilit~_
Codes .~. 5

andN.,::,?;,~-u;oo~tc~es seeret ge~tS. ~~ a "';th~~i::/;i;3
In addition
• . .

.~. ···i~i~'i.ii~
. :;~:~~~fjjjf;;;

:'.~/:

~~\l{twjj!liii

-. (3) .. Training subsection. -, personnei"n-S

to training

its ·own~: ':
:.:.;.:. ••• :: .. ; r
;«, ::'

_::_;;;.:;;::;:.:
•. ~; .. .:~.~.~-::.:.~

tra.in~d the: majo~ity
~ith field

".

-.

'"

'.'

of th~ ·per~oDnel s~nt ~~erse~s-·f~;;·:_:·:;··:::~:~:Vt{;::~: ".;;;,.,;,;;;,;;;;: . .•

cryptanalytic~uties .. (4)

;o~~~s, both AEF a~d ~iberia.

':1:::~2»:;9:~~:·.;·:~·'':: .. ...
" "," _:._.. 0.',: ':.~
-:-.-

. Secret inks subsection.

- A ·laboratory was established-

. _:.::::~:'=-:':'.::'.~::

for the·preparation.of invisible inks for use py OnT ownagents. It also .. . exa~ine~.letters for secret ink writing and an average. of over· 2000 lette~s
,0 ,0

per l'1eekwere examined for the tJii1it.2.ryand postal. censorship :fro1ll uly,l, J

1':18 to February 1, 1919.; (5)
Shorthand subsection..

..... ..".

This subsection was organized to:· Geri:an,.Whi~+ad:· :..

handle texts in various shorthand systems,· especially to be deciphered •.

(6)

Ccu::municatioDs subsection.

- This lias established

in llI-S

.

::::.~!:::::_'."""

l'or p~nd1ing ~essages to and from.milita_~ attaches cf~icers serving abroad. In a· period of 9 months it
all in code.

and intelligence sent and received

about 25,000 such ~essages, practically

J. At the height of its develcpcent, which nas reached in Hove~ber
1918, ~I-8 was, for those days, a rather large unit, cor.sisting cf 18

l\~~{{\i~~ II ...
. :~~Tff]n~~j}~~
.~""'.',::".."",,":":.
!
.: ""' •• -s. , ,

=:«:..
.
..

.

.'
,,.,,,, -

.

w''''.",,,., """.

:.::::::::::;::~:?3.~:.::~:!:~:!:::::::.~:.~:::::::.~:.~.:'!!t?:::~.~:::::.,:A:::::~::

.

.. ~

"'F.iiiI

~

r~ ".....--. . ::.:7c.7.7::.:-:.:=-7
.

.!

.

:.:.7:;::,. ..;.'::;'..:~.:

I

!

1"""::·'··"'"'' : :::::::::::::

,:::ffiiii::;;~.~.~f~.

.

:::.::prth:C:~;:~€:'::~~;:u:::::.:1:;~<_:._:_' ..~;'II '.:,~7~i~~~::~~e!:";:~t:t::-': .: 7~: .·'i~M·.·",·i b:~l't~:~r'~'~:;~;:~ '~~.~~.,~ the 1iork bad, not .. nli upon ·th~ ·.iill.itary arid ~val ~ buta1~o upon the.:.'·:,':::. .: ;'. : :::}; ..:i}ll\~~~Wibf: ...... the we~ght of' th:n::~·.~~Sitiori·of'.:in1?-uenc~ .~~ their bear upon those .in 'c?arge of t!Je purse strings,
".
"

actual. ex:peri~~~.:to that

with the result

they
~";..

..
,

,',,;.'

..

'

..

.{:':~~:~~:;!:~::::;~;
::::::::.-::.-_"_",
· '::::::::;::::;

;::;;:':'=;.:_:.'i~~;"

Vlere able to obtain f'lmds su:rf~cient to' keep a'fair17 .... ~. . _...
",.

large organization

_

.

'intactfor

a year

oX:

two.

Ana~ua1

appropriation

of tlOO,bOOwas recom- ~ attacheg to be used

mended in a C-2 s~dy dated MaY.16; .1919 ffixhibit"l ' as :follows: Rent, light . ,. and heat"·
' "

"i 'c""","
t··

.

. ,

;,:.~

.. ..

. ".,

~ ..

'$3,900 100

J.:'.

Reference books Perso~ei:
Chief"

_,..;.

'.

:

..

'

6,000
30,000' ..

'10 code ·and cipher eXperts 6 ~3,OOO
~.:.' '15 code and '

.•....

"-:l:~:.~~i:~·:~~~~· E!!!!L:::~:i:' ......_.
,'.
".

E~jXf;~~;
1""";""",,

ci!,her experts

@

e-2,OCO

30,000 .. ' 30,000 "

."

,

25 clerks·@ ~1,200 Total The ite~ fer "rent, light, anc. heat" is explainable

.. :

;-.

· r~:~:~~:;:{~::::::~~~::~
.................. ·

~(Jj;,~~f~lff~
t;;~~~mmmt

;~lOO,OOO

when it is noted that

t?le "b.n-eau;:as to be moved froil! "\'iashir:gtonwith' a vie,:: to hiding its e7.is~et:ce.
'.·ice :L:.,':CC

Of the ~lOO,OOO recommended, the State De-:artt;;ent

TlaS

to pro(l~

ar.d. ~CO,OCO was to be provided fer e>:?er.;c.it"t:re:;- tte A. C. c

SEeRE~
51 G-2 on "confideiltial lli.l:itarr Intell.igence
.

memorandanagainst .funds pertaining Division"-that
.

toUContingency

.

.

.

,.

is~.by vouchers not subject to renew
...

..

.,-:,.

by

the Cc:mptroller Ge~eral • .the A.C.

The paper con~g
liaS

the recolQ!I.~nda1;i.ons made by "<?K~dnand. ini ~al.led I
TI3:S

of ~3G-2 ~. the Chief ~f Staff . _:

b7

"Acting Secret~ _, approve,d of Starf.· pri~~
0'

hi ~

. ·Semta.r.r, c£ War ~ver the Signature effect,

or· State Polk on Ya717~ i919~ and on ·bray 19 it
o£ "General

.

!YarcP., Chief
in a

.The pl.an:was put into

the bureau rras installed and

~ous~ .a~~"i}~~t 8~~~~t,:H~~·~r~ Ci~, 3 r.:..... ..~ ~:~...::. . _'.::/.::", -:....,.~.:.;)~./.. ~:i"._~ .. ~ ~: together l1i. th eXiSting- records were moved:thereto •
".::" .~••• ;'

ail

personned,

• :'

-

"'~'.~_:-.

':

4;

=.:
.';

r._

"

:

"

.:

~

:: ..

,':':::

.:-

",

.:.;.~'::.:~',~--;'~

~':

•• _-"

4·.· It is im.~rlant to note~t.at
._ • ... : .. :'.;,'_' r •• ', . :",

:::1 <,'

~t·::tiDie no provisionllhatsoever
.- ~':-:.:;.~ .•

"liaS

made ·for. radio intercept

asa

·source ·01'

raw material.

.-t-.~: :. ..

for cryptanaJ.;ysis .• of fixed

A .few:words on this s1lbject. t!la;y ~o.t ··beamiss•. Badio intercept
station mat.eriaJ. in the

u. S. b.r the

ArrIry dnring

our active

participation·

·in the 1ast

roar

1I3.B

rather

fragmentar,r.

The ~rk.~s,

of course,a cou1d hardl:r

responsibili.ty

of the SigoaJ. Carps; but radio comnurd.catdone

compete with cable and lIire· cc:mmunicationsas a source because not oIlly did the largegovermnents

ot

raw materia1

uae cabie in preference

to

II

ra.dio, but a1sa rae.o a.s a means or cOI!llilunication between lIidely separated fixed stations
"'liaS

then in its

infanci.

TJ:e Signal. Corps did,

pOlVev.er, ba:7e _bor.der,

,'lhat were cal1ed "inobile tra.ctorDunits and t.hese ~shed. large intercept a. go ed deal of ~can station was established

stati.oned on the s~thern l:Iaterial;

and in ~ate ·1918.one

at Houlton, MaineI for t?e purpose stations maintained

·or.·copyi.ng. trans-AtJ.antic radio. "

·:.oon_..s_ the_ ......,..:~~;~e.~~:,.ource' o£f~~.Pt=~':";~:"f: _...".;.
~. ~ " :: _ .' _. , _.. -' .•••. ~~ .. _. ',::." _ :=_-::;.:.. • ::..:.-.-: • ~... z

:"::==;0:::: : :::. :::~::;.o:pl=:e
The large intercept
-'
_ '. "",

['II. [ii~1
f~:.

r .g~~~:g\~!
!r(~¥i{f~Z;Rt

- •.. _=-

-

'-"

• -_.

". ~ --.
'.

i.:: .. '

..:t..~~~B}~;}~~~~~

. , -: ....

',;:"""

".':': ,.-~.", .

.,'.

-

:;-··'·---:4....-·
-:_.• ::'_~.-."::'.:

--.'

_-.

.

.... <:.,•.... ;,.-.

- ..

~

":_":' .:_!::.~.~~._-;~~~~~ .':~.- ":_" ...~ ..~~~s.•... --_ ,_ .-

:!:"):'::- .. ~ .' ,~'

-

,_

. ., .~: -.:_.: ••• : .-:.
.. --. ..?..:'."

'"

.''_

-

~::.:_-

_,.-

.::. ~ .~. -~ ::_

;; .. •

~~~:f.~.·.~.;.·.~.·_.~:·.~~.~~~~~.~ ..

_'

-

'_

-_

-._- ..:.. SECRET
a.!:landaned, :Is aving only the cab1e offices ~'cabl.e andwlre i"or this purpose. As l.oag as ~erv:i.ces1fe~e operated under our ce.'1sOrsh5..p, ·'iCc~;~·.

·to tbe"~ss~ei-~~~'

~r

.~~.~~~:~':~asyand:~~~nued
.'
,-' '.
'

to remaUi s~

.f~~ :·a....

."

..' '. . . ar::mge::1ents .~&;;-.by. the" D:ire~tor of
.-; .

Jear ar>~; ........ .,

ar~r:

'. .~'. ':,,":...

~enso;~~:~

'diSCOntL~~~~~ 'vir~~ ~ very s-~~t ~y .

llilita.ry· Intelligence

lrithtbe:;., '.:' ..~ col:lp8Di_es
"

heads of the cable cOl:lpanies. ... began gradually curta:ii:t.h&

..~t

by 1923 or 1924,

the cable

'"

';'_dili~*;~r;t~~~HI~¥4~:~~:.'.'~~~.~t~t~:<;;: _".
:.to explain the' catlSa:.o£

amoUnt..of tra:ffic f'llI'nish~d ~or .i.his. ..; . ": ', -, -:··':~.:-:::··:li-:;~~~~;:-·;;·~· :.: ~ ~'\::-=:!:.":.' .::: pa:-po5e~_apparent17 '.r~g: SO!:l~·.untoward ;incident :that might cauae :',<' ..

to

.'

:·-:~·~:r :..;··.·.:..~~r:.~:-·-·· . ,:"
i'ur.ni.shed that

the decrease

in: the 'number' of. messages

.' t~

~~~\/~~;~~:~:~~~;~~~~~.~
.

t~ok

r~;~~~' i~-the.~~temeot
G-2

..' ra.di:o was cutti.ng into their

traf'fic

more and ·more.

This was.. of' 'course ..
:'

rate

by 1929 the

riOlf"

or

messages furnished'.

bad· dldndled: to a mere
:.,._

"t:cickle.
stil:x:d.tted

In about the year

1926. the intercept a few radio
:.'

st.ations
<,».

of the Coast Guard

to

I:le in:f'~
.

intercepts

of. :what appeared

to b~ ..

"

:~:

',:.

:_,

.

Japanese code messages, or tI:ans:nis~ions
"• ..

but these nere 0D:lY" si:;oradic' occasionU intercepts

in the Far

East:

They'

~re usual.l"y fragmentary : .: .; _':,~~;. .
;:....~.~' ::. .

and .

. ':< ..

~:-. , -

a:fi"orded very poor:mterial •. Such' as they::~~e, howver, these· occasional.: . '" .. ~ .;.:.;!..~.::.' i·{···~:·::-:··· " ~. . .:. . 'l!:essages were . turned CfVer to G-~.. There we~i'therefore, clear indicatic;ns
.,' .. '.

.. :.:, " -~.'

t=at
C:l'liLd
.

i..f a serious

atteapt

Were

.' ,

, .~~~. '5,.: ',-r-:

made to obtahi 'this material
"

better

cow',
..~ ...,

be obtai .... led... .

However, "no'pressure ... .

wa~'brought on the

SignaJ..·.C6rps .

..

r-r--r- -:~-

-~.

caae to pass

t,:
.

'

I.',:' :';~~~f:~r~ ,~~:;:.~;~~~;~~;~
.' . :::::: r:::: ....... :
.~n::::."1~"····

!.-." :~;:;:;;~~y.-i:

-irlll- soon be detailed •
indica ted ill Par. J. above~ the $100,600 approp:ria tion ~et

.-,,':'. .:s. :',
.

.

As

~,

.'

'.-:"\~i\' .,

up in 191.9 took' .care of the bureau for the FY 192),

Jul; 1,,'~9l9

. ,', that is 1"rom'
it
.

to'~~

.'
.

:30, 1920~:,~~t~~n~'
._. .'.
. i' - ~ •. .
"·~·.C·

J~
.

1920

~aoe t1meto':':' -.
.

set up the budget for FY 1921,~e

..

pm-se, strings lIo1d-tl.merslfin

were already

beginning

. .......

to be:pulled

tighter.

Uany oithe

0-:-2 had gone G-2 apparenUy

to other
had .
'~

assigmoents;1hose neither

remain1.ng,and .tbe newcoLlersin

tbe backgro~d -~~r:' ~ ;:,'U;;_uence'to press the matter.

The

,appro~tion-'"Jms
"State

at

on:ce\~':::k',~, 'iliat . -. .:;:
'.,

'.

.~.' '}

.

is',, to

$50,000, of whLch. the
The :theory
1'IaS,'
_'.

Depa.rt:!:tent ,share ,s~
,
"

continued

to

be $~O,OOO.

. ..

~ ..
. .:.;.;.~;. ~~:~~ . .. ~:.:.:~~~~~:.:~~;~~
~•• L·'

evidently;

that since

1"or and of interest

the'-rork ,d.o~ by' the bur-eau-was primar:iiy, if ~t solely" . ..... to }:.be State ~pa:rtllent, all or, nearly all o£ the funds'
'

~~ ~~ ~

\--::..:.::.:;~~~:=

should be provided by" ~t very important points
and e!!lphasi.z~dla.ter

department.

The 1'1'¥ Departneot

ovedooked

aorse
................. .................... .- .

in'the
in this

sit~tion-points
SUIlI:llar.1~

1lhich m_;t.1 be brought up

of tbe hist.my

at this for
,

, .l.n order not to brea.1tthe continuity ...... poiIit,: it 'Will be stated merely t.ltat year by year

.~:'f:;;'::::~~~~~~:..:

the timds provided
,

the

maintenance and. operation
,

01" the bureau

became

mare and more constrlcted

-

until ~ted,

'by

the autumn o~ 1929 the folJ.awing tabul.a-

ti.on, based upon a letter

July 17; 1929 froot Uaj~r

o.

S.'.Ubright.,

G-02'

to the Chief' Signa]. Of1"icer '(General ~bbs) ~ shows ho"i'rthe bureau had
been perm.ittad

to deteriorate:

Books~postage,travel,transportation,!Jisc. Pe~soh"'lel: 1 Chie.f (Yardley)

2,370 '

1 Code & ciper·expert 1 translator (Jap)
. . !. ~ ,.)( ....

3,750
;

~._:::::::!! :::: . '; ; -r:::::::::::::',':, : ", ", ",

.•

.

,' L

---------'----- - - - .,---~.......;------'---

--_---_.-.:...-'-'--'-----~-----~

-1 secret~

1,800

': .

37~ other

of the total

payroll

-went to one man, mo lY:i.d little
• _o'_ .

.

":',":-,:-:-: ::'

..
_.

interest

-

........

..- .....-,...~ ":'= .
':.0:.-:. •••••••

tban to continue as long'-as- Possible
.;:

to mcd.ntain-h:i.!nsel£in the hilllseli'. 'Signal Corps,}-I.ad

: ~&mI!.iJ~~}F

sinecur-e into lihich he had been_pel'IiIi:tted to establish
6~

In the

been-assigned_to

-

sum.~-o;r ..:t9;;:-'-~'ij~r O. ..~ :;._.
.. :
-:'
'.

.

S. Albright,
"

0-2 toserve-on-

-

the

Sta:rf of the A.C. of 5., e-2to and crypta."lalytic
a careful study-

supervi.se ani coorcl:iIlate such of the cryptographic ac ti vi.ties
of the

of the

iy;;r_-: Departc;ent _ -remained. as
.

'::':-::::."

After

situation

and _an appraisal
1ms'n~~

of hoW' he t

existing

cryptanalytic -

-

bureau -.ras and 'intended~
1mS

serving

the 1"unct1.ons"1"oriYbichi t had been that the entire

llajor Alb~ght_came to the conclusion

picture

'-lI'ong. He feJ.t -that

the product (l'-bul1eti.'1I1)-m--ichthe b~eau primary interest for its _

was turning
--

out every few days 'Wasindeed-of

orm sake to _the state Dep~en;t --_
. :. - =- . ," ... -. ~:' _-_":"-:-.
~~"=, .. ..: ..',

~d lihile: the lTar DepartJent had
:<......~ !.,-.....
-:' _.. --_,.'

~.. .

--"

... _:.-.

:-.~
-;

-

--'.-

.~ - '~-~.- -'-; - _-:. ... - ...:"'

._-

.;.:.-

.._-_.--:'-_;.__"_---

..

.,....
~J

~'T ' . '...~~ ~jl~·

...

away f"J:'In~ Department or

s~pervision

or anybody"ci:mnected·with· the War.

or G-2, so that nobody"Jm.ew what:was going on, how'
e~. Y;n-dley devo~d Dost of his time (coromercial code compilation, in code matters to canT.lercial 'There

:tr.e office was ad:n:inistered,
to tao or t.'Jree private real estate brokerage,

enteI-prlses consultant

f'i...-;ns) and he "\'!ashaving a "field . '1Te::-e, additian, in ~aj or Albright several

dayll at GoverD::lentexpense.

other 7reightyfactors

'\'Ihichmotivated·

i!i preparing a G-2 study £Exhibi t ~recoI!l!:ending. th~t
tran!ferred to the of .
. 1'raS

the bm-eau be taken out of" G-2 and. its f'unctions S:.gnal. Carps" chief' ar:'0ng '"I'Ib:ich plaC"_;.,D,g· ·cryptograpuc all one agency, rather f'or ~nti.ng;

.

the des:irabili:ty"

if" not necessity,

-_.

and CT"JPta.'1alyti.c 'WOrk the War Depart:Jlent under . of .... i:h among'th%-ee(The Adjutant General" ..

than distributing

storage" issue,

and accounting of codes; The Chief· Signal

~:-

....

,'

. r;

"".,:.:

.... :._'~,~.:~",,", , -", .. _:.\ .... : .

'~:~>
the War PlAns .ff.xbibit
.

Pre~'~
.... given
. '. .

Lieut.C~;~.
amia Albright's also

i'W~~Of

Sec~ion cf"G-2,

':':': ..•. ::~: .. : :'~"''!:.:1.' .;:

in ~jor

., .... ::.::::<:..~.:,:.... : ......••.•.. ". •..... .•. ~..-•.....,..,:... ; .. -_. • " :;;7..~:z·.:;;c_ studT and in cei, .. llsOD.ls n:emo;andumwe1:;:·~~~.~:/;:: ;:::~~:: :.::;:;_'';7<¥.~7 W .. :.... .. : at"ta:ched he~to The reaso~'.:
. ".

iJ.·

-~~':lft{~1¥;;'t:i': I ~~~~~%~l§.
. :.:
I

. ~r-~.~:tt:. s '~":'l":":'-.~:~.~~.
~'1~U:~ .:.'-::~

~u,~

i'''~*

~"_a~t~

'.

1.

.~

:.:-.: ::':--:.::':'.:.:. :;"":-

. . . . . . . .:' .'-:_' ... -, ,-;~.:.. .:

:?~'i~~\'::?;. >:>;~fi:.: ://;',;;r:~~¥.~;,
.. .., II. ",' _ ..... _ .... '. ••'.' .' '.

appareutly

deemed.: alidq,y v .~~~~ ::;'~~~d
• ••

-the' Chief of" Starf,

.for- lJajcr. Albright ~t~~' w~r~~~n
'.

s:;~,-,:~;:··;. -:.:'.... :... ;~...

recocmen~tic~s: ..

"in' Api-1.l1929~d
• • .'

'::;)'.llli
~ :::: ...

~:

• _',

"

.;.

.

~.~~.~~~~~::.':~ ':.::~.:;,::/ . . '.. ::'~.:..;.,', .',.: .. ,- .

;.~.'.~:.:.?'.:.!-.:.;.:.~.::.~.::.:. ..~

• ,".:...0..:.. .

.::.:-:: . ,:_"...

.... r":

.

.~·.~~::i~.e~· ~~l~;&;;~~:.:7;~·:i*~~~~~;,·~~~~i:~~~~i~ ~~t~
.~r. ~~~ ~ .r~d~~_.~~~,~~~·:·:>·~8}::·.

~~~~.~~
fo~~:.the employmen:t-:arid.detection~·~t~~~;;~·:··ink~." ': -..

. -"7:':' Eoweve~, ·.~ei'o~~.anyt~~--i~~~~'l3:ctivity anew J~ch1929

~~ done e.ct~ally entered intotbe

~.:-r~I1~~:·:·~.:·;'.··~: :~;.:. ~~~1{0~Hli .t.o tran~i'~{~~.: ;~:~c.·;'.;;;. ...... '"':
.' .:.
':":':.r::::..-:-..... .:

. '..,.,..".

..- •:..:: i.;.~
,:;-~~::..

:,;.·~.·.·ripe

.:::-:::s;::;~.::~f~~~o::O .... I ~::::~:=:' ~~=c ;;;;~ . beC"""~i~~~~i~F~t~ o£.~SOf£ie'~~<\'::·;:: (j~':." II W: ::s:.~_r.... ~.:.~.( :.r:.:.iL~.:~~:::e:.:~::f~:::.:='.·.... r!i[~ .•.~:~,.~.:' ~.' .. .• ~
a new aCn:iIiistration:.·t~~r oi'f'ice,
in. which lX. Stilr.scn b~~~
f

aDd.

VerY. disturb~;~:'·~~~·tor

Pict~e~·-in;_.::

_. .._ '.~',::' .

t~ftfi~

.~;~~~~

beh'"

!nth.

duties

br,",,"ing. ",his attention the hig"'" secret actd vities

e;;~~,r~

t::.

rOT

this

.11..

m sur·e,·:·. ea.. bm .;t
....

Was -th

n.,L!of

some tre ..... ic!atioD. that

a

rew

·trans·,:".

i?~at~0n:.

of

l ~;;:;;;;;i;;;;;JJi ;~':.-;:''' .... ~~~~~~:;;;~;~~;
":'''':'~~T

;':::.-

.....~...: ~:::: :

Ja~nese

:cOcie~essages

were placed on l!r. S'timson I s desk •. His UPO~le~ng hon t~e m'1teH~ .. ,

I: .

1~J.M}wilJI

_~.reacti~n.was

vio~ent .and ~s

e.ctio~ dr~stiC.

,,~, .
I

t,~I~kJ~jJ~~~1.
":'.:.:.'.::::::"::'

~jl~~j:~'~;'~l'~i~i~'I~ .. ~~~~'~:~j.

was obr.a.2r.ed, he _chara~terl.Ze~ the ac.tl.Yity as ·bel.ng. ~~ghly un~tb1Ca:l.~d

~-.-'---_;---_._-__":"
"

._ .

.,.

.... _-:'

,._-.-declaredthat~'1t .was. concerned.
••. .w. •

"

wPUld'cease irr:eaiatel",

so .far as the State Departroent that.· .
..~: -~ ~;i.~ "".,

Toimt te~th into his 'decision he gave instructions
..'

c-.:

'.

.'

.

..

the necess~

fImC.s of the State ;DepartIl!entwould be withdrawn ll·once~:·.:
. .-.,..

:'it ~~

~ni~-:~ft~~>~~~~d~~~~l;'~~~~'~~';G.-2 :~~t'-h~':·.···· ·t~e·~.·c. ~~~.',
.
...

. ..'

was dissuaded.fro~

this

co~rs~~' ~hich might ~ve bad serious

-. . . :.:' ~ ;,' : . -, .. consequences
' ,

by suddenly throwing cut of emplo:rmentthe su

peoyie concerned; at a: tiI!:e

of severe economic depression.
'"

ror these workers had only special training

in a .field' ~hOlelY ~e~~~s .to :c~er~ia:L,
.
'.
"

~i~trlal> .~~~ing '::'.~~~~~.....
,

,..-:._
.

.

.

':.

'.,."_

".I'!'..

:.'

-

. :firms, . or to oi:her' govermnent departments,
. . ,, . . .

or to. educational
• .'

institutions.
=- :. ...... ~. "

An: a.rrimge~ent was' thei-e.fC;;re" as active- .wor.k ~
. .' . '. .; .

.. '.' the tiJ::e necesser,Y- wind'up af'fairs, to
-:'".

:.::: .... _-".':-~~':"" :.... ',' .. ·'····~~ : ... ::·?5.·~~~~~ ... : .:", :.... .:'_':' - .._..~: : .. ". . . .' .'.; ...... ...... concerned but ·to· keep the per-senne'Lon the ~Yr-oll

made

to close tlie .offic~ immedia..tely--so:'rar,.- . ~. for .
' -' :,' .. i..':" ......, .:: :.....

>.-~~:~:~~_.:~~~~. ;_',.:
. e"

.

and_get the fil~s
::.. -2. . ";: :- " .~.' .:' -, ":.

in shape ready.: ..:

. .:

0 ....

..;.· -

. ~'. .:...:.: ........

=" ••••

l:.: ...... :.,

'a·:·:~~:.--:·,... '
,

to turn over to the Signal Corps: .. This took
, ~,

'-coup1ec1' months, and at. .the . .~ ~.: ... ..... .: end of JUDe1929 the employees .were:- iven three_":_months g r pay' II in advanceII... ' .
, •••• ,_ •••••• -: o! ...

in

2.

l"Ulllpum,. to tide them over. the period in'v;hich they might be -jpbless. s . . .
"

Since they had been paid out ·of nconfidenti~1 fundslI they had no civil
.. .' , •. , '~" . -v." :.

~'_:'>':"'~7':.':'"

_., .

service
.

status

;U;_dO'retireI!!ent benefitsjmoreoyer, n
.'
.

for i<ransfer to other Goverm::eritpositions.

they were ineligib1e" . ...... .. _ . -, The danger' was, 'of co~se,.
"".'

. .. ·.defense.
-

el!l~""r.assingto tbeGcve~ent It turned

and have serious consequences upon_national feelings,

out

that whatever their~ivate

ail

the 4!s-

c~e.rgec.personne1; except the chief beneficiary

c~ the; old regiI!!e, remained-

~.'

..

-:'-.

,,~. :. :"'

.,,:'::~

. ,.'
_')'-.'

~~:.:.~
~,

..

~:-.-:-,?
,'

_-

..

.~~~':.~''; ::,':

'.-.

_;':;:i~;j~~:;.... ...
1929 '·1 was ..~~.~~
'1Iow York 'to'tske

: ...:' ~ .~:.:-';-~::-·"1~~~·"'·,":"'···"'·~"""'''''''''''''''''''' :

~~~~et?:~
J!
c.-

8. In October ";~cords alld files

over' t~.boxod:

.~~_~ : _.:_
'!.~" '.....

"':> . Z;Jl.f!!:.
-..

am
•• J •• :"

~J;·~er8ee.~~
',~:-, "_

transp~rtat1o:l to 1'ia.shiogtcn.

;'".;-.,:

':'i~!:;I:::r:~~~;
:....=_:.:--:~,::'.'.'._.'.'.~.:-_.~.~.',~_::::'.:,:'.::":"~ ..:':':;_'::.

i;~~~Y¥'

~and •_.~~d...a:1&lytie _- 'acti ~~~~~.:.~re.s~~~ .•'l-::.~-.'" - ~.~_.g .', . . ', .. : ".~ -;;-- '_': ~~",:~;.-..:,:~::", ......:~~~-,;..:"..: . ':. . Signal

otticer.

"step5 ':w~re .taken,.,to.:~oorganue.

··:=::=~~:~i~~~t~::?;hl~ ;:jll
::~~;'.
?"::.;;:
'::::.:::::.':":","":'.
r_

~e ~s

a~i1&~~~~:~~;:" -, ~~:~~~~;~':~""~

~{~~1;;_~*t. ;~ed o;-Y;:,/'::_:.,..~....::..E\:·:.;~~~}.¥ - ;..

"" ... ~eing 'UI:d. :.'er th:':_ c~ef'::' . .,::':=:_;" t,.:.;::.::::,._.:,,:~,~,:.:..;:':;_.;.'' '-'.:.~:.::'' .~.:':' .: .. ..:: ..~_~' :. ~. .. .. .' , ··-·~·';.:;.j;iz~:~~.:·· -,.. .. __.:.:., .'. -=the bur.ea.u ,and its work.::-;:>-:· .. ~':..,,".:_._.

":::, ~f!.~~~~~:~~~ ~

lad a husband

-':::~_.~.~::[::;::::'.:. n.;·
.
',',

~_;-I~U~:·~:._~.'.: .......
',

li~fii
~:.:;;:::.:.::~ .

~.",.

~.

'.

•-, :.....

-

~.

.~

'.1'

~~'.~:

clerical
. ~Ti.!:l.g

employees were _-.·deEmed unsuitable

...-.'.:.. ~.~ ... :

for

rur.,pUrposes

noCiTil

Servi.ce

status

~ey

. 'r<'~' ~.
.' .........,..

e.nd. moreover

c:'0u.~dnat b~'ta.k:en t.o: Y~~eJ:

on

by

" .~

"':.·~'-:;'.r-:

0 '- ....

.~ ~~" . ..v

tra."1s1-er •
.,~

.All offar te::lder. ap?e8.red

of tE!:lporary

e:DploymeIIt:;;as ..;~de secretly 'in the

'but. ?e re:f'used the :_ ... ~ book' ~~~~

Instead.···}-.a .proceeded in

toia-'ePs.rc Saturday

the!'onn

of

articles

Evening title

.. .." -.: Post &.:ld ..nioh :;:;~~:' .' >:. ::.~:,,~..... ..~
'

~:~

?~:.".

-

in l:luch expanded Chs"'-oer." disclosurs8.'.

form'later

appeared

under the

'''':.

..•..~ ..

"The _'unerican arid ~de

Blli.o!r::·~. _.' ..._.
"

The book and a.rticles
.- .....

.were.highly

sensational

demag:ing

conoernmg

the.most

sf)~ret activ:i.ties
articles
.~:". :::. ;=~~::.:. ~
":

'ever conducted "':::'/ the"':: and book.,howe-vero
prosecution as :!l:a.j or in ties it

Go79r=B~']:·~~~1e!'ore :t:h~··a:~pea~~';·~f·-.~e
. \:" :'.. ' . .

h~:<:'
"

....

_

-_

-

had taken his

certain

steps

to

protect.,_hilIlseli'
.

£roc possible his c=ission authori

1:or
thtj

.;":..

dis closures,

a.t:long -which was

··t~.· resign
01" course,

.~litary the real

lDtelligenoe Re8~~e. purpose of' his resi9atio:l

had the

11!iderstood so as to

they might

ha-ve prevented

·.r
, .e .".

censequencea ·attex:dant upon. the publication

of the book n'!ed no

.

'

.

herein •.' Suffice it·.to S2:cur 8.micable rel·e:tio:ls nth the British, who . .. ..... .. , .... , .. ' .~. _' , " :,:." .,oJ,; :~..~~.,' .' resented .tbe disclosure or inf'orIn2tionobtained bj YardJ.ey as a cOT.ll!lissi'Oned officer, were disturbed;
..
• 0' •

.

precarious relations;
..
':..,

7I'ith ,Japan wer,e brougbt to. of. The

..

a boUil:g :poiIrt when a~out

..

..

30 ,000 ·~~pies.of the Japanese translation
.

<\'.:: ~ ... . .:~.,;.:
.,;.

. American Black ChBJr.ber .~ere sold ill Tokyo in a period. of less than a month . [perhapa the book 1'{2.S' subsicllzed by the Japanese GoveI"l!I:ent ts;lf.) i ~ The
'.'

.. bad ·odor :mto ·which_ all cryptanalysts a·resul.t:of the dif'ficulties'Which

and cryptanalytic
0.:' ~

.

activities

.

f.'ell~ .a,.s_

~~

the publicity,

given the 1T:atterb7lardley's

discJ.osure~ o~~a:~~~e~d high gove~eDt attempted ,reorganization
• •

. '-:'"

,......

.\'. : .. :.',~'.
~ .~

c£ the cryptanalytic
""

.' - ~... -.: . '.:.:.:.,..~~~\.'.:'.

Of£:i.Cial~~ 'had a bad effect

1:ureau by".th~ Chiei' Signal.;:.~;:~ ~:.: :..:,.. ... . r;
••• 0 •• ,.

' .. '.

' .-. ,... -: .2,:.::. ' '::·.:-:.~·r~
.

upO~·~he "... ;~ . :::_,
..._,
" o

o.rricer., . ~
if' not ".

12 m,.

_,.
• -;

aDd 'state Depar~ent

support ~S

lacking ,:~: . ·0'· ....-- • :.;:, ~~: . .. ~~ .. ..~ ..: .

in ,t;2:le other

direction

or

yardley's

disclosures,
be esti:::lnted.

altogether. ' :rna ;:lost serious COllsequanCElf: .. hc:wever. =e 10 years later and their, ef'.f'ects
"."

)(;;~~~.
. ' ...... !~.'

can hardly

I reter

h;re
".

to

the

jolt

~ic~.his blissful

book gave ignoraru:e
_
,~.,o'.

;;,::-;;;;;:.;;;;.:;..

the Ja.panese cryptographers.

leading
'.

them out of their canplex methodsovbich

and ca.using thEm to develop really

-

.~.
'.'

are now giving us

:~.:::: :::::~::::~:~~:::c:~~::::::::~:~ ! "'I rr.~.~.:~~ ~.~~ ~~-~j;~.~~-:-2~i~~7',~:lr~~~~it1
-:;"!I.!.~i::~ ~-ns!.OI:l ;!~_~~! si:lce t.i.e co~?ila.ti.o!l secti,on was al:-eacj" tr.ere. ;._ra.ther.

·::y:::::~~::::~~::~ou:0:·::~~:::::Y f [[I ~::~.:~::. ..
--.0>
!'
:,ft.J
.C!i~~_~ti~_O~~:~.C:~?"1\s.

%!:9.ny dif1'1 cultiss.

!he same is· true

probably as rego--Tds t.bB German. and

!i~~·_:t:io.~ed-'~OY:.t~~: ..ecr.~~_" s

.. . .

.

-"-L::-."'::t01w~~

f~~jl~Z{~1!1I[~

.
'

.;'.. :::.~~.;:\.t!~:~,:~._.}:~';~ '.; ' ....~.~_:~:!.;'-."... ,

... warL>r-bit~;:L2~~:~"pk(
.~h ~

'.

' ..sisting

of' .my-sall' and_,o.ne.ar\two::olerlcs .seen ;"'8.B·.augmented a baIt ..dozen:' .:.;::':.~:~~';'" ":-..: by ...... ,,,,,:: "'T~~g

~ow;,~~,tiFi!;~~ibi~;l' .x;s Por·c~.;_:~:;;<:~s;,i:.;i~'~
at.:~~~.

of."_

r.orgaDi':.':c~:"5·:;'e ~~
expanding codes.

,."

~~~.,~~¢'\i~;'7 .~ :,_.;~.;J~{:;:._... : ".:-~-. _~~_.-.
'f:"'.-::;.•. ,.-. ......,:.-~,.-, ....-, ..,....,,••,, ••....,.,::_:_:,..... .._.. ..~=-.,-_ .•~ ' ..-:.•'"..' :..._

~~ -'

';'-. :..'.-: _ r- .:..::;;;=~'

r·1I
::-;

..more .empioyees.
..... ~o.go~d.usage wcrk also.
C~d~~

·~i~·:;r~: .. igr~~t:~~-~~
'~8

:~~.:;;~~~s."ere prerared 'and'
jn

~;::;···,·t~·····,.:~:;··;.. tj;;~b~
'.'.'..:_ .:

by preparing reS~17e ~·~i{~ns.~

;;r-'~:ting

o~:c~o~ra;~~-.:···._.:···· comp~ling new'

ii~~~;

~~~2~J.E~i

;:~::.:sfrZr:;15r~E~,,~~gi~~.:~:h;.::::!~~£;,? -;;:,·: : 'II
~ ~ . ~.': ..': '.': ::?~. . .:_~.~..:~:.. ..... ':_" =.. -' : : :;~.~.~<~:: ob'taill~~J:~~E17
frol!! the Cable 1929. due':to
. . . .

and.' ~ip~rs:.·~~~elo~~g

C-i~ej.~~~~~~>·and
~;,:r~~:;.::~

<,": .'.: .

so on.

.. ; ":_

Cryptanalytio:·. ..., ' _":.:-

._.-.... .' :_,,::;;.: .'.. '_. .::;::;::~;,

:n~ifiilliHfN

~~6

.~~~~:~;;~;,i~~,~~:~~i~~~:~~:~.~ll. ~t~~:~:~ !~n;?~~~ ... _~: f~ffE~~¥E ;mifftft~t~ i'ear' ~: tile:' ~~.# i~~;~~:m~;;s-: . .~e..,- :._ :.~...~_:..:::::.~ ~. B}.~~,:~~1[ .:\... .... . ~._ ..
~o~ .~.

CCiUplUlies but· thi.S.~sourceha~ practically

"dried

up" by

.:

-r:.-'

~:.

iience an..'.·intercept , ..

se.~ ' .. ....,

.::.. .~~.:.:.:: ;~·="t~~·:~

now 7.as· organized

e.D.dgr~
. . :....-;

';e?y_':~iovj'ly •.
.:":. :.2:,

were unif:i:ed lmd er . one s ervi cooperation
has expanded 'with thE! Navy

C8 _

.'. .".~."~: ...' :~.'~·::~~~·f~: ..; , '•.--.

and.'·.taken .unC.·erstudy and .action. .
" .. .' .. was
·.f '"

i. :: '.:~ :
'1.,

All
:... •

phases

'or

signal
• •

inte1Ugenoe

.

"";"

.

r

:Uore.over~·
.

r

i.:D. the':~rk
::.' •• ~.:.;.:~~..

also

icitj.at~d
• ••

•. · Hcw'the
'1'

6.Cti-rl.'ty
:.~." • _. • ~ •

'"

'.

since

. ..' .....;..~.....:--....-:t...~~;,~~~::~-, "': - .. : .~~;..,':'.:
_. ". =. ": :' •..

·then

require'; ,,ri9 . c~ent·. at
t~e:Ns.vy.are

this time~

. '. ~

However. a tew'

,.

...~.< . .::;~.
.. .

1ovords about; rels.tionswitb. . 10.· Crypta:aalyti~

non-existent until
.

...: ."::-:~~ '.:;~~~::·;:~··:C~~:~_.· . .' '.' .
after
.'

~:~;:;~~!~,.;.~.:.:-: ..,_. ·If.ctititie:~'.iii" 'our 11a."iY
,the· close.
.. ~.-.-:.:~:"" ." ',

pertinent.

.
Depar-bnent

'.!'

._

...

~~

.:._'-./-:.:'1 -.' . .::'., " .
= ~. :'~' •. / •.••• ~:'.: ':~:[.~'.

of the. 'lAst -mu- •. during 'l'lhioh;o as
".: ...

:'. .:~~.

were practiClI.lly
VIaS
~'/ ...

:':0'.... ,
~~:.~'.: -'.

r .:"
=-....

noted above.1£I~8~ . . analysis. _ the ~~

w.a'!;ever"·F~bl:~·:they had in
.~,~~.~:~~~~
'. r·.

.

".;::::.:~-::

>.::.:~~;:-: '.;.
...:.:::~'.::
-.

"."'_":

crypta.na.lys~sw8re
~.

.refer~~-dt~.·.

'.:"::';'~~'__'::.

~19~·:.·~~:;~~~

'Cle '~portant

role ~ich'

'.~~~:.::-;:'
._ .

'Was bound

to 'piay

~.-:.:~'~-

in ·f'lrl;ure. began 1:nild5.JJg·up a large ·'T~rea.s

uzp,t

in'

'.

l~avy Depar~t.

'With echelClll8 afloat., the Ya.~ placed

the Umy pl~cedcmphasis" trs.ining; ant!

upon civilian

tr.I.ining.

empb.sis

upon officer

;_ . '.

.~-'.~-.

.)l'-

....

.,!

f

.....

-~""-

.. -.
.

_.

~.

,_

•.

. A}: -:-::-.= :

,_

.

':-Z::"

:;;·~:~ir-~i.~::'
.
..-::"':'

<':>~~..."..,., t'<::~!i"'1F;';i--:: - :-~·~:-·i~:-··
. .

l'

. (;,'.=-.~, .
,';

',.

-

.: -: .. ~

.:: :

.

i939~ as £ar as concerned numbers o!'··o1'fi.cers'and civilian

,-_ • -r-

. :-.:-."

.

personne~ .. ' ....

..'

:.::':-

-: .', : .....

:~:~·~:··::·1·· ::.~~;~; ::.~t:-: ".:", ~f~·~~:~~;.~
'..

,..:.._.

1._

~~~

~:l:lt~a:::'::'tr.~

.:Z~~~~~~::;::

:".:> 1·"::' ;:;;~!,!J..~';'

u these' aot:i'Vii:ies~ amou~. or eguipD.ent~ti hand;. 8!1d1'!mds '_"'-,. .';:.:.;.:~::,':, :'.., . .' .. . .' ... . '.. ... .~-- .. ~ .. . ~., ; .-:~.=~::,':'.-:':' ..:;-~::.;.~~:~:.~r:·· .-~;':"'7'~'~'" ~ . . ~:~ ..":<~ : :. '.':~-:~'. "~~.::~; :;..:.~.,. . -:". -:i:.;"':- .i:», ;:.~::.:::",~-;:: ~ ".a-vailable ~ar 'researoh;:'the ·.Na-vy 'had' considClJ'8.bly-outstripped the Arrrr:r.:' -, .': _':":.:.:::: ~)?:'.
'enga.ged
.' -,' '

g§}l~gH
:_::~~~

: "::..... ., :~·:.:·.".:j~~;":.·-~.··.~·::·:-~·;~i~~~;:~..:.."":=-~:~-· -.~.'.r.":::"~."~')".:.':'::'":.' :.· Eowsver_ i.t .JlB.y be said;, with :scme justj,:t'1able' pride perhaps,

-::-

.

=>:

that· lihUe.>

~-:"!:.;:··.·..._:·-::.;:-;::~··>~-/:~.:-7~~~~~:.. . ..~ ~ ~~~~~~ ..:;...

i~i:1f~

.,_,'...... ':'. ,... ',:;;;;;i;,;;;;;;;~

','t'hey'~ere

ah~d'

·hp.,...,;. ....
fields

lo_ ..
'WaS

or·~ iIi' ~~~~~·~··~~·e·.
in

~~{~.~~~~~;: an. tho

bothth.

c'l'P'ogrtphic

C~~l;:';':i:'~r "'::~;:~{; ! I
/or::ii~' .~~;:.;:~.:.:~. -, ~~":::;,:,::~, .. ", ~ ..

~~~S~~k~t

..

must be credited

-:th~ 'ho

'.' services

~. inte~~ttent

to AmY-persoDlleI.At

'.

first,.

_.... <:- ,,\~,_ -~.~.:.....

coopera.tiOri.bct~eI'l. ;u~ ...:..,":.. -:,,;;:':;_'-v _~.:~ .

and at times very indif.r:sz:e~t:::-tb.('l.

,~~Al:.

." ;:,~""".~:}}}#l1i :

=c:

-I

. ;;;~~;:.;.;, _'l:~~:'~~::~:~~~

mutual ;

$Uspicions~:a..td j;;al~~~es

pervaded' our relatioDShi~S/>~~'}A;j;~~~.::···

,..... )?~~~~!~~:

. 1'ortno' fAst

,with :t.~e result
th_eir ~Y

::_

thr~'e~,-~~::'h;~ "'~~s' ~o;~ra~~

' .".::.·::,:~t:~,,,,:,,, '-"/:'.' : i.: ~:,!;,(:.:'.:,,, ,:

~~~been-:~:'~~~r~ .who·~·!~~~, _::.::~,:;~~~.: ; . :;,.~:~::::~~: .. .~-; ~ ;··",..:.7)·~.: ;·~·:t~· { .~;~~[:.~.\:, ., :&~;:~~~~ ~ e:a.t· it r:JS.y now be said without reserve .that, 'as regards!' .: .' ::'_::' .:: " ";;;:i,;:;-;. ';;:'

>,~,::""'.: :,::, :
~.

rf.{~~~f~:

cryp~graphic aDd cryptan~lyt~~ acti;'_~~~S·. . :... .' . ~ : -..... '--?-::_":_:' .. ~' :::~.;.~.: ::' -. .,.-~~.'/=...... --.. -' - ~." i··...~ ':':~{"'~(~;~~':' ·.}·":·-··~;·(·~r~ -. and Navy is so close as. to ·be.the 'same as though. they were, tirider 'oz;e. .... ,1/....
. '.' .. _ _. ~.;.. ..... _;-.... -'.. •

~~'per~;{'~~b~;;;~~;1;;/
be
'-- .. '_': :~. ~,~ ~.: . .
_ .... ~:\

.~:r:~:~':~, :_., ~~tr~t~~
·_-i ~

:~~~;;~::~~~~~~~ ""':':""''''''

'head.

This. or'course,

is as it
J

should,.be and must
•• ' '.-__

in order

1:;'0 gain the
< .~:
.---.t"~' ". -.-

..
:,.

.i"':~'10; ... _:

";'"
.
'

desired result ':!'ran s.uch activities 11.
Goverm:l.S:lt

•....
.,

....
.J

. .:~:
-

.·.~:~i~~·.-. -i-~

·It "liouIdbe· of utmost· value to th. w1IInillgoi' this 'var if the '. vere now in ,;.
:

.
•. 1 ".

.'

....

pOSiti~~\~ read
'.

t!:e~~'~e~

.~~ .. ciphers

of

lUi.:

tb~·
-•

?~~~~f:~~~~ ;i;;;;':;';":;;;;;
.._._ . ... :::::::=

'.:_.~

._-.'

foreit;l

powers 'Whose actions
.

a.nd probable intentions
". '.:'"

i!nportlUlce in our prosecution, of ,th~~.

a.re 01' interes.t:e..nd . '. - .~~::. _I_t _c_ou_l_d __ b_6_e_D ~ _h_av_e _in_ ~.

'.;.~ ..• ... ":: .~:...-.'
'

1.2.'_ There are four basic reasons 'Whycontinuity studies is so important. :"1'bey ~


-=
-_

in under separate

be discussed briefly

. is no .important. sOUrc~.frol!l.l'ihich trai.ned, .be_dral1Il .for immediate ·useflllness.
',:_,

experienced personnel

can

Since sld1.lin
,".

cr-;ptcmalysls can.
,

.... -.'
of
_,'

hardly be deve10ped in a .shor_t. tun~ and cryptanalytic producing quick resul.ts

unii:s capable

,'_

can .DOtbe improvised ill a hurry,

unless there.

is ~g~od-Siz:~c:i··~~cleuso;:~· ~~~·~~t~rienced personnel·:n~· . ::~1'~~:" . >'.:~;.'-~~;,~.-~'-'_" ...: -_> .~.~':'~"( c>: . :~:..::.:.~ :i~" good cryptanalytic operations ·can be conducted in. the ·early· pbases 01"" a
"0 '. -._ •• ' ':_/:':':::.'-:

...

war, that is, easily

·just at the :ta.me trlJ.enre~ults· can usually

" ", .....: "J'.

be obtained most
• .:: ::-:; .' ,,_

....... " ~.:. . --:-'-';.

"0

,_

..;_

::~.;'.'

'...

'_

and when·such resul ~. are eXtrem~y important. of cr.YPtanal~c brains that
e•.•. :.

Moreover, it is in
in studies. is

the upper strata mst important.

continuity-

It is possible,
-,_
"

mi:~er preasure , to obtain large and universities,

numbers bu:t
;

of recruits until

of high intel.?-igence ~~m colleges
.. '_--_

..
,"

....
,',.

they have had at lea"st :five··years actUal experd.ence and training
to attack

they are ,·bolly unprepared

the .most difi"icuJ.t probl~ Consi del' the

"-.~'

..

encountered in modern, up:::-to':da~ secr-et .com.";lunic ations. present npurple" syste!ll, for example. e:ffort to break do7ill this

It requ:Ll-ed·aJ... ost t;ro yearso£ u

concentrated tha t this to start

system and it ,-;as indeed fortu.."late If;va had not been able

had been accomplished by Septe:nber 1939. this

study until Dece.";l):)er 1941 .it'WOul.d not have been ·possible to
of t;Jo yearsl

read those :nessages short problem is so di.!'ficul.t

study, if

at all,because

the

to beginm.th

and moreover the voluc.e of traffic conpar-ed to ..... it ~s ~at before experience

.ar-o...ila!>leor f

21a.lysis TfOuldbe so snall

Dececber 7, 1941.

Moreover, if "e did not· have the t'!lo years'

'Wit:. the ordinary. "p\lTpleu tr.e task of reading the special

;.~ .') r--,'" rn

"purple" no",,"

"

'," : - .>

..•.

,.'

.• t·:',

cept

s~rvice
W9.!".

lave 'to
for

-..

••••••

,'"

-:.

:.:- »,

-

.-..

-,

.

be maintained

and thus wo:rk.

these

are aV!Lil~ble or. the studies

outare

brea:c of

:iJIlmediate. useful

Unl.ess cryptanalytic'

pursued t11e need for the lIllintenance' of' ade<!Uate intercept

....

stations

s·oon'"",
.- .... : ..

",',

disappears. imercept

for

it

prese!ltl:r is

,begins

to look as though the for this
' ,

work done by'the are withdrawn.
~~,~,-

persozmel (3)

useless
,

a:1d funds .'

acti.7i.ty is

Continuity is ~ science,

i:ll cryptans.1Yt;ic science

studies

Ilecesss.ry

becaV:.sc(l-"{'
as t~~ strides
~";'

,

..

cryptaDalysis cryptographic

~'static

s: ~--it,
as regards devil:es

must prog:-ess

iA;~?,':':::
.::.::
-;".

:...... ......

,e.:.

pr~gresses. especis.l.ly'

,In the past

f67 years

grsat

been ::::ade iIi. the latter. electrical., , the a:ld :nechanic:al

the developnent
and ~chi!tery.

of

co~pi':~: .. >...,: : '....
' As

"have '

.:-~::':.-": .

cryptographic

Moreover~'

cr-~~lytic t'o above.

work done Curing'the

lalit war has been ?ublici~ed.

',alluded

"The A"llerican Black- Ch .smber· in pL-ticul!ir

has' exer-ed.aed

_- ,,-=: :~.::

=:.:

?:..:~ ..'-::.

.-

: -~'~:- . .

that

can be dealt

cryptanalytio

to technical
1:or mu--time 13. It

intelligence work is ~ 'continuity , studies, £or it me~s that adisastr~ blo7f has been .' efficiencyof' both the cryptographic and cryptanalytic ". ',:._

to signal

2!.

in delivered

.

.

sen-ices

~~

.:

.f'unctionlng. W1Y be pertirient activities then, to add that the 'Britis!l.

.~',""'.'.'.'.':".''' .....

GO"VeTlllT.ent began:'its
r - ..~\... .~

:::.-.- ....... ::.:::::

cryptar.alytic
1ll0llth

in .1914 and never, dosisted course

from 'them for
"WaS

ev~a.

since

though ~

on

a. smaller

scale than.
'7I!I.S

reaChed at·
.'

.-

:." .

_-'.,:-

the

:b.eigtrl:·o.f' then acti~ties·in

1918-19.

sui'!'icient ~

to e:cable t.'ltemto keep up With the diplO!!lf1tic traffic

Hcnrever. it .

on a scale
.

of most

t."le gover~nts

or 'any

consequence. in t.'1e world in ~ch of about

they 'had

an
duties.

lii~1 I.::";:"~ ...
! ~@r(~i~~
. ': ':r~,'__~ .. ·~.~.:.~.~.;_:.~.~_:.~:.~.~.~.~.~:.;.· ~;",~,' .. _._.0
~.·:.:.·t:·;,·

1
I.

t

i~er~st. including

The British A=y

"built up a corps

3S to 40 able cryptar.a.lyst3,

t·· ¥ff&~@'
.
<

and Z.!a.~ o!,ficers

pernlB.!:!ently as.signed to Cl'ypta.."lalytio'

... -; . '. . ..;.:'~_-"'_.:\;':"'-:'';:_--''::"':~:;'-':_-::.:-:._':_:-::;-:_,_ . - -.: - '.<~~~: ..;,_ '":i.-:--"'-_
r ... -":~ -'

'l'hey r.a.i:ntaL~ed c;:"JP-ti:r~iytic-un;~s .. _~ndon.·-I~c:lia. ~
~.::.::..-...~

A....."'rica. •
-r.
r• :,,_"'_ .~ -. "'.'

.chir.a Il:l:i .so

... -.:;..b,-:.. ..;-;..;.:_,..
:'-'::"~,,;"" -

.~

-

_....

.: -'

-

••••

- ..... .... _ :-_._
' ''"-:.

-.·_·F.. :.' .,": -; -:.:..........-.:_~·,_.:-:;~··~ z
:.-.

:,·~;_·;:~~.:.-=~i_,-,,- '~.: - _. ~~....

;W);f:~!'!!f

~~~;f¢t~¥l~~~,~~~~~~t~5t3t~iH~j~%k~>t

-'- : ,~'"' c... , __ '-::"" ..~ __ '.

:>

-:-_ ..-

.. c:

". ''',''

,:~:: ,'. ,-- -' ...'-

. , .. :

·W=,":''::·::·!J.:

~':.:'.. ~'~.'

.

..
--:,

~
..... ' .:.
'.'

. :.. _

.... ..;
:

~--the

.. i'1cer8 ~
jn'
''';r .:

bei!l.g·tran.sfe:r~d

from one w:d.t to another

but cons-;antly

.

staying
• • ••

.c;~lytic
-: •• '. _. .. '~:.'.

<~_."~~~:: ..:.:-?';'~,;;':~;:'.;~ -:.:.... .. :....... :';._ -: . .- .' ~ ~' .. :~.-::. ~.:-: : .":.
.perhAps again .solve mare d1f'.t'1~lt

!'Ibrk~ .;,The· .r~sult is that today ~ while our,~SIS.'-~. . __

-... ..-.:'.'-

:-'.>',:J, ~_:';:."

Juu ~

801ved and ~ overall It

. . ~.,.. ......
the

individual

problems~ ;

'co-verage ~~~

British

organization

.is .far.,Q.head·gf' that. no s~cret

ours. country

w~~d appear. tram 'my ~oll'Vers~tiOJlS with' their'pers'onn~I' tbBm to have an interest in that co\Ul'trj's

is too small for
-

COO!lIIuniCs.tions. nd i:he7 a

.. .-._.

e..r~ today

able

to read the, tra.f'fic
..,!- :-

of practica.l17"

any couritr:r oD: which tb3y have had continuity
14. ?iml.ll7. if we are.not ".
,O'iar

sincet!le

la.st'

war." ..

.

~"""'--:

to, repeat

'. at tho close effort

of the ~st

,in respect,

olJe,e m~r,e the mistakes J:l8.de ........ .- . .. :.-., to, si~'1ntelligence.,wo~k~~~.o~ry·

s'hould be !'!ade to place
is,

..

,.~-'
_'

the. pre'sent

organization

on the most· .fina, , should no~ be

pSr::L!I.:::lem: 1.'Ollncation it

possible

to erect.

The ser-;ice

considered

as merely an appendage
718.r

to the .!'unctions servicb

per!'orI;led by tr.t6 Si~ that operates on a

Corps only i.:l ti.::e, of large scale

rut

as a percu:ent

in peace tble

Qs well

as in war tillle. ..

:

-

. '-. -.-. .: .-

.

:{~~~WHf.Jl~~
.~;'~::~.::i:::::~1
_.:::::::::::::~

..9J);M~
June 29. 1942.'

~~]}}i*~
. ,

~lli~ F., Friedman, liead CrJptanalyst.,

.:....
.
~'

';.

'...

-

-

~':--

.. I

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