GODSA The Kardashian Royalty Part Two By Eric Robert Powell The following account traces Kim Kardashian‟s

history through Ancient Egypt and Syria to Amen Hotep II, Ahmose II, Thutmoses III, the biblical and historical Ishmael, Ramses III, the Contemporary Eric Robert Powell as the Return of Amen Hotep II and Ahmose II, the God‟s of Mesopotamia and the Prophecy of the Last Days as She prepares to bring America‟s Blacks back home to the Fertile Crescent, and in particular, Egypt, Israel and Syria A History of Babylonia and Assyria Volume II Robert William Rogers Published 1900 A.D. Assyrian International News Agency Books Online www.aina.org A History of Babylonia and Assyria 2 CONTENTS BOOK III ................................................................................................................................................ ..............3 THE HISTORY OF ASSYRIA............................................................................................................................3 CHAPTER I.............................................................................................................................................. ........3 THE BEGINNINGS OF ASSYRIA.................................................................................................................3 CHAPTER II ................................................................................................................................................ ....8 TIGLATHPILESER I AND HIS SONS...........................................................................................................8

CHAPTER III ................................................................................................................................................ .11 THE INCREASE OF ASSYRIAN POWER OVER BABYLONIA..............................................................11 CHAPTER IV........................................................................................................................................... ......14 THE REIGN OF ASSHURNAZIRPAL......................................................................................................... 14 CHAPTER V ................................................................................................................................................ ..20 SHALMANESER II TO ASSHUR-NIRARI II..............................................................................................20 CHAPTER VI ................................................................................................................................................ .28 THE REIGNS OF TIGLATHPILESER III AND SHALMANESER IV .......................................................28 CHAPTER VII.......................................................................................................................................... ......39 THE REIGN OF SARGON II ........................................................................................................................39 CHAPTER VIII ..............................................................................................................................................4 7 THE REIGN OF SENNACHERIB................................................................................................................. 47 CHAPTER IX........................................................................................................................................... ......55 THE REIGN OF ESARHADDON................................................................................................................. 55

CHAPTER X ................................................................................................................................................ ..62 THE REIGN OF ASSHURBANAPAL.......................................................................................................... 62 CHAPTER XI ................................................................................................................................................ .71 THE FALL OF ASSYRIA.............................................................................................................................. 71 BOOK IV........................................................................................................................................... .................74 THE HISTORY OF THE CHALDEAN EMPIRE.............................................................................................74 CHAPTER I.............................................................................................................................................. ......74 THE REIGN OF NABOPOLASSAR............................................................................................................. 74 CHAPTER II ................................................................................................................................................ ..79 THE REIGN OF NEBUCHADREZZAR....................................................................................................... 79 CHAPTER III ................................................................................................................................................ .88 THE LAST YEARS OF THE CHALDEAN EMPIRE ..................................................................................88 APPENDIX A............................................................................................................................................ .........95 LITERATURE...................................................................................................................... ..........................95

1. EXCAVATIONS AND DECIPHERMENT...........................................................................................95 2. HISTORY.............................................................................................................................. .................95 APPENDIX B............................................................................................................................................. ....97 THE DESTRUCTION OF SENNACHERIBIS ARMY.................................................................................97 APPENDIX C............................................................................................................................................. ....97 THE DEFENSES OF BABYLON..................................................................................................................97 FOOTNOTES....................................................................................................................... ............................101

A History of Babylonia and Assyria 3 BOOK III THE HISTORY OF ASSYRIA CHAPTER I THE BEGINNINGS OF ASSYRIA OF the period when the first settlers of a Semitic race entered Assyria nothing is known, but all things point to their coming from Babylonia. The oldest traditions of the Semitic peoples connect the Assyrians with the Babylonians, and the earliest titles of their rulers point to dependence upon the previous civilization in the south. We are unable to trace the political and social history of Assyria to any point at all approaching the vast antiquity of Babylonia. There is evidence, as already seen, that the city of Nineveh was in existence at least three thousand years before Christ, but of the men who built it and reigned in it we know absolutely nothing. As in Babylonia, we are

confronted in the beginnings of Assyrian history only by a name here and there of some early ruler of whose deeds we have only the simplest note, if indeed we have any at all. The first Assyrian ruler bears the title of _ _ _ _ _ _ _ which seems to mean priest-prince, and implies subjection to some other ruler elsewhere. These early rulers must have been subject princes of the kings in Babylonia, for there is no evidence yet found to connect them with any other state, while their traditional connections are all with the southern kingdom. The names of several of these _ _ _ _ _ _ have come down to us, but are unhappily not able to arrange them in any definite order of chronological sequence. Apparently the first of them are Ishme-Dagan and his son, Shamshi-Adad I. The latter of these built a great temple in the city of Asshur and dedicated it to the gods Anu and Adad. We have no certain indications of the date of these rulers, but we are probably safe in the assertion that they ruled about 1830-1810 B. C.1 After a short interval, probably, there follow two other priestprinces, whose names are Igur-Kapkapu and Shamshi-Adad II.2 The names of two other _ _ _ _ _ _ have also come down to us, Khallu and Irishum,3 but their date is unknown. These six names are all that remain of the history of the early government of Assyria. At this period, about 1800 B. C., the chief city was Asshur, then and long after the residence of the ruler. There is no hint in these early texts of hegemony over other cities; though Nineveh certainly, and other cities probably, were then in existence. The population was probably small, consisting, in its ruling classes at least, of colonists from Babylonia. There may have been earlier settlers among whom the Semitic invaders found home, as there were in Babylonia when the Semites first appeared in that land, but of them we have no certainty. It is an indistinct picture which we get of these times in the temperate northern land, but it is a picture of civilized men who dwelt in cities, and built temples in which to worship their gods, and who carried on some form of government

in a tributary or other subject relation to the great culture land which they had left in the south. The later Assyrian people had but faint memory of these times, and to them, as to us, they were ancient days. At about 1700 B. C. the priest-prince ruling in Asshur was Bel-Kapkapu, according to a statement of Adad-Nirari III (811-783), a later king of Assyria, while Esarhaddon would have us believe that he was himself a direct descendant of a king, Bel-bani, and, though we may put no faith in such genealogical researches, perhaps greater credence may be given the other historical statement with which the name of Belbani is followed.4 According to the historiographers of Esarhaddon, Bel-bani was the first _ _ _ _ _ _ of Asshur who adopted the title of king, having received the office of king from the god Marduk himself. If there be any truth at all in these statements, we must see in Bel-bani the first king of Assyria, but the fact is empty of real meaning, whether true or not, for we know nothing of the king‘s personality or works. After these names of shadowy personalities there comes a great silent period of above two hundred years, in which we hear no sound of any movements in Assyria, nor do we know the name of even one ruler.5 At the very end of this period (about 1490 B. C.) all western Asia was shaken to its foundations by an Egyptian invasion. Thutmosis III,6 freed at last from the restraint of Hatshepsowet, his peace-loving sister or aunt, had swept along the Mediterranean coast to Carmel and over the spur of the hill to the plain of Esdraelon. At Megiddo the allies met him in defense of Syria, if not of all western Asia, and were crushingly defeated. The echo of that victory resounded even in Assyria, and whoever7 it was who then reigned by the Tigris made haste to send a .great stone of real lapis lazuli"8 and other less valuable gifts in token of his submission. It was well for Samaria that Thutmosis was satisfied with those gifts, and led no army across the Euphrates. Soon after the invasion of Thutmosis III we again learn the name of an Assyrian king, for about 1450 B.

C. we find the Kassite king of Babylonia, Karaindash, making a treaty with the king of Assyria, whose name is given as Asshur-bel-nisheshu.9 This latter is the first king of Assyria of whom we may consider that we know A History of Babylonia and Assyria 4 anything. He claims a certain territory in Mesopotamia, and makes good his claim to it. Assyria now is clearly acknowledged by the king of Babylonia as an independent kingdom. The independence of the northern kingdom was probably achieved during the two hundred years preceding, through the weakness of the kingdom of Babylonia. It must be remembered that it was in this very period that Babylonia was torn with internal dissension and fell an easy prey to the Kassites. While the Kassites were busy with the establishment of their rule over the newly conquered land the time was auspicious for the firm settling of a new kingdom in Assyria. Shortly after, though perhaps not immediately, his successor, Puzur-Asshur, came to the throne (about 1420 B. C.). Like his predecessor, he also had dealings with the Babylonians concerning the boundary line; and beyond this fact noted by the Assyrian synchronistic tablet,10 we know nothing of him. After Puzur-Asshur came Asshur-nadin-akhe (it is Asshur who giveth brothers), a contemporary of Amenophis IV,11 the heretic king of Egypt, with whom he had correspondence.12 A later king also records the fact that he built, or rather perhaps restored, a palace in Asshur. His reign was an era of peace, as these two facts apparently would prove, namely, the correspondence with the far distant land of Egypt, indicating a high state of civilization, and the restoration of a palace, and not, as heretofore, a temple.

He was succeeded by his son, Asshur-uballit (Asshur has given life), about 1370 B. C., and in his reign there were stirring times. His daughter, Muballitat-Sheru‟a, was married to Kara-Khardash, the king of Babylon. Herein we meet for the first time, in real form, the Assyrian efforts to gain control in Babylonia. The son of this union, Kadashman-Kharbe I, was soon upon the throne. The Babylonian people must have suspected intrigue, for they rebelled and killed the king. This was a good excuse for Assyrian intervention, for the rebels had killed the grandson of the king of Assyria. The Assyrians invaded the land, and the Babylonians were conquered, and another grandson of Asshur-uballit was placed upon the throne, under the title of Kurigalzu II.13 This act made Babylonia at least partially subject to Assyria, but many long years must elapse before any such subjection would be really acknowledged by the proud Babylonians. They were already subject to a foreign people, the Kassites, who had indeed become Babylonians in all respects, but it would be a greater humiliation to acknowledge their own colonists, the Assyrians, a bloodthirsty people, as their masters. Asshur-uballit also made a campaign against the Shubari, a people dwelling east of the Tigris and apparently near the borders of Elam.14 Friendly relations between Assyria and Egypt were continued during his reign, and a letter (15) of his to the Egyptian king Amenophis IV has been preserved, in which occur the following sentences "To Napkhuriya (Amen Hotep IV) 16. . .king of Egypt my brother, Asshur-uballit, king of Assyria, the great king thy brother. To thyself, to thy house, and to thy country let there be peace. When I saw thy ambassadors I rejoiced greatly . . . A chariot . . . and two white horses, . . . a chariot without harness, and one seal of blue stone I have sent thee as a present. These are

presents for the great king." The letter then proceeds to ask very frankly for specific and very large gifts in return, and tells very clearly of the present state of the road between Egypt and Assyria. In the reign of Asshur-uballit Assyria made a distinct advance in power and dignity, and this development continued during the reign of Asshur-uballit‟s son and successor, Bel-nirari (Bel-is-my-help)-about 1380 B. C. Of him two facts have come down to us, the mutual relations of which seem to be as follows: Kurigalzu II had been seated on the Babylonian throne by the Assyrians and therefore owed them much gratitude, but to assure the stability of his throne he must needs take the Babylonian rather than the Assyrian side of controversies and difficulties between the peoples. The grandson of Bel-nirari boasts concerning him that he conquered the Kassites17 and increased the territory of Assyria. By this he must mean not the Kassite rulers of Babylonia, but rather the people from whom they had come-that is, the inhabitants of the neighboring Elamite foothills. This conquest simply carried a little further the acquisition of territory toward the east and south which had been begun by Asshur-uballit‘s conquest of Shubari. But these Assyrian conquests led to Babylonian jealousy and then to a conflict between Kurigalzu II and Bel-nirari, in which the latter was victorious, and this, in turn, brought about a rearrangement of the boundary line by which the two kings divided between them the disputed territory,18 though it does not appear which was the gainer. Again the succession to the throne passed from father to son, and Pudi-ilu (about 1360 B. C.) reigned in Asshur. He has left us only brief inscriptions,19 in which he boasts of building at the temple of Shamash, probably that at the capital city. From his son we learn that he was a warrior of no mean achievements, though our geographical knowledge is not sufficient to enable us to follow his movements closely. He is represented as overrunning the lands Turuki and Nigimkhi, and conquering the princes of the land of Gutium.20 Beside

these conquests to the north of the city of Asshur he also extended his borders toward the southwest by the conquest of the nomad people the Sutu. From reign to reign we see the little kingdom of Asshur grow. These conquests were probably not much more than raids, nor is it likely that at so early a period a serious effort was made by the Assyrians to govern the territory overrun.21 It was preparatory work; the peoples round about Asshur

A History of Babylonia and Assyria 5 were gradually being brought to know something of its growing power. They would soon come to regard it as a mistress and consolidation would be easy. It was in similar fashion that the empire of Babylonia had grown to its position of influence. Pudi-ilu was succeeded by his son, Adad-nirari I (about 1345 B. C.), who has left us two records, the one a bronze sword inscribed with his name and titles,22 the other a considerable inscription,23 carefully dated by the eponym name, the oldest dated Assyrian inscription yet found. The latter is largely devoted to an account of the enlargement of the temple of Asshur in the capital, his wars being but slightly mentioned. In the enumeration of the lands conquered by him the countries already overrun by his predecessors are repeated-Shubari, the Kassite country, and Guti, to which lie adds the land of the Lulumi. The fact that these lands needed so soon to be conquered again shows that the first conquest was little more than a raid. But this time a distinct advance was made; Adad-nirari does more than conquer. He expressly states that he rebuilt cities in this conquered territory24 which had been devastated by the previous conquests. Here is evidence of rule rather than of ruin, and in this incident we may find the real beginnings of the great empire of Assyria. Again there were difficulties with Babylonia, and Adad-nirari fought with Kurigalzu II and with his successor, Nazi-Maruttash (about 1345 B. C.), both of whom he conquered, according to

Assyrian accounts,25 though the Babylonian Chronicle would give the victory to the Babylonian king, in the first case at least. In the inscription of the bronze sword Adad-nirari calls himself king of Kishshati, a title which is found earlier in an inscription of Asshur-uballit.26 He does not call himself king of Asshur at all, though this title is given by him to his father and grandfather. Apparently he seems to claim for himself a greater dignity than that of ruler merely over Asshur, else would he certainly have called himself king of Asshur, as did his predecessors. But his own description gives us no means of determining the location or the bounds of the territory which he had conquered or over which he claimed rule. When his reign closed he left Assyria and its dependencies far stronger than when he took the government in his own hands. His son, Shalmaneser I, was his worthy successor. From his own historiographers very little has come down to us-only two broken tablets,27 from which it is difficult to make out any connected story, but the fame of his great deeds called forth more than one mention from later kings,28 and these will enable us to reconstruct the main portion of his achievements. The general direction of his conquests was toward the northwest. This would seem to imply that the policy of his father had been successful, and that the territory toward the northeast and the southeast was peacefully subject to Assyria. He pushed rather into the great territory of the valley between the Tigris and the Euphrates, and therein established colonies as a bulwark of defense against the nomadic populations of the farther north. Still farther westward the land of Musri was also subjected. This land lay north of Syria, close to Mount Amanus, and hence very near to the great Mediterranean Sea. To reach it Shalmaneser must cross the Euphrates--the first time that Assyrian power had crossed the great river. Subsequent events show that the more westerly parts of the land which he conquered were not really added to the Assyrian state. As in the case of Shubari, so also in this, other invasions would be necessary. But this at

least had been gained, the rapidly growing kingdom was firmly established as far as the Balikh, and perhaps even to the Euphrates beyond. Small wonder is it that a conqueror of such prowess and an organizer of such ability should deem it necessary to build a new Capital worthy of so great a kingdom. The city of Asshur was old, and its location was far south, too near the old Babylonian border. A kingdom that was growing northward and westward needed a capital more nearly central in location. Shalmaneser I determined to erect his new capital at Calah,29 and so pitched upon a site which remained the capital of his country for centuries, and later became the southern portion of Nineveh itself. In peace as in war a man of foresight and skill, like his father, he left Assyria the greater for his living and ruling. In the reign of his son and successor, Tukulti-Ninib (about 1290 B. C.), the irresistible progress of the Assyrian arms reached a glorious climax. There had once more arisen trouble between the two states of Assyria and Babylonia. Perhaps it bras the old and vexed boundary question, which Would not down; perhaps the never-forgotten restless ambition of the Assyrians to rule at Babylon. Whatever the cause or excuse Tukulti-Ninib invaded Babylonia with force sufficient to overwhelm its defenders and the imperial capital was taken. After an unexampled career of power and of civilization Babylon had fallen and the Assyrian plunderer was among her ruins. Tukulti-Ninib laid low a part of the city wall, even then massive, killed some of the defenders, and plundered the temple, carrying away into Assyria the image of the great god Marduk. This was no mere raid, but a genuine conquest of the city, which was now governed from Calah. Assyrian officers were stationed both in the north and in the south of the country. Tukulti-Ninib adopts the title of king of Sumer and Accad in addition to his former titles, king of Kishshati and king of Asshur. In his person were now united the latest Assyrian title and one of the most ancient titles in the world. The old and coveted land of Sumer and

Accad, the conquest of which by Hammurabi had been the very making of his empire, was now ruled from the A History of Babylonia and Assyria 6 far north. A curious evidence of the rule of Tukulti-Ninib in Babylon itself was found by Sennacherib, probably during the second attack upon the city (689 B. C.). Tukulti-Ninib had sent to Babylon a seal inscribed with his name, and this was taken to Assyria.30 For seven years only was this rule over Babylonia maintained. The Babylonians rebelled, drove out the Assyrian conqueror, and set up once more a Babylonian, Adad-shumusur (about 1268-1239 B. C.), as king over them. When Tukulti-Ninib returned to Assyria after his unsuccessful effort to maintain his authority in the south he found even his own people in rebellion under the leadership of his son. In the civil war that followed he lost his life, and the most brilliant reign in Assyrian history up to that time was closed. Up to this point the progress of the Assyrians had been steady and rapid. The few Semitic colonists from Babylonia had so completely overwhelmed the original inhabitants of their land that the latter made no impression on Assyrian life or history, and in this alone they had achieved more than the Babylonians, after a much longer history and with greater opportunities. We have seen how the Babylonians were influenced by the Sumerian civilization and by the Sumerian people. Afterward they were first conquered by the Kassites and then so completely amalgamated with them that they ceased to be a pure Semitic race. Thus the influences of Semitism could not be perpetuated and disseminated by the Babylonians, while, on the other hand, the Assyrians suffered no intermixture. The latter had already so gained control of the fine territory which they first invaded as to be absolute masters of it. Under them the land of Assyria had become Semitic. More than this, they had gained sufficient influence by conquest over the older Aramaean peoples toward the southeast,

between them and the Kassites and the Babylonians, as to take from the Babylonians the Semitic leadership. Their colonies in the upper Mesopotamian valley were centers of Semitic influence and stood as a great bulwark against the non-Semitic influences on the north. By crossing the Euphrates and conquering the land of Musri they had also threatened the older Semitic civilizations in Syria and Palestine. Would they be able to wrest the power from them, as they had from the eastern Aramaeans and from the Babylonians? If this could be done, the Assyrians would hold in their hands the destinies of the Semitic race. It seemed as though they were to accomplish even this, when they were suddenly checked by the successful rebellion of the Babylonians, by civil war, and by the death of their great leader. This reverse might mean their permanent overthrow if the Babylonian people still had in their veins the courage, the dash, and the rugged independence of the desert Semite. If, however, the intermixture of Sumerian and Kassite blood, not to mention lesser strains, had weakened the Semitic powers of the Babylonians, the check to Assyria might be only temporary. It is a critical day in the history of the race. The severity of the blow to Assyria is evidenced not only by the results in Babylonia, but no less by the fragmentary character of Assyrian annals for a long time. It is, indeed, for a time difficult not only to learn the course of events in Assyria, but even the names and order of the kings. The Babylonian Chronicle31 mentions an Assyrian king, Tukulti-Asshur-Bel, in close connection with the history of Tukulti-Ninib, but in words so obscure that his relation to the history is difficult to understand. It is altogether probable that he reigned as regent32 in Assyria during the seven years in which his father was engaged in the reducing and ruling of Babylon, but of his deeds in these years we have no knowledge. The successor of Tukulti-Ninib on the throne of Assyria was his son, Asshurnazirpal I, who had led the rebellion against him. In his reign the ruin of Assyrian fortunes which began in his father‘s defeat and death went

rapidly on. The Babylonian king, Adad-shum-usur, felt himself strong enough to follow up the advantage already gained by the restoration of his family to power, and actually attacked Assyria, from which he was only with difficulty repulsed. The next Assyrian kings were Asshur-narara and Nabu-daian (about 1250 B. C.), of whose reigns we know nothing, although we are able to infer from the sequel that the Assyrian power continued to wane, while the Babylonian increased. The reigns were short, and were soon succeeded by Belkudur-usur and Ninib-apalesharra, in whose clay the Babylonians under the leadership of Meli-Shipak and Mardukapal-iddina invaded Assyria and stripped the once powerful kingdom of all its southern and part at least of its northern and western conquered territory. Apparently all was lost that the Assyrian kings of the earlier day had won, and the end of Assyrian leadership had come, but the motive force of the Assyrians was not destroyed. The successor of Ninib-apal-esharra was Asshurdan (about 1210 B. C.), and with him begins the rehabilitation of Assyrian power. He crossed the river Zab, and invading the territory which had been for some time considered Babylonian, restored a small section of it to Assyria. We know little else of his reign, but this is sufficient to mark the turning point and explain what follows. His greatgrandson, Tiglathpileser, boasts of him that he reached a great age.33 In his reign the rugged virtues of the Assyrians were preparing for the reawakening which was soon to come. Of the following reign of his son, Mutakkil-Nusku34 (about 1150 B. C.), we have no information, though we are probably safe in the supposition that his father‘s work was continued, for we find in Babylonian history, as has been seen, no evidence of any weakening of Assyria, but rather the contrary. The gain

A History of Babylonia and Assyria 7

in the Assyrian progress is shown more clearly by the reign of his son, Asshurrich-ishi (about 1140 B. C.), who is introduced to us very fittingly as "the powerful king, the conqueror of hostile lands, the subduer of all the evil."35 The beginning of his conquests was made by a successful campaign against the Lulumi and the Kuti, who have found mention more than once before. They must have either become independent, during the period of Assyria‘s decline, or perhaps have been added to the restored Babylonian empire. Having thus made sure of the territory on the south and east, Asshur-rish-ishi was ready to meet the great and hereditary foe of Babylon. Nebuchadrezzar I was now king in Babylon, and, flushed with recent victory over a portion of Elam, was a dangerous antagonist. The issue between the kings seems to have been joined not in the old land of Babylonia south of Assyria, but in Mesopotamia, and the Assyrians were victorious. Of the other deeds of Asshur-rish-ishi we know nothing save that he restored again the temple of Ishtar in Calah. Asshur-rish-ishi was succeeded by his son, Tiglathpileser I (Tukulti-pal-esharra, My help is the son of Esharra-that is, My help is the god Ninib). There was therefore no break in the succession and no new dynasty begins. Nevertheless, a new period of Assyrian history really commences with the next king. With Asshur-rishishi ends the first period of growth and decay and of renaissance. To his son he left a kingdom almost as great as Assyria had yet possessed. Tiglathpileser begins to reign with the titles of king of Kishshati and king of Asshur; the only title belonging to his ancestors which he did not possess was king of Sumer and Accad. With him we enter upon a wonderful period in the career of the Assyrian people.

A History of Babylonia and Assyria 8 CHAPTER II TIGLATHPILESER I AND HIS SONS TIGLATHPILESER I (about 1120 B. C.) was the grand monarch of western Asia in his day, and the glory

of his achievements was held in memory in Assyria for ages after. It is fitting that one who wrought such marvels in peace and war should have caused his deeds to be written down with care and preserved in more than one copy.36 To his gods he ascribed the credit of his works. Their names, a formidable number, stand at the very head of the chief written memorials of his reign. Here are Asshur, the ancient patron deity of his land, "the great lord, the director of the hosts of the gods," and Bel also, and Sin, the moon god; Shamash, the sun god; Adad, the god of the air, of storms, of thunder, and rain; Ninib, "the hero;" and, last of all, the goddess Ishtar, "the firstborn of the gods," whose name was ever to resound and be hallowed in the later history of Nineveh.37 With so great a pantheon had the people of Assyria already enriched themselves. The annals of the king show that he planned his campaigns well and had a definite aim in each struggle against his enemies. When he ascended the throne Babylonia was too weak to interfere with his labor of building up anew the Assyrian empire, and no immediate campaign southward was therefore necessary. On the other hand, there was a threatening situation in the north and west. The nomadic tribes, established in the hill country above the Mesopotamian valley, northward of Harran, bad never been really subdued, and some fresh effort had to be made to hold them in check or the integrity of the kingdom might be endangered. The tribe that was now most threatening was the Mushke. This people was settled in the territory north of Milid, the modern Malatiyeh, on both sides of the upper waters of the Euphrates. In later times they became famous as the Moschi38 of the Greeks, and the Meshech39 of the Old Testament, being in both cases associated with the Tubal or Tibareni, who at this period lived toward the south and west, inhabiting a portion of the territory later known as Kappadokia. The Mushke had crossed the Euphrates southward and possessed themselves of the districts of Alzi and Purukhumzi about fifty years before, in the period of Assyria‘s weakness. The Assyrians had once overrun this very territory and claimed

presents for the god Asshur from its inhabitants, but it was now fully in the control of the Mushke, and had for these fifty years been paying tribute to them, and not to the Assyrians. Feeling their strength, and unopposed by any other king, the Mushke, to the number of about twenty thousand, in five bands, invaded the land of Kummukh. Here was indeed a dangerous situation for Assyria, for if these people were unchecked, they would not long be satisfied with the possession of this northern part of Kummukh, but would seize it all, and perhaps invade the land of Assyria it. self. Trusting in Asshur, his lord, Tiglathpileser hastily assembled an army and marched against them. He must cross the rough and wild Mount Masius and descend upon his enemies among the head waters of the Tigris. How large a force of men he led in this venture we do not know, but his victory was overwhelming. Of the twenty thousand men who opposed him but six thousand remained alive to surrender and accept Assyrian rule. The others were savagely butchered, their heads cut off, and their blood scattered over the .ditches and heights of the mountains."40 This savagery, so clearly met here for the first time, blackens the whole record of Assyrian history to the end. It was usual in far less degree among the Babylonians, so that the ascendancy of Assyria over Babylonia is, in this light, the triumph of brute force over civilization. Having thus overwhelmed the advance guard of the Mushke, Tiglathpileser returns to reestablish, by conquest, the Assyrian supremacy over the southern portions of the land of Kummukh. This country was also quickly subdued and its cities wasted with fire, perhaps as centers of possible rebellion. The fleeing inhabitants crossed an arm of the Tigris toward the west and made a stand in the city of Sherishe, which they fortified for defense. The Assyrian king pursued across mountain and river, and carried by assault their stronghold, butchering the fighting men as before. The men of Kummukh had some forces from the land of Qurkhe41 as

allies, but these profited little, and the united forces were overwhelmed. Again the Tigris was crossed and the stronghold of Urrakhin-ash laid waste. Rightly appreciating the terrible danger that threatened them, the inhabitants gathered together their possessions, together with their gods, and fled .like birds"42 into the mountain fastnesses that surrounded them. Their king realizing the hopelessness of his state, came forth to meet his conqueror and to seek some mercy at his hand. Tiglathpileser took the members of his family as hostages, and received a rich gift of bronze plates, copper bowls, and trays, and a hundred and twenty slaves, with oxen and sheep. Strangely enough he spared his life, adding complacently to the record the words: "I had compassion on him, (and) granted his life," which hereafter was to be lived under Assyrian suzerainty. By these movements the "broad land of Kummukh" was conquered, and the Assyrian ruled at least as far as, if not beyond, Mount Masius. Great achievements these for the first year of a reign, and the next year was equally successful. It began with an invasion of the land of Shubari, which had been conquered before by Adad-niari I, and had again

A History of Babylonia and Assyria 9 rebelled, thence the king marched into the countries of Alzi and Purukhumzi, of which we heard in his first campaign, in order to lay upon them anew the old annual tribute so long unpaid to Assyria. The cities of Shubari surrendered without battle on the appearance of Tiglathpileser, and the district north of Mount Masius was all a tribute-paying land. On the return from this campaign the land of Kummukh is again devastated. The exaggeration of the king‘s annals appears strongly here, for if, in the campaign of the first year, Kummukh had been so thoroughly wasted as the king‘s words declare, there would certainly have been little left to destroy in the next year. This time there is added at the conclusion one sentence which did not appear before. " The land of

Kummukh, in its whole extent, I subjugated and added to the territory of my land."43 Well may such a conqueror continue in the words which immediately follow: "Tiglathpileser, the powerful king, overwhelmer of the disobedient, he who overcomes the opposition of the wicked."44 The control of the great Mesopotamian valley in its northern portion between the Tigris and the Euphrates is safely lodged in Assyrian hands. The third year of the reign of Tiglathpileser contained no less than three campaigns. The first, against Kharia45 and Qurkhi, we cannot follow in its geographical details, and are therefore unable fully to realize its meaning and importance. It was a mountain campaign, full of toilsome ascents, and carried on with the usual savage accompaniments. In quite a different direction lay the course of the second campaign of this year. In. stead of the north, it was the south that now claimed attention. The king crosses the Lower Zab River, which discharges its waters into the Tigris not far south of the ancient capital, Asshur, and conquers an inaccessible region amid the mountains of its upper courses. A third campaign again carries him to the north against Sugi, in Qurkhi, and results also in a victory, from which no less than twenty-five gods were brought back to Assyria in triumphal subjection to Anu, Adad, and Ishtar. The great undertaking of the fourth year of the king‘s reign was a campaign into the lands of the Nairi.46 By this the annals of Tiglathpileser clearly mean the lands about the sources of the Tigris and Euphrates, lying north, west, and south of Lake Van. In this territory there was as yet no Chaldian kingdom, but no less than twenty-three native kings or princes united their forces to oppose the Assyrian. There was more mountain climbing to reach them, and then they were severely punished. The kings were taken alive, and after swearing oaths of fealty to the gods of Assyria were liberated. Chariots and troops of horses, with much treasure of every kind, were taken, and a yearly tribute of twelve hundred horses and two thousand oxen was put upon the inhabitants, who were not

removed from their land47 One only of these twenty-three kings--Sini, the king of Daiyaeni48--refusing to surrender as the others, resisted to the last. He was therefore carried in chains to Assyria, where he probably saw reasons for submission, for he was suffered to depart alive. This episode in the king‘s conquests is concluded with the claim that the whole of the lands of Nairi were subdued, but later history shows clearly that further conquest was necessary. It was a great move forward in Assyria‘s growth into a world power to have accomplished this much. As a part of the same campaign tribute was collected from the territory about Milid, and another year of activity was ended. By comparison with the previous four years the fifth seems a year of less result. Aramaean peoples inhabiting the Syrian wastes, west of the upper waters of the Euphrates and south of the city of Carchemish, had crossed the river into Mesopotamia. Tiglathpileser expelled them, and so again strengthened Assyrian supremacy in northern Mesopotamia as far as Carchemish. Following up his easily won victory, the king crossed the Euphrates in pursuit and laid waste six Aramaean cities at the foot of Mount Bishri. The campaign of the next year was directed against the land of Musri,49 which had already felt the arm of Assyria in the reign of Shalmaneser I. The people of Musri were aided by allies from the land of Qumani,50 and both lands were subjugated and a yearly tribute put upon them, after they had suffered all the horrors of the savage Assyrian method of warfare. In the language of the annals, their heads were cut off like sheep." The king thus records the results of his five years of campaigns: "In all, forty-two centuries and their kings from beyond the Lower Zab (and) the border of the distant mountains to beyond the Euphrates, to the land of the Hittites and the Upper Sea51 of the setting sun, from the beginning of my sovereignty until my fifth year my hand has conquered. Of one mind I made them all; their hostages I took; tribute and taxes I imposed upon them." With

this notice in the annals of Tiglathpileser ends all account of his campaigns. No other word concerning any further raids or ravages is spoken. Were it not for the Synchronistic History we should know nothing more of his prowess. The information which thus comes to us is not so full as are the notes which we have already passed in review, but it supplies what was needful to round out the circle of his marching and conquering. It was improbable that a king who had conquered north, west, and east should not also find cause for attacking the coveted land of Babylonia. From the Synchronistic History52 we learn that he twice invaded the territory of Marduk-nadin-akhe and marched even to Babylon itself, where he was styled king of the Four Quarters of the World. So ends the story of the wars of Tiglathpileser I. He had not only restored the kingdom of Assyria to the position which it held in the days of Shalmaneser and Tukulti-Ninib; be had made it still more great. Never had A History of Babylonia and Assyria 10 so many peoples paid tribute to the Assyrians, and never was so large a territory actually ruled from the Assyrian capital. But Tiglathpileser was no less great in peace than in war He brought back the capital of Assyria from Calah to Asshur and almost rebuilt the city, which had thus again become important. The temples of Ishtar, Adad, and Bel were rebuilt. The palaces which had fallen into ruin during the absence of the court were again restored and beautified. And then into this city thus renewed, and into this land enlarged by conquest, the king brought the wealth of the world as he had gathered it. Goats, fallow deer, and wild sheep were herded into the land. Horses in large numbers taken from conquered lands or received in yearly tribute were added to the peaceful service of agriculture. But not even here did the king rest. He caused trees also to be brought from great distances and planted in the land he loved.53 It is a marvelous story of peaceful achievement, worthy of a place by the side of his overpowering success in war.

In addition to the serious work of war and peace the king found time to cultivate the wiles of a sportsman, and great are his boasts of the birds and the cattle and even the lions which he slew. This passion for sport is commemorated long afterward in an inscription of Asshurnazirpal, in which we are told that Tiglathpileser sailed in ships of Arvad upon the Mediterranean.54 It follows from this that after the six campaigns, enumerated above, the king must have made another which carried him out to the Phoenician coast, where his successors were later to fight great battles and win great triumphs. Of the conclusion of the reign of Tiglathpileser we know nothing. He probably died in peace, for he was succeeded by his son, Asshur-bel-kala (about 1090 B. C.), and the latter was followed after a short reign by another son of Tiglathpileser, Shamshi-Adad I (about 1080 B. C.). So easy and unbroken a succession makes it a fair presumption that the times were peaceful. The sons were not able to bear the burden which came to them, so that there is speedily a falling off in the power and dignity of the kingdom. When we look back on. the reign of Tiglathpileser and ask what of permanent value for Assyria was achieved by all his wars the answer is disappointing. He might boast that he had conquered from east to west, from the Lower Zab to the Mediterranean, and from the south to the north, from Babylonia to Lake Van, but what were these conquests, for the most part, but raids of intimidation and of plunder? He did not really extend the government of Assyria to such limits, even though in Kummukh he actually appointed Assyrian governors. Over this great territory, however, he made the name of Assyria feared, so that the lesser peoples surrendered at times without striking a blow for freedom, while the greater peoples dared not think of invading Assyrian territory. This insurance against invasion was the great gain which he brought to his country. By carrying savage war to other nations he secured for his own a peace which gave opportunity for progress in the arts. These great temples and palaces required time for their erection

and time for the training of men who were skilled in the making of bricks and the working of wood. The very inscription from which we have learned the facts of his reign, a beautiful clay prism with eight hundred and nine lines of writing, bears impressive witness to a high state of civilization and an era of peace. Of the reigns of the two sons we know almost nothing. Asshur-bel-kala maintained terms of peace with Marduk-shapik-zer-mati (about 1094-1083 B. C.), king of Babylonia, who thereby seemed to be considered an independent monarch and not subject to the Assyrians, as his predecessor bad been. In this reign the capital appears to have been transferred to Nineveh,55 and a word in the only inscription of the king which has come down to us hints at the king‘s control in the west.56 After a short reign Asshurbel-kala was succeeded by his brother, Shamshi-Adad, whose only work known to us was the rebuilding of the temple of Ishtar in Ninevehanother proof that the capital was now located at this city and not at Asshur. After this reign there is another long period of silence in Assyrian history, of which we have no native monumental witnesses; a period of immense importance in the history of mankind, for it was a time not only of silence but of actual decay in the Assyrian commonwealth. As the fortunes of Assyria were at so low an ebb, the time was favorable for the growth and development of peoples elsewhere who were for a time free from the threatening of Assyrian arms. When once more we come upon a period of historical writing and of great deeds in Assyria we shall find the Assyrian conquerors confronting a changed condition of affairs in the world. To the growth of new conditions elsewhere we must now address our thought for a better understanding of Assyrian movements after the silent period.

Ashur-uballit 2
Last ruler of Assyria 612-609 BCE, 3 years. His reign was one of only fighting the Medes and the Babylonians. The kingdom he controlled for a short period of time was drastically smaller than the former empire, counting only the region around Harran. It is suggested that he was the brother of last king, Sin-shar-ishkun. The fact that the Egyptian king aided him suggests that he was of immediate royal family.

Biography 612: All of central Assyria is razed by Babylonian, Medes and Schytian forces, Harran escapes with the aid of Egyptian troops. Ashur-uballit 2, who possibly was the commander of the army stationed near Harran declares himself Assyrian king, as the last king, Sin-shar-ishkun, had lost his throne and power. 610: The Egyptian troops are called back to Egypt, the Babylonians and Medes launches a campaign into Harran, driving Ashur-uballit out. 609: With the assistance of an army under Egyptian king Neko 2, Ashur-uballit first has to fight Judah, in a battle at Megiddo where king Josiah is killed. Finally at Harran, the forces are unable to take it back from the Medes and the Babylonians. It is not clear what happens with Ashur-uballit, but with this defeat the Assyrian empire comes to its final end.

Kim Kardashian emerges once more A Study Ashur-uballit 1
Akkadian: ash shur-uballit (Dead 1318 BCE) Ruler of Assyria ca. 1353-1318, 35 years. Assuming power, Assyria largely had the role of a vassal state, subject to both Mitanni and Babylonia. By his own efforts, as well as fortune, he formed the first

Assyrian empire, being the first effective ruler of the Middle Assyrian period. First he managed to free Assyria from the supremacy of Mitanni, with the aid of the Hittites. This alliance would prove short lived, as he later set out to have the kingdom of the Hittites, as well as the kingdom of the Hurrians defeated. In Mesopotamia, he succeeded in sacking Nineveh, but of greater importance over time became the alliance through marriage with the ruling family of Babylonia: allowing the Assyrian takeover several generations later. An faster effect was to secure less influence by Babylonia over Assyria. He had contacts to Egypt, corresponding with contemporary kings (Amenophis 3 and Akhenaten), even sending a representation of the Assyrian goddess, Ishtar, to the Egyptian court. He was succeeded by his son, Enlil-nirari. The PEDIGREE of Kadashman-Turgu of BABYLON Born: ? Died: abt. 1264 BC Poss. HM George I's 81-Great Grandfather. Poss. HRE Ferdinand I's 78Great Grandfather. Poss. Agnes Harris's 82-Great Grandfather. Wife/Partner: (Miss) of the HATTI Child: Kadashman-Enlil II of BABYLON ____ ____ ____ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ____ ____ ____ ___ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ -- poss. Agum III of / ====> [ 89] BABY. + / -- Karaindash I of BABYLON / -- Kadashman-Kharbe I of BABYLON / -- Kurigalzu I of BABYLON (? - 1390+ BC) / -- Kadashman-Enlil I of BABYLON (? - 1360? BC) / -- Burnaburiash II of BABYLON (? - 1333? BC) / -- Kara-Hardasch (II) of BABYLON (? - 1333? BC) | \ | (skip this generation?)

| | | | | | | | | | / / / / \ \

| | | | | \ / / / \ | | | \ / | /

/ /

-- Enlil-nasir II of ASSYRIA ====> [ 16] + | or: Ashur-nadin-ahhe I (Enlil-

nasir's brother)

-- Ashur-nirari II (King) of ASSYRIA -- Ashur-bel-nisheshu (King) of ASSYRIA -- Eriba-Adad I (King) of ASSYRIA -- Muballitat-Sherua of ASSYRIA -- Artatama (I; King) of / ====> [ 5] MITANNI + -- Shuttarna II (King) of MITANNI (& HURRIANS) -- Menwi (Princess) of EGYPT ====> [ 50 \ ,,qy] + | or: Menhet or Merti (Menwi's sister) -- (Miss) of MITANNI

-- Kurigalzu II of BABYLON (? - 1308? BC) -- Nazi-Maruttash of BABYLON (? - 1282? BC)
- Kadashman-Turgu of BABYLON -- (missing)

His (poss.) 3(+)-Great Grandchildren: Adad-shuma-usur of BABYLON ; Marduk-Apal-Iddina (EMPEROR) I of BABYLON His (poss.) 8(+)-Great Grandchildren: Shamshi-Adad IV (King) of ASSYRIA ; Tukulti-urta II (King) of ASSYRIA ; (Miss) of ASSYRIA ; MardukZakir-Schumi I (King) of BABYLON ; Marduk-zera-uballit (Prince) of BABYLON ; Adad-Apla-Idin (EMPEROR) of BABYLON ; (NN) ... (NN) of BABYLON People - Ancient Near East: Ashur-Uballit I Ancient Near East

Ashur-Uballit I in Wikipedia Ashur-uballit I (Aššur-uballiṭ I), was king of the Assyrian empire (1365 BC-1330 BC or 1353 BC – 1318 BC). His reign marks Assyria's independence from the kingdom of Mitanni, by defeating Shuttarna II; and the beginning of Assyria's emergence as a powerful empire. Later on, due

to disorder in Babylonia following the death of the Kassite king Burnaburiash II, Ashur-uballit established Kurigalzu II on the Babylonian throne, in the first of what would become a series of Assyrian interventions in Babylonian affairs. Amarna letters From the
Amarna letters, a series of diplomatic letters from various Middle Eastern monarchs to Amenhotep III and Akhenaten of Egypt, we find two letters from Ashur-uballit I, the second being a follow-up letter to the first. In the letters,

Ashur-uballit refers to his second predecessor Ashur-nadin-ahhe II as his "father" or "ancestor," rather than his actual father, Eriba-Adad I, which
has led some critics of conventional Egyptian chronology, such as David Rohl, to claim that the Ashur-uballit of the Amarna letters was not the same as Ashuruballit I. This, however, ignores the fact that monarchs in the Amarna letters

frequently refer to predecessors as their "father," even if they were not their biological sons. In this case, Ashur-uballit presumably referred to Ashur-nadin-ahhe because the latter, unlike Eriba-Adad I, had previously corresponded with the Egyptian court.[original research?]
Babylonian wars With Assyrian power firmly established, Ashur-uballit started to make contacts with other great nations. His messages to the Egyptians angered

his Babylonian neighbour Burnaburiash II, who himself wrote to the Pharaoh: “with regard to my Assyrian vassals, it was not I who sent them to you. Why did they go to your country without proper authority? If you are loyal to me they will not negotiate any business. Send them to me empty-handed!”[1]
Yet the new Assyrian power could not be denied, and Burnaburiash even married the daughter of the Assyrian king. He was succeeded by his son from the Assyrian wife, prince Kara-hardash, but a revolt soon broke out that showed the unpopularity of the Assyrians. Asshur-uballit would not allow his grandson to be cast aside, and duly invaded Babylon. Because Kara-

Hardash was killed in the rebellion, the Assyrians placed on the Babylonian throne a certain Kurigalzu, who may have been Burnaburiash's

son or grandson. But this new puppet king did not remain loyal to his master, and

soon invaded Assyria. Ashur-uballit was only able to stop the Babylonian army at Sugagu, not far south from the capital Assur.[2]
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ashur-Uballit_I.

Kassites

Contents: History, Kassite Dynasty of Babylon, Social life, Language, Culture, See also, References, External links,

right|300px|thumb|The Babylonian Empire under the Kassites. -> Read the article about 'Kassites' Related articles: ancient Near East, Babylonia, Old Babylonian Empire, short chronology, Language isolate, Zagros Mountains, Lorestan Province, Elamites, Gutians, Manneans, Indo-European, Iranic, Medes, Persians, 18th century BC, Samsu-iluna, Hammurabi, Abi-Eshuh, Hittites, Sumer, Marduk, Shuqamuna, Dur-Kurigalzu, Mesopotamia, Assyria, Puzur-Ashur III, Burna-Buriash I, Ancient Egypt, Elamite Empire, Nubia, Thebes, Greece, Armenia, Kurigalzu I, Ashur-bel-nisheshu, Ashur-uballit I, Egyptians, Assyrian, Enlil-nirari, Adadnirari I, Tukulti-Ninurta I, Kashtiliash IV, Nippur, Larsa, Sippar, Susa, 1155 BC, Second Dynasty of Isin, kudurru, A. Leo Oppenheim, Akkadian language, Kudur-Enlil, Sumerian language, Book of Judges, Hebrew Bible, CushanRishathaim, Joshua, 12th century BC, Enlil-nadin-ahi, Sennacherib, Hulwan, Iran, Herodotus, Memnon, Nearchus, Strabo, Battle of Gaugamela, Alexander the Great, Diodorus Siculus, Curtius Rufus, Elymais, Seleucid, Ptolemy, Kashgan River, Kassite Dynasty of Babylon, Agum II, Agum-Kakrime, Burnaburiash I, Kashtiliash III, Ulamburiash, Sealand (Mesopotamia), Agum III, Karaindash, Amenophis III, Kadashman-harbe I, Kadashman-Enlil I, Amarna letters, Burnaburiash II, Akhenaten, Kara-hardash, Nazi-Bugash, Shuzigash,

Kurigalzu II, Battle of Sugagi, Nazi-Maruttash, Kadashman-Turgu, Hattusili III, Kadashman-Enlil II, Shagarakti-Shuriash, Kashtiliashu IV, Enlil-nadin-shumi, Kadashman-Harbe II, Adad-shuma-iddina, Adad-shuma-usur, Meli-Shipak II, Marduk-apla-iddina I, Zababa-shuma-iddin, Shutruk-Nahhunte, Kudurru, stele, Short chronology timeline, Cities of the ancient Near East, Encyclopædia Britannica. KARAINDASH I sovereignty is asserted likewise only over Babylonia. We shall see that the first attempts to bring Mesopotamia again under the sceptre were made when Assyria, the ruling power there, was forced to retreat. In Palestine Babylonian rule gave way to Egyptian. It would appear from the manner in which Karaindash's successors speak of him in their letters that he was the head of a new family in the Kassite dynasty. His date was about 1500. That which we know of him, apart from his inscription already mentioned, is that he formed a treaty with Ashur-bel-nisheshu, the king of Assyria, and carried on a correspondence with the king of Egypt. This last fact is attested by a letter which one of his successors, Burnaburiash, sent about sixty years later to the king of Egypt, Amenophis IV. The discovery of the collection of tablets to which this letter belongs is one of the most surprising and important that has been made in the Orient. To tell the story is at the same time to write of history. In 1887 there were found in Tell-Amarna, the site of the ancient capital of Amenophis IV, in Middle Egypt, about 180 miles from Memphis on the east bank of the Nile, more than three hundred cuneiform tablets and fragments of tablets. They are a remnant of the national archives of Egypt and consist chiefly of letters which were sent to the kings of Egypt, Amenophis III, and his successor Amenophis IV, by kings of Western Asia and by the Syrian and Palestinian vassal-princes of Egypt. Among them are letters from the kings of Babylon, Assyria, Mitani, which lay to the north of the Euphrates between the Balikli tributary and its western boundary; from the kings of the Hittites and others. These letters constitute the most valuable documents we possess for the history of Western Asia during this period, and frequent reference to them will be made in what follows. The letters from Babylon, with which we are at present interested, say nothing of her greatness and power. Nevertheless, the existence of the whole collection speaks in unmistakable language of the controlling influence of Babylon in earlier times—it is written in the cuneiform script, and with three exceptions in the Semitic-Babylonian language. And, what is of still greater significance, two of the

letters from the king of Egypt, one addressed to the king of Babylon, the other to one of his own vassals in Northern Palestine, are in the same script and language. The cuneiform script and the Babylonian language were at that time the literary means of communication throughout Western Asia. And a knowledge of the language implied a study of the literature. This is abundantly proven by the discovery among the tablets of a couple inscribed with a Babylonian myth, which was written in Babylon, and apparently used as a textbook in Egypt. The two kings, eleven of whose letters sent to the Egyptian kings have been recovered, were KA-DASHMAN-BEL AND BURNABURIASH The former corresponded with Amenophis III, the latter with his successor, Amenophis IV. It is possible that they were brothers and that the younger overthrew the elder. The letters give no information of great national occurrences. They relate chiefly to marriages between the royal houses. The Pharaohs have taken Babylonian princesses to their harem, but to their Babylonian friends they are not so generous with their own daughters— princesses, at least, could not be given to Babylonians. It would require the pen of a Mark Twain to deal adequately with one point that bulks large in these letters, viz., the presents. The Babylonian king, like other kings, evinces in his persistent demands upon the Pharaoh all the characteristics of the baksheeshbegging Oriental. That which he sends is always declared to be trivial—the gold that he gets is tested in the purifying fires of the crucible and found wanting, and more and better is demanded. From the historical point of view the relation of these two old centres of civilization to one another disclosed by the letters is more important. Babylonia (and even Mitani) sends as presents such products of her industry as artificially wrought lapis lazuli, so highly favored in Babylon. Egypt, on the contrary, sends gold. It seems almost as if diplomatic dealings were intrusted to oral explanation and argument and the astuteness of well bribed court officials, for political questions are rarely touched upon. Letters reflect the life of a people. Even kings engaged in trade, and, it seems, were exempt from customary taxation. Business men from Babylon, who were in the king's service, appear in Akko, where, apparently, they are about to embark for Egypt, when suddenly they are arrested and maltreated for reasons unknown.

The Babylonian king demands of Pharaoh the immediate release of the men and indemnification as well, since Akko lies within the latter's territory. In only one instance does a political dispute arise. At the expense of Babylon plans for territorial expansion had been formed by the Assyrian king, Ashur-uballit, and these were recognized at the Egyptian court of Amenophis III and support promised. Burnaburiash protested against this procedure on the ground that Assyria was a vassal state under him and, therefore, could not be treated with independently. He pointed to the conduct of his father, Kurigalzu, who, when he had been urged by Canaanite subjects of Egypt to join them in an uprising against her, had promptly declined to participate in the plot. But in Egypt too much confidence was not placed in the ardent friend of Egyptian gold, and his assurances of loyalty can scarcely have been accepted with unquestioning faith. When the Phoenician princes wished in their rivalry to discredit one another at the Egyptian court they were wont to raise the cry of treason, and to declare that their rivals were intriguing with the king of Mitani, of the Hittites, or of Kash, i.e., the Kassites of Babylon. The situation referred to in the case of Kurigalzu is exactly the same as we meet with again in the time of Sargon and Merodachbaladan II. The Canaanites asked the support of the Babylonians against Egypt, and urged them to unite with them in their designs against her. On the other hand, Merodachbaladan sent his ambassadors to Hezekiah to induce him to join forces against Assyria. Later Taharka and Sennacherib, Nebuchadrezzar and Necho (and in 587 Hophra) constituted the support and hope of the Canaanite states. As a matter of fact we have evidence that portly afterward, when the death of Amenophis was followed by disturbances in Egypt, Babylonia attempted to regain the West. Despite the anxiety manifested in the letter of Burnaburiash to Amenophis IV over the territorial seizures of Assyria, and the fact that he waged wars with her, he married his son Karaindash II to the daughter of the energetic Assyrian king, Ashuruballit. Her son KADASHMAN-KHARBE succeeded to the throne, a fact which shows the influence of Assyria. It was under him that Babylonia sought to regain a firm foothold in the West. At this time Assyria had a strong grasp of Mesopotamia and this compelled Babylonia to send her army straight through the Syrian desert. Kadashman-Kharbe sought to make the desert road secure by chastising the nomad tribes which roamed there and which were called the Suti. He made wells, and also erected military

posts and settlements and filled them with Babylonians. He thus established a highway of communication with the West and made the circuitous route through Mesopotamia unnecessary. This scion of the Assyrian house was apparently a determined opponent of Assyria such as later was never lacking. It is possible that his plans were based upon what previously existed. At all events, he recognized that the wisest course was to satisfy his threatening rival with territory still to be conquered and, in the meantime, to deprive it of value by diverting from it the trade so important for Babylonia. Therein lay the solution of the disputed question of the time as to who should possess Mesopotamia. Kadashman-Kharbe might have come to a peaceful understanding with Assyria about the determination of the territory which affected both their interests if his plans had succeeded, and thus have proved his ability to strengthen his power by mightier weapons than those of war, especially where industrial Babylonia was face to face with the military power, Assyria.

SHUZIGASH Kadashman-Kharbe cannot have reigned long. He was murdered in an insurrection excited by the Kassites, but we are not informed what was the immediate motive of the act. At bottom it was possibly due to the fact that the kings and the ruling classes of the Kassites had, in the meanwhile (after 1400), become Babylonians in all essential respects. The Kassites who at the distribution of spoil came off empty-handed, or who had lost their share through the accidents of business or industrial life, formed a party of malcontents who longed for the old times when the Kassite was lord and the Babylonian was plundered. We find, at least, that the insurrectionists raised a man of common origin to the throne, who is called in the two chronicles Shuzigash and Nazibugash, "the son of nobody." To Ashuruballit, the grandfather of Kadaslaman-Kharbe, who was still active on the throne of Assyria, this was a welcome incentive to secure the upper hand by the extension of his kingdom. As the avenger of his grandson and the restorer of order he appeared in Babylon, quelled the insurrection, and placed his great-grandson, KURIGALZU, while still in his minority, upon the throne.

But the might of circumstance is stronger than the bonds of relationship and good deeds of doubtful intention. As long as Ashur-uballit lived, and during the reign of his son, Assyria continued to struggle for possession of Mesopotamia. But when Adad-nirari I drove out thence the Mitani, and long after KadashmanKharbe's undertakings had proved abortive, Babylon saw her opportunity again to gain Mesopotamia and thus insure her connection with the West. As Assyria was now in possession of it war broke out between her and Babylon. The clash of arms between the two states began in the reigns of Kurigalzu and Adad-nirari I. We have an interesting bit of information of a war waged by the Babylonian, Kurigalzu, against Khurbatila, the king of Elam, in which he worsted and took prisoner the latter on Babylonian soil. Elam was, therefore, the invader. Kurigalzu must have followed up his victory. On the reverse of an inscription dedicated, by a subject of Dungi of the ancient dynasty of Ur, to the goddess Nana of Erech appears a dedication of Kurigalzu's as follows: "Kurigalzu, king of Karduniash, captured the palace of the city of Shasha in Elam, and presented this tablet to Belit (the god of Nippur) for his life." This tablet was, accordingly, carried off at some time from Erech by Elamites, and now on this victorious expedition of Kurigalzu's against Elam, found again in a temple, more than 1200 years after it was dedicated in Erech. Then it was rediscovered a few years ago by the American expedition, and brought to Constantinople. Books are not the only things that have their fate! These wars prove that the conditions already exist which are always apparent in the future; Babylonia is the prize coveted by both Assyria and Elam. For the present she is able to cope with both, and, if at times worsted, at others she proves superior. The contest is waged through the following centuries to the fall of Assyria. In later times Babylonia was a vassal state of the one or the other. Even at this time the same shifting of national fortune can be traced. Soon after Kurigalzu, as we shall see in the history of Assyria, Babylonia and Babylon fell into the hands of Tukulti-Ninib, king of Assyria. Not long before, during the year and a half that NADIN-SHUM reigned, Kidin-Khutrutash, king of Elam, invaded Babylonia and laid waste Dur-ilu, the Babylonian city situated on the western terminus of the highway from Elam. He then conquered Nippur, which was especially favored by the

Kassite kings, and where, doubtless, at times they chose to reside. A similar expedition was undertaken by the Elamite during the reign of the second successor of the Babylonian king,

ADAD-SHUM-IDDIN, who was enthroned by Tukulti-Ninib. This time it was Isin that suffered. Many an elegiac verse mourns in the tone of the penitential psalms the devastation of the land and especially of certain cities. In the centuries of Babylonian history the same thing, it is true, frequently occurred. But these songs of lament suit this period admirably, and if they did not originate then they are revisions of older ones which now resounded in the temples of Babylon. The remaining kings of the dynasty ruled for the most part under the protection of Elam. It is clear that we have again come to the end of a period. The Kassites have long ago become Babylonians and now have played their role on the stage of history—the Kassite dynasty draws to a close. There remain only four kings, and MARDUK-APLU-IDDIN, Merodach-baladan I, was the only one of these who appears to have successfully opposed Assyria and asserted himself over Mesopotamia. The change of the dynasties indicates, as always, a time of tumult and weakness, and brings to the throne a royal line whose work it is to wit stand Assyria and renew the struggle for Mesopotamia. The American expedition at Nippur has proved that this city of "the Lord of Lands," Bel-Matate was especially favored by the Kassites. This may have been due to some similarity that existed between their national cult and that of Nippur. They had a strong predilection for names conpounded with buriash, that is, Bel-Matate. On the other hand, we may, perhaps, discern therein efforts intended to counteract the preponderating influence of Babylonia which had been greatly strengthened by the dynasty of Khammurabi. It was necessary for it to overcome Nippur since she rose to power over the dynasties of Isin an Larsa. But the "kings of Isin" also appear to have attributed the same importance to Nippur as the Kassites.

The thirty-six Kassite kings, so far as the can be determined at present, and the most important events of their time are the following: GANDISH. His name appears also as Gaddash, and Gande, on a fragment and votive tablet, reigned 16 years. AGUM-SHI (an abbreviated name), his son, reigned 22 year: GU-YASHI (otherwise read Bibe-yashi) reigned 22 years. USHSHI [otherwise read Dushi, Abu (ad) shi] reigned 8 (?) years. ADU-METASH reigned — years. TASHI-GURUMASH reigned — years. AGUM-KAKRIME, successor of preceding, reigned — years. . . . lacuna. KARAINDASH I, belongs to a new family(?); the beginning of relations with Egypt; alliance with Assyria, reigned — years. . . . lacuna, one or more kings, reigned — years. BURNA-BURIASH I., contemporary of Amenophis III, compact with Puzur-Ashur of Assyria relative to certain territory, reigned — years. KURIGALZU I, relations with Egypt under Amenophis III, and with Assyria under Ashur-nadin-akhi, reigned —years. KADASHMAN-BEL, brother of preceding; correspondence with Amenophis III, with whose death the end of his reign practically synchronizes. There is extant a copy of an inscription of his that was made by the scribes of Ashurbanipal's library, which contains the dedication of a wagon to Bel of Nippur, reigned — years. BURNA-BURIASH II, son of Kurigalzu I; he wrested the throne from his predecessor, maintained a friendly correspondence with Amenophis IV. Four of these letters are now in the British Museum, and two in Berlin. Ashur-nadinakhi, contemporary king of Assyria, extends his dominions, reigned — years. KARA-INDASH II, son of Burna-buriash II, married Muballitat-sherua, the daughter of Ashur-muballit. Bel-nirari and Pudu-ilu, probably ruling in Assyria, reigned — years. KADASHMAN-KHARBE I, the son of Karaindash II, and Muballitatsherua, attempts to establish communication with the West by repressing the Suti and opening the way through the Syrian desert inasmuch as Mesopotamia is in the hands of the Mitani. In a rebellion, probably incited by Kassite distrust of Assyrian influence, he was murdered. Reigned — years.

SHUZIGASH, or Nazibugash, was placed on the throne by the rebels; deposed and killed by Ashuruballit. Reigned — years. KURIGALZU II, son of Kadashman-Kharbe, who was yet a child, was appointed in his stead by his great-grandfather, Ashur-uballit. Appears to have had a long reign. War with Khurbatila of Elam; Bel-nirari, Pudu-ilu, Adad-nirari I, his contemporaries in Assyria. Reigned ---/ years. NAZI-MARUTTASH, son of the preceding. War with Adadnirari I, over territory on the east of the Tigris; defeated by Adad-nirari. Reigned 26 years. KADASHMAN-TURGU; Adad-nirari I rules in Assyria, and now after expelling the Mitani from Mesopotamia and causing the retreat of Babylonia, he takes possession. Shalmaneser I, a contemporary. Reigned 17 years. KADASHMAN-BURIASH waged war with Shalmaneser I, chiefly over Mesopotamia. Reigned 2 years. KUDUR-BEL reigned 6 years. SHAGARAKTI-SHURIASH, contemporary of Shalmaneser I. Reigned 13 years. BITILIASHU, son of Shagarakti-Shuriash, succeeded. About this time Tukulti-Ninib, King of Assyria, invaded Babylonia and conquered Babylon. Reigned 8 years. BEL-NADIN-SHUM I. During his reign Kidin-Khutrutash, the King of Elam, invaded Babylonia, took the cities of Nippur and Dur-ilu, wasted the land, and deported many of the inhabitants. Reigned 1 year, 6 months. KADASHMAN-KHARBE II. In his reign Babylon was in turn conquered by the Assyrian King, Tukulti-Ninib, under whose supremacy KadashmanKharbe continued to rule. Reigned 1 year, 6 months. ADAD-SHUM-IDDIN. In the early part of his reign he was apparently deposed by the Elamite king, KidinKhutrutash, and after he had succeeded in regaining the throne, probably with the aid of Assyria, the Elamites again overran the country. Isin was spoiled and Nippur, Babylon, and other cities plundered. The hymns of the time lament the desolation wrought. About the same time the Assyrian power was overthrown by a rebellion in Babylonia, and Tukulti-Ninib lost his life in an insurrection in Assyria under the leadership of his son. Thus the two reigns ended contemporaneously. Reigned 6 years. ADAD-SHUM-UTSUR ascended the throne and reigned 30 years. MELISHIKHU. This was a time of weakness and unrest in Assyria which was followed by fresh attacks by Babyonia. Reigned 15 years.

MERODACH-BALADAN I took Mesopotamia; Ninib-apalEkur and Ashurdan ruled in Assyria. Reigned 13 years. ZAMAMA-SHUM-IDDIN. Ashurdan invaded Babylonia and plundered three of its cities. Elamites attack Babylonia and Bel-nadin-shum was dethroned. Kudurnakhundi the son of the king of Elam was placed on the throne and wasted Babylonia. Reigned 1 year. BEL-NADIN-AKHE. Babylon subject to the overlordship of Elam. Later there appears to have arisen a conflict with Elam. Bel-nadin-akhe was apparently forced to turn to Assyria, but failed to receive the necessary support. Contemporary of Ashurdan. Reigned 3 years. According to a summary item in one of the king-lists this Kassite dynasty had 36 kings and lasted five hundred and seventy-six years and nine months from cir. 1700 to 1130. http://www.third-millenniumlibrary.com/readinghall/UniversalHistory/THE_OLD_WORLD/HISTORY_OF _BABILONIA/BOOK_1/IX.html

Muballitat-Sherua of ASSYRIA
\ | | | |/ ||\ |||/ ||||\ |||/ / / / / -- Parsatatar (King) of MITANNI + | (skip this generation?) -- Shaushshatar (King) of MITANNI (? - 1450? BC) -- Artatama (I; King) of MITANNI -- Shuttarna II (King) of MITANNI (& HURRIANS) / -- Thutmose II (PHARAOH) of EGYPT + ====> [ 48 ,,qy] ====> [ 3]

-- Thutmose (Tuthmosis) III `the Great' (PHARAOH) of EGYPT -- (NN), concubine | or: poss. Isis

||\ || || || |/ \ \ |/ \ \

-- Menwi (Princess) of EGYPT | or: Menhet or Merti (Menwi's sister) -- poss. Ahmose Pen-Nekhebet + -- poss. Sitiah (Satiah Sitioh) -- Ipu (Royal Nursemaid) -- (Miss) of MITANNI ====> [ 33]

Her (poss.) 3(+)-Great Grandchildren: Kadashman-Enlil II of BABYLON ; (NN) of the HATTI ; Hibiranu II (King) of UGARIT ; Nekhtseth (Prince) of EGYPT ; Thuya (Ruia) of THEBES ; Kudur-Enlil (I) of BABYLON ; Shagarakti-Shuriash of BABYLON http://fabpedigree.com/s035/f005116.htm

Possible Child:

Kurigalzu II of BABYLON

A BRIEF OVERVIEW OF ASSYRIAN HISTORY FROM EARLY BEGINNINGS TO SARGON II By Lishtar

The origin of the Assyrian nation is involved in obscurity. The tenth chapter of Genesis in the Old Testament Bible says that the Assyrians are the

descendants of Assur (Asshur) one of the sons of Sem (Shem -- Gen., x, 22). What we can say with a degree of certainty is that they are Semites, probably an offshoot of the Semitic Babylonians, or a Babylonian colony; although they have been looked upon by some scholars as an independent Semitic offshoot, who, around c. 3000-2500 B.C., migrated and settled in Assyria. Assyrian rulers bore the title of Ishshaku (probably "priest-prince", or "governor") and were certainly subject to some outside power, presumably that of Babylonia. Some of the earliest of these Ishshaki known to us are Ishmi-Dagan and his son Shamshi-Adad I (or Shamshi-Ramman). The exact date of these two princes is uncertain, although we may with reasonable certainty place them about 1840-1800 B.C. Other Ishshaki are Igur-Kapkapu, Shamshi-Adad II, Khallu, and Irishum. The two cities of Nineveh and Assur were certainly in existence at the time of Hammurabi (c. 2250 B.C.) for in one of his letters he makes mention of them. It is significant, however, that in the long inscription (300 lines) of Agumkakrime, one of the Kassic rulers of Babylonia (c. 1650 B.C.), in which he enumerates the various countries over which his rule extended, no mention is made of Assyria. Hence, it is probable that the beginning of an independent Assyrian kingdom may be placed towards the seventeenth century B.C. Towards the fifteenth century B.C. we find Egyptian supremacy extended over Syria and the Mesopotamian valley: and in one of the royal inscriptions of Thothmes III of Egypt (1480-1427 B.C.), we find Assyria among his tributary nations. From the Tel-el-Amarna letters also we know that diplomatic negotiations and correspondences were frequent among the rulers of Assyria, Babylonia, Syria, Mitanni, and the Egyptian Pharaohs, especially Amenhotep IV. Towards this same period we find also the Kings of Assyria standing on an equal footing with those of Babylonia, and successfully contesting with the latter for the boundary-lines of their Kingdom.

About 1450 B.C. Asshr-bel-nisheshu was King of Assyria. He settled the boundary-lines of his kingdom with his contemporary Karaindash, King of Babylonia. The same treaty was concluded again between his successor, Puzur-Asshur, and Burnaburiash I, King of Babylon. Puzur-Asshur was succeeded by Asshur-nadin-Ahhe, who is mentioned by his successor, Asshur-uballit, in one of his letters to Amenhotep IV, King of Egypt, as his father and predecessor. During most of the long reign of Asshur-uballit, the relations between Assyria and Babylonia continued friendly, but towards the end of that reign the first open conflict between the two sister-countries broke out. The cause of the conflict was as follows: Asshur-uballit, in sign of friendship, had given his daughter, Muballitat-sherua, for wife to the King of Babylonia. The son born of this royal union, Kadashman-Charbe by name, succeeded his father on the throne, but was soon slain by a certaln Nazi-bugash (or Suzigash), the head of the discontented Kassite party, who ascended the throne in his stead. To avenge the death of his grandson the aged and valiant monarch, Asshuruballit, invaded Babylonia, slew Nazi-bugash, and set the son of Kadashman-Charbe, who was still very young on the throne of Babylonia, as Kurigalzu II. However, towards the later part of his reign (c. 1380 B.C.), Kerizalu II became hostile to Assyria; in consequence of which, Belnirari, Assyhuruballit's successor on the throne of Assyria, made war against him and defeated him at the city of Sugagu, annexing the northern part of Babylonia to Assyria. Belnirari was succeeded by his son, Pudi-ilu (c. 1360 B.C.), who undertook several successful military expeditions to the east and southeast of Assyria and built various temples, and of whom we possess few, but important, inscriptions. His successor was Ramman-nirari, who not only strengthened the newly-

conquered territories of his two predecessors, but also made war and defeated Nazi-Maruttash, King of Babylonia, the successor of Kurigalzu II, adding a considerable Babylonian territory to the newly arisen, but powerful, Assyrian Empire. Towards the end of the fourteenth century B.C. (about 1330-1320 B.C.,) Ramman-nirari was succeeded by his son Shalmaneser I. During, or about the time of this ruler, the once powerful Egyptian supremacy over Syria and Mesopotamia, thanks to the brilliant military raids and resistance of the Hittites, a powerful horde of tribes in Northern Syria and Asia Minor, was successfully withstood and confined to the Nile Valley. With the Egyptian pressure thus removed from Mesopotamia, and the accession of Shalmaneser I, an ambitious and energetic monarch, to the throne of Assyria, the Assyrian empire began to extend its power westwards. Following the course of the Tigris, Shalmaneser I marched northwards and subjugated many northern tribes; then, turning westwards, invaded part of northeastern Syria and conquered the Arami, or Aramaeans, of Western Mesopotamia. From there he marched against the land of Musri, in Northern Arabia, adding a considerable territory to his empire. For strategic reasons he transferred the seat of his kingdom from the city of Asshur to that of Kalkhi (the Chale, or Calah, of Genesis) forty miles to the north, on the eastern bank of the Tigris, and eighteen miles south of Nineveh. Shalmaneser I was succeeded by his son Tukulti-Ninib (c. 1290 B.C.) whose records and inscriptions have been collected and edited by L.W. King of the British Museum. He was a valiant warrior and conqueror, for he not only preserved the integrity of the empire but also extended it towards the north and northwest. He invaded and conquered Babylonia, where he established the seat of his government for fully seven years, during which he became obnoxious to the Babylonians, who plotted and rebelled against him, proclaiming a certain

Ramman shur-usur king in his stead. The Assyrians themselves also became dissatisfied on account of his long absence from Assyria, and he was slain by his own nobles, who proclaimed his son, Asshur-nasir-pal, king in his stead. After the death of this prince, two kings, Asshur-narrara and Nabudayan by name, reigned over Assyria, of whom, however, we know nothing. Towards 1210-1200 B.C. we find Bel-Kudur-usur and his successor, Ninib-pal-Eshara, reigning over Assyria. These, however, were attacked and defeated by the Babylonians who thus regained possession of a considerable part of their former territory. The next Assyrian monarch was Asshur-dan, Ninib-pal-Eshara's son. He avenged his father's defeat by invading Babylonia and capturing the cities of Zaban, lrria, and Akarsallu. In 1150 B.C., Asshur-dan was succeeded by his son, Mutakkil-Nusku; in 1140 B.C., by the latter's son Asshur-resb-ishi, who subjugated the peoples of Ahlami, Lullumi, Kuti (or Guti) and other countries, and administered a crushing defeat to his rival and contemporary, Nabuchodonosor (Nebuchadnezzar) I, King of Babylonia. About 1120-1110 B.C. Asshur-resh-ishi was succeeded by his son, Tiglathpileser I, one of the greatest Assyrian monarchs, under whose reign of only ten years duration Assyria rose to the apex of its military success and glory. He has left us a very detailed and circumstantial account of his military achievements, written on four octagonal cylinders which he placed at the four corners of the temple built by him to the god Ramman. According to these, he undertook, in the first five years of his reign, several successful military expeditions against Mushku, against the Shubari, against the Hittites, and into the mountains, of Zagros, against the people of Nairi and twenty-three kings, who were chased by him as far north as Lake Van in Armenia; against the people of Musri in Northern Arabia, and against the Aramaens, or Syrians. "In all", he tells us, forty-two countries and their kings, from beyond the Lower Zab, from the border of the distant mountains as far as the farther side of the Euphrates, up to the land of Hatti [Hittites] and as far as the upper sea of the setting sun [i.e. Lake Van], from the beginning of my

sovereignty until my fifth year, has my hand conquered. I carried away their possessions, burned their cities with fire, demanded from their hostages tribute and contributions, and laid on them the heavy yoke of my rule." He crossed the Euprates several times, and even reached the Mediterranean, upon the waters of which he embarked. He also invaded Babylonia, inflicting a heavy blow on the Babylonian king, Marduk-nadin-ahhe and his army, and capturing several important cities, such as Dur-Kurigalzu, Sippar, Babylon, and Opis. He pushed his triumphal march even as far as EIam. Tiglath-pileser I was also a daring hunter, for in one of his campaigns, he tells us, he killed no fewer than one hundred and twenty lions on foot, and eight hundred with spears while in his chariot, caught elephants alive, and killed ten in his chariot. He kept at the city of Asshur a park of animals suitable for the chase. At Nineveh he had a botanical garden, in which he planted specimens of foreign trees gathered during his campaigns. He built also many temples, palaces, and canals. It may be of interest to add that his reign coincides with that of Heli (Eli), one of the ten judges who ruled over Israel prior to the establishment of the monarchy. At the time of Tiglath-pileser's death, Assyria was enjoying a period of tranquillity, which did not last, however, very long; for we find his two sons and successors, Asshur-bel-Kala and ShamshiRamman, seeking offensive and defensive alliances with the Kings of Babylonia. From about 1070 to 950 B.C., a gap of more than one hundred years presents itself in the history of Assyria. But from 950 B.C. down to the fall of Nineveh and the overthrow of the Assyrian Empire (606 B.C.) the history of Assyria is very completely represented in documents. Towards 950 B.C., Tiglath-pileser II was king over Assyria. In 930 B.C. he was succeeded by his son, Assuhrdan II, and about 910 B.C. by the latter's son, Ramman-nirari II, who, in 890, was succeeded by his son, Tukulti-Ninib II. Kings of Babylonia. The last two monarchs appear to have undertaken several successful expeditions against Babylonia and the regions north of Assyria. TukultiNinib's successor was his son Asshur-nasir-pal (885-860 B.C.), with whose

accession to the throne began a long career of victory that placed Assyria at the head of the great powers of that age. He was a great conqueror, soldier, organizer, hunter, builder and also very fierce. In his eleven military campaigns he invaded, subdued, and conquered, after a series of raids, all the regions north, south, east, and west of Assyria, from the mountains of Armenia down to Babylon, and from the mountains of Kurdistan and Lake Urmi (Urum-yah) to the Mediterranean. He crossed the Euphrates and the Orontes, penetrated into the Lebanon region, attacked Karkemish, the capital of the Hittites, invaded Syria, and compelled the cities of the Mediterranean coast (such as Tyre, Sidon, Bylos, and Armad) to pay tribute. Asshur-nasirpal was succeeded by his son, Shalmaneser II, who in the sixth year of his reign (854 B.C.) made an expedition to the West with the object of subduing Damascus. In this memorable campaign he came into direct touch with Israel and their king Achab (Ahab), who happened to be one of the allies of Benhadad, King of Damascus. The Old Testament is silent on the presence of Achab in the battle of Karkar, which took place in the same year in which Achab died fighting in the battle of Ramoth Galaad (III Kings, xxii). Eleven years after this event Jehu was proclaimed king over Israel, and one of his first acts was to pay tribute to Shalmaneser II. This incident is commemorated in the latter's well-known "black obelisk", in the British Museum, in which Jehu himself, "the son of Omri", is sculptured as paying tribute to the king. In another inscription the same king records the same fact, saying: At that time I received the tribute of the Tyrians, Sidonians, and Jehu the son of Omri". This act of homage took place in 842 B.C., in the eighteenth year of Shalmaneser's reign. After Shalmneser II came his son Shamshi-Ramman II (824 B.C.), who, in order to quell the rebellion caused by his elder son, Asshur-danin-pal, undertook four campaigns. He also fought and defeated the Babylonian King, Marduk-balatsuiqbi, and his powerful army. Shamshi-Ramman II was succeeded by his son, Ramman-nirari III (812 B.C.). This king undertook several expeditions against Media, Armenia, the land of Nairi, and the region around Lake Urmi, and subjugated all the coastlands of the West, including Tyre, Sidon, Edom, Philistia, and the "land of Omri", i.e. Israel. The chief object of this expedition was again to subdue Damascus which he did by compelling Mari', its king, to pay a heavy tribute in silver, gold, copper, and iron, besides quantities of cloth and furniture. Joachaz (Jehoahaz) was then

king over Israel, and he welcomed with open arms Ramman-nirari's advance, in as much as this monarch's conquest of Damascus relieved Israel from the heavy yoke of the Syrians. Ramman-nirari III also claimed sovereignty over Babylonia. His name is often given as that of Adad-nirari, and he reigned from 812 to 783 B.C. Ramman-ni-rari III was succeeded by Shalmaneser III (783-773 B.C.), and the latter by Asshurdan III (773-755 B.C.). Of these three kings we know little, as no adequate inscriptions of their reigns have come down to us. In the year 745 B.C. Tiglath-pileser III (in the Douay Version, Theglathphalasar) seized the throne of Assyria, at Nineveh. He is said to have begun life as gardener, to have distinguished himself as a soldier, and to have been elevated to the throne by the army. He was a most capable monarch, enterprising, energetic, wise, and daring. His military ability saved the Assyrian Empire from the utter ruin and decay which had begun to threaten its existence, and for this he is fitly spoken of as the founder of the Second Assyrian Empire. Tiglath-pileser's methods differed from those of his predecessors, who had been mere raiders and plunderers. He organized the empire and divided it into provinces, each of which had to pay a fixed tribute to the exchequer. He was thus able to extend Assyrian supremacy over almost all of Western Asia, from Armenia to Egypt, and from Persia to the Mediterranean. During his reign Assyria came into close contact with the Hebrews as is shown by his own inscriptions, as well as by the Old Testament records, where he is mentioned under the name of Phul (Pul). In the Assyrian inscriptions his name occurs only as that of Tiglath-pileser, but in the "List of Babylonian Kings" he is also called Pul, which settles his identity with the Phul, or Pul. of the Bible. He reigned for eighteen years (745-727 B.C.). In his annals he mentions the payment of tribute by several kings, among whom is "Menahem of Samaria", a fact confirmed by IV Kings, xv, 19. 20 Tiglath-pileser was the first Assyrian king to come into contact with Israel and was succeeded by his son Shalmaneser IV, who reigned for five years (727-722 B.C.). He was succeded by Sargon II. Sargon II, a man of commanding ability, was, notwithstanding his claim to royal ancestry, in all probability a usurper. He is one of the greatest figures in Assyrian history, and the founder of the famous Sargonid dynasty, which held sway in Assyria for more than a century, i.e. until the fall of Nineveh and

the overthrow of the Assyrian Empire. He himself reigned for seventeen years (722-705 B.C.) and proved a most successful warrior and organizer. In every battle he was victor, and in every difficulty a man of resource. He was also a great builder and patron of the arts. His greatest work was the building of Dur-Sharrukin, or the Castle of Sargon, the modern Khorsabad, which was thoroughly explored in 1844-55 by Botta, Flandin, and Place. It was a large city, situated about ten miles from Nineveh, and capable of accommodating 80, 000 in habitants. His palace there was a wonder of architecture, panelled in alabaster, adorned with sculpture, and inscribed with the records of his exploits. In the same year in which he ascended the throne, Samaria fell (722 B.C.), and the Kingdom of Israel was brought to an end. "In the beginning of my reign", he tells us in his annals, "and in the first year of my reign . . . Samaria I besieged and conquered . . . 27, 290 inhabitants I carried off . . . I restored it again and made it as before. People from all lands, my prisoners, I settled there. My officials I set over them as governors. Tribute and tax I laid on them, as on the Assyrians." Sargon's second campaign was against the Elamites, whom he subdued. From Elam he marched westward, laid Hamath in ruins, and afterwards utterly defeated the combined forces of the Philistines and the Egyptians, at Raphia. He made Hanum, King of Gaza, prisoner, and carried several thousand captives, with very rich booty, into Assyria. Two years later, he attacked Karkemish, the capital of the Hittites, and conquered it, capturing its king, officers, and treasures, and deporting them into Assyria. He then for fully six years harassed, and finally subdued, all the northern and northwestern tribes of Kurdistan of Armenia (Urartu, or Ararat), and of Cilicia: the Mannai, the Mushki, the Kummukhi, the Milidi, the Kammani, the Gamgumi, the Samali, and many others who lived in those wild and inaccessible regions. Soon after this he subdued several Arabian tribes and, afterwards, the Medians, with their forty-two chiefs, or princes.

During the first eleven years of the reign of Sargon II, Israel remained peacefully subject to Assyria, paying the stipulated annual tribute. In 711 B.C., however, Ezechias (Hezekiah), partly influenced by Merodach-baladan, of Babylonia, and partly by promises of help from Egypt, rebelled against the Assyrian monarch, and in this revolt he was heartly joined by the Phoenicians, the Philistines, the Moabites, and tbe Ammonites. Sargon II was ever quick to act; he collected a powerful army, marched against the rebels, and dealt them a crushing blow. The fact is recorded in Isaias, xx, 1, where the name of Sargon is expressly mentioned as that of the invader and conqueror. With Palestine and the West pacified and subdued, Sargon, ever energetic and prompt, turned his attention to Babylonia, where Merodach-baladan was currently ruling. The Babylonian army was easily routed and Merodach-balaclan himself abandoned Babylon and fled in terror to Beth-Yakin, his ancestral stronghold. Sargon entered Babylonia in triumph, and in the following year he pursued the fleeing king, stormed the city of Beth-Yakin, deported its people, and compelled all the Babylonias and Elamites, to pay him tribute, homage and obedience. In 705, in the flower of his age and at the zenith of his glory, Sargon was assassinated. He was succeeded by his son, Sennacherib. Sennacherib.http://www.gatewaystobabylon.com/introduction/overviewassyria

Corduene From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (Redirected from Carduchoi)

Կորճայք Province of Greater Armenia 189 BC–1th century AD

Capital History - Artaxias I declaring himself independent - Conqered by Seljuk Turks[1]

Pinik

189 BC

1th century AD

Map showing Corduene as part of Armenian Empire. This article is part of the Kurdish history and Culture series Ancient history Mitanni  Medes  Corduene  Kayusids

Medieval history Buyid Empire  Shahrazur  Sadakiyans  Mir Jafar Dasni  Aishanids  Daisam  Shaddadid  Rawadids  Hasanwayhid  Annazids  Marwanids  Kakuyids  Hadhabani  Hazaraspids  Ayyubids  Badlis  Ardalan  Badinan  Soran  Mukriyan

Baban

Modern history Simko Shikak  Kingdom of Kurdistan  Republic of Ararat  Republic of Mahabad  KRG  Iranian Kurdistan  Turkish Kurdistan  Kurds in Turkey  Kurds in Syria

Culture
 

Kurdish language Kurdish Literature  Kurdish Music  Kurdish Dance  Historical sites

Corduene (Armenian: Կորճայք, also known as Gorduene, Cordyene, Cardyene, Carduene, Gordyene, Gordyaea, Korduene, Korchayk, Gordian, Hebrew:[2]‫ ) קרטיגיני‬was an ancient region located in northern Mesopotamia and modern day Kurdish inhabited south east Turkey. It was a province of Greater Armenia. It was referred to by the Greeks as Karduchia and by both the Greeks and Romans as Corduene. Corduene's territory was 14,707 km2 (6,000 sq mi) and had 11 cantons:
 

Korduq (or Korduk) Kordiq Nerkin or Tmoriq  Kordiq Verin  Kordiq Mijin  Tshauk

Aitvanq Vorsirank (or Orsirank)  Aigarq  Motolanq  Kartuniq  Albag.[1]

Contents 1 History  2 Origins  3 Carduchoi in Xenophon  4 Corduene in Jewish Sources  5 Corduene in Roman Sources  6 Pompey and Corduene  7 Diocletian and Corduene  8 Shapur's campaign against Corduene  9 Corduene in the sixth and seventh centuries  10 List of kings  11 Corduene, Carduchi, and the Kurds 12 Timeline of the history of Corduene (Gordyene)  13 Notes  14 External links

History From 800s to 595 BC it was part of Urartu. From 595 BC it was part of Armenian Orontid Dynasty, which was soon conquered by Achaemenid Empire and was incorporated as the Satrapy of Armenia. After 331 BC it became independent. In 201 BC, two Armenian commanders of the army of the Seleucid Empire, Artaxias and Zareh liberated Armenia. From 189 BC, when Artaxias I declared himself a king, Corduene was part of Kingdom of Armenia until divided in 387. It was again reunited with Armenia, from IX-XI under the Vaspurakan Kingdom.

Corduene or Korjayk under Armenian control According to the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, Gordyene is the ancient name of the region of Bohtan (now Şırnak Province).[3] It is mentioned as Beth Qardu in Syriac sources and is described as a small vassal state between Armenia and Persia in the mountainous area south of Lake Van in modern Turkey[4] Corduene must also be sought on the left bank of the Tigris River. It has been cited as the country of the Carduchians, a fertile mountainous district, rich in pasturage.[5] The three principalities of Corduene, Moxoene, and Zabdicene are referred to as Carduchian dynasties by Toumanoff.[6] The Kingdom of Gordyene emerged from the declining Seleucid Empire and for most of its history, it was a province of the Roman Empire[7] and acknowledged the sovereignty of Rome.[8] From 189 to 90 BC it enjoyed a period of independence. The people of Gorduene were known to have worshipped the Hurrian sky God Teshub.[9]

Origins According to Arshak Safrastian, the Medes and Scythians mentioned in classical Greek literature existed only as preconceived notions. Equating the Carduchi with the Gutians, he adds that the moment the Ten Thousand began to skirt the lower slopes of the Hamrin Mountains, they were in contact with the tribes of Gutium which are presented here as Medes or Scythians.[10]

Carduchoi in Xenophon A people called the Carduchoi are mentioned in Xenophon's Anabasis. They inhabited the mountains north of the Tigris in 401 BC, living in well-provisioned villages. They were enemies to the king of Persia, as were the Greek mercenaries with Xenophon, but their response to thousands of armed and desperate strangers was hostile. They had no heavy troops who could face the battlehardened hoplites, but they used longbows and slings effectively, and for the Greeks the "seven days spent in traversing the country of the Carduchians had been one long continuous battle, which had cost them more suffering than the whole of their troubles at the hands of the king and Tissaphernes put together."[11] They have been also mentioned as Gordi by Hecataeus of Miletus ca 520 BC.

Corduene in Jewish Sources Targum, a Jewish source of Talmudic period, consistently understands Ararat to be located in Gorduene and not in Armenia.[12] This region is usually identified with the landing site in Deluge mythology. According to Aggadah, Noah landed in Korduene in Armenia. Berossus was also of the opinion that Xisthros landed with his ship in Korduene.[13] Josephus cited the evidence of Berossus as proof that the Flood was not a myth and also mentioned that the remains of the Ark were still visible in the district of Carron, persumably identical with Korduene.[14] In Nashim, the third order of Talmud, Rav Nahman bar Jacob has allowed proselytization of Kurds from Corduene.[15] This points to the existence of Jewish converts among the population of Corduene in the early 4th century.

Corduene in Roman Sources

Castle of Pinaca (or Finik), northwest of Cizre According to the Roman historian Strabo, the region of Gorduene (Γορδυηνῆ, or Γoρδυαῖα ὄρη, "Gordyaean Mts") referred to the mountains between Diyarbakir and Mush.[16][17] He recorded its main cities as Sareisa, Satalca and Pinaca (northwest of Bezabde), and considered its inhabitants (Gordyaeans) as descendants of the ancient Carduchians. According to him, the inhabitants had an exceptional repute as master-builders and as experts in the construction of siege engines and for this reason Tigranes used them in such work; he also notices the country for its naphtha resources.[18] Ammianus Marcellinus visited this region while on a diplomatic visit to the satrap of Corduene.[19] Eretrians who were exiled and deported by the Persians to Mesopotamia, were said to have taken up their dwelling in the region of Gordyene.[20] According to Strabo the Gordyaeans received their name from Gordys son of Triptolemus, who assisted in searching after Io, and then settled in Gordyaea district of Phrygia.[21]

Pompey and Corduene

Castle of Pinaca (or Finik), northwest of Cizre Both Phraates III and Tigranes the Great laid claim to this province. However, it was conquered by the Roman troops under Pompey. The local population (called Gordyeni) did not defend the Armenian rule since according to Plutarch, Tigranes had demolished their native cities and had forced them into exile in Tigranocerta.[22] In 69 BC, Zarbienus, the king of Corduene, was secretly planning for a revolt against Tigranes. He was negotiating with Appius Claudius for Roman help. However the plan was revealed and he was killed by Tigranes. After this, Lucullus raised a monument to Zarbienus and then he took over the region of Corduene.[23] He took part in the funeral of Zarbienus, offered royal robes, gold and the spoils (taken from Tigranes), and called him his companion and confederate of the Romans.[24] After Pompey's success in subjugating Armenia and part of Pontus, and the Roman advance across the Euphrates, Phraates was anxious to have a truce with the Romans. However, Pompey held him in contempt and demanded back the territory of Corduene. He sent envoys, but after receiving no answer, he sent Afranius into the territory and occupied it without a battle. The Parthians who were found in possession were driven beyond the frontier and pursued even as far as Arbela in Adiabene.[25] According to an inscription dedicated to the temple

of Venus, Pompey gave protection to the newly acquired territory of Gordyene.[26]

Diocletian and Corduene Corduene was conquered again by Diocletian in the 3rd century and the Roman presence in the region was formally recognized in a peace treaty signed between Diocletian and the Persians. Diocletian then raised an army unit from this region under the title Ala XV Flavia Carduenorum, naming it after his Caesar Flavius Valerius Constantinus.[27] Following the defeat of Narseh, the Sassanid King, at the hands of the Romans in 296, a peace treaty was signed between the two sides, according to which the steppes of northern Mesopotamia, with Singara and the hill country on the left bank of the Tigris as far as Gordyene (Corduene), were also ceded to the victors (Romans).[28] The name of the province appears again in the account of the campaign between the Persians led by Shapur II and the Romans led by Julian the Apostate (and after Julian's death, by Jovian). The Romans started to retreat through Corduene after they could not besiege Ctesiphon.[29]

Shapur's campaign against Corduene

Korduene in northern and northeastern Mesopotamia; map from the Encyclopaedia Biblica

In the spring of 360, Shapur II staged a campaign to capture the city of Singara (probably modern Shingar or Sinjar northwest of Mosul). The town fell after a few days of siege. From Singara, Shapur directed his march almost due northwards, and leaving Nisibis unassailed upon his left, proceeded to attack the strong fort known indifferently as Pinaca (Phaenicha) or Bezabde. This was a position on the east bank of the Tigris, near the point where that river quits the mountains and debouches upon the plain; though not on the site, it may be considered the representative of the modern Jezireh (Cizre in southeastern Turkey), which commands the passes from the low country into the Kurdish mountains. It was much valued by Rome, was fortified in places with a double wall, and was guarded by three legions and a large body of Kurdish archers. Shapur sent a flag of truce to demand a surrender, joining with the messengers some prisoners of high rank taken at Singara, lest the enemy should open fire upon his envoys. The device was successful; but the garrison proved staunch, and determined on resisting to the last. After a long siege, the wall was at last breached, the city taken, and its defenders indiscriminately massacred.[30] In 363, a treaty was signed in which Jovian ceded five provinces beyond the Euphrates including Corduene and Arzanene and towns of Nisibis and Singara to the Sassanids. Following this treaty, Greeks living in those lands emigrated due to persecution of Christians at the hands of Shapur and the Zoroastrians.[31] Corduene was a bishop's see since at least 424.[32]

Corduene in the sixth and seventh centuries In 578, the Byzantine emperor Flavius Mauricius Tiberius Augustus defeated the Sassanid army led by Chosroes I, and conquered Carduene and incorporated it once again in the Roman empire. The Roman army also liberated 10,000 Christian captives of the Sassanids.[33] According to Khwarizmi, Arabs conquered the area along with Nisbis and Tur Abdin in 640.[34]

List of kings Zarbienus; early-mid 1st c. BC: A famous king of Cordyene, made overtures to Appius Claudius, when the latter was staying at Antiocheia, wishing to shake off the yoke of Tigranes. He was informed against,

however, and was assassinated with his wife and children before the Romans entered Armenia. When Lucullus arrived he celebrated his funeral rites with great pomp, setting fire to the funeral pile with his own hand, and had a sumptuous monument erected to him.

King Manisarus; ~ 115 AD He took control over parts of Armenia and Mesopotamia, in the time of Trajan; therefor Osroes, the Parthian king, declared war against him; Manisarus sided with Romans. There are some coins extant, which are assigned to Manisarus.  Ardashir; ~ 340s AD He was against christianization of Corduene.[35]  Jovinian ~ 359 AD [36]

Corduene, Carduchi, and the Kurds

Map showing kingdoms of Corduene and Adiabene in the first centuries BC. The blue line shows the expedition and then retreat of the ten thousand through Corduene in 401 BC. Some 19th-century scholars, such as George Rawlinson, identified Corduene and Carduchi with the modern Kurds, suggesting that Carduchi was the ancient lexical equivalent of "Kurdistan".[37][38][39] Some recent academic sources disagree, suggesting that Corduene should be described as proto-Kurdish.[40] There were numerous forms of this name, partly due to the difficulty of representing kh in Latin. The spelling Karduchoi is itself probably borrowed from Armenian, since the termination -choi represents the Armenian language plural suffix -kh.[41] It is speculated that Carduchi spoke an Old Iranic language[42]

Timeline of the history of Corduene (Gordyene) To Urartu 800s-595 BC  To Satrapy of Armenia 595-201 BC  To the Seleucid Empire 201-189 BC To Kingdom of Armenia (antiquity) 189 BC-428 AD [1]  To Persia 428-653  To Arab Caliphate 653-885  To Vaspurakan Kingdom 885-1021  To Byzantine Empire 1021-1071  To Seljuk Turks 1071-XIII  To Mongol Empire XIII-XV  To the Ottoman Empire XV-1923  To Turkey 1923

Notes ^ a b c Armenian Soviet Encyclopedia, 5th volume, pages 658-659 2. ^ Efraim Elimelech Urbach, I. Abrahams, The Sages, 1089 pp., Magnes Press, 1979, ISBN 965-223-319-6, p.552 3. ^ DARIUS III - DARIUS III, from 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica. 4. ^ Parthian City Index 5. ^ Persia - LoveToKnow 1911 6. ^ C. Toumanoff, Introduction to Christian Caucasian History II: Status and Dynasties of the Formative Period, Traditio, Vol. XVII, pp.1-107, 1961, Frodham University Press, New York. (see pp.31-32) 7. ^ Theodor Mommsen History of Rome - The Establishment of the Military Monarchy Page 24 8. ^ The History of the Decline and Fall of The Roman Empire - Vol 2 Chapter XXIV Part IV 9. ^ Olaf A. Toffteen, Notes on Assyrian and Babylonian Geography, The American Journal of Semitic Languages and Literatures, pp.323-357, 1907, p.341 10. ^ A. Safrastian, Kurds and Kurdistan, The Harvill Press, 1948, p. 29 11. ^ Anabasis by Xenophon, book 4 12. ^ Jacob Neusner, The Jews in Pagan Armenia, Journal of the American Oriental Society, pp.230-240, 1964, p.233 1.

^ Bernhard Heller, Ginzberg's Legends of the Jews, The Jewish Quarterly Review, pp.51-66, Center for Advanced Judaic Studies, University of Pennsylvania, 1933, p.57 14. ^ Louis H. Feldman, Josephus' Portrait of Noah and Its Parallels in Philo, Pseudo-Philo's Biblical Antiquities and Rabbinic Midrashim, Proceedings of the American Academy for Jewish Research, pp.31-57, 1988, p.47 15. ^ Heinrich Walter Guggenheimer, The Jerusalem Talmud, Halakhah 6, 2004, ISBN 3-11-018291-2 ,pp.62-63 16. ^ Strabon Book 11 17. ^ Kurds & Kurdistan, Encyclopaedia of Islam. 18. ^ LacusCurtius • Strabo's Geography — Book XVI Chapter 1 19. ^ Ronald Syrme, Anatolica: Studies in Strabo, Oxford University Press, 1995, ISBN 0-19-814943-3, p.30 20. ^ Strabo, Geography, Book XVI, Chapter 1, p.233-235 [1] 21. ^ GORDYS, Greek Mythology Index 22. ^ The Life of Lucullus, in The Parallel Lives by Plutarch. 23. ^ T. Frank, Two Suggestions on the Text of Cicero, The American Journal of Philology, pp.459-461, 1937. 24. ^ Lives, Chapter 36, Plutarch. 25. ^ Cassius Dio — Book 37 26. ^ G. Gilbert, The List of Names in Acts 2: Roman Propaganda and the Lukan Response, Journal of Biblical Literature, Vol.121, No.3, Autumn 2002, p.514. 27. ^ E.C. Nischer, The Army Reforms of Diocletian and Constantine and Their Modifications up to the Time of the Notitia Dignitatum, The Journal of Roman Studies, pp.1-55, 1923. (see p.10) 28. ^ Narses - Britannica Online Encyclopedia 29. ^ Structure of the Res Gestae - The Ammianus Marcellinus Online Project 30. ^ The Seven Great Monarchies, by George Rawlinson, The Seventh Monarchy, Part A 31. ^ J. B. Bury, History of the Later Roman Empire from Arcadius to Irene (395 A.D. -800 A.D.), Adamant Media Corp., 2005, ISBN 1-4021-8369-0, p.304 32. ^ The Acts of Mar Mari the Apostle, page 15, Amir Harrak, Published 2005 BRILL, 110 pages, ISBN 90-04-13050-0 33. ^ George Frederick Young,East and West through fifteen centuries : being a general history from B.C. 44 to A.D. 1453, Vol.II, 674 pp., Longman, Green and Co. Publishers, 1916, p.336

13.

34. ^ A. N. Palmer, Monk and Mason on the Tigris Frontier: The Early History of Tur Abdin, Cambridge University Press, 1990, ISBN 0-521-360269, p.158 35. ^ History of the Syrian Nation and the Old Evangelical-Apostolic Church of the East, page: 128, George David Malech, Published 2006, Gorgias Press LLC, 484 pages, ISBN 1-59333-408-7 36. ^ The Later Roman Empire: AD 354-378, Ammianus Marcellinus, Translated by Walter Hamilton, page 155, Contributor Andrew WallaceHadrill, Published 1986, Penguin Classics, ISBN 0-14-044406-8 37. ^ Rawlinson, George, The Seven Great Monarchies Of The Ancient Eastern World, Vol 7, 1871. (copy at Project Gutenberg) 38. ^ Orbis Latinus, University of Columbia. 39. ^ Kurds. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-07 40. ^ Revue des études arméniennes, vol.21, 1988-1989, p.281, By Société des études armeniennes, Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian, Published by Imprimerie nationale, P. Geuthner, 1989. 41. ^ M.Th. Houtsma, E.J. Brill's first encyclopaedia of Islam, 1913-1936, ISBN 90-04-08265-4, see p.1133 42. ^ [2] ref>M. Chahin, Before the Greeks, p. 109, James Clarke & Co., 1996, ISBN 0-7188-2950-6

External links

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Corduene or Gordyene, Classical Dictionary of Biography, Mythology and Geography.  Geography, Strabo, Book XVI, Chapter 1, Section 24. Kurds and Kurdistan, see section iii History, subsection A Origins and PreIslamic History, Encyclopaedia of Islam.  Map of Corduene  Map of Gordyene between Assyria and Lake Van Theodor Mommsen History of Rome, The Establishment of the Military Monarchy, Page 53  Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire  Roman History, by Cassius Dio, Book XXX The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, Vol. 2, Chapter XXIV, Part IV, The Retreat and Death of Julian], by Edward Gibbon. History of Rome, The Establishment of the Military Monarchy, by Theodor Mommsen, page 24.

History of the Later Roman Empire, by J. B. Bury, Chapter IV. The Seven Great Monarchies Of The Ancient Eastern World, Vol 7: The Sassanian or New Persian Empire, 1871, by George Rawlinson.

Ancient Family Descent of Kimberly (Im – Hotep, Karlyle – Amen Hotep II –K*) Kardashian Kartozyan – Cartozian http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Armenian_nobility#Princely_families_of_ancien t_Great_Armenia Asshur Asher Karashian Karduniyas – Kardunyash Kardashian

Kings of Assyria

In the Middle Bronze Age Assyria was a region on the Upper Tigris river, named for its original capital, the ancient city of Assur. Later, as a nation and empire that came to control all of the Fertile Crescent, Egypt and much of Anatolia, the term "Assyria proper" referred to roughly the northern half of Mesopotamia (the southern half being Babylonia), with Nineveh as its capital. The Assyrian kings controlled a large kingdom at three different times in history. These are called the Old (2000 to 1500 BC), Middle (1500 to 1000 BC), and NeoAssyrian (911–612 BC) kingdoms, or periods, of which the last is the most well known and best documented. The Assyrian homeland was located near a

mountainous region, extending along the Tigris as far as the high Gordiaean or Carduchian mountain range of Armenia, sometimes known as the "Mountains of Ashur". Assyrians invented excavation to undermine city walls, battering rams to knock down walls and gates, concept of a corps of engineers, who bridged rivers with pontoons or provided soldiers with inflatable skins for swimming. The most neolithic site in Assyria is at Tell Hassuna, the center of the Hassuna culture. Of the early history of the kingdom of Assyria, little is positively known. According to some Judeo-Christian traditions, the city of Ashur (also spelled Assur or Aššur) was founded by Ashur the son of Shem, who was deified by later generations as the city's patron god. The upper Tigris River valley seems to have been ruled by Sumer, Akkad, and northern Babylonia in its earliest stages; once a part of Sargon the Great's empire, it was destroyed by barbarians in the Gutian period, then rebuilt, and ended up being governed as part of the Empire of the 3rd dynasty of Ur. Assyrian art preserved to the present day predominantly dates to the NeoAssyrian period. Art depicting battle scenes, and occasionally the impaling of whole villages in gory detail, was intended to show the power of the emperor, and was generally made for propaganda purposes. These stone reliefs lined the walls in the royal palaces where foreigners were received by the king. Other stone reliefs depict the king with different deities and conducting religious ceremonies. A lot of stone reliefs were discovered in the royal palaces at Nimrud (Kalhu) and Khorsabad (Dur-Sharrukin). A rare discovery of metal plates belonging to wooden doors was made at Balawat (Imgur-Enlil). Assyrian sculpture reached a high level of refinement in the Neo-Assyrian period. One prominent example is the winged bull Lamassu, or shedu that guard the entrances to the king's court. These were apotropaic meaning they were intended to ward off evil. C. W. Ceram states in The March of Archaeology that Lamassi were typically sculpted with five legs so that four legs were always visible, whether the image were viewed frontally or in profile. The dates for the early Assyrian period are unknown. While the list is in the right order, the specific years reigned by the kings are not certain. Listed in reverse order by the Assyrian King List. Old Assyrian Period

King name Erishum I Ikunum Sargon I Puzur-Ashur II Naram-Suen Erishum II Shamshi-Adad I Ishme-Dagan I Mut-Ashkur Rimush Asinum Seven Usurpers Assurdugul  Assurapla-idi  Nasir-Sin  Sin-namir  Ibqi-Ishtar  Adadsalulu

Conventional dates 1906 - 1867 (1862 – Erp) BC 1867 (1862) - 1860 BC 1860 - 1850 BC 1850 - 1830 BC 1830 - 1815 BC 1815 - 1809 BC 1809 - 1781 BC overthrew Erishum II 1780 - 1741 BC 1730 - 1720 BC 1720 - 1710 BC 1710 - 1706 BC 1706-1700 BC

Adasi 1700 - 1691 BC 1690 - 1674 BC 1673 - 1662 BC 1661 - 1650 BC 1649 - 1622 BC 1621 - 1618 BC 1615 - 1602 BC 1601 - 1598 BC 1598 - 1586 BC 1567 - 1561 BC 1561 - 1545 BC 1545 - 1529 BC 1529 - 1503 BC 1503 - 1479 BC 1479 - 1466 BC 1466 - 1454 BC 1454 BC

Belu-bani Libaia Sharma-Adad I Iptar-Sin Bazaia Lullaia Shu-Ninua Sharma-Adad II Erishum III Shamshi-Adad II Ishme-Dagan II Shamshi-Adad III Ashur-nirari I Puzur-Ashur III Enlil-nasir I Nur-ili Ashur-shaduni

Ashur-rabi I Ashur-nadinahhe I Enlil-nasir II Ashur-nirari II Ashur-belnisheshu Ashur-rimnisheshu Ashur-nadinahhe II

1453 - 1435 BC son of Enlil-nasir I 1435 - 1420 BC 1420 - 1414 BC 1414 - 1407 BC son of Enlil-nasir II 1407 - 1398 BC son of Ashur-nirari II

1398 - 1390 BC son of Ashur-bel-nisheshu

1390 - 1380 BC Middle Assyrian Period

Eriba-Adad I Ashur-uballit I Enlil-nirari Arik-den-ili Adad-nirari I Shalmaneser I Tukulti-Ninurta I

1380 - 1353 BC 1365 – 1330 BC - Amarna Tablets - contemporary of Akhenaten and Suppiluliumas I of the Hittite 1329 – 1320 BC 1319 – 1308 BC 1307 – 1275 BC 1274 – 1245 BC 1244 – 1208 BC

Ashur-nadinapli Ashur-nirari III Enlil-kudurriusur Ninurta-apalEkur

1207 – 1204 BC 1203 – 1198 BC 1197 – 1193 BC

1192 – 1180 BC

* Dates as appearing in A. Kuhrt, The Ancient Near East volume I, 2006, p. 351 Middle Assyrian Period Ashur-Dan I Ninurta-tukultiAshur Mutakkil-nusku Ashur-resh-ishi I Tiglath-Pileser I Asharid-apalEkur Ashur-bel-kala Eriba-Adad II Shamshi-Adad IV 1179 - 1133 BC 1133 BC 1133 BC 1133 - 1115 BC 1115 - 1076 BC 1076 - 1074 BC 1074 - 1056 BC 1056 - 1054 BC 1054 - 1050 BC

Ashur-nasir-pal I Shalmaneser II Ashur-nirari IV Ashur-rabi II Ashur-resh-ishi II Tiglath-Pileser II Ashur-Dan II

1050 - 1031 BC 1031 - 1019 BC 1019 - 1013 BC 1013 - 972 BC 972 - 967 BC 967 - 935 BC 935 - 912 BC Neo-Assyrian Period

Adad-nirari II Tukulti-Ninurta II Ashur-nasir-pal II Shalmaneser III Shamshi-Adad V

912 - 891 BC - contemporary of Tudhaliya IV (Hittite King) thorough the Battle of Nihriya 891 - 884 BC

884 - 859 BC 859 - 824 BC 822 - 811 BC Shammu-ramat, regent, 811 - 808 BC

Adad-nirari III Shalmaneser IV

811 - 783 BC 783 - 773 BC

Ashur-Dan III Ashur-nirari V Tiglath-Pileser III Shalmaneser V

773 - 755 BC 755 - 745 BC 745 - 727 BC 727 - 709 BC

End of the document known as Assyrian King List; the following kings reigned after the list had been composed. Sargon II Sennacherib Esarhaddon 722 - 705 BC (Co-regency with Shalmaneser V from 722 - 709 BC) 705 - 681 BC 681 - 669 BC The dates of the last kings are not certain Ashurbanipal Ashur-etil-ilani Sin-shumu-lishir Sin-shar-ishkun 669 - between 631 BC and 627 BC c.631 BC - 627 BC 626 BC c.627 - 612 BC

In 612 BC, Nineveh, the Assyrian capital, fell to the Medes and Babylonians; supported by the Egyptians, an Assyrian general continued to rule for a few years from Harran. Ashur-uballit II 612 - c.609 BC

Time-lines for contemporary Civilizations

Babylonians and Assyrians During the period when they were competing for dominance in Mesopotamia, the neighbouring sister-states of Babylonia and Assyria differed essentially in character. Babylonia was a land of merchants and agriculturists; Assyria became an organized military camp. The Assyrian dynasties were founded by successful generals; in Babylonia it was the priests whom a revolution raised to the throne. The Babylonian king remained a priest to the last, under the control of a powerful hierarchy; the Assyrian king was the autocratic general of an army, at whose side stood in early days a feudal nobility, aided from the reign of Tiglath-Pileser III onwards by an elaborate bureaucracy. His palace was more sumptuous than the temples of the gods, from which it was quite separate. The people were soldiers and little else; even the sailor belonged to the state. Hence the sudden collapse of Assyria when drained of its fighting population in the age of Ashurbanipal (ruled 669 to between 631 and 627 BC).

Assur and Babylon The chronology of Babylon and Assur can be aligned by the list of wars and treaties between the two cities from the time of king Ashurbanipal. Hittite chronology is dependent on Assyria and Egypt. For times earlier than 1500 BC, various systems based on the Venus tablets of Ammisaduqa have been proposed. The death of Shamshi-Adad I of Assur in the 17th year of the reign of Hammurabi (1712 BC) is another synchronism which is helpful. The Palace at Acemhöyük burned to the ground, allowing for Dendochronological dating of the seal impression of Shamshi-Adad I found in the ruins. While the stratigraphy of the connection between the burnt beams and the seal impression is not 100% clear, it does support the short chronology.

The entries of the Synchronistic Chronicle, mentioned above, record which Assyrian king was ruling during which Babylonian king's reign, and vice versa. Mesopotamia and Egypt It is possible that mutual influences existed between the Nile Valley and Mesopotamia since very early times. Some authorities believed that Mesopotamian influence affected predynastic Upper Egypt (also known as the Mesopotamian Stimulation) between 3400–3100 BC. As of this date, the evidence is not conclusive. On the other hand Iron age Hama (Hamath) shows strong Egyptian influence. The Amarna letters provide the earliest known synchronisms between ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia. They provide clear evidence that the New Kingdom kings Amenhotep III and Akhenaten were contemporaries of Kadashman-Enlil I and Burnaburiash II of Babylon, Ashur-uballit I of Assyria, and Suppiluliumas I of the Hittite empire.

Other synchronisms between Mesopotamia and Egypt are indirect, depending on synchronisms between Egypt and the Hittite empire. For example, because Ramesses II signed a peace treaty with Hattusili III in Ramesses' 21st regnal year, and letters from Hattusili III to KadashmanTurgu and Adad-nirari I of Assyria exist, one can argue that the reign of Ramesses overlapped the reigns of Kadashman-Turgu and Adad-nirari I. Direct synchronisms between Egypt and Assyria return in the Third Intermediate Period of Egypt (Dynasty 25), when Assyrian armies attacked and conquered Egypt.

Mesopotamia and the Hittite Empire

The sack of Babylon by the Hittite King Mursilis I, which ended the reign of Samsu-Ditana, provides an anchor for the earliest dates in Hittite history. The Battle of Nihriya links Tudhaliya IV and Adad-nirari I as contemporaries. The correspondence of the Hittite kings Hattusili III and Tudhaliya IV with the Assyrian chancellor Babu-ahu-iddina conclusively proves that they were the contemporaries of Adad-nirari I, Shalmaneser I and Tukulti-Ninurta I, not their later namesakes.

City of Ur Ur was an ancient city in southern Mesopotamia, located near the mouth (at the time) of the Euphrates and Tigris rivers on the Persian Gulf and close to Eridu. It is considered to be one of the earliest known civilizations in world history. Because of marine regression, the remains are now well inland in present-day Iraq, south of the Euphrates on its right bank, and named Tell el-Mukayyar, near the city of Nasiriyah south of Baghdad. The site is marked by the ruins of a ziggurat, still largely intact, and by a settlement mound. The ziggurat is a temple of Nanna, the moon deity in Sumerian mythology, and has two stages constructed from brick: in the lower stage the bricks are joined together with bitumen, in the upper stage they are joined with mortar. The Sumerian name for this city was Urim. Ur was inhabited in the earliest stage of village settlement in southern Mesopotamia, the Ubaid period. However, it later appears to have been abandoned for a time. Scholars believe that, as the climate changed from relatively moist to drought in the early 3rd millennium BC, the small farming villages of the Ubaid culture consolidated into larger settlements, arising from the need for large-scale, centralized irrigation works to survive the dry spell. Ur became one such centre, and by around 2600 BC, in the Sumerian Early Dynastic Period III, the city was again thriving. Ur by this time was considered sacred to Nanna. The location of Ur was favourable for trade, by both sea and land routes, into Arabia. Many elaborate tombs, including that of Queen Puabi, were constructed. In this cemetery were also found artifacts bearing the names of kings

Meskalamdug and Akalamdug. Eventually, the kings of Ur became the effective rulers of Sumer, in the first dynasty of Ur established by the king Mesannepada (or Mesanepada, Mes-Anni-Padda), who is on the king-list and is named as a son of Meskalamdug on one artefact. The first dynasty was ended by an attack of Sargon of Akkad around 2340 BC. Not much is known about the following second dynasty, when the city was in eclipse. The third dynasty was established when the king Ur-Nammu (or Urnammu) came to power, ruling between c.2112-2094 BC. During his rule, temples, including the ziggurat, were built, and agriculture was improved through irrigation. His code of laws, the Code of Ur-Nammu (a fragment was identified in Istanbul in 1952) is one of the oldest such documents known, preceding the code of Hammurabi by 300 years. He and his successor Shulgi were both deified during their reigns, and after his death, he continued as a hero-figure: one of the surviving works of Sumerian literature describes the death of Ur-Nammu and his journey to the underworld. According to one estimate, Ur was the largest city in the world from c. 2030 to 1980 BC. Its population was approximately 65,000. The third dynasty fell around 1950 BC to the Elamites; the Lament for Ur commemorates this event. Later, Babylon captured the city. In the 6th century BC there was new construction in Ur under the rule of Nebuchadnezzar II of Babylon. The last Babylonian king, Nabonidus, improved the ziggurat. However the city started to decline from around 550 BC and was no longer inhabited after about 500 BC, perhaps owing to drought, changing river patterns, and the silting of the outlet to the Persian Gulf.

Archaeology Ziggurat and the Ruins of Ur, Southern Iraq. In the mid-17th century BC, the site was visited by Pietro della Valle, who recorded the presence of ancient bricks stamped with strange symbols, cemented together with bitumen, as well as inscribed pieces of black marble that appeared to be seals. The first excavation was made by British consul J. E. Taylor, who partly uncovered the ziggurat. Clay cylinders found in the four corners of the top stage of the ziggurat bore an inscription of Nabonidus (Nabuna`id), the last king of

Babylon (539 BC), closing with a prayer for his son Belshar-uzur (Bel-ŝarraUzur), the Belshazzar of the Book of Daniel. Evidence was found of prior restorations of the ziggurat by Ishme-Dagan of Isin and Gimil-Sin of Ur, and by Kuri-galzu, a Kassite king of Babylon in the 14th century BC. Nebuchadnezzar also claims to have rebuilt the temple. Taylor further excavated an interesting Babylonian building, not far from the temple, part of an ancient Babylonian necropolis. All about the city he found abundant remains of burials of later periods. Apparently, in later times, owing to its sanctity, Ur became a favourite place of sepulchres, so that even after it had ceased to be inhabited, it continued to be used as a necropolis. After Taylor's time the site was visited by numerous travellers, almost all of whom have found ancient Babylonian remains, inscribed stones and the like, lying upon the surface. The site was considered rich in remains, and relatively easy to explore. Excavations from 1922 to 1934 were funded by the British Museum and the University of Pennsylvania and led by Sir Charles Leonard Woolley. A total of about 1,850 burials were uncovered, including 16 that were described as "royal tombs" containing many valuable artifacts, including the Standard of Ur. Most of the royal tombs were dated to about 2600 BC. The finds included the un-looted tomb of a queen thought to be Queen Puabi – the name is known from a cylinder seal found in the tomb, although there were two other different and unnamed seals found in the tomb. Many other people had been buried with her, in a form of human sacrifice. Near the ziggurat were uncovered the temple E-nun-mah and buildings E-dub-lal-mah (built for a king), E-gi-par (residence of the high priestess) and E-hur-sag (a temple building). Outside the temple area, many houses used in everyday life were found. Excavations were also made below the royal tombs layer: a 3.5 meters thick layer of alluvial clay covered the remains of earlier habitation, including pottery from the Ubaid period, the first stage of settlement in southern Mesopotamia. Woolley later wrote many articles and books about the discoveries. Most of the treasures excavated at Ur are in the British Museum and the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology. Archaeological names of periods of habitation include: Ubaid period Sumerian Early Dynastic period III Ur-III, c. 2100 BC–2000 BC

Source: Wikipedia Kadashman-Enlil I From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (Redirected from Kadashman-Enlil) Kadašman-Enlil I King of Babylon

Seal bearing seven-line Sumerian inscription mentioning a [Ka]dašman-[( )]Enlil in the Walters Art Museum.[i 1] Reign Predecessor Successor Royal House 1374 BC-1360 BC Kurigalzu I Burna-Buriaš II Kassite

Wikisource has original text related to this article: Kadashman-Enlil I Kadašman-Enlil I, typically rendered mka-dáš-man-dEN.LÍL in contemporary inscriptions (with the archaic masculine determinative preceding his name), was a Kassite King of Babylon from ca. 1374 BC to 1360 BC (short chronology), perhaps the 18th of the dynasty.[1] He is known to have been a contemporary of Amenhotep III of Egypt, with whom he corresponded. This places Kadašman-

Enlil securely to the first half of the 14th century BC by most standard chronologies. Contents

1 Correspondence with Egypt  2 Building works  3 Length of reign  4 Inscriptions  5 References

Correspondence with Egypt Five cuneiform tablets are preserved in the Amarna letters corpus. The letters designated EA (for El Amarna) 1 through 5 include three letters authored by Kadašman-Enlil and two by Amenhotep III, who is addressed as and calls himself Nibmuareya, or variants thereof. In the first letter from Amenhotep III, EA 1,[i 2] he writes to assure KadašmanEnlil that his sister, the daughter of Kurigalzu I has not in fact died, or been banished to a distant harem as a minor concubine, and to acknowledge the offer of one of Kadašman-Enlil‘s daughters as yet another wife. He suggests Kadašman-Enlil dispatch a kamiru, tentatively translated as eunuch, to identify his sister rather than the pair of envoys actually sent, on whom Amenhotep casts aspersions, describing one as a donkey-herder. The text is not entirely legible at this point and the unfortunate envoy may actually be referred to as a caravan leader and his companion a merchant, thus these ―nobodies‖ are merely common tradesmen unfamiliar with the members of the royal household and thus unable to recognize Kadašman-Enlil‘s sister.[2] In EA 2[i 3] he declares ―my daughters are available (for marriage).‖ In EA 3,[i 4] Kadašman-Enlil feigns offence about being overlooked for an invite to the isinnu festival. Disarmingly, however, he invites his ―brother‖ to his own inauguration. ‗Now I am going to have a grand opening for the palace. Come yourself to eat and drink with me. I shall not do as you did!‖[3]

In another of his letters, EA 4,[i 5] Kadašman-Enlil complains to Amenhotep III about not being given one of his daughters as a wife, quoting Amenhotep‘s earlier response that ―since earliest times no daughter of the king of Egypt has ever been given in marriage [to anyone]‖,.[4] He urges that if he could not receive a princess, then a beautiful woman should be sent, but immediately follows up by proposing to exchange of one of his own daughters for gold, needed to fund a building project he had in mind. In EA 5,[i 6] Amenhotep writes to detail the long list of gifts that will be provided in exchange for Kadašman-Enlil‘s daughter, and the deal is sealed.

Building works Difficulties are encountered distinguishing between inscriptions belonging to Kadašman-Enlil I and his descendent Kadašman-Enlil II, who ruled around one hundred years later. Historians disagree on whether building inscriptions at Isin, for the Egalmaḫ of Gula, or in Larsa, on bricks bearing a sixteen-line inscription of the restoration of the Ebabbar temple for Šamaš,[i 7] should be assigned to the earlier King. The inscriptions from Nippur which include stamped bricks from the east stairway of the ziggurat and elsewhere describing work on the Ekur, the ―House of the Mountain‖ of Enlil, four inscribed slab fragments of red-veined alabaster,[i 8] a five-line agate cameo votive fragment,[i 9] an engraved stone door socket, [i 10] and so on, could be assigned in part to either King.[1][5]

Length of reign An economic tablet[i 11] from Nippur is dated ―15th year (of) Kadašman-Enlil, month of Tašrītu, 18th day‖, and is ascribed to him, rather than his descendent name-sake, because of the more archaic use of the masculine personal determinative before the royal name and the likelihood that the later king reigned for no more than nine years.[1] Another one refers to the 1st year of BurraBuriaš and the 15th of the preceding king, presumed to be Kadašman-Enlil.[1] His successor was his son, ascertained from an inscription on an irregular block of lapis lazuli[i 12] found in Nippur and now housed in the İstanbul Arkeoloji Műzeleri,[1] the considerably more well-known Burna-Buriaš II, who also wrote several letters preserved in Egyptian archives to the Egyptian pharaoh.

Inscriptions 1. ^ Cylinder Seal No. 42.619, in the Walters Art Museum, Baltimore. 2. ^ Tablet EA 1, ―The Pharoah complains to the Babylonian King,‖ BM 029784 in the British Museum. Transliteration 3. ^ Tablet EA 2, ―Proposals of Marriage,‖ VAT 00148 + VAT 02706 in the Vorderasiatisches Museum. Transliteration 4. ^ Tablet EA 3, ―Marriage, grumblings, a palace-opening,‖ C. 4743, Cairo Museum. Transliteration 5. ^ Tablet EA 4, ―Royal deceit and threats,‖ VAT 01657 in the Vorderasiatisches Museum. Transliteration 6. ^ Tablet EA 5, ―Gifts of Egyptian furniture for the Babylonian palace,‖ BM 029787 in the British Museum, + Cairo 4744. Transliteration 7. ^ For example, brick L. 7078, in the İstanbul Arkeoloji Müzeleri. 8. ^ Slabs CBS 19911-19914 in the University Museum, Philadelphia. 9. ^ Votive fragment CBS 8674 in the University Museum, Philadelphia. 10. ^ Door socket BM 121192 in the British Museum. 11. ^ Tablet Ni. 437 in the Nippur collection at the İstanbul Arkeoloji Műzeleri. 12. ^ Block BE I 68 i 5-15 in the İstanbul Arkeoloji Műzeleri.

References 1. ^ a b c d e J. A. Brinkman (1976). Materials for the Study of Kassite History, Vol. I. Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago. pp. 130–134, 140, 144, 107. p. 387 for date translation. 2. ^ Eva von Dassow (2006). Mark William Chavalas. ed. The ancient Near East: historical sources in translation. Blackwell Publishing. pp. 185–191. 3. ^ Trevor Bryce (2003). Letters of the Great Kings of the Ancient Near East: The Royal Correspondence of the Late Bronze Age. Routledge. p. 79. 4. ^ After a French translation by Claire Lalouette, Thèbes ou la naissance d‟un empire, Fayard, Paris 1986 5. ^ R. L. Zettler, ed. (1993). Nippur Volume 3, Kassite Buildings in Area WC-1, OIP111. Chicago: The Oriental Institute. p. 97. https://oi.uchicago.edu/research/pubs/catalog/oip/oip111.html. records various inscriptions to Kadašman-Enlil II.

Tadukhipa From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (Redirected from Tadukhepa)

One of the "Amarna Letters" negotiating a marriage betwee Amenhotep III and Tushratta's daughter Tadukhipa Tadukhipa, in the Hurrian language Tadu-Hepa, was the daughter of Tushratta, king of Mitanni (reigned ca. 1382 BC–1342 BC) and his queen, Juni and niece of Artashumara. Tadukhipa's aunt Gilukhipa (sister of Tushratta) had married Pharaoh Amenhotep III in his 10th regnal year. Tadukhipa was to marry Amenhotep III more than two decades later.[1]

Contents
 

1 Marriage to Amenhotep III  2 Marriage to Akhenaten 3 Identified with Kiya or Nefertiti  4 References

Note: The reason why it is listed that this Princess married Amen Hotep III is due to the fact that the Jews stoned Moses – Ahmose II aka Ahmose-Ankh back in 526 BC. At that time Amen Hotep II left Egypt for the West in order to stay with the Neters of the West – that is the 12 Tribes of Canada called ‘The First Nations’ as well as the 12 Tribes of America. Therefore the marriage to Amen Hotep III also used as a consolidation of Syria and Egypt – Erp.

Marriage to Amenhotep III Relatively little is known about this princess of Mitanni. She is believed to have been born around Year 21 of the reign of Egyptian Pharaoh Amenhotep III, (c. 1366 BC). Fifteen years later, Tushratta married his daughter to his ally Amenhotep III to cement their two states alliances in Year 36 of Amenhotep III's reign (1352 BC). Tadukhipa is referenced in seven of Tushratta's thirteen Amarna letters, of about 1350-1340 BC.[2] Tushratta requested that his daughter would become a queen consort, even though that position was held by Queen Tiye.[3] The gifts sent to Egypt by Tushratta include a pair of horses and a chariot, plated with gold and inlaid with precious stones, a litter for a camel adorned with gold and precious stones, cloth and garments, jewelry such as bracelets, armlets and other ornaments, a saddle for a horse adorned with gold eagles, more dresses colored purple, green and crimson and a large chest to hold the items.[4] In return Amenhotep III never sent the golden statues he offered and after his death Tushratta sent some missives complaining about the lack of reciprocity.[5]

Marriage to Akhenaten Amenhotep III died shortly after Tadukhipa arrived in Egypt and she eventually married his son and heir Amenhotep IV (Akhenaten).[3]

Identified with Kiya or Nefertiti Some scholars tentatively identify Tadukhipa with Kiya, a queen of Akhenaten.[1] It has been suggested that the story of Kiya may be the source for the New Kingdom story called the Tale of Two Brothers. This fable tells the story of how the pharaoh fell in love with a beautiful foreign woman after smelling her hair. If Tadukhipa was later known as Kiya, then she would have lived at Amarna where she had her own sunshade and was depicted with the pharaoh and at least one daughter.[6] Others such as Petrie, Drioton and Vandier have suggested that Tadukhipa was given a new name after becoming the consort of Akhenaten and is to be identified the famous queen Nefertiti.[6] This theory suggests that Nefertiti's name "the beautiful one has come" refers to Nefertiti's foreign origin as Tadukhipa. Seele, Meyer and others have pointed out that Tey, wife of Ay, held the title of nurse to Nefertiti, and that this argues against this identification. A mature princess arriving in Egypt would not need a nurse.[7]

References Ancient Near East portal 1. ^ a b Dodson, Aidan and Hilton, Dyan. The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. Thames & Hudson. 2004. ISBN 0-500-05128-3 2. ^ William L. Moran, The Amarna Letters, Johns Hopkins University Press, 1992, EA 23, pp. 61-62 3. ^ a b Tyldesley, Joyce. Chronicle of the Queens of Egypt. Thames & Hudson. 2006. p. 124 ISBN 0-500-05145-3 4. ^ A. L. Frothingham, Jr., Archæological News, The American Journal of Archaeology and of the History of the Fine Arts, Vol. 8, No. 4 (Oct. - Dec., 1893), pp. 557-631

5. 6. 7.

^ Aldred, Cyril, Akhenaten: King of Egypt ,Thames and Hudson, 1991 (paperback), ISBN 0-500-27621-8 a b Tyldesley, Joyce. Nefertiti: Egypt's Sun Queen. Penguin. 1998. ^ ISBN 0-670-86998-8 ^ Cyril Aldred, The End of the El-'Amārna Period, The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, Vol. 43, (Dec., 1957), pp. 30-41

Kurigalzu I From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Kuri-Galzu I King of Babylon

‗Aqar Qūf, ancient Dūr-Kurigalzu Reign Predecessor Successor x – 1375 BC Kadašman-Ḫarbe I Kadašman-Enlil I

Royal House

Kassite

Kurigalzu I (x – 1375 B.C.), usually inscribed ku-ri-gal-zu but also sometimes with the m or d determinative,[1] the 17th king of the Kassite or 3rd dynasty that ruled over Babylon, was responsible for one of the most extensive and widespread building programs for which evidence has survived in Babylonia. The autobiography of Kurigalzu is one of the inscriptions which record that he was the son of Kadašman-Ḫarbe.[2] Galzu, whose possible native pronunciation was gal-du or gal-šu, was the name by which the Kassites called themselves[3] and Kurigalzu may mean Shepherd of the Kassites (line 23. Ku-ur-gal-zu = Ri-'-i-bi-ši-i, in a Babylonian name-list).[4] He was separated from his namesake, Kurigalzu II, by around forty-five years and as it was not the custom to assign regnal numbers and they both had lengthy reigns, this makes it exceptionally difficult to distinguish for whom an inscription is intended.[1] The later king is, however, better known for his military campaign against the Assyrians than any building work he may have undertaken. It is now thought, however, that it was he who was the Kurigalzu who conquered Susa and was perhaps instrumental in the ascendancy of the Igehalkid dynasty over Elam, ca. 1400 BC.[5]

Contents 1 Conquest of Elam  2 Diplomacy o 2.1 Through correspondence o 2.2 Through marriage  3 Building works 4 The autobiography of Kurigalzu  5 Other sources  6 Inscriptions  7 References

Conquest of Elam When Ḫur-batila, possibly the successor of Tepti Ahar to the throne of Elam, began raiding the Babylonian Empire, he taunted Kurigalzu to do battle with him at Dūr-Šulgi. Kurigalzu launched a campaign which resulted in the abject defeat and capture of Ḫur-batila, who appears in no other inscriptions. He went on to conquer the eastern lands of Susiana and Elam, recorded in the Chronicle P[i 1] out of sequence and credited to his later name-sake. This took his army to the Elamite capital, the city of Susa, which was sacked, celebrated in two inscriptions found there bearing his name. It is thought that he may have installed as his vassal, Ige-Halki, the founder of the new dynasty. A small agate tablet, bored lengthways to make a pendant, is engraved with nine lines of Sumerian on one side, the other side bearing an older dedication of the mother of king Šulgi of Ur (2029 – 1982 BC, short chronology) to Inanna: Kurigalzu, the king of Karduniyas, conquered the palace of the city of Šaša in Elam and gave (this object) for the sake of his life as a gift to Ninlil, his lady. [6] —Kurigalzu, tablet CBS 8598, University Museum, Philadelphia The tablet was recovered from Elam during Kurigalzu‘s campaign and discovered in a cache of votive inscriptions at Nippur, but was ascribed to Kurigalzu II by earlier historians.

Diplomacy Through correspondence Prior diplomatic correspondence is evident, from study of the Amarna letters and includes evidence of dialogue between Thutmose IV and Kurigalzu as attested to by Amenhotep III in his letter, designated EA 1 (EA for El Amarna), to Kadašman-Enlil. [i 2] Burna-Buriaš II reminded Akhenaten in his letter, EA 11, that Kurigalzu had been sent gold by one of his ancestors, [i 3] and, in EA 9, reminded Tutankhamen that Kurigalzu had turned down a request from the Canaanites to form an alliance against Egypt. [i 4]

Through marriage He gave his daughter to Amenhotep III, who was a serial practitioner of diplomatic marriages with two Mitannite princesses and one from Arzawa in his harem, and who would even later go on to wed Kurigalzu's granddaughter, the daughter of Kadašman-Enlil.[7] A Neo-Babylonian copy of a literary text which takes the form of a letter,[i 5] now located in the Vorderasiatisches Museum in Berlin, is addressed to the Kassite court by an Elamite King and details the genealogy of the Elamite royalty of this period. Apparently, he married his sister to the Elamite king Paḫir-iššan, the son of Ige-Halki, and a daughter to his successor, Ḫumban-numena. This may have been Mishim-ruh, who is cited in royal inscriptions. The princess went on to bear Untash-Napirisha, the next king who was destined to marry Burna-Buriaš‘ daughter. The author of the letter is thought to be Shutruk-Nahhunte, ca. 11901155 BC, who claims descent from Kurigalzu‘s eldest daughter and also wed the eldest daughter of Meli-Šipak, the 33rd Kassite king. Unfortunately the letter inserts Nabu-apla-iddina (888 – 855 BC) ―an abomination, son of a Hittite‖, into the narrative in the place one might have supposed that Marduk-apla-iddina I was to appear, the substitution of dAMAR.UTU by dAG being an unlikely slip of the stylus, making a chronological conundrum and this may be the purpose of the ―letter‖, to denigrate the later king through the tongue of the earlier one.[8]

Building works Kurigalzu‘s construction efforts are attested to at no less than eleven Babylonian cities.[9] He was responsible for rebuilding the Ningal Temple at Ur, incorporating fragments of the Ur-Nammu Stela in buildings on the ziggurat terrace, the Edublal-Maḫ of Sîn buildings, or ―house for hanging up the exalted tablets‖, and the building of the gateway.[10] He was the first king to build a royal residence bearing his name,[11] a new capital city founded over an older settlement and built around 1390 BC, named DurKurigalzu, or 'fortress of Kurigalzu', in the far north of Babylonia (modern „Aqar Qūf).[12] It was positioned to protect an important trade route that led east across the Iranian plateau to Afghanistan, the source of lapis lazuli.[13] The 170-foot-high ziggurat of Enlil can still be seen on the western outskirts of Baghdad, with its reinforcing layers of reed matting and bitumen and the remains of three temples at its foot. Rawlinson first identified the site in 1861 from the brick inscriptions. Excavated in 1942–45 by Seton Lloyd and Taha Baqir, the city covered 225 hectares and included the Egal-kišarra, or ―Palace of the Whole World‖, a vast palatial and administrative complex.[14] In an adoption contract which sternly warns the adoptee, ―If [Il]i-ippašra says, ‗you are not my father‘, they shall shave his head, bind him and sell him for silver,‖[15] the date formula used, ―in the month of Šabatu, the 19th day, the year Kurigalzu, the king, built the Ekurigibara,‖ predates that which was introduced during the reign of Kadašman-Enlil I and that had become de rigueur by the later reign of Kurigalzu II.[16] The Ekurigibara of Enlil was a temple in Nippur.

The autobiography of Kurigalzu

Autobiography of Kurigalzu. A neo-Babylonian copy of a text recording the endowment by Kurigalzu, son of Kadašman-Ḫarbe, of a temple of Ištar with an estate situated on the Euphrates near Nippur, is known as the autobiography of Kurigalzu and comes in the form of a small hexagonal prism[i 6] of light-yellow baked clay[17] and a fragmentary cylinder.[i 7] In it, he takes credit for being the …finisher of the wall, kišuru, and the one who completed the Ekur, provider for Ur and Uruk, the one that assures the integrity of the rites of Eridu, the constructor of the temple of An and Inanna, the one who ensures the integrity of the Sattukku (food allowance) offerings of the great gods.[2] —Autobiography of Kurigalzu, Prism BM 108982 and Cylinder NBC 2503 He ―caused Anu the father of the great gods to dwell in his exalted sanctuary‖, which is suggested to be referring to the restoration of the Anu cult.[2] The text lacks the linguistic features and script characteristics which would bring one to suppose it is a genuine copy of an ancient inscription and was probably created

in late Babylonian times to enhance the prestige of the Ištar cult. The extent to which it preserves tradition from the actual events of the reign of Kurigalzu cannot as yet be determined.[2]

Other sources Evidence of the stretch of Kassite influence comes to us from a tomb at Metsamor where a remarkable carnelian cylinder seal with a hieroglyphic inscription mentioning the Kassite king Kurigalzu I was found. Situated in Armenia, in the middle of the Ararat valley, Metsamor was an important Hurrian center for metal forging[18] A seal is inscribed Nur-[.sup.d]x, son of Kurigalzu, and claims the title nu.es [.sup.d]en.lil, which is shared with others, such as three governors of Nippur and other princes. The meaning of this title and the identity of the Kurigalzu, I or II, are not known.[19] Inscriptions 1. ^ Chronicle P (ABC 22), tablet BM 92701, column 3 lines 10 through 19. 2. ^ Tablet EA 1, ―The Pharoah complains to the Babylonian King,‖ BM 029784 in the British Museum, Transliteration line 62, ―Regarding the words of my father, you wrote...‖ 3. ^ Tablet EA 11, ―Proper escort for a betrothed princess,‖ VAT 151 in the Vorderasiatisches Museum, Berlin, Transliteration lines 19 to 20. 4. ^ Tablet EA 9, ―Ancient loyalties, new requests,‖ BM 29785 in the British Museum, London, Transliteration lines 19 to 30. 5. ^ Tablet VAT 17020 6. ^ Prism BM 108982 in the British Museum. 7. ^ Cylinder NBC 2503 in the James B. Nies Collection, Yale University. References 1. ^ a b J. A. Brinkman (1976). Materials for the Study of Kassite History, Vol. I (MSKH I). Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago. pp. 205– 246. a b c d Tremper Longman (July 1, 1990). Fictional Akkadian 2. ^ autobiography: a generic and comparative study. Eisenbrauns. pp. 88–91, 224– 225. ISBN 0-931464-41-2. for the complete text.

^ Arnaud Fournet (June 2011). "The Kassite Language In a Comparative Perspective with Hurrian and Urartean". The MacroComparative Journal 2 (1): 2. 4. ^ Theophilus G. Pinches (Jan., 1917). "The Language of the Kassites". Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland: 106. 5. ^ F. Vallat (2000). "L'hommage de l'élamite Untash-Napirisha au Cassite Burnaburiash". Akkadica (114-115): 109–117. 6. ^ Frans van Koppen (2006). "Inscription of Kurigalzu I". In Mark William Chavalas. The ancient Near East: historical sources in translation. Blackwell Publishing Ltd.. pp. 140–141. 7. ^ Alan R. Schulman (July 1979). "Diplomatic Marriage in the Egyptian New Kingdom". Journal of Near Eastern Studies (the University of Chicago Press) 38 (3): 183–184. 8. ^ D. T. Potts (1999). The archaeology of Elam: formation and transformation of an ancient Iranian State. Cambridge University Press. pp. 206–208. 9. ^ Leonhard Sassmannshausen (2004). "Babylonian chronology of the second half of the second millennium BC". In Hermann Hunger and Regine Pruzsinszky. Mesopotamian Dark Age Revisited. Vienna. pp. 61–70. 10. ^ Jeanny Vorys Canby (2001). The Ur-Nammu Stela. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archeology and Anthropology. p. 6. 11. ^ Georges Roux (1996). "The Kassite Period 1500 – 700 BC". In Sigfried J. de Laet, Ahmad Hasan Dani. History of Humanity: From the third millennium to the seventh century B.C.. Routledge. p. 484. 12. ^ T Clayden (1996). "Kurigalzu I and the restoration of Babylon". Iraq (British Institute for the Study of Iraq) 58: 109–121. JSTOR 4200423. 13. ^ Jane McIntosh (2005). Ancient Mesopotamia: new perspectives. ABCCLIO, Inc.. p. 91. 14. ^ Piotr Bienkowski, Alan Ralph Millard, ed. (2000). Dictionary of the ancient Near East. British Museum. pp. 22–23. 15. ^ Veysel Donbaz (1987). "Two Documents from the Diverse Collections in Istanbul". In Martha A. Morrison, David I. Owen. General studies and excavations at Nuzi 9/1. Eisenbrauns. p. 73. 16. ^ Università di Torino, Centro scavi di Torino per il medio oriente e l'Asia (1993). Mesopotamia. 28. Giappichelli. p. 42. 17. ^ C. J. Gadd (1921). Cuneiform Texts from Babylonian Tablets, &c., in the British Museum. XXXVI. pp. 7, 16 and 17. Plates 6 and 7 show a sketch of the obverse and reverse of this prism.

3.

18.

^ E. V. KhanzadIan and B. B. Piotrovskii (Spring 1992). "A Cylinder Seal with Ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphic Inscription from the Metsamor Gravesite". Anthropology & Archeology of Eurasia 30 (4): 67–74. 19. ^ J. A. Brinkman (Apr. - Jun., 2004). "Review: Administration and Society in Kassite Babylonia, Reviewed work(s): Beiträge zur Verwaltung und Gesellschaft Babyloniens in der Kassitenzeit by Leonhard Sassmannshausen". Journal of the American Oriental Society 124 (2): 283–304.

The Armarna Letters; Burnaburiash of Babylon EA7; From Burnaburiash, Great King, king of Karaduniash (Babylon) to Napkhururia (Akhenaten) To Napkhururia , Great King, king of Egypt, thus speaks Burnaburiash, Great King, king of Karaduniash, your brother. I and my house, my horses and my chariots, my notables and my land, we are well. May well-being reign over my brother and his house, his horses and his cars, his notables and his land. From the day on which the envoy of my brother arrived before me, my body has not been well, and his envoy has never eaten or drunk before me. See, if you question your envoy, he cannot tell you that my body is not well, and ... And as my body is not well and my brother ... I vented my anger with my brother with the following words: Should my brother not know that I am ill? Why has he not supported my head? Why has he not worried and sent his messengers? The envoy of my brother has spoken thus: The way is not short, so that your brother can find out and send you greetings. The passage is long to your brother. Who can inform him, so that he sends a greeting to you quickly? He next spoke thus: Question your messenger if the passage is not long... As I asked my messenger, and he said that the way was long, no longer make I my brother the object of my anger.

As one has said that in the land of my brother there is everything, and that my brother lacks nothing, of everything there is also in my land, and I lack nothing. For a long time we have had good relations between us kings, and we exchange greetings. These relations between us must remain... Only, four mines of beautiful lapis lazuli have I sent to my brother as a gift, and also five teams of horses. When the times are good, I will send with my future messengers many beautiful gifts, and anything that my brother wishes, he can write ... I have started an undertaking, and for this reason I write to my brother. My brother should send me much gold, that I need for my work. But the gold that my brother sends me, do not leave it to some official. Let the eyes of my brother inspect it, and let my brother seal it and send it! Because as far as the previous gold is concerned, which my brother did not inspect personally, but which was sealed and sent by an official of my brother, of the 40 mines which I put in the furnace, there was barely anything of value left. And with regards to Salmu, my envoy, twice has his caravan been plundered. Once it was plundered by Biriazama, and his other caravan by Pamahu, a governor of a land that belongs to you. And this matter, my brother, you must put right! When my envoy appears before my brother, then let also appear Salmu. His ... has to be returned to him, and the damages have to be made good.

EA8; From Burnaburiash, king of Karaduniash (Babylon) to Napkhururia (Akhenaten) To Napkhururia King of Egypt, my brother, to say: Thus speaks Burnaburiash King of Babylon, your brother. I am well. To your country, your house, your women, your sons, your ministers, your horses, your chariots, many greetings. I and my brother have signed a treaty, and I spoke thus: Like our fathers, who were friends, we will be friends. And now, my merchants who travelled with Ahutabu (Ahitov) delayed in Canaan for business. After Ahutabu set out on his way to my brother and in the town of Hanatun which is in Canaan Shumda (King Simon) Son of Baluma

and Shutatna Son of Shartum from Akko sent their men there. They beat my merchants and stole their money. Ahutabu , whom I sent to you, is before you. Ask him and he will tell you. Canaan is your country and its kings are your slaves, in your country I was robbed. Bind them and return the money they robbed. And the men who murdered my slaves, kill them and avenge their blood. Because if you do not kill these men, they will again murder my caravans and even my ambassadors, and the ambassadors between us will cease. If this should happen the people of the land will leave you.

EA9; From Burnaburiash, king of Karaduniash (Babylon) to Napkhururia (Akhenaten) To Naphkhururia, king of Egypt, thus speaks Burnaburiash, king of Karduniash, your brother: I am well. May the well-being reign over you, your house, your women, your children, your land, your great ones, your horses, your chariots. When my father and your father had dealings in good friendship, they sent each other beautiful presents, and nothing they refused. Now, my brother has sent me only two mines of gold. But this is a very small amount: send, then, as much as your father did! And if you have little (gold), send half of what your father sent! Why have you sent me only two mines of gold? My work in the houses of the Gods is abundant, and now I have begun an undertaking: Send much gold! And you, whatever do you need from my land, write and it will be sent to you. At the time of Kurigalzu, my father, the Kinahi (Canaanites) went to him in the following terms: the borders of the country... we want to pass to the other side, and join you. My father gave them the following answer: Forget the idea of dealing with me! I will not declare myself against my brother, the king of Egypt, nor will I treat with someone else! Should I not rather plunder you? He is my ally. My father committed no acts against your father.

Now (with respect to this): The Assyrians, vassals of mine, I have not sent to you, as they claim. Why have they been received in your land? If I am dear to you, do not let them conclude any business. May they return here with empty hands! As a gift, I send you three mines of beautiful lapis lazuli and five teams of horses for five wooden chariots.

Muballitat – She(rua) as The Queen of Saba – (Sheba) – Marriage to Ahmose II

Hope of Israel Ministries (Ecclesia of YEHOVAH): The Ethiopian Connection The Dynasty of Moses and the Queen of Sheba Unknown to historians, the prophet Moses of the Bible actually sired a long line of kings which has ruled from the middle of the second millennium before the present era until this very present age! Here is dynamic new understanding of the real origin of the famous Eighteenth Dynasty of ancient Egypt, and the origin of the long line of kings which have ruled in Ethiopia until Haile Selassie, the recent Emperor! Historians have overlooked an amazing fact which should have been self evident, if they had but understood the right time-frame of Egyptian chronology, and believed the historical record of the Bible, and the Jewish historian Josephus. In the book of Deuteronomy, YEHOVAH God made Moses an amazing promise. After Israel had sinned, and made a golden calf to worship, YEHOVAH was furious. He declared to Moses: "I have seen this people, and behold, it is a stiffnecked people: Let me alone, that I may destroy them, and blot out their

name from under heaven: and I will make of THEE a nation MIGHTIER AND GREATER THAN THEY" (Deut. 9:13-14). Moses, however, interceded for the people, and turned away YEHOVAH God's wrath from them (verses 18-19, 2229). However, prior to Moses leaving Egypt, the Jewish historian Josephus points out that he had been a great general who led Pharaoh's army to victory over the kingdom of Ethiopia, which had conquered most of Egypt. While attacking the Ethiopian capital city, Tharbis, the daughter of the king of Ethiopia, became enamoured of Moses, seeing his valiant exploits, and bargained to deliver the city into his hands if he would but marry her. Moses agreed, and she fulfilled her promise -- and Moses married her, and fulfilled the obligation of a husband to her, causing her to become pregnant (Josephus, Antiquities, II, x). This occurred sometime before 1532 B.C., when Moses was driven out of Egypt for slaying an Egyptian (Exodus 2: 11-150. The vitally important royal city where this conflict culminated was "Saba." Josephus relates: "...he came upon the Ethiopians before they expected him; and, joining battle with them, he beat them, and deprived them of the hopes they had of success against the Egyptians, and went on in overthrowing their cities, and indeed made a great slaughter of these Ethiopians...the Ethiopians were in danger of being reduced to slavery, and all sorts of destruction; and at length they retired to SABA, which was a royal city of Ethiopia, which Cambyses afterward named MEROE, after the name of his own sister. The place was to be beseiged with very great difficulty, since it was both encompassed by the Nile quite round, and the other rivers..." (Ant., II, X, 2). The Greek historian Herodotus spoke of Meroe, or Saba, as "...a great city, the name of which is MEROE. This city is said to be the mother of all Ethiopia" (The History, p.142-143, quoted in The Sign and the Seal, p. 448). When Egyptian history is properly restored and reconstructed, this event means that Moses' son by Queen Tharbis became the progenitor of a line of Ethiopian kings. When Israel left Egypt in 1492 B.C., the land of Egypt was in a shambles -utterly destroyed, as the Papyrus Ipuwer states with awesome clarity in

describing the plagues which fell upon that land -- including the plague of blood. The papyrus also shows that invaders from the east, the Hyksos, conquered nothern Egypt (lower Egypt) and dominated the region as cruel "shepherd kings" for about 500 years. These "Hyksos" were the Amalekites who fought the children of Israel in Sinai as they left Egypt (Exodus 18). They were not thrown out of Egypt until the reign of king Saul of Israel, who conquered the Amalekites in Arabia (I Samuel 15), and Samuel the prophet slew their king Agag (vs. 32-33). At this same time, the famous and powerful Eighteenth Dynasty arose in southern Egypt and Ethiopia -- a dynasty of dark-skinned kings and queens! Among the famous kings of this powerful dynasty, which overthrew the Hyksos and conquered northern (lower) Egypt, Immanuel Velikovsky writes in Ages in Chaos: "The kingdom of Egypt, after regaining independence under AHMOSE, a contemporary of Saul, also achieved grandeur and glory under Amenhotep I, THUTMOSE I, Hatshepsut, and THUTMOSE III. Egypt, devastated and destitute in the centuries under the rule of the Hyksos, rapidly grew in riches" (p. 103). Notice the strange sounding names of this line of kings from southern Egypt and Ethiopia -- they contain the name of their ancestor, who was none other than the Biblical MOSES! Why would Egyptian kings of the most powerful dynasty that ever ruled Egypt be called by the name of Moses, and be named after Moses? Because this dynasty of kings and queens was descended from Tharbis, who became Queen of Ethiopia, and her husband was none other than MOSES! As Josephus writes, after she delivered up the impregnable city of Saba to Moses, "No sooner was the agreement made, but it took effect immediately; and when Moses had cut off the Ethiopians, he gave thanks to God, and CONSUMMATED HIS MARRIAGE, and led the Egyptians back to their own land" (Ant., II, x, 2). Notice! The royal city where this marriage was consummated was "Saba." Saba can be none other than the same as SHEBA! Thus, the Queen of Sheba, whom Josephus says was the Queen of Ethiopia and Egypt, who visited Solomon in 992 B.C., roughly 540 years after Moses married the Ethiopian princess, came from

this same royal city of SABA-SHEBA. This means that she was a royal descendant of Moses and Tharbis, the daughter of the king of Ethiopia -- a descendant of MOSES! YEHOVAH God fulfilled his promise to make a powerful dynasty of kings from the loins of Moses. And in the days of Solomon, the Queen of Sheba -- Hatshepsut, her Egyptian name, or Makeda, her Ethiopian name -- like Tharbis, her ancestor, had a love affair or romance with a Hebrew leader -- King Solomon. Thereby the royal lines of Moses and David became intertwined, and have ruled in the nation of Ethiopia ever since, till Haile Selassie, of our own day! The very name "Hatshepsut" itself may be indicative of the fact that this famous Queen, who visited the land of Punt, the "Divine Land," and who built a temple on the banks of the Nile at Thebes in upper Egypt patterned after Solomon's Temple in Jerusalem, was indeed the Queen of Sheba. "Ha," in Hebrew, means "the." "Sut is a suffix which may relate to royalty. Thus her actual name is "Shep," but nominatives are often interchangeable, and it could be rendered "Sheb," that is, SHEBA -- thus her very name could mean, "The Sheba Queen," or "The Queen of Sheba." Interestingly, historians know that the Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt, at its most powerful, was a "colored" dynasty -- that is, Ethiopian or Nubian! On page 105 of his book Ages in Chaos, Velikovsky has a plate showing the visage of Queen Hatshepsut, courtesy of the Metropolitan Museum of Art. It is a regal looking statue showing her distinctive Ethiopian features, or a mixture of Ethiopian and Semitic -- but of course, for she was the descendant of Tharbis and Moses! Was Hatshepsut the same person as the Queen of Sheba, or the Queen of Ethiopia, as Josephus states clearly that the Queen of Sheba was? The Ethiopian name of this Queen, who visited Solomon and had a son by him, was Makeda. Did Hatshepsut have this as her personal name? Velikovsky quotes the Karnak obelisk, in Breasted, Records, vol. II, sec. 325, in its description of the famous Egyptian Queen Hatshepsut:

"Thy name reaches as far as the circuit of heaven, the fame of MAKERE (Hatshepsut) encircles the sea" (Ages in Chaos, p. 105). Makere is clearly the same name as Makeda (Makedo, - Egyptian name for site known as Armageddon – located in Syria – Erp)) the Ethiopian name for the Queen of Sheba or Saba. The term "Sheba" or "Saba" refers to the name of the famous Ethiopian royal city at the confluence of the Nile and two other Ethiopian rivers, at the upper reaches of the Nile! The word "Ethiopia" is a Greek word meaning "burnt faces." The Hebrew word Cush, translated as "Ethiopia," was used in Biblical times to refer to "the entire Nile Valley south of Egypt, including Nubia and Abyssinia" (Edward Ullendorff, Ethiopia and the Bible, p. 5, quoted in The Sign and the Seal, p. 450). The 1955 Revised Constitution of Ethiopia confirms the age-old monarchy's Divine Right to rule. It states: "The Imperial dignity shall remain perpetually attached to the line of Haile Selassie I, whose line descends without interruption from the dynasty of Menelik I, son of the Queen of Ethiopia, the Queen of Sheba, and King Solomon of Jerusalem..." (ibid., p. 24). Haile Selassie, the former Emperor of Ethiopia, claimed to be the 225th direct line descendant of Menelik I (Amen I – Erp) the son of the Queen of Sheba or Saba, the royal city and "mother" city of all Ethiopia. Thus her Biblical name, "Queen of Sheba," actually helps to prove her true identity!

-- Edited By John D. Keyser.

Hope Of Israel Ministries -- Taking the Lead in the Search for Truth! Hope of Israel Ministries P.O. Box 2186

Temple City, CA 91780, U.S.A. www.hope-of-israel.org

Origin of name Ethiopia

Egypt - Thompson – Thothmes III – Iah – Amen – Powell – Meroua also as Meri Amen

Sheba aka Shebah

MenHet – Baal – Amen Hotep aka Amen Hetep

AY marries into Menhet Dynasty as Aymen – Amen – Men(es) – Amenes – Letter Y as Female Chromosome – Yemen - Solomon ‗X‘ symbol Male chromosome.

Ahmose II also known by maternal family name of Ahmose – Pen – Nekheb(p)et

The Name Meaning of Eric Robert Powell I am the only person on earth with the name Eric Robert Powell. Using the alphanumeric table, where A = 1, B = 2, C = 3, D = 4, all the way through the 26th letter of our alphabet, produces a sequence of 26 letters based on mathematics. This geometry of names, dates and words produces an unmistakable historical connection between all three which can not be rescinded or even questioned. It is the mathematics of the spoken and writen word. And it is here where we can unlock the secret mysteries of our scriptural, historical and prophetical actuality for it is here where one can locate one's destiny and historical past.

Let us begin with the name Eric Robert Powell in its etymology or meaning and how it is connected with the past and the future as all names are based on such mathematics through also our etymologies.

The name Eric

Eric

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

For other uses, see Eric (disambiguation).

Eric (disambiguation)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Look up Eric or eric in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Eric (or also Éric, Erik, Erick, Eirik, Eirík, Eiríkr, Erich etc.) is a common proper name.

Eric

Definition from Wiktionary, the free dictionary

See also eric, and Éric Contents

o

1 English 1.1 Alternative forms o 1.2 Etymology o 1.3 Pronunciation o 1.4 Proper noun  1.4.1 Related terms  1.4.2 Translations

o  o  o

1.5 Anagrams 2 German 2.1 Proper noun 3 Swedish 3.1 Proper noun

English

English Wikipedia has an article on: Eric Wikipedia en Alternative forms
 

Erik Erick

Etymology From Old Norse Eirríkr, Eiríkr, from ei (―always, eternal‖), less likely from einn (―sole, alone‖) + ríkr (―ruler‖) (cognate to Latin rex and Celtic -rix). The name was in use in Anglo-Saxon Britain, reinforced by Scandinavian settlers before the Norman Conquest. Pronunciation

Rhymes: -ɛɹɪk

Proper noun

Eric 1. A male given name. o 1859 Frederic William Farrar: Eric, or Little by Little: A Tale of Roslyn School. Chapter II: "What's your name?" "Eric - I mean Williams." "Then why don't you say what you mean?" 1959 Roentgens, Rads and Riddles: A Symposium on Supervoltage Radiation Therapy. U.S. Atomic Energy Commission 1959. page 71: Mark it. Professor Roberts does not like the name Eric. This happens to be one of his given names, and it is a very honorable one. Eric was the first Viking explorer of the North American continent, and this ERIC we hope will be an explorer in the fields of complex therapy.
o

Related terms

feminine forms: Erica, Erika Translations male given name

Select targeted languages Armenian: Էրիկ (hy) (Ērik)  Bengali: (bn)  Czech: Erik (cs) m.  Danish: Erik (da)  Dutch: Erik (nl)  Estonian: Erik (et), Eerik (et)  Faroese: Eirikur Finnish: Eerik(historical), Eero, Erkki (given name)  French: Éric (fr)  German: Erich (de)  Greenlandic: Eerik (kl)  Hungarian: Erik (hu)  Icelandic: Eiríkur (is)

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Italian: Erico

Japanese: エリック (erikku)  Latin: Ericus  Latvian: Ēriks (lv)  Lithuanian: Erikas (lt)  Norwegian: Erik, Eirik  Old Norse: Eiríkr  Polish: Eryk (pl)  Portuguese: Érico  Russian: Эрик (Érik)  Slovak: Erik (sk)  Slovene: Erik (sl)  Spanish: Erico  Swedish: Erik (sv)

Eric

Title page from 1891 edition of the book Eric, or, Little by Little, whose popularity is credited with increasing the use of the name Eric in Britain Pronunciation Gender Language(s) Name day /ˈ ɛrɨk/ male. Scandinavian May 18 (Sweden & Norway) Origin Word/Name Old Norse

Meaning

one, alone, ruler, prince, powerful, rich Other names

Derived

Eiríkr Look up Eric in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

The given name Eric is derived from the Old Norse name Eiríkr (or Eríkr in Eastern Scandinavia due to monophthongization). The first element, ei- is derived either from the older Proto-Norse *aina(z) meaning "one" or "alone"[1] or from Proto-Norse *aiwa(z) meaning "ever" or "eternal".[2] The second element ríkr derives either from *rík(a)z meaning "ruler" or "prince" (cf. Gothic reiks) or from an even older Proto-Germanic *ríkiaz which meant "powerful" and "rich".[3] The name is thus usually taken to mean "one ruler" or "eternal ruler" or "ever powerful," etc. The most common spelling in Scandinavia is Erik. In Norway, another form of the name (which has kept the Old Norse diphthong) Eirik is also commonly used.[4] In Finland, the form Erkki is also used. The modern Icelandic version is Eiríkur,[5][6][7] while the modern Faroese version is Eirikur. Éric is used in French, and in Germany Eric, Erik and Erich are used.[8] Although the name was in use in Anglo-Saxon Britain, its use was reinforced by Scandinavian settlers arriving before the Norman Invasion. It was an uncommon name in England until the Middle Ages, when it gained popularity, and finally became a common name in the 19th century. This was partly because of the publishing of the novel Eric, or, Little by Little by Frederick William Farrer in 1858. The official name day for Erik and Eirik is May 18 in Norway, Sweden and Finland.

People Danish royalty Eric II of Denmark, king of Denmark between 1134 and 1137 Eric III of Denmark, the king of Denmark from 1137 until he abdicated in 1146  Eric IV of Denmark, king of Denmark from 1241 until his death  Eric V of Denmark, son of Christopher I  Eric VI of Denmark, son of Eric V  Eric of Pomerania, king of the Kalmar union

Norwegian royalty Eric of Pomerania, the hereditary king of Norway  Eric I of Norway, the second king of Norway  Eirik II of Norway, the king of Norway from 1280 until 1299 Eiríkr Hákonarson, earl of Lade, ruler of Norway and earl of Northumbria  Erik the Red, the son of Þorvaldr Ásvaldsson

Swedish royalty Alrek and Eirík, two legendary kings of Sweden  Jorund and Eirik, two legendary kings of Sweden  Erik Björnsson, one of the sons of Björn Ironside  Erik Refilsson, Swedish king of the House of Munsö Eric Anundsson, Swedish king who ruled during the 9th century, may be the same as Erik Weatherhat, a more or less mythical Swedish king Eric VI of Sweden, king of the Swedes during the second half of the 10th century  Eric VII of Sweden, Swedish monarch  Eric VIII of Sweden, Swedish monarch  Eric IX of Sweden, Swedish king between 1150 and 1160  Eric X of Sweden, the King of Sweden between 1208 and 1216  Eric XI of Sweden, the son of king Erik X of Sweden and Richeza of Denmark Eric XII of Sweden, rival King of Sweden and to his father Magnus IV from 1356 to his death in 1359  Eric XIII of Sweden, Eric of Pomerania

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Eric XIV of Sweden, King of Sweden from 1560 until he was deposed in 1568

Famous people Eric Bana, Australian television and film actor  Eric Burdon, an English vocalist, songwriter and frontman of The Animals  Eric Arthur Blair, an English author better known under the pen-name George Orwell.  Eric Cantona (French Éric Cantona), a French football player  Eric Carle children's author  Eric Church, an American country music singer and songwriter  Eric Clapton an English guitarist, vocalist, and songwriter  Eric Dickerson NFL Hall of Fame Running Back  Eric Estrada ―Ponch‖, Actor  Eric Garber, given name of author Andrew Holleran  Eric Harris (1981-1999) One of the perpetrators of the Columbine High School Massacre  Eric Heiden Olympian and Doctor  Erich Honecker, former East German Leader  Eric Idle, an English comedian, actor, author, singer, writer, and comedic composer  Eric Johnson, an American guitarist and recording artist  Eriq La Salle, American actor and director  Eric Lindros Dallas Stars, Hockey player  Erik Palladino, American actor  Erik Lorig, American NFL football player  Erich von Manstein, German field marshal  Erik Mariñelarena, Mexican screenwriter, director and producer  Eric Prydz, Swedish disc jockey and producer  Eric Ripert, celebrity chef and co-owner of the New York restaurant Le Bernardin  Eric Roberts American actor  Eric Saade, Swedish singer/songwriter  Eric Satie, French composer  Eric Sevareid, American journalist  Eric Stoltz, American actor, director and producer  Eric Schmidt CEO Google

Erik Turner, the rhythm guitarist of glam metal band Warrant Eric Wright, better known by his stage name Eazy-E, was an American rapper

Fictional characters Erik the Red (comics), fictional character in the Marvel Comics comic book universe  Erik, the Phantom of the Opera, a disfigured genius, created by French writer Gaston Leroux  Flat Eric, low-tech, yellow puppet character from Levi's commercials for Sta-Prest One Crease Denim Clothing  Eric Cartman, a main character in the TV series South Park  Eric the Cavalier, a character in the TV series Dungeons & Dragons  Eric Tiberius Duckman, the title character in the TV series Duckman  Prince Eric, the love interest of Princess Ariel in the Disney movie, The Little Mermaid  General Erich Von Klinkerhoffen, the boss of Colonel Kurt Von Strohm and Lieutenant Hubert Gruber in the TV series 'Allo 'Allo!  Eric Murphy, a fictional character on the comedy-drama television series Entourage.  Eric Northman, the love interest of Sookie Stackhouse in the Southern Vampire Mysteries novels and the TV series True Blood  Eric Draven, a man brutally murdered that comes back to life as an undead avenger of his and his fiancée's murder in the movie The Crow  Eric Thursley, a thirteen-year-old demonologist featured in Terry Pratchett's ninth Discworld novel Eric  Eric is the name of all the pets of John Cleese's character in the Monty Python's "Fish Licence" sketch  Eric is one of the twins Sam and Eric in Lord of the Flies by William Golding  Eric, one of the Princes from the Chronicles of Amber  Erik Von Darkmoor, a fictional character appearing in the novels of Raymond E. Feist  Erik Lensherr, also known as Magneto in the Marvel Universe.  Eric Foreman is a major character character from the TV series House M.D.  Eric Forman is the main character in That 70s Show.  Eric Myers, the Quantum Ranger, from Power Rangers Time Force.

See also Look up Eric or Erik in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Eriksgata

References 1. ^ Entries ÆiríkR, Æi- in Nordiskt runnamnslexikon (2002) by Lena Peterson at the Swedish Institute for Linguistics and Heritage (Institutet för språk och folkminnen). 2. ^ [1] 3. ^ Entries ÆiríkR, RíkR and -ríkR in Nordiskt runnamnslexikon (2002) by Lena Peterson at the Swedish Institute for Linguistics and Heritage (Institutet för språk och folkminnen). 4. ^ In November 2008, there were 20,000 men named Erik in Norway (appr. 0.9% of the male pop.) and 13,000 named Eirik (0.8%). Source: Statistics Norway, http://www.ssb.no/navn/) 5. ^ Behind The Name 6. ^ Etymology Online 7. ^ United States Social Security Database 8. ^ [2]

The meaning of the name Robert

Robert Pronunciation /ˈrɒbərt/

Gender Origin Meaning Region of origin

Male

fame-bright Germanic Other names

Related names

Rob, Robbie, Robin, Rupert, Bob, Bobby, Bert

Robert

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This article is about the name. For other uses, see Robert (disambiguation).

Robert

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This article is about the name. For other uses, see Robert (disambiguation).

"Roberto" redirects here. For the racehorse, see Roberto (horse).

The name Robert is a Germanic given name, from Old High German Hruodberht "bright with glory" (a compound of hruod "fame, glory" and berht "bright"). It is also in use as a surname.[1][2] After becoming widely used in Continental Europe it entered England in its Old French form Robert, where an Old English cognate form (Hrēodbēorht, Hrodberht, Hrēodbēorð, Hrœdbœrð, Hrœdberð) had existed before the Norman Conquest. The feminine version is Roberta. The Italian form is Roberto.

Variations Bert (also short for Albert) Bertie Rothbert Robetus Beto Róbert (Hungarian, Icelandic, Roibeárd (Irish) Berto Roeper Slovak) Bertus Roper (Breton/French) Roberto (Italian, Spanish, Bo Roope (Finnish)[4] Portuguese) Bob Roupen (Armenian) Robertino (Italian, "Little Bobby Rupert Robert") Bort Robertinho (Portuguese, "Little Ruprecht (Old High German) Dobby Ruppert Robert") Hob (Medieval) Rvpertvs (Latin: "Rupertus") Robbert (Dutch) Nobby (also short for Norbert) Rubert Robbi (Icelandic) Rab (Scots) Rochbert Robbie Raibeart (Scottish Gaelic) Robrecht (German) Robi (Serbian) Riobard (Irish) Rodebert Robertus (Latin) Robby Rodebrecht (Old German) Ροβέρτος, Rovértos (Greek) Robere (Old French) Rudbert Ροβῆρος, Rovēros (Greek) Roberts (Robertson, Latvian) Ruby (Old Dutch) Röbi (Swiss German) Feminine forms: Roberta Robbi Robertine Robertina Robina Ruprette/a (archaic French)

Rob (also short for Robin) Robb Robo Robbo (Notably Red Robbo) Rodbert Rodepertus (Latin)

Robin Röpke (Low German) Rabbie (Scots) Rhobert (Welsh) Robban (Swedish) Roban Robercik or Robuś (Polish, "Little Robert") [3] Robert (Polish)

Rudebet Roteberht (Germanic) Rotebert (Germanic) Trebor (reversal)

In Italy during the Second World War, the form of the name, Roberto, briefly acquired a new meaning derived from, and referring to the Rome-Berlin-Tokyo Axis.[5]

The name Robert is both German and Polish. Poland has a lot to do with the name Powell, see below – Erp.

Secondly I lived for a time across from Trevor Park in Yonkers New York. Notice the name Trebor listed above.

People This section lists people commonly referred to solely by this name. Duke of Normandy

Robert the Magnificent, also known as Robert the Devil, father of William the Conqueror Franconian Babenbergers/Robertian Capetians

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Robert II (Robert of Hesbaye) of Worms, Germany (aka Rutpert II, Hruodbertus II) Robert III of Worms, Germany (aka Rutpert III, Hruodbertus III)  Robert the Strong (aka Rutpert IV, Hruodbertus IV)

Kings of France
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Robert I of France Robert II of France

King of Naples

Robert of Naples

Kings of Scotland

Robert I of Scotland ("Robert the Bruce")  Robert II of Scotland  Robert III of Scotland

Medieval Robert, 1st Earl of Gloucester, English noble  Robert of Melun, scholastic theologian Robert of Winchelsea, theologian and opponent of both Edward I and Edward II of England Brother Robert, 13th century translator of French works into Old Norse

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Saints
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Saint Robert of Molesme, founder of the Cistercian Order (d. 1111) Saint Robert of Newminster, established the Abbey of Newminster near the castle of Ralph de Merlay, at Morpeth, Northumberland (d. 1159)

Saint Robert de Turlande, founding abbot of the Abbey of Casa Dei, also called Chaise-Dieu (d. 1067)

In different languages Armenian: Ռոբերտ (Robert)  Bulgarian: Роберт (Robert)  Catalan: Robert  Croatian: Robert  Czech: Robert  Dutch: Robbert, Robert  French: Robert  Georgian: რობერტ (Robert)  German: Robert  Greek: Ροβέρτος (Rovértos)  Hebrew: ‫( רוברט‬Robert)  Hungarian: Róbert  Icelandic: Róbert  Irish: Roibeard  Italian: Roberto  Japanese: ロバート(Robâto)  Korean: 로버트 (Lobeoteu)  Latin: Robertus  Latvian: Roberts  Lithuanian: Robertas  Macedonian: Роберт (Robert)  Norwegian: Robert  Polish: Robert  Portuguese: Roberto  Romanian: Robert  Russian: Роберт (Robert)  Serbian: Роберт/Robert  Slovak: Robert  Slovene: Robert  Spanish: Roberto  Swedish: Robert

Surname Alain Robert, French rock and urban climber  Hubert Robert, French painter  Laurent Robert, French footballer  Paul Robert (lexicographer), French lexicographer Robert brothers, Anne-Jean and Nicolas-Louis, French balloonists circa 1783-4

See also

Bobby - nickname for Robert  Roberson  Roberts (surname)  Robertson (surname)  Robinson (name)  Rodger  Roger  Rupert (name)

References 1. ^ Reaney & Wilson, 1997. Dictionary of English Surnames. OUP 2. ^ Withycombe, E., 1973 edn. Oxford Dictionary of English Christian names OUP 3. ^ or just a diminutive of Robert 4. ^ "Behind the Name: Meaning, Origin and History of the Name Roope". Behind the Name. http://www.behindthename.com/name/roope. Retrieved 2008-01-07. 5. ^ RoBerTo Checked, Time Magazine, October 19, 1942

The Meaning of the name Powell

Name: Powell

Origin and Meaning of the Name Powell Gender: Boy

Origin: Meaning:

Welsh Son of Hywel

Origin: Meaning:

English Small; humble

Pronunciation:

(POW el)

Form of:

Itself (Powell) Hywel, “The Good King”

Hywel Dda King of Wales

Davies 1990; Walker 1990 y 950 A.D., Dinefwr was the principal court from which Hywel Dda, "The Good," (depicted in a 13th-century manuscript at right), ruled a large part of Wales including the southwest area known as Deheubarth. His great achievement was to create the country's first uniform legal system. Hywel shared with his brothers lands in Ceredigon and Ystrad Tywi after the death of their father, Cadell, about 909. He united their inheritance in 920, and acquired Gwynedd after the death of Idwal Foel in 942. He married Elen, daughter of Llywarch of Dyfed, and on Llywarch's death in 904 he took over the southern kingdom. In the perspective of the Dark Ages he was a powerful prince, and it may be that later generations borrowed his personal authority to buttress their own power. Like his grandfather, Rhodri the Great, Hywel was given an epithet by a later generation. He became known as Hywel Dda (Hywel the Good), although it would be wrong to consider that goodness to be innocent and unblemished. In the age of Hywel, the essential attribute of a state builder was ruthlessness, an attribute which Hywel possessed, if it is true that it was he who ordered the killing of Llywarch of Dyfed, as some have claimed.

Although contemporary evidence is lacking, there is no reason to reject the tradition that Hywel was responsible for some of the consolidation of the Laws of Wales. Among Hywel's contemporaries there were rulers who won fame as law-givers. The law was Hywel's law, cyfraith Hywel; his name gave to the law an authority comparable with that given to the laws of Mercia by King Offa or the laws of Wessex (and a larger area of England) by King Alfred. He almost certainly knew of them; he was a regular visitor to the English court and in 928, when in the flower of his manhood, he went on pilgrimage to Rome. In later centuries it was claimed that he took copies of his laws to Rome, where they were blessed by the Pope. Tradition also provided details of the circumstances under which the laws were compiled and promulgated. It was probably the need to give cohesion to his different territories that prompted Hywel to codify the law. He was also successful in defending his territories, for there is no record that they were ravaged by the Vikings during his reign. Neither were they attacked by the English. Hywel adhered to the close relationship with England initiated by his father-in-law, Llywarch of Dyfed, yet it is unlikely that he relished the diminution in status and the heavy demands for tribute which resulted from his association with the kingdom of England. He recognized the facts of power - the power which in his lifetime extinguished the Brythonic kingdom of Cornwall and which brought about the death of his cousin, Idwal of Gwynedd. Hywel's creation of the kingdom of Deheubarth, survived his death. In 950 it passed to his son Owain. Gwynedd and Powys returned to the line of Idwal ap Anarawd while Glamorgan continued to be subject to its own kings. Although the union between Gwynedd, Powys and Deheubarth was broken, Wales had only three kingdoms after 950, compared with over twice that number two centuries earlier.

Genealogy of Hywel Dda and the rulers of Deheubarth (see aso Gwynedd)

Hywel the Good The first major Welsh leader to step forward after the death of Rhodri the Great was his grandson. Cadell's son Hywel (Hywel ap Cadell ap Rhodri to give him his full name) was king of Seisyllwg following his father's death in 900. In 904 he gained Dyfed through marriage - or alternately, by ordering the death of his brother-in-law Llywarch of Dyfed - and in 930 he added Brycheiniog to his new kingdom, called Deheubarth. In 942 Hywel extended Deheubarth to the north to include Powys and Gwynedd. By the time of his death in 950 Hywel controlled all of modern Wales but for Glamorgan and Gwent in the south east. Why was Hywel called "The Good" by later generations? Certainly it was not for his meekness, as the story of his acquisition of Dyfed suggests. Like all successful rulers of that period, Hywel could be ruthless when it was called for. His claim to "goodness" rests on the tradition that it was Hywel who first brought together and codified the Laws of Wales. One version of the story tells that Hywel went on a pilgrimage to Rome in about 928, and there he had his laws blessed by the Pope. Another story tells that Hywel summoned scholars and leaders from all across Wales to a meeting at Whitland, on the border between Seisyllwg and Dyfed. There they drew together the customs and traditional standards of conduct from across Wales and combined them in a systemised code of law. THE LAW OF WALES The Law of Wales held important differences from modern codes of law. It was not concerned with punishment or enforcement so much as establishing a process of reconciliation, especially between clans or kinship groups. It upheld concepts quite alien to laws across the border in England, such as a certain amount of respect for the rights of women - though they could not own land - and children, and the importance of mercy.

Other important differences should be noted. The Law recognised fully nine different forms of legal union between a man and woman, and only one of these was a church sanctioned marriage. Unlike the Canon Law of the Church, the Law of Wales allowed for the dissolution of a marriage, and the acknowledgement of "illegitimate" children with full legal rights. A bastard son required only his father's acknowledgement to inheirit property.

The Law also allowed for marriage between cousins, which was apparently not uncommon. These differences would eventually bring the Law under severe attack by Church authorities, who condemned it as heretical and satanic in nature. Although the Laws of Wales were aimed at consolidating folk custom, they also laid down in no uncertain terms the rights of the King and his warriors, the teulu, including the right to a portion of levied fines and any surplus harvest. Hywel enjoyed more relaxed relations with the English than his predeccessors, because he chose to take the course of least resistance and acknowledge the English king as his overlord. Though the cost of tribute money must have irked Hywel, it was a wise acknowledgement of the English power. On at least seven occassions Hywel journeyed to the court of Athelstan, son of Alfred the Great, to witness royal charters. He was also present at the coronation of Athelstan's successor, Eadred, in 946. Despite this acceptance of English power, the Welsh antagonism towards their neighbours was never far from the surface. Hywel died in 950, and though his kingdom of Deheubarth passed to his son Owain, it was without Powys and

Gwynedd. In general, though, the trend in Wales was for a consolidation of the smaller kingdoms into several powerful, large kingdoms. Thus, after Hywel's death Wales had only three large kingdoms (Deheubarth, Powys & Gwynedd, and Glamorgan). WELSH KINGSHIP Unlike traditional medieval concepts of kingship, the Welsh evolved their own system of inheiritance and kingship. The king in Wales was above all a war leader. Inheiritance was not neccessarily a father to son event; rather, any strong leader related to a previous king up to four generations could claim the throne. Often a king appointed his successor, but it was still up to that successor to establish his right to that inheiritance by force of arms. The most valid measure of a man's "right" to be king was his ruthlessness, determination, an ability on the field of battle. History of Wales - main index

father's acknowledgement to inheirit property.

The Law also allowed for marriage between cousins, which was apparently not uncommon. These differences would eventually bring the Law under severe attack by Church authorities, who condemned it as heretical and satanic in nature. Although the Laws of Wales were aimed at consolidating folk custom, they also laid down in no uncertain terms the rights of the King and his warriors, the teulu, including the right to a portion of levied fines and any surplus harvest.

never far from the surface. Hywel died in 950, and though his kingdom of Deheubarth passed to his son Owain, it was without Powys and Gwynedd. In general, though, the trend in Wales was for a consolidation of the smaller kingdoms into several powerful, large kingdoms. Thus, after Hywel's death Wales had only three large kingdoms (Deheubarth, Powys & Gwynedd, and Glamorgan).

http://www.britainexpress.com/wales/history/hywel.htm

Now we know that the name Powell comes from both Poland and Wales. Poland through the Powy's and Hywel who changed his name to Howell and through the word/name ―Ap‖ to Powell as 'Son of Howell'. In Ancient Egypt the word 'Ap' meant ―Apis the Bull‖ - as the sign of Taurus the Bull which was originally the first sign of the Zodiac. The word ―Hy‖ refers in Ancient Egypt to the word 'Music'.

We also have here ―Jacob's Well‖ as well as that of Jesus who visited the Well.

I AM THE BEGINNING AND THE END

Amen and the name of Eric Robert Powell in the Early Dynastic Period

The alphanumerics' of “The End” (The Pharaoh Den)
“The End”

20 8 28 5 33 5 38 14 52 4 56 6 Letters 62 118

Quotient rendered: Year 52 (11/2) 6 BC (left hand column) and an 8.6.2 (right-hand column).

These alphanumeric numbers embedded in the phrase “The End” - The Pharaoh Den, prove without any hesitant, that 8.6.2 was in the 18th Dynasty of Amen Hotep II in year 526 BC.

We also see the numbers '142', a reduced '7/14', a 12.26.56 as the birthday of Eric Robert Powell in addition to the 8.6.2, as well as an 8.6.11 and a 25/16. We also find the inevitable '315' of Menes (3,150 BC).

One may easily trace the history of the Pharaoh Den on the internet and find the true location of The Garden of Eden in the history of the Pharaoh Den. The name MEN is directly connected with the Early Dynastic Tribe of the METIS connected in marriage with the Early Dynastic Tribe of the NUIT. It is here where we locate the origin of the initials MN as Metis and Nuit. The Nuit Tribe, like the Metis Tribe are from Canada but are not recognized as part of the First Nations of Canada, but like the Lost Tribe of Ishmael, have been found. Nuit is of course Ancient Egyptian and are also called by the Goddess names of Nu, Nun and Nut. The so-called New York Mets have taken the Metis Tribe‟s name out of character.

The Pharaoh Horus Den, 0 – 3rd Dynasty

Horus Name Nebty Name Golden Horus Name Praenomen Nomen

Den, "Horus who Hits", "Horus who Strikes" Nebti Khasti, Nebti Chasti, "Nebti, the one of the desert" unknown unknown Udimu

Manetho King Lists Alternate Names

Hesepti, Usaphiados, Suaphais, Usafais Semti, Septi , Hesepto Horus-Den, Dewen, Oudimou

Dates
manetho Piccione 20 years 2963 -- 2949 BCE 2960-2915 grimal krauss von Beckerath malek 3050 (3051 – Erp) -2995 2930/2910 2914-2861 2879-2832

Succession
Predecessor Father Djet

Successor Regent

Anedjib Mother Merneith

Associated People
Father Mother Chancellor Djet Merneith Hemaka

Burial Place
Tomb T in Abydos, including 136 subsidiary burials. There is a stairway in the burial chamber, in two sections separated by a wooden door -- the first time stairs are included in a burial. The tomb is surrounded by a brick wall. Tomb at Saqqara with his name and possibly his body

Monuments
unknown

History
It is assumed that Den came to power as an infant, as his mother Merneith is closely associated with his rule as regent or possibly as a ruler in her own right. Den is listed as ruling for 20 years by Manetho, although evidence suggests that he had a much longer rule -- perhaps 50 years -- after the death of his father.

The Pharaoh Goddess Menhet Through this name we find Men connected with the first three letters of the name Hetep, which is also rendered as Hotpe and Hotep. It should be noted that all of creation began with music, as the name/word “Me” is the third note of “Doe, La, Me, Fa, So, La, Tee, Doe”.

Egyptian Gods: Menhit

In ancient Egypt, Menhit was the foreign war goddess of Nubian origin. Her name Menhit, sometimes spelled as Menchit, Menhet, Menkit, Menkhet, translates into “the slaughterer”, “the one who sacrifices”, or “she who massacres”. Because of her very aggressive and warrior-like character, she is sometimes known as the goddess of lions. She was less commonly known as the Crown goddess. She is believed to have the form of a woman with the head of lion. She often seen wearing a headdress with a solar disc and uraeus mounted on it. Originally, she was a consort of the Nubian war god Anhur, or Onuris, who brought her to Egypt. She is believed to ride ahead of Egyptian armies and destroy great warriors of enemies by shooting fiery arrows causing an almost assured success in wars. In this aspect, she is the protector of kings, pharaohs and their armies. In the third nome of Egypt, more particularly in Esna, she became the wife (mostly believed as Neith) of Khnum (the god of the source of Nile), and mother to Heka (the god of magic and witchcraft). Together, they became the “Triad of Latopolis” in Upper Egypt. Her cult center is at the city of Latopolis towards the southern border of Egypt and become closely associated with another war goddess, Sekhmet because of her duty and appearance. When Upper and Lower Egypt united, she became an aspect of Sekhmet.

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Egyptian Gods Aah

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Aker o Amun o Anhur o Anubis o Apep o Aten o Atum o Baal o Banebdjedet o Bes Four Sons Of Horus o Geb o Hapy o Heka o Horus o Huh o Ihy o Imhotep o Khepri o Khnum o Khonsu o Kuk o Maahes o Min o Monthu o Nefertum o Nun o Osiris o Ptah o Ra o Resheph o Seker o Set o Shezmu o Shu o Sobek o Tatenen
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Thoth Wepwawet Egyptian Symbols

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Ankh o Atef o Ba o Bennu Phoenix o Cartouche o Crook and Flail o Deshret o Djed o Eye Of Horus Hand Drill Hieroglyph o Hedjet o Imiut Fetish o Ka Spirit o Khepresh o Menat o Nebu o Nemes o Ouroboros o Pschent o Scarab o Sekhem Scepter o Senet o Serekh o Shen Ring o Sistrum o Tyet o Uraeus o Winged Sun
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Egyptian Goddesses

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Egyptian Gods Home o Serket o Ammit o Amunet

Anat o Anuket o Bastet o Bat o Hathor o Hatmehyt o Hauhet o Hequet o Isis o Kukhet o Ma‟at o Mafdet o Menhit o Meretseger o Meskhenet o Mut o Naunet o Neith o Nekhbet o Nephthys o Nut o Pakhet o Qetesh o Satis o Sekhmet o Seshat o Soqdet o Tawaret o Tefnut o Wadjet  Egyptian Artifacts
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Narmer Palette Pharaoh‟s Bed o Sphinx  Egyptian Ruins

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Abydos City Colossi Of Memnon
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Deir El Bahari o Denderah o Edfu City o Karnak o Kom Ombos Town o Luxor o Medinet Habu o Old Cairo o Philae o Pyramids Sakkara Burial Ground o The Nile River  Other Pages
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So here we find Eric Robert Powell‘s alphanumeric table listed through the 3rd Dynasty of Ancient Egypt. Now we shall look at his initials, also attested within the Early Dynastic Period.

Kadashman-Enlil I From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (Redirected from Kadashman-Enlil) Kadašman-Enlil I King of Babylon

Seal bearing seven-line Sumerian inscription mentioning a [Ka]dašman-[( )]Enlil in the Walters Art Museum.[i 1] Reign Predecessor Successor 1374 BC-1360 BC Kurigalzu I Burna-Buriaš II

Royal House

Kassite

Wikisource has original text related to this article: Kadashman-Enlil I Kadašman-Enlil I, typically rendered mka-dáš-man-dEN.LÍL in contemporary inscriptions (with the archaic masculine determinative preceding his name), was a Kassite King of Babylon from ca. 1374 BC to 1360 BC (short chronology), perhaps the 18th of the dynasty.[1] He is known to have been a contemporary of Amenhotep III of Egypt, with whom he corresponded. This places KadašmanEnlil securely to the first half of the 14th century BC by most standard chronologies. Contents

1 Correspondence with Egypt  2 Building works  3 Length of reign  4 Inscriptions  5 References Correspondence with Egypt

Five cuneiform tablets are preserved in the Amarna letters corpus. The letters designated EA (for El Amarna) 1 through 5 include three letters authored by Kadašman-Enlil and two by Amenhotep III, who is addressed as and calls himself Nibmuareya, or variants thereof. In the first letter from Amenhotep III, EA 1,[i 2] he writes to assure KadašmanEnlil that his sister, the daughter of Kurigalzu I has not in fact died, or been banished to a distant harem as a minor concubine, and to acknowledge the offer of one of Kadašman-Enlil‘s daughters as yet another wife. He suggests Kadašman-Enlil dispatch a kamiru, tentatively translated as eunuch, to identify his sister rather than the pair of envoys actually sent, on whom Amenhotep casts aspersions, describing one as a donkey-herder. The text is not entirely legible at this point and the unfortunate envoy may actually be referred to as a caravan leader and his companion a merchant, thus these ―nobodies‖ are merely

common tradesmen unfamiliar with the members of the royal household and thus unable to recognize Kadašman-Enlil‘s sister.[2] In EA 2[i 3] he declares ―my daughters are available (for marriage).‖ In EA 3,[i 4] Kadašman-Enlil feigns offence about being overlooked for an invite to the isinnu festival. Disarmingly, however, he invites his ―brother‖ to his own inauguration. ‗Now I am going to have a grand opening for the palace. Come yourself to eat and drink with me. I shall not do as you did!‖[3] In another of his letters, EA 4,[i 5] Kadašman-Enlil complains to Amenhotep III about not being given one of his daughters as a wife, quoting Amenhotep‘s earlier response that ―since earliest times no daughter of the king of Egypt has ever been given in marriage [to anyone]‖,.[4] He urges that if he could not receive a princess, then a beautiful woman should be sent, but immediately follows up by proposing to exchange of one of his own daughters for gold, needed to fund a building project he had in mind. In EA 5,[i 6] Amenhotep writes to detail the long list of gifts that will be provided in exchange for Kadašman-Enlil‘s daughter, and the deal is sealed. Building works Difficulties are encountered distinguishing between inscriptions belonging to Kadašman-Enlil I and his descendent Kadašman-Enlil II, who ruled around one hundred years later. Historians disagree on whether building inscriptions at Isin, for the Egalmaḫ of Gula, or in Larsa, on bricks bearing a sixteen-line inscription of the restoration of the Ebabbar temple for Šamaš,[i 7] should be assigned to the earlier King. The inscriptions from Nippur which include stamped bricks from the east stairway of the ziggurat and elsewhere describing work on the Ekur, the ―House of the Mountain‖ of Enlil, four inscribed slab fragments of red-veined alabaster,[i 8] a five-line agate cameo votive fragment,[i 9] an engraved stone door socket, [i 10] and so on, could be assigned in part to either King.[1][5] Length of reign An economic tablet[i 11] from Nippur is dated ―15th year (of) Kadašman-Enlil, month of Tašrītu, 18th day‖, and is ascribed to him, rather than his descendent name-sake, because of the more archaic use of the masculine personal determinative before the royal name and the likelihood that the later king reigned for no more than nine years.[1] Another one refers to the 1st year of BurraBuriaš and the 15th of the preceding king, presumed to be Kadašman-Enlil.[1]

His successor was his son, ascertained from an inscription on an irregular block of lapis lazuli[i 12] found in Nippur and now housed in the İstanbul Arkeoloji Műzeleri,[1] the considerably more well-known Burna-Buriaš II, who also wrote several letters preserved in Egyptian archives to the Egyptian pharaoh.

Inscriptions 13. ^ Cylinder Seal No. 42.619, in the Walters Art Museum, Baltimore. 14. ^ Tablet EA 1, ―The Pharoah complains to the Babylonian King,‖ BM 029784 in the British Museum. Transliteration 15. ^ Tablet EA 2, ―Proposals of Marriage,‖ VAT 00148 + VAT 02706 in the Vorderasiatisches Museum. Transliteration 16. ^ Tablet EA 3, ―Marriage, grumblings, a palace-opening,‖ C. 4743, Cairo Museum. Transliteration 17. ^ Tablet EA 4, ―Royal deceit and threats,‖ VAT 01657 in the Vorderasiatisches Museum. Transliteration 18. ^ Tablet EA 5, ―Gifts of Egyptian furniture for the Babylonian palace,‖ BM 029787 in the British Museum, + Cairo 4744. Transliteration 19. ^ For example, brick L. 7078, in the İstanbul Arkeoloji Müzeleri. 20. ^ Slabs CBS 19911-19914 in the University Museum, Philadelphia. 21. ^ Votive fragment CBS 8674 in the University Museum, Philadelphia. 22. ^ Door socket BM 121192 in the British Museum. 23. ^ Tablet Ni. 437 in the Nippur collection at the İstanbul Arkeoloji Műzeleri. 24. ^ Block BE I 68 i 5-15 in the İstanbul Arkeoloji Műzeleri.

References 6. ^ a b c d e J. A. Brinkman (1976). Materials for the Study of Kassite History, Vol. I. Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago. pp. 130–134, 140, 144, 107. p. 387 for date translation. 7. ^ Eva von Dassow (2006). Mark William Chavalas. ed. The ancient Near East: historical sources in translation. Blackwell Publishing. pp. 185–191. 8. ^ Trevor Bryce (2003). Letters of the Great Kings of the Ancient Near East: The Royal Correspondence of the Late Bronze Age. Routledge. p. 79.

9. 10.

^ After a French translation by Claire Lalouette, Thèbes ou la naissance d‟un empire, Fayard, Paris 1986 ^ R. L. Zettler, ed. (1993). Nippur Volume 3, Kassite Buildings in Area WC-1, OIP111. Chicago: The Oriental Institute. p. 97. https://oi.uchicago.edu/research/pubs/catalog/oip/oip111.html. records various inscriptions to Kadašman-Enlil II.

Tadukhipa (aka Muballitat-Sherua) From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (Redirected from Tadukhepa)

One of the "Amarna Letters" negotiating a marriage betwee Amenhotep III and Tushratta's daughter Tadukhipa

Tadukhipa, in the Hurrian language Tadu-Hepa, was the daughter of Tushratta, (aka Kadashman Enlil – Erp) king of Mitanni (reigned ca. 1382 BC–1342 BC) and his queen, Juni and niece of Artashumara. Tadukhipa's aunt Gilukhipa (sister of Tushratta) had married Pharaoh Amenhotep III in his 10th regnal year. Tadukhipa was to marry Amenhotep III more than two decades later.[1] Contents
 

1 Marriage to Amenhotep III  2 Marriage to Akhenaten 3 Identified with Kiya or Nefertiti  4 References

Marriage to Amenhotep III Relatively little is known about this princess of Mitanni. She is believed to have been born around Year 21 of the reign of Egyptian Pharaoh Amenhotep III, (c. 1366 BC). Fifteen years later, Tushratta married his daughter to his ally Amenhotep III to cement their two states alliances in Year 36 of Amenhotep III's reign (1352 BC). Tadukhipa is referenced in seven of Tushratta's thirteen Amarna letters, of about 1350-1340 BC.[2] Tushratta requested that his daughter would become a queen consort, even though that position was held by Queen Tiye.[3] The gifts sent to Egypt by Tushratta include a pair of horses and a chariot, plated with gold and inlaid with precious stones, a litter for a camel adorned with gold and precious stones, cloth and garments, jewelry such as bracelets, armlets and other ornaments, a saddle for a horse adorned with gold eagles, more dresses colored purple, green and crimson and a large chest to hold the items.[4] In return Amenhotep III never sent the golden statues he offered and after his death Tushratta sent some missives complaining about the lack of reciprocity.[5]

Marriage to Akhenaten Amenhotep III died shortly after Tadukhipa arrived in Egypt and she eventually married his son and heir Amenhotep IV (Akhenaten).[3]

Identified with Kiya or Nefertiti Some scholars tentatively identify Tadukhipa with Kiya, a queen of Akhenaten.[1] It has been suggested that the story of Kiya may be the source for the New Kingdom story called the Tale of Two Brothers. This fable tells the story of how the pharaoh fell in love with a beautiful foreign woman after smelling her hair. If Tadukhipa was later known as Kiya, then she would have lived at Amarna where she had her own sunshade and was depicted with the pharaoh and at least one daughter.[6] Others such as Petrie, Drioton and Vandier have suggested that Tadukhipa was given a new name after becoming the consort of Akhenaten and is to be identified the famous queen Nefertiti.[6] This theory suggests that Nefertiti's name "the beautiful one has come" refers to Nefertiti's foreign origin as Tadukhipa. Seele, Meyer and others have pointed out that Tey, wife of Ay, held the title of nurse to Nefertiti, and that this argues against this identification. A mature princess arriving in Egypt would not need a nurse.[7]

References Ancient Near East portal 8. ^ a b Dodson, Aidan and Hilton, Dyan. The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. Thames & Hudson. 2004. ISBN 0-500-05128-3 9. ^ William L. Moran, The Amarna Letters, Johns Hopkins University Press, 1992, EA 23, pp. 61-62 a b Tyldesley, Joyce. Chronicle of the Queens of Egypt. Thames & 10. ^ Hudson. 2006. p. 124 ISBN 0-500-05145-3 11. ^ A. L. Frothingham, Jr., Archæological News, The American Journal of Archaeology and of the History of the Fine Arts, Vol. 8, No. 4 (Oct. - Dec., 1893), pp. 557-631 12. ^ Aldred, Cyril, Akhenaten: King of Egypt ,Thames and Hudson, 1991 (paperback), ISBN 0-500-27621-8 a b Tyldesley, Joyce. Nefertiti: Egypt's Sun Queen. Penguin. 1998. 13. ^ ISBN 0-670-86998-8 14. ^ Cyril Aldred, The End of the El-'Amārna Period, The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, Vol. 43, (Dec., 1957), pp. 30-41

Kurigalzu I From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Kuri-Galzu I King of Babylon

‗Aqar Qūf, ancient Dūr-Kurigalzu Reign Predecessor Successor Royal House x – 1375 BC Kadašman-Ḫarbe I Kadašman-Enlil I Kassite

Kurigalzu I (x – 1375 B.C.), usually inscribed ku-ri-gal-zu but also sometimes with the m or d determinative,[1] the 17th king of the Kassite or 3rd dynasty that ruled over Babylon, was responsible for one of the most extensive and widespread building programs for which evidence has survived in Babylonia. The autobiography of Kurigalzu is one of the inscriptions which record that he was the son of Kadašman-Ḫarbe.[2] Galzu, whose possible native pronunciation was gal-du

or gal-šu, was the name by which the Kassites called themselves[3] and Kurigalzu may mean Shepherd of the Kassites (line 23. Ku-ur-gal-zu = Ri-'-i-bi-ši-i, in a Babylonian name-list).[4] He was separated from his namesake, Kurigalzu II, by around forty-five years and as it was not the custom to assign regnal numbers and they both had lengthy reigns, this makes it exceptionally difficult to distinguish for whom an inscription is intended.[1] The later king is, however, better known for his military campaign against the Assyrians than any building work he may have undertaken. It is now thought, however, that it was he who was the Kurigalzu who conquered Susa and was perhaps instrumental in the ascendancy of the Igehalkid dynasty over Elam, ca. 1400 BC.[5] Contents 1 Conquest of Elam  2 Diplomacy o 2.1 Through correspondence o 2.2 Through marriage  3 Building works 4 The autobiography of Kurigalzu  5 Other sources  6 Inscriptions  7 References

Conquest of Elam When Ḫur-batila, possibly the successor of Tepti Ahar to the throne of Elam, began raiding the Babylonian Empire, he taunted Kurigalzu to do battle with him at Dūr-Šulgi. Kurigalzu launched a campaign which resulted in the abject defeat and capture of Ḫur-batila, who appears in no other inscriptions. He went on to conquer the eastern lands of Susiana and Elam, recorded in the Chronicle P[i 1] out of sequence and credited to his later name-sake. This took his army to the Elamite capital, the city of Susa, which was sacked, celebrated in two inscriptions found there bearing his name. It is thought that he may have installed as his vassal, Ige-Halki, the founder of the new dynasty. A small agate tablet, bored lengthways to make a pendant, is engraved with nine lines of Sumerian on one

side, the other side bearing an older dedication of the mother of king Šulgi of Ur (2029 – 1982 BC, short chronology) to Inanna: Kurigalzu, the king of Karduniyas, conquered the palace of the city of Šaša in Elam and gave (this object) for the sake of his life as a gift to Ninlil, his lady. [6] —Kurigalzu, tablet CBS 8598, University Museum, Philadelphia The tablet was recovered from Elam during Kurigalzu‘s campaign and discovered in a cache of votive inscriptions at Nippur, but was ascribed to Kurigalzu II by earlier historians.

Diplomacy Through correspondence Prior diplomatic correspondence is evident, from study of the Amarna letters and includes evidence of dialogue between Thutmose IV and Kurigalzu as attested to by Amenhotep III in his letter, designated EA 1 (EA for El Amarna), to Kadašman-Enlil. [i 2] Burna-Buriaš II reminded Akhenaten in his letter, EA 11, that Kurigalzu had been sent gold by one of his ancestors, [i 3] and, in EA 9, reminded Tutankhamen that Kurigalzu had turned down a request from the Canaanites to form an alliance against Egypt. [i 4]

Through marriage He gave his daughter to Amenhotep III, who was a serial practitioner of diplomatic marriages with two Mitannite princesses and one from Arzawa in his harem, and who would even later go on to wed Kurigalzu's granddaughter, the daughter of Kadašman-Enlil.[7] A Neo-Babylonian copy of a literary text which takes the form of a letter,[i 5] now located in the Vorderasiatisches Museum in Berlin, is addressed to the Kassite court by an Elamite King and details the genealogy of the Elamite royalty of this period. Apparently, he married his sister to the Elamite king Paḫir-iššan, the son of Ige-Halki, and a daughter to his successor, Ḫumban-numena. This may have been Mishim-ruh, who is cited in royal inscriptions. The princess went on to bear Untash-Napirisha, the next king who was destined to marry Burna-Buriaš‘

daughter. The author of the letter is thought to be Shutruk-Nahhunte, ca. 11901155 BC, who claims descent from Kurigalzu‘s eldest daughter and also wed the eldest daughter of Meli-Šipak, the 33rd Kassite king. Unfortunately the letter inserts Nabu-apla-iddina (888 – 855 BC) ―an abomination, son of a Hittite‖, into the narrative in the place one might have supposed that Marduk-apla-iddina I was to appear, the substitution of dAMAR.UTU by dAG being an unlikely slip of the stylus, making a chronological conundrum and this may be the purpose of the ―letter‖, to denigrate the later king through the tongue of the earlier one.[8]

Building works Kurigalzu‘s construction efforts are attested to at no less than eleven Babylonian cities.[9] He was responsible for rebuilding the Ningal Temple at Ur, incorporating fragments of the Ur-Nammu Stela in buildings on the ziggurat terrace, the Edublal-Maḫ of Sîn buildings, or ―house for hanging up the exalted tablets‖, and the building of the gateway.[10] He was the first king to build a royal residence bearing his name,[11] a new capital city founded over an older settlement and built around 1390 BC, named DurKurigalzu, or 'fortress of Kurigalzu', in the far north of Babylonia (modern „Aqar Qūf).[12] It was positioned to protect an important trade route that led east across the Iranian plateau to Afghanistan, the source of lapis lazuli.[13] The 170-foot-high ziggurat of Enlil can still be seen on the western outskirts of Baghdad, with its reinforcing layers of reed matting and bitumen and the remains of three temples at its foot. Rawlinson first identified the site in 1861 from the brick inscriptions. Excavated in 1942–45 by Seton Lloyd and Taha Baqir, the city covered 225 hectares and included the Egal-kišarra, or ―Palace of the Whole World‖, a vast palatial and administrative complex.[14] In an adoption contract which sternly warns the adoptee, ―If [Il]i-ippašra says, ‗you are not my father‘, they shall shave his head, bind him and sell him for silver,‖[15] the date formula used, ―in the month of Šabatu, the 19th day, the year Kurigalzu, the king, built the Ekurigibara,‖ predates that which was introduced during the reign of Kadašman-Enlil I and that had become de rigueur by the later reign of Kurigalzu II.[16] The Ekurigibara of Enlil was a temple in Nippur.

The autobiography of Kurigalzu

Autobiography of Kurigalzu. A neo-Babylonian copy of a text recording the endowment by Kurigalzu, son of Kadašman-Ḫarbe, of a temple of Ištar with an estate situated on the Euphrates near Nippur, is known as the autobiography of Kurigalzu and comes in the form of a small hexagonal prism[i 6] of light-yellow baked clay[17] and a fragmentary cylinder.[i 7] In it, he takes credit for being the …finisher of the wall, kišuru, and the one who completed the Ekur, provider for Ur and Uruk, the one that assures the integrity of the rites of Eridu, the constructor of the temple of An and Inanna, the one who ensures the integrity of the Sattukku (food allowance) offerings of the great gods.[2] —Autobiography of Kurigalzu, Prism BM 108982 and Cylinder NBC 2503 He ―caused Anu the father of the great gods to dwell in his exalted sanctuary‖, which is suggested to be referring to the restoration of the Anu cult.[2] The text lacks the linguistic features and script characteristics which would bring one to suppose it is a genuine copy of an ancient inscription and was probably created in late Babylonian times to enhance the prestige of the Ištar cult. The extent to

which it preserves tradition from the actual events of the reign of Kurigalzu cannot as yet be determined.[2]

Other sources Evidence of the stretch of Kassite influence comes to us from a tomb at Metsamor where a remarkable carnelian cylinder seal with a hieroglyphic inscription mentioning the Kassite king Kurigalzu I was found. Situated in Armenia, in the middle of the Ararat valley, Metsamor was an important Hurrian center for metal forging[18] A seal is inscribed Nur-[.sup.d]x, son of Kurigalzu, and claims the title nu.es [.sup.d]en.lil, which is shared with others, such as three governors of Nippur and other princes. The meaning of this title and the identity of the Kurigalzu, I or II, are not known.[19]

Inscriptions 8. ^ Chronicle P (ABC 22), tablet BM 92701, column 3 lines 10 through 19. 9. ^ Tablet EA 1, ―The Pharoah complains to the Babylonian King,‖ BM 029784 in the British Museum, Transliteration line 62, ―Regarding the words of my father, you wrote...‖ 10. ^ Tablet EA 11, ―Proper escort for a betrothed princess,‖ VAT 151 in the Vorderasiatisches Museum, Berlin, Transliteration lines 19 to 20. 11. ^ Tablet EA 9, ―Ancient loyalties, new requests,‖ BM 29785 in the British Museum, London, Transliteration lines 19 to 30. 12. ^ Tablet VAT 17020 13. ^ Prism BM 108982 in the British Museum. 14. ^ Cylinder NBC 2503 in the James B. Nies Collection, Yale University.

References 20. ^ a b J. A. Brinkman (1976). Materials for the Study of Kassite History, Vol. I (MSKH I). Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago. pp. 205– 246.

21. ^ a b c d Tremper Longman (July 1, 1990). Fictional Akkadian autobiography: a generic and comparative study. Eisenbrauns. pp. 88–91, 224– 225. ISBN 0-931464-41-2. for the complete text. 22. ^ Arnaud Fournet (June 2011). "The Kassite Language In a Comparative Perspective with Hurrian and Urartean". The MacroComparative Journal 2 (1): 2. 23. ^ Theophilus G. Pinches (Jan., 1917). "The Language of the Kassites". Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland: 106. 24. ^ F. Vallat (2000). "L'hommage de l'élamite Untash-Napirisha au Cassite Burnaburiash". Akkadica (114-115): 109–117. 25. ^ Frans van Koppen (2006). "Inscription of Kurigalzu I". In Mark William Chavalas. The ancient Near East: historical sources in translation. Blackwell Publishing Ltd.. pp. 140–141. 26. ^ Alan R. Schulman (July 1979). "Diplomatic Marriage in the Egyptian New Kingdom". Journal of Near Eastern Studies (the University of Chicago Press) 38 (3): 183–184. 27. ^ D. T. Potts (1999). The archaeology of Elam: formation and transformation of an ancient Iranian State. Cambridge University Press. pp. 206–208. 28. ^ Leonhard Sassmannshausen (2004). "Babylonian chronology of the second half of the second millennium BC". In Hermann Hunger and Regine Pruzsinszky. Mesopotamian Dark Age Revisited. Vienna. pp. 61–70. 29. ^ Jeanny Vorys Canby (2001). The Ur-Nammu Stela. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archeology and Anthropology. p. 6. 30. ^ Georges Roux (1996). "The Kassite Period 1500 – 700 BC". In Sigfried J. de Laet, Ahmad Hasan Dani. History of Humanity: From the third millennium to the seventh century B.C.. Routledge. p. 484. 31. ^ T Clayden (1996). "Kurigalzu I and the restoration of Babylon". Iraq (British Institute for the Study of Iraq) 58: 109–121. JSTOR 4200423. 32. ^ Jane McIntosh (2005). Ancient Mesopotamia: new perspectives. ABCCLIO, Inc.. p. 91. 33. ^ Piotr Bienkowski, Alan Ralph Millard, ed. (2000). Dictionary of the ancient Near East. British Museum. pp. 22–23. 34. ^ Veysel Donbaz (1987). "Two Documents from the Diverse Collections in Istanbul". In Martha A. Morrison, David I. Owen. General studies and excavations at Nuzi 9/1. Eisenbrauns. p. 73. 35. ^ Università di Torino, Centro scavi di Torino per il medio oriente e l'Asia (1993). Mesopotamia. 28. Giappichelli. p. 42.

36. ^ C. J. Gadd (1921). Cuneiform Texts from Babylonian Tablets, &c., in the British Museum. XXXVI. pp. 7, 16 and 17. Plates 6 and 7 show a sketch of the obverse and reverse of this prism. 37. ^ E. V. KhanzadIan and B. B. Piotrovskii (Spring 1992). "A Cylinder Seal with Ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphic Inscription from the Metsamor Gravesite". Anthropology & Archeology of Eurasia 30 (4): 67–74. 38. ^ J. A. Brinkman (Apr. - Jun., 2004). "Review: Administration and Society in Kassite Babylonia, Reviewed work(s): Beiträge zur Verwaltung und Gesellschaft Babyloniens in der Kassitenzeit by Leonhard Sassmannshausen". Journal of the American Oriental Society 124 (2): 283–304.

Family of Kadashman Enlil aka Kadashman Turgu and Kadesh

Kadashman-Turgu From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Kadašman-Turgu King of Babylon

Zoomorph amulet[i 1] with an inscription in the name of Kadashman-Turgu, Louvre Museum Reign Predecessor Successor Royal House ca. 1281–1264 BC Nazi-Maruttaš Kadašman-Enlil II Kassite

Kadašman-Turgu, inscribed Ka-da-aš-ma-an Túr-gu and meaning he believes in Turgu, a Kassite deity,[1] (1281–1264 BC short chronology) was the 24th king of the Kassite or 3rd dynasty of Babylon. He succeeded his father, Nazi-Maruttaš, continuing the tradition of proclaiming himself lugal ki-šár-ra or ―king of the world‖[2] and went on to reign for eighteen years.[i 2] He was a contemporary of the Hittite king Ḫattušili III, with whom he concluded a formal treaty of friendship and mutual assistance and Ramesses II with whom he consequently severed diplomatic relations. Kadašman-Turgu reigned during momentous times, but seems to have played only a supporting role. Ḫattušili III, in a letter[i 3]:r52 to his son and successor Kadašman-Enlil II, said of him, ―they used to call [your father] a king who prepares for war but then stays at home‖.[3][4]

Contents

1 Relations with Assyria  2 The Hittite succession  3 Domestic affairs o 3.1 Chronological problems  4 Inscriptions  5 References

Relations with Assyria Early in his reign, he brokered a treaty with the Assyrian king Adad-Nīrāri, preserved on a fragmentary clay tablet[i 4] where the phrase ―he pardoned his son of the crime‖[i 5] appears twice.[5][6] Kadašman-Enlil‘s father, Nazi-Maruttaš had been engaged in a protracted war with both Adad-Nīrāri and his father Arikden-ili which had reached its dénouement in a battle at "Kār-Ištar of Ugarsallu".[i 6] This settlement perhaps explains why there were no reports of any conflict between the Babylonians and Assyrians during this time.[7] It also freed the Assyrians to turn their attention to conquering their westerly neighbor and former overlord the Mitanni.[3]

The Hittite succession He would no doubt have been aware of the Battle of Kadesh, in 1274, the dramatic climax of the Hittite conflict with Egypt and probably the largest chariot battle ever fought. The Hittite king Muwatalli II died around 1272 and was succeeded by his son, Urḫi-Teššup, who took the name Mursili III, and reigned for seven years.[i 7] But he found himself increasingly at odds with his uncle, Ḫattušili III, the heroic general of Kadesh, who eventually overthrew him. In the first instance, Urḫi-Teššup seems to have appealed to Kadašman-Turgu for support, [i 8] before turning to the Assyrians and finally seeking asylum at the court of Ramesses. First, Ḫattušili demanded the handover of the fugitive. Then he sought support from Kadašman-Turgu complaining of the pharaoh's lack of complicity.

Kadašman-Turgu was apparently sympathetic and willing to recognize the usurper as Hatti's legitimate king, motivated perhaps more by the need for a strong alliance with the Hittites to counter the threat of the Assyrians and maintain the uneasy peace. He promised to provide Ḫattušili with military support in any conflict with Egypt and ―kept the messenger of the king of Egypt at bay‖, i.e. terminated diplomatic links.[8] According to Ḫattušili, they agreed that ―the survivor shall protect the children of the one who goes first to his fate‖.[8] Relations must have warmed for at least a short time, before Kadašman-Turgu died, because Ḫattušili records in a letter to Kadašman-Enlil that his father loaned to the Hittite the services of a sculptor, who was subsequently returned.[8] He had earlier loaned a physician named Rabâ-ša-Marduk and an exorcist to Ḫattušili‘s brother Muwatalli II ("as for the exorcist about whom my brother wrote me, saying 'the exorcist whom my brother wrote me has arrived […] and has begun the ritual'‖[i 9]:7f) but these experts were never returned ("perhaps the exorcist has died"[i 3]:r45).[9]

Domestic affairs His construction efforts are witnessed at the E‘igi-kalama ziggurat of the tutelary deity Lugalmarada, in the city of Marad[10] and also in the ziggurat area at Nippur.[2] The eighteen year reign is confirmed by progression of date formulae appearing on more than a hundred economic texts, such as those of Irîmshu-Ninib, a prominent official in Nippur, who recorded ten storehouse transactions from Kadašman-Turgu‘s reign through to that of his successor, his son KadašmanEnlil II, in which he receives incoming taxes, grants loans, and pays salaries to other officers.[11]

Chronological problems An economic text, first published in 1982 by Veysel Donbaz,[12] has presented a chronological dilemma regarding the sequence of succession from KadašmanTurgu to Kadašman-Enlil as it seems to place Kadašman-Enlil‘s succession year in the past whilst describing events too recent to be explained by harking back to

the earlier monarch, Kadašman-Enlil I, whose reign ended 90 years before the date (1270 BC) on this document. It describes the exchange of goods and real estate between Kidin-Gula and his son Martuku with Arad-Marduk. It provides the following heading at the start and a similar summary at the end: From the month Tašrītu of the accession year of Kadašman-Enlil to the twelfth year of Kadašman-Turgu, king.[i 10] —A.1998, lines 2–4 Brinkman argues that the evidence for the traditional sequence, i.e. votive inscriptions of Kadašman-Enlil, son of Kadašman-Turgu and other contemporary documents, ―is too strong simply to set aside.‖[13]:70 In contrast, Boese suggests another Kadašman-Enlil may have briefly preceded the pair.[14] Equally intriguing is its site of excavation in the city of Assur many miles from the jurisdiction of the Kassite Monarchs and presumably where the transactions it describes took place.

Inscriptions 1. ^ AO 4633 Small horse-head figure with blue glaze inscribed "Ka-da-aš-maan Túr-gu, LUGAL ŠÁR." 2. ^ According to the Kinglist A tablet, BM 33332, column 2, line 3, in the British Museum, but note the name is mostly obliterated. 3. ^ a b Letter from Ḫattušili III to Kadašman-Enlil II, Bo 1802 KBo 1:10 r52: šarru ša giš.tukul.hi.a.iššaknūma [uššabu], ―A king who sat home when there is a war.‖ 4. ^ Tablet VAT 15420. 5. ^ Fragment VAT 14400 copy of VAT 15420: mar-šu i-na hi-ti u-zak-ki, ―he pardoned his son for the crime.‖ 6. ^ Synchronistic Chronicle (ABC 21) tablet C, column 1, lines 24 to 31 7. ^ Apology of Ḫattušili III §11, ―I submitted for seven years‖. 8. ^ Apology of Ḫattušili III, §12, IV 34–5, ―He would have plotted another plot, and driven to the land of Babylon, but when I heard the matter, I seized him, and I sent him to the sea coast.‖ 9. ^ Kadašman-Turgu letter to Ḫattušili III (tablet Bo 6358 / KUB 3:71 / CTH 174) (Vorderasiatisches Museum, Berlin) 10. ^ Tablet A.1998: ul-tu ITI.DU6.KÙ ša MU.SAG NAM.LUGAL Ka-daš-mandEN-LÍL a-di MU.12.KÁM Ka-daš-man-Túr-gu LUGAL.

References ^ Arnaud Fournet (June 2011). "The Kassite Language In a Comparative Perspective with Hurrian and Urartean". The MacroComparative Journal 2 (1): 11. a b J. A. Brinkman (1976). Materials for the Study of Kassite History, 2. ^ Vol. I. Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago. pp. 162, 164. 3. ^ a b J. M. Munn-Rankin (1975). "XXV: Assyrian Military Power, 1300–1200 BC, The Campaigns of Adad-Nīrāri I". In I. E. S. Edwards, C. J. Gadd, N. G. L. Hammond, S. Solberger. The Cambridge Ancient History, Volume II, Part 2, History of the Middle East and the Aegean Region, 1380–1000 BC. Cambridge University Press. p. 277. if the passage has been ―correctly restored‖. 4. ^ Ulla Koch-Westenholz (2000). Babylonian Liver Omens: The Chapters Manzazu, Padanu, and Pan Takalti of the Babylonian Extispicy Series Mainly from Assurbanipal's Library. Museum Tusculanum. p. 191. footnote 544. 5. ^ Albert Kirk Grayson (1972). Assyrian Royal Inscriptions, Volume I: From the beginning to Ashur-resha-ishi I.. – Otto Harrossowitz. p. 78. 6. ^ Eckart Frahm (2009). Historische und historisch-literische Texte. Harrassowitz Verlag. p. 19. 7. ^ David Wilkinson (fall, 2003). "The Power Configuration Sequence of the Central World System, 1500–700 BC". Journal of World-Systems Research x (3): 678. a b c Trevor Bryce (2003). Letters of the great kings of the ancient Near 8. ^ East: the royal. Routledge. pp. 71, 204, 205–6. 9. ^ 6 CAD Š/III, 250b 10. ^ Leonhard Sassmannshausen (2004). "Babylonian chronology of the second half of the second millennium BC". In Hermann Hunger and Regine Pruzsinszky. Mesopotamian Dark Age Revisited. Vienna. p. 68. 11. ^ Albert T. Clay (1906). Volume XXIV: Documents from the Temple Archives Dated in the Reigns of the Cassite Kings. Department of Archaeology, University of Pennsylvania. pp. 4, 8. 12. ^ Veysel Donbaz. "A Middle Babylonian Legal Document Raising Problems in Kassite Chronology". JNES 41: 207–212. JSTOR 544999. 13. ^ J. A. Brinkman (1983). "Istanbul A. 1998, Middle Babylonian Chronology, and the Statistics of the Nippur Archives". Zeitschrift für Assyriologie und vorderasiatische Archäologie 73 (1): 67–74. 1.

14.

^ Johannes Boese (2009). "Kadašman-Enlil, Kadaman-Turgu und die kassitische Chronologie des 14. und 13. Jahrhunderts v. Chr.". Altoriental. Forsch 36 (1): 85–96.

The Armarna Letters; Burnaburiash of Babylon EA7; From Burnaburiash, Great King, king of Karaduniash (Babylon) to Napkhururia (Akhenaten) To Napkhururia , Great King, king of Egypt, thus speaks Burnaburiash, Great King, king of Karaduniash, your brother. I and my house, my horses and my chariots, my notables and my land, we are well. May well-being reign over my brother and his house, his horses and his cars, his notables and his land. From the day on which the envoy of my brother arrived before me, my body has not been well, and his envoy has never eaten or drunk before me. See, if you question your envoy, he cannot tell you that my body is not well, and ... And as my body is not well and my brother ... I vented my anger with my brother with the following words: Should my brother not know that I am ill? Why has he not supported my head? Why has he not worried and sent his messengers? The envoy of my brother has spoken thus: The way is not short, so that your brother can find out and send you greetings. The passage is long to your brother. Who can inform him, so that he sends a greeting to you quickly? He next spoke thus: Question your messenger if the passage is not long... As I asked my messenger, and he said that the way was long, no longer make I my brother the object of my anger. As one has said that in the land of my brother there is everything, and that my brother lacks nothing, of everything there is also in my land, and I lack

nothing. For a long time we have had good relations between us kings, and we exchange greetings. These relations between us must remain... Only, four mines of beautiful lapis lazuli have I sent to my brother as a gift, and also five teams of horses. When the times are good, I will send with my future messengers many beautiful gifts, and anything that my brother wishes, he can write ... I have started an undertaking, and for this reason I write to my brother. My brother should send me much gold, that I need for my work. But the gold that my brother sends me, do not leave it to some official. Let the eyes of my brother inspect it, and let my brother seal it and send it! Because as far as the previous gold is concerned, which my brother did not inspect personally, but which was sealed and sent by an official of my brother, of the 40 mines which I put in the furnace, there was barely anything of value left. And with regards to Salmu, my envoy, twice has his caravan been plundered. Once it was plundered by Biriazama, and his other caravan by Pamahu, a governor of a land that belongs to you. And this matter, my brother, you must put right! When my envoy appears before my brother, then let also appear Salmu. His ... has to be returned to him, and the damages have to be made good.

EA8; From Burnaburiash, king of Karaduniash (Babylon) to Napkhururia (Akhenaten) To Napkhururia King of Egypt, my brother, to say: Thus speaks Burnaburiash King of Babylon, your brother. I am well. To your country, your house, your women, your sons, your ministers, your horses, your chariots, many greetings. I and my brother have signed a treaty, and I spoke thus: Like our fathers, who were friends, we will be friends. And now, my merchants who travelled with Ahutabu (Ahitov) delayed in Canaan for business. After Ahutabu set out on his way to my brother and in the town of Hanatun which is in Canaan Shumda (King Simon) Son of Baluma and Shutatna Son of Shartum from Akko sent their men there. They beat my merchants and stole their money. Ahutabu , whom I sent to you, is before you.

Ask him and he will tell you. Canaan is your country and its kings are your slaves, in your country I was robbed. Bind them and return the money they robbed. And the men who murdered my slaves, kill them and avenge their blood. Because if you do not kill these men, they will again murder my caravans and even my ambassadors, and the ambassadors between us will cease. If this should happen the people of the land will leave you.

EA9; From Burnaburiash, king of Karaduniash (Babylon) to Napkhururia (Akhenaten) To Naphkhururia, king of Egypt, thus speaks Burnaburiash, king of Karduniash, your brother: I am well. May the well-being reign over you, your house, your women, your children, your land, your great ones, your horses, your chariots. When my father and your father had dealings in good friendship, they sent each other beautiful presents, and nothing they refused. Now, my brother has sent me only two mines of gold. But this is a very small amount: send, then, as much as your father did! And if you have little (gold), send half of what your father sent! Why have you sent me only two mines of gold? My work in the houses of the Gods is abundant, and now I have begun an undertaking: Send much gold! And you, whatever do you need from my land, write and it will be sent to you. At the time of Kurigalzu, my father, the Kinahi (Canaanites) went to him in the following terms: the borders of the country... we want to pass to the other side, and join you. My father gave them the following answer: Forget the idea of dealing with me! I will not declare myself against my brother, the king of Egypt, nor will I treat with someone else! Should I not rather plunder you? He is my ally. My father committed no acts against your father. Now (with respect to this): The Assyrians, vassals of mine, I have not sent to you, as they claim. Why have they been received in your land? If I am dear to you, do not let them conclude any business. May they return here with empty

hands! As a gift, I send you three mines of beautiful lapis lazuli and five teams of horses for five wooden chariots.

Karduniash, The God Dun as Den, aka Duniash, - The Sea Peoples of Ramses III in addition to the Iberian Peninsula Unmasked – Pharaoh Gaddash – Adum – and more

* The state of Karduniash, whose name appears for the first time on the monuments of the Cossaean period, has been localised in a somewhat vague manner, in the south of Babylonia, in the country of the Kashdi, and afterwards formally identified with the Countries of the Sea, and with the principality which was called Bit-Yakin in the Assyrian period. In the Tel-el-Amarna tablets the name is already applied to the entire country occupied by the Cossaean kings or their descendants, that is to say, to the whole of Babylonia. Sargon II. at that time distinguishes between an Upper and a Lower Karduniash; and in consequence the earliest Assyriologists considered it as an Assyrian designation of Babylon, or of the district surrounding it, an opinion which was opposed by Delitzsch, as he believed it to be an indigenous term which at first indicated the district round Babylon, and afterwards the whole of Babylonia. From one frequent spelling of the name, the meaning appears to have been Fortress of Duniash; to this Delitzsch preferred the translation Garden of Duniash, from an erroneous different reading—Ganduniash: Duniash, at first derived from a Chaldaean God Dun, whose name may exist in Dunghi, is a Cossaean name, which the Assyrians translated, as they did Buriash, Belmatati, lord of the country. Winckler rejects the ancient etymology, and proposes to divide the word as Kardu-niash and to see in it a Cossaean translation of the expression mat-kaldi, country of the Caldaeans: Hommel on his side, as well as Delitzsch, had thought of seeking in the Chaldaeans proper—Kaldi for Kashdi, or Kash-da, "domain of the Cossaeans "— the descendants of the Cossaeans of Karduniash, at least as far as race is concerned. In the cuneiform texts the name is written Kara—D. P. Duniyas, "the Wall of the god Duniyas" (cf. the Median Wall or Wall of Semiramis which defended Babylonia on the north). …

Gandish, Gaddash, Adumitasii ....1655-? B.C. …

The Egyptians had, therefore, no need to anticipate Chaldaean interference when, forsaking their ancient traditions, they penetrated for the first time into the heart of Syria. Not only was Babylon no longer supreme there, but the coalition of those cities on which she had depended for help in subduing the West was partially dissolved, and the foreign princes who had succeeded to her patrimony were so far conscious of their weakness, that they voluntarily kept aloof from the countries in which, previous to their advent, Babylon had held undivided sway. The Egyptian conquest of Syria had already begun in the days of Agumkakrime, and it is possible that dread of the Pharaoh was one of the chief causes which influenced the Cossaeans to return a favourable answer to the Khani. Thutmosis I., on entering Syria, encountered therefore only the native levies, and it must be admitted that, in spite of their renowned courage, they were not likely to prove formidable adversaries in Egyptian estimation. Not one of the local Syrian dynasties was sufficiently powerful to collect all the forces of the country around its chief, so as to oppose a compact body of troops to the attack of the African armies. The whole country consisted of a collection of petty states, a complex group of peoples and territories which even the Egyptians themselves never completely succeeded in disentangling. They classed the inhabitants, however, under three or four very comprehensive names—Kharu, Zahi, Lotanu, and Kefatiu—all of which frequently recur in the inscriptions, but without having always that exactness of meaning we look for in geographical terms. As was often the case in similar circumstances, these names were used at first to denote the districts close to the Egyptian frontier with which the inhabitants of the Delta had constant intercourse. The Kefatiu seem to have been at the outset the people of the sea-coast, more especially of the region occupied later by the Phoenicians, but all the tribes with whom the Phoenicians came in contact on the Asiatic and European border were before long included under the same name.* … * Thutmosis III. shows that, at any rate, they were established in these regions about the XVIth century B.C. The Egyptian pronunciation of their name is Khiti, with the feminine Khitait, Khitit; but the Tel el-Amarna texts employ the vocalisation Khati, Khate, which must be more correct than that of the Egyptians, The form Khiti seems to me to be explicable by an error of popular etymology. Egyptian ethnical appellations in iti formed their plural by -atiu, -atee, -ati, -ate, so

that if Khate, Khati, were taken for a plural, it would naturally have suggested to the scribes the form Khiti for the singular. ** Thutmosis III., speaking to his soldiers, tells them that all the chiefs the projecting spur of some mountain, or on a solitary and more or less irregularly shaped eminence in the midst of a plain, and the means of defence in the country are shut up in Megiddo, so that "to take it is to take a thousand cities:" this is evidently a hyperbole in the mouth of the conqueror, but the exaggeration itself shows how numerous were the chiefs and consequently the small states in Central and Southern Syria. Not only were the royal cities fenced with walls, but many of the surrounding villages were fortified, while the watch-towers, or migdols* built at the bends of the roads, at the fords over the rivers, and at the openings of the ravines, all testified to the insecurity of the times and the aptitude for self-defence shown by the inhabitants.  This Canaanite word was borrowed by the Egyptians from the Syrians at the beginning of their Asiatic wars; they employed it in forming the names of the military posts which they established on the eastern frontier of the Delta: it appears for the first time among Syrian places in the list of cities conquered by Thutmosis III … http://christianbookshelf.org/maspero/history_of_egypt_chaldaea_syria_babylonia_and_a ssyria_v_4/chapter_iisyria_at_the_beginning.htm

Origin of the name Amen Origin of The Egyptian Cobra and Vulture Menes as The Architect Imhotep who invented writing The “Two Ladies” origin and

Eric Robert Powell as the Return of Amen Hotep II (Ishmael)

In 1897 J.E. Quibell had been digging at El-Kab, an important site on the east bank some distance to the north of Edfu. Here the local goddess was the vulture Nekhbet who shared with the cobra Wadjet of Buto in the Delta the honor of providing the Pharaoh with his Two-Ladies title. Nekhbet was representative of upper Egypt, while Wadjet that of Lower Egypt. That year, he found little success, but the next, while just across the river at Kom elAhmar, he had more luck. This was known to be the ancient Nekhen mentioned in certain Old Kingdom official titles, and the Greek Hierakonpolis on account of the falcon-god Horus who was the principal deity worshipped there. The great prize he found was the famous slate palette of Na'rmer. It needed but little study to recognize in this object an indisputable link between the late predynastic and the earliest dynastic periods. Apparently, though there is some confusion in the published work of Quibell at Hierakonpolis, he also found in the same deposit fragments of a ceremonial mace head belonging to Narmer and some other mace head fragments inscribed with the name of Scorpion, one of Narmer's predecessors.

Narmer's claim rests largely on his earlier historical position and on the Narmer Palette, which has been interpreted as showing the king in the act of conquering Lower (Northern) Egypt.

On the front side of the palette, just under the king's name, is a scene depicting Narmer wearing the Red Crown of Lower Egypt. He holds a mace in his left hand, while in his right he holds a type of flail. Before him are the symbols for his name, though not written in a serekh. He is followed by a servant who holds his sandals in his left hand and some kind of basket in his other hand. Above the servant is a symbol of unknown meaning.

On the right of the scene, ten decapitated corpses who lie on the ground with their heads tossed between their legs. Above these victims is depicted a ship with a harpoon and a falcon in it. These symbols are usually interpreted as the conquered region. If the symbols for the nomes (provinces of ancient Egypt) remained the same over time, then this could be the region of Mareotis, the 7th Lower Egyptian nome. In front of these symbols is also the wing of a door and a sparrow, which are thought to mean "create" or "found". Therefore, one might speculate that Narmer founded a new province from this conquered land.

The central, largest scene on the front of the palette is an interesting one depicting two men tethering the stretched necks of two fabulous animals. The tying together of the necks of the two animals has often been interpreted as the joining of Upper and Lower Egypt, though in fact there is nothing much to indicate that these two animals were symbolic of southern and northern Egypt. This is a unique image in Egyptian art, and one must remember that the taming of wild animals was a traditional symbolic task of the king.

The central, largest scene on the front of the palette is an interesting one depicting two men tethering the stretched necks of two fabulous animals. The tying together of the necks of the two animals has often been interpreted as the joining of Upper and Lower Egypt ...
“also rendered as East and West, that is, Egypt and America. See origin of name Mn as

Amen and Amin, phonetically the same as Amen and also as Men(es).” - Erp.

The scene at the bottom of the palette's front face continues the imagery of conquest and victory. A bull, almost certainly a symbol of the king's vigor and strength, tramples a fallen foe and attacks the walls of a city or fortress with its horns. The name of the city or fortress is written within the walls, but unknown to us.

Most of the back side of the palette is taken up by a central scene, finely carved with highly detailed raised relief. It shows the king, who must certainly be Narmer, in the classical pose found throughout Egyptian history of smiting his enemies with a war mace.

He wears a short kilt with a dangling animal's tail, and on his head is what appears to be the White Crown of Upper Egypt.

Behind him we once again find a servant who holds the king's sandals in his left hand and a basket (or perhaps water bottle) in his right.

The sandals here are extremely important as they are recorded in the bible with the verse on John the Baptist who, when heralding the coming of Jesus as the Christ and also therefore 'Amen – the faithful and true witness' whose “sandals I am not worthy to unloose (untie).- Erp

The fact that the king is represented as barefooted and followed by a sandal-bearer may suggest a ritual nature for the scene depicted on the palette.

This important rendering actually records the premonition that the Pharaoh Menes as Amen would eventually travel from the East to the West as recorded in the bible as …

'As lightning flashes from the East to the West, so shall the coming of the Son of Man be.' Erp.

The enemy is depicted kneeling before the king, naked but for a slight girdle. Behind the enemy are two signs that include a harpoon and perhaps a lake, the meaning of which is also unclear. It is possible that this represents the origin of the enemy ... Above the enemy's head, facing the king, is what most scholars believe to be a personified marshland, with a mans head rising from it. Out of the land, six papyrus plants are growing, indicating that it was marshland, usually identified as the Egyptian Delta by most scholars. A falcon, symbolic of the king, is perched on top of the papyrus plants and appears to draw the breath of life out of the nostrils of the marshland's face. This description allows for the act of the Hippopotamus which killed (assassinated) Menes. The actual rendering of the meaning of this hippopotamus is to be found below. Within the alphanumeric values of the word 'hippopotamus' we find the year of the expedition as listed above as 1897, but perhaps more suggestive of the year 1798 when we find this year as indicative for the year of the Pyramid Wars when Napoleon took a canon and blew the nose off of the Sphinx and also captured Egypt away from all representations of the Laws of Egypt after the reign of the Pharaohs and Egypt's dominance around the world which produced a huge Egyptian carnage due to this battle. When adding an extra 'op' to the word 'hippopotamus' as this author originally did in error, one finds the year 526(BC) when Amen Hotep left Egypt to visit “The Neters of the West” - which are the heads of the 24 tribes located in Canada and America as 12 Tribes each. Within the alphanumeric examination we also find the digits 864, which recognizes that there are only 86,400 seconds in a day in addition tot he number 179 which represents Amen Hotep I in 526BC as well as '1956'(BC) as well as recording the date of '1956'(AD') while the number '14' for the letters 'A.D. Are also shown. We also find in this computation the numbers '196' twice, which represent the alphanumeric table number embedded in the name of one Eric Robert Powell (this author) which no one else can claim as we will demonstrate that this name was actually given to

Narmer (Menes) as well as the name 'Horus – Aha' as well as the word/name “Per'o” which represents the initials of Eric Robert Powell

represents the name of Eric Robert Powell with the remaining letter “O” as representing, and this has been confirmed by this author of this entire text as representing the symbol of the universe as representing the letter 'O' which also represents the fact that the earth and its solar system being confined to a wormhole as our solar system is not recored in the known 88 known constellations. This rendering of the letter “O” also represents the letter “O” has an alphanumeric '15' in our English alphabet which also represents the number '51' in reverse which in turn represents the 51st largest constellation, that of Lepus the Hare. This constellation denotes a rabbit hole as well as the star Leporis where we also find the initials 'Erp' and the fact that one of the planets of Leporis is responsible for the word “Leprosy as well as “Leper”, which denotes the biblical Moses as cursing the Jews snow-white forever and the annihilation of their color spectrum of light as well as soul and skin by the biblical Moses who was actually the Prince of Egypt as well ass Priest, Ahmose II, also known as Ahmose-Ankh. No one in America or Egypt had this wonderful name being Eric Robert Powell. For within the name Eric Robert Powell one finds the name of the Semitic God “El” as well as the Babylonian/Sumerian/Canaanite God 'Bel', also known as Ba'al due to the names 'Robert' and 'Powell'.

The word 'hippopotamus' also contains the letters 'Po' twice.

We also find the word “hips” as all Masons display their hands and arms as resting on their “hips” as record of the Ram Sign of Amen Hotep and therefore Menes as well as the Bull sign of Amen Hotep II and his sign of Taurus being therefore Taurus the Bull and his return as noted on the top front of the Narmer Palette.

Returning to the word 'hippopotamus' we find the number '25/16' as the name “Eric Robert Powell” is also an alphanumeric 25/16 when the full name is reduced to an 8.6.11 respectively as well as its reduction to an 8.6.2 which when each is totaled,

provides us with the alphanumeric symbol of 25/16 and therefore Amen Hotep I as Amen Hotep II as well in the 18th Dynasty of Amen Hotep II.

Within this alphanumeric table of the word 'hippopotamus' we also find the number '129' as this author has an FBI file case number bearing the title “129 Blue Falcon”.

We also find in our examination of our word 'hippopotamus' the number '7/14' as my name is an alphanumeric '7' and my birth – date being 12.26.1956 reduced to an 3.8.3 = 14, and therefore an unheard of triple Sevens (777).

As a side note, in later times, the papyrus plant was used, though drawn somewhat differently than this, to denote the number 1,000. Some believe that the scene on the Narmer palette only mean that the king subdued 6,000 enemies, but this is a rather unlikely interpretation. To return to the Narmer Palette, our author of the original article notes that …

Just in front of the king walks another figure who may either have long hair or some sort of unknown headdress. He is also accompanied by symbols of unknown meaning. However, a similar individual with the same symbols can also be found on the ceremonial mace-heads of both Narmer and Scorpion, and they have at times been described as perhaps being shaman, or priests, though their appearance would be very atypical of later Egyptian priests.

Preceding all of these figures are four individual who each hold a standard. The standards include some kind of animal skin, a dog (or perhaps a seth-animal), and two falcons. The emblems might either represent the house of Narmer, or perhaps more likely, regions that already belonged to his kingdom.

This procession is approaching, on the right of the scene, ten decapitated corpses who lie on the ground with their heads tossed between their legs. Above these victims is depicted a ship with a harpoon and a falcon in it. These symbols are usually interpreted as the conquered region. If the symbols for the nomes (provinces of ancient Egypt) remained the same over time, then this could be the region of Mareotis, the 7th Lower Egyptian nome. In front of these symbols is also the wing of a door and a sparrow, which are thought to mean "create" or "found". Therefore, one might speculate that Narmer founded a new province from this conquered land.

The scene at the bottom of the palette's front face continues the imagery of conquest and victory. A bull, almost certainly a symbol of the king's vigor and strength, tramples a fallen foe and attacks the walls of a city or fortress with its horns. The name of the city or fortress is written within the walls, but unknown to us.

Above the enemy's head, facing the king, is what most scholars believe to be a personified marshland, with a mans head rising from it. Out of the land, six papyrus plants are growing, indicating that it was marshland, usually identified as the Egyptian Delta by most scholars. A falcon, symbolic of the king, is perched on top of the papyrus plants and

appears to draw the breath of life out of the nostrils of the marshland's face.

As a side note, in later times, the papyrus plant was used, though drawn somewhat differently than this, to denote the number 1,000. Some believe that the scene on the Narmer palette only mean that the king subdued 6,000 enemies, but this is a rather unlikely interpretation. This authors note, one must study the number meaning of the '1000', but the number six and romanced above as 6,000 actually refers to the number 6,000,000 (six million). Which denotes the entire amount of 6,000,000 males Jews now on record and not the alleged 6 million who died in World War Two, for this is a farce. Check the almanac for Jewish population numbers from World War Two to the present and one will find that there is no reduction of 6 million Jews throughout that time to the present. Egyptian hieroglyph Mn refers to Men/Min(es). This hieroglyph is later introduced as “Amn” and since there is no word in English for 'Amn' the scriptures denote 'I AM” and then therefore AMIN as AMEN.

Initials of Eric Robert Powell and the letter “O” which refers to the number 15 using the alphanumeric table, but in this case is used as the number „51‟ denoting the 51st largest constellation, that of “Lepus the Hare” combined with the designation Pr-`3.

PER‟O and Pr - *3

Pharaoh wikipedia

For other uses, see Pharaoh (disambiguation).

After Djoser of the third dynasty, pharaohs usually were depicted wearing the Nemes headdress, a false beard, and an ornate kilt.

nesu-bit "King of Upper and Lower Egypt" in hieroglyphs Pharaoh (FARE-oh) is a title used in many modern discussions of the ancient Egyptian rulers of all periods.[1] The title originates in the term "pr-aa" which means "great house" and describes the royal palace. The title of Pharaoh started being used for the king during the New Kingdom, specifically during the middle of the eighteenth dynasty.[2]

Contents

 o

1 History of the Pharaoh  2 Regalia o 2.1 Scepters and Staves o 2.2 The Uraeus 3 Crowns and headdresses 3.1 Khat and nemes headdresses o 3.2 Physical evidence  4 Titles o 4.1 Nesw Bity name o 4.2 Horus name o 4.3 Nebty name o 4.4 Golden Horus name o 4.5 Nomen and Prenomen  5 See also  6 References  7 Bibliography  8 External links

History of the Pharaoh Pharaoh, meaning "Great House", originally referred to the king's palace, but by the reign of Thutmose III (ca. 1479-1425 BC) in the New Kingdom, had become a form of address for the person of the king.[3] The term pharaoh ultimately was derived from a compound word represented as pr-`3, written with the two biliteral hieroglyphs pr "house" and `3 "column". It was used only in larger phrases such as smr pr-`3 'Courtier of the High House', with specific reference to the buildings of the court or palace itself.[4] From the twelfth dynasty onward the word appears in a wish formula 'Great House, may it live, prosper, and be in health', but again only with reference to the royal palace and not the person. The earliest instance where pr-`3 is used specifically to address the ruler is in a letter to Amenhotep IV (Akhenaten), who reigned c. 1353 - 1336 BC, which is addressed to 'Pharaoh, all life, prosperity, and health!.[5] During the eighteenth dynasty (sixteenth to fourteenth centuries BC) the title pharaoh was employed as

a reverential designation of the ruler. About the late twenty-first dynasty (tenth century BC), however, instead of being used alone as before, it began to be added to the other titles before the ruler's name, and from the twenty-fifth dynasty (eighth to seventh centuries BC) it was, at least in ordinary usage, the only epithet prefixed to the royal appellative.[6] From the nineteenth dynasty onward pr-`3 on its own was used as regularly as hm.f, 'His Majesty'. The term therefore evolved from a word specifically referring to a building to a respectful designation for the ruler, particularly by the twentysecond dynasty and twenty-third dynasty.[citation needed] For instance, the first dated instance of the title pharaoh being attached to a ruler's name occurs in Year 17 of Siamun on a fragment from the Karnak Priestly Annals. Here, an induction of an individual to the Amun priesthood is dated specifically to the reign of Pharaoh Siamun. This new practice was continued under his successor Psusennes II and the twenty-first dynasty kings. Meanwhile the old custom of referring to the sovereign simply as Per'o continued in traditional Egyptian narratives.[citation needed] By this time, the Late Egyptian word is reconstructed to have been pronounced *par-ʕoʔ whence comes Ancient Greek φαραώ pharaō and then Late Latin pharaō. From the latter, English obtained the word "Pharaoh". Over time, *par-ʕoʔ evolved into Sahidic Coptic prro ⲡⲡⲡⲡ and then rro (by mistaking p- as the definite article prefix "the" from Ancient Egyptian p3).[7]

Regalia Scepters and Staves Scepters and staves were a general sign of authority in Ancient Egypt. One of the earliest royal scepters was discovered in the tomb of Khasekhemwy in Abydos. Kings were also known to carry a staff, and Pharaoh Anedjib is shown on stone vessels carrying a so called mks-staff. The staff with the longest history seems to be the heqa-scepter, sometimes described as the shepherd‘s crook. The earliest examples of this piece of regalia dates to pre-dynastic times. A scepter was found in a tomb at Abydos that dates to the late Naqada period.

Another scepter associated with the king is the was-scepter. This is a long staff mounted by an animal head. The earliest known depictions of the was-scepter date to the First dynasty of Egypt. The was-scepter is shown in the hands of both kings and gods. The Flail was later closely related to the ‗‘heqa‘‘-scepter, but in early representations the king was also depicted solely with the flail, as shown in a late pre-dynastic knife handle which is now in the Metropolitan museum, and on the Narmer Macehead.[8]

The Uraeus The earliest evidence we have of the use of the Uraeus—a rearing cobra—is from the reign of Den from the First dynasty of Egypt. The cobra supposedly protected the pharaoh by spitting fire at its enemies.[8]

Crowns and headdresses Narmer Palette

Narmer wearing the white crown

Narmer wearing the red crown

The red crown of Lower Egypt – the Deshret crown – dates back to pre-dynastic times. A red crown has been found on a pottery shard from Naqada, and later king Narmer is shown wearing the red crown on both the Narmer macehead and the Narmer palette. The white crown of Upper Egypt – the Hedjet crown – is shown on the Qustul incense burner which dates to the pre-dynastic period. Later, King Scorpion was depicted wearing the white crown, as was Narmer. The combination of red and white crown into the double crown – or Pschent crown – is first documented in the middle of the First dynasty of Egypt. The earliest depiction may date to the reign of Djet, and is otherwise surely attested during the reign of Den.[8]

Khat and nemes headdresses

Den The khat headdress consists of a kind of ―kerchief‖ whose end is tied almost like a ponytail. The earliest depictions of the khat headdress comes from the reign of Den, but is not found again until the reign of Djoser.

The Nemes headdress dates from the time of Djoser. The statue from his Serdab in Saqqara shows the king wearing the nemes headdress.[8]

Physical evidence Egyptologist Bob Brier has noted that despite its widespread depiction in royal portraits, no ancient Egyptian crown ever has been discovered. Tutankhamun's tomb, discovered largely intact, did contain such regalia as his crook and flail. No crown was found however among the funerary equipment. It is presumed that crowns would have been believed to have magical properties. Brier's speculation is that crowns were religious or state items; a dead pharaoh could not retain a crown as a personal possession. The crowns may have had to be passed along to a successor.[citation needed]

Titles During the early dynastic period kings had up to three titles. The Horus name is the oldest and dates to the late pre-dynastic period. The Nesw Bity name was added during the middle of the 1st dynasty. The Nebty name was first introduced towards the end of the 1st dynasty.[8] The Golden falcon (bik-nbw) name is not well understood. The prenomen and nomen were introduced later and are traditionally enclosed in a cartouche.[2] By the Middle Kingdom, the official titulary of the ruler consisted of five names; Horus, nebty, golden Horus, nomen, and prenomen[9] for some rulers, only one or two of them may be known.

Nesw Bity name The Nesw Bity name was one of the new developments from the reign of Den. The name would follow the glyphs for the ―Sedge and the Bee‖. The title is usually translated as king of Upper and Lower Egypt. The nsw bity name may have been the birth name of the king. It was often the name by which kings were recorded in the later annals and king lists.[8]

Horus name The Horus name was adopted by the king, when he took the throne. The name was written within a square frame representing the palace, named a serekh. The Horus name of several early kings expresses a relationship with Horus. Aha refers to ―Horus the fighter‖, Djer refers to ―Horus the strong‖, etc. Later kings express ideals of kingship in their Horus names. Khasekhemwy refers to ―Horus: the two powers are at peace‖, while Nebra refers to ―Horus, Lord of the Sun‖.[8]

Nebty name The earliest example of a nebty name comes from the reign of king Aha from the 1st dynasty. The title links the king with the goddesses of Upper and Lower Egypt Nekhbet and Wadjet.[2][8] The title is preceded by the vulture (Nekhbet) and the cobra (Wadjet) standing on a basket (the neb sign).[8]

Golden Horus name The Golden Horus or Golden Falcon name was preceded by a falcon on a gold or nbw sign. The title may have represented the kings divine status. The Horus associated with gold may be referring to the idea that the god‘s bodies were made of gold. The gold sign may also be a reference to Nubt, the city of Set. This would suggest that the iconography represents Horus conquering Set.[8]

Nomen and Prenomen The prenomen and nomen were contained in a cartouche. The prenomen often followed the King of Upper and Lower Egypt (nsw bity) or Lord of the Two Lands (nebtawy) title. The prenomen often incorporated the name of Re. The nomen often followed the title Son of Re (sa-ra) or the title Lord of Appearances (neb-kha‘).[2]

Nomen and prenomen of Ramesses II

See also Ancient Egyptian royal titulary Egyptian chronology - Conventional Egyptian chronology  History of Egypt  List of Pharaohs  Monarch  Pharaoh of the Exodus  Great Royal Wife, the chief wife of a Pharaoh  Islamic view of the Pharaoh of the Exodus

References ↑ Beck, Roger B.; Linda Black, Larry S. Krieger, Phillip C. Naylor, Dahia Ibo Shabaka, (1999). World History: Patterns of Interaction. Evanston, IL: McDougal Littell. ISBN 0-395-87274-X. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 Dodson, Aidan and Hilton, Dyan. The Complete Royal 2. ↑ Families of Ancient Egypt. Thames & Hudson. 2004. ISBN 0-500-05128-3 1.

3.

↑ Redmount, Carol A. "Bitter Lives: Israel in and out of Egypt." p. 8990. The Oxford History of the Biblical World. Michael D. Coogan, ed. Oxford University Press. 1998. 4. ↑ Ancient Egyptian Grammar (3rd ed.), A. Gardiner (1957-) 71-76 5. ↑ Hieratic Papyrus from Kahun and Gurob, F. LL. Griffith, 38, 17. Although see also Temples of Armant, R. Mond and O. Myers (1940), pl.93, 5 for an instance possibly dating from the reign of Thutmose III. 6. ↑ "pharaoh." in Encyclopædia Britannica. Ultimate Reference Suite. Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica, 2008. 7. ↑ Walter C. Till: Koptische Grammatik. VEB Verläg Enzyklopädie, Leipzig, 1961. p.62 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6 8.7 8.8 8.9 Wilkinson, Toby A.H. Early Dynastic 8. ↑ Egypt Routledge, 2001 ISBN 978-0415260114 9. ↑ Ian Shaw, The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt, Oxford University Press 2000, p. 477

Bibliography

Sir Alan Gardiner Egyptian Grammar: Being an Introduction to the Study of Hieroglyphs, Third Edition, Revised. London: Oxford University Press, 1964. Excursus A, pp. 71–76.  Jan Assmann, "Der Mythos des Gottkönigs im Alten Ägypten," in Christine Schmitz und Anja Bettenworth (hg.), Menschen - Heros - Gott: Weltentwürfe und Lebensmodelle im Mythos der Vormoderne (Stuttgart, Franz Steiner Verlag, 2009), 11-26.

External links Digital Egypt for Universities Mummies of the Pharaohs at James M. Deem's Mummy Tombs site.

http://www.enotes.com/topic/Pharaoh

Eric Robert Powell photo and that of 18th Dynasty line of Amen Hotep

Statues of 18th Dynasty Pharaohs Amen Hotep IV, Amen Hotep III, Amen Hotep II, The Sphinx of Eric Robert Powell as Amen Hotep II and Menes. Notice that interested parties chopped the nose, not only off of the Sphinx, but all statues of Amen Hotep Line save one

Amen Hotep IV

Amen Hotep III

Amen Hotep II

Amen Hotep II in common Muslim stance offering Beer and Wine

Above, another statue of Amen Hotep II although leaning forward. One must realize that these statues – all except the Sphinx, are approximate photo visual representations.

Statues depicting Thutmoses III and on the right, Amen Hotep II

Photo of The Sphinx built in 3,150 BC by Menes as himself and Amen Hotep II as well as Eric Robert Powell today as The Lion of Judah, (Thutmoses III)

Amen Hotep I

Amenhotep III and Sobek, from Dahamsha, now in the Luxor Museum

Eric Robert Powell July 25, 2012

Ramesses III 1186 – 115(6) BCE (Grimal)

Ramses III

Statues of Ramses III

Ramses III Large

The Exodus

The Exodus of Jews from Egypt deals wit the stoning of Moses as Ahmose II aka Ahmose-Ankh in 526 BC. The alphanumeric table concerning Kimberly Noel Kardashian is a 56(2) when her three names are included in the table along with the 14 letters contained in her name. She also possesses five 1956 characters along with the number 196 four times – the total alphanumeric value contained in the name of Eric Robert Powell who is the return of Ahmose II, aka Ahmose-Ankh as well as Amen Hotep II and Ramses III as well as Elijah, the reader can utilize these names along with the name of Eric Robert Powell who was born 9AM (EST) which is 5AM (GMT), Kim Kardashian also possesses these characters. It should be noted that the earth‟s upper atmosphere had to be heated up to 5,000 degrees Celsius which is 9,000 degrees Fahrenheit in order to create the rains which gave sustenance to the earth. Kim Noel Kardashian also possesses three sevens in her name which is extremely rare for anyone to possess. She also carries the number 179 – that of Amenhotep I twice along with 1197 – that of Amen Hotep II twice – which characterizes his return. She possesses Daniels prophecy numbers of 1,290 as well as 1,335 – The Abomination of Desolation figures given by the Prophet Daniel which relates to the election‟s swearing in of Barack Obama and the amount of days following. She also possesses the birth-date 12.26.1956 twice as well as the number „88‟. She has „315‟ on four occasions. When her compositions are reduced she has four 613‟s, a triple „8‟ - 888, which refers to August 8, 2008 when the entire cosmos was made straight as well as the year 1798 – the Pyramid Wars, which demonstrate her political and military power to advance the cause of the Egyptian people as well as four 7‟s in a row, which characterizes all of our computations here with her. She also maintains three nines in a row as well as the number „88‟ for the 88 known Constellations, - there are actually 135 constellations which would complete the unification of the universe with the earth‟s strategic numbers – 13.5 million Jews, 315 million Americans, 315 trillion dollars in the worlds money supply, etc.

The following demonstrates that the American blacks have similar numbers along with the all important 613 figure which represents the fact that the male Jews were cursed white at Baal Peor on Friday the 13th in June, 526 BC. (613). Thank God it‟s Friday.

Notice below concerning the American blacks their percentage of the American population as well as their „13‟ designation numbers and the fact that they are 13.6% of the American People.

African Americans by the Numbers From the U.S. Census Bureau Find information on African-American populations, veterans, business-owners, incomes, home-owners, and more, in honor of Black History Month. Source: U.S. Census Bureau

Read more: African American Demographics, Population, Incomes, Veterans, Education, Voting — Infoplease.com http://www.infoplease.com/spot/bhmcensus1.html

Population 42 million The number of people who identified as black, either alone or in combination with one or more other races, in the 2010 Census. They made up 13.6 percent of

the total U.S. population. The black population grew by 15.4 percent from 2000 to 2010. 65.7 million The projected black population of the United States (including those of more than one race) for July 1, 2050. On that date, according to the projection, blacks would constitute 15 percent of the nation's total population. 3.3 million The black population in New York, which led all states in 2010. The other nine states in the top 10 were Florida, Texas, Georgia, California, North Carolina, Illinois, Maryland, Virginia and Ohio. 38% Percent of Mississippi's total population that was black in 2010. Mississippi led the nation in this category followed by Louisiana (33 percent), Georgia (32 percent), Maryland (31 percent), South Carolina (29 percent) and Alabama (27 percent). 52% Percent of the total population in the District of Columbia that was black in 2010. 2.2 million People who identified as black in New York City, which led all places with populations of 100,000 or more. It was followed by Chicago; Philadelphia; Detroit; Houston; Memphis, Tenn.; Baltimore; Los Angeles; Washington; and Dallas. 84.3% Percent of the total population in Detroit, who identified as black, which is the highest percentage nationally among places with populations of 100,000 or more. It was followed by Jackson, Miss. (80.1 percent), Miami Gardens, Fla. (77.9 percent), Birmingham, Ala. (74.0 percent), Baltimore, (65.1 percent), Memphis, Tenn. (64.1 percent), New Orleans (61.2 percent), Flint, Mich. (59.5), Montgomery Ala. (57.4 percent) and Savannah, Ga. (56.7 percent).

Serving Our Nation 2.4 million Number of black military veterans in the United States in 2010. Education 82% Among blacks 25 and older, the percentage with a high school diploma or higher in 2010. 18% Percentage of blacks 25 and older who had a bachelor's degree or higher in 2010. 1.5 million Among blacks 25 and older, the number who had an advanced degree in 2010. 2.9 million Number of blacks enrolled in college in 2010, a 1.7 million increase since 1990. Voting 11.1 million The number of blacks who voted in the 2010 congressional election, an increase from 11 percent of the total electorate in 2006 to 12 percent in 2010. 55% Turnout rate in the 2008 presidential election for the 18- to 24-year-old citizen black population, an 8 percentage point increase from 2004. Blacks had the highest turnout rate in this age group. 65% Turnout rate among black citizens regardless of age in the 2008 presidential election, up about 5 percentage points from 2004. Looking at voter turnout by

race and Hispanic origin, non-Hispanic whites and blacks had the highest turnout levels. Income, Poverty and Health Insurance $32,068 The annual median income of black households in 2010, a decline of 3.2 percent from 2009. Source: U.S. Census Bureau 2010 Income, Poverty and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States 27.4% Poverty rate in 2010 for blacks. 79.2% Percentage of blacks that were covered by health insurance during all or part of 2010. Families and Children 62.5% Among households with a black householder, the percentage that contained a family. There were 9.4 million black family households. 44.4% Among families with black householders, the percentage that were married couples. 1.3 million Number of black grandparents who lived with their own grandchildren younger than 18. Of this number, 47.6 percent were also responsible for their care. Homeownership 44.2%

Nationally, the percentage of households with a householder who was black who lived in owner-occupied homes. Jobs 28.4% The percentage of blacks 16 and older who worked in management, business, science and arts occupations. Businesses $135.7 billion Receipts for black-owned businesses in 2007, up 53.1 percent from 2002. The number of black-owned businesses totaled 1.9 million in 2007, up 60.5 percent. 37.7% Percentage of black-owned businesses in 2007 in health care and social assistance, repair and maintenance and personal and laundry services. 10.6% Percentage of businesses in New York in 2007 that were black-owned, which led all states or state-equivalents. Georgia and Florida followed, at 9.6 percent and 9.4 percent, respectively.

Read more: African American Demographics, Population, Incomes, Veterans, Education, Voting — Infoplease.com http://www.infoplease.com/spot/bhmcensus1.html

http://www.infoplease.com/spot/bhmcensus1.html

Kimberly Noel Kardashian is actually a woman of color. She shall soon be in communication with Eric Robert Powell as they both seek and attain the American Blacks Reparation figure of 315 Trillion dollars and 1 Quadrillion in wealth. They shall soon travel to Syria, Egypt, Russia, Israel and other countries of major interest. We shall soon travel to Israel to claim the Country as our own as the State of Israel has been proven to have enslaved America‟s Blacks.

Sincerely, Eric Robert Powell

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