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Dung lng ln. Cc si quang c kh nng truyn nhng lng ln thng tin.

Vi cng ngh hin nay trn hai si quang c th truyn c ng thi 60.000 cuc m thoi. Mt cp si quang (c ng knh ngoi 2 cm) c th cha c khong 200 si quang, s tng c dung lng ng truyn ln 6.O0O.OOO cuc m thoi. So vi cc phng tin truyn dn bng dy thng thng, mt cp ln gm nhiu i dy c th truyn c 500 cuc m thoi. mt cp ng trc c kh nng vi 10.000 cuc m thoi v mt tuyn viba hay v tinh c th mang c 2000 cuc gi ng thi.

Kch thc v trng lng nh. So vi mt cp ng c cng dung lng, cp si quang c ng knh nh hn v khi lng nh hn nhiu. Do d lp t chng hn, c bit nhng v tr c sn dnh cho cp (nh trong cc ng ng ng trong cc ta nh), khong khng l rt t. Khng b nhiu in. Truyn dn bng si quang khng b nh hng bi nhiu in t (EMI) hay nhiu tn s v tuyn (RFI) v n khng to ra bt k s nhiu ni ti no. Si quang c th cung cp mt ng truyn sch" nhng mi trng khc nghit nht. Cc cng ty in lc s dng cp quang, dc theo cc ng dy in cao th cung cp ng thng tin r rng gia cc trm bin p. Cp si quang cng khng b xuyn m. Thm ch d nh sng b bc x ra t mt si quang th n khng th thm nhp vo si quang khc c. Tnh cch in. Si quang l mt vt cch in. Si thy tinh ny loi b nhu cu v cc dng in cho ng thng tin. Cp si quang lm bng cht in mi thch hp khng cha vt dn in v c th cho php cch in hon ton cho nhiu ng dng. N c th loi b c nhiu gy bi cc dng in chy vng di t hay nhng trng hp nguy him gy bi s phng in trn cc ng dy thng tin nh st hay nhng trc trc v in. y thc s l mt phng tin an ton thng c dng ni cn cch in. Tnh bo mt. Si quang cung cp bo mt thng tin cao. Mt si quang khng th b trch ly trm thng tin bng cc phng tin in thng thng nh s dn in trn b mt hay cm ng in t, v rt kh trch ly thng tin dng tn hiu quang. Cc tia sng truyn lan tm si quang v rt t hoc khng c tia no thot khi si quang . Thm ch nu trch vo si quang c ri th n c th b pht hin nh kim tra cng sut nh sng thu c ti u cui. Trong khi cc tn hiu thng tin v tinh v viba c th d dng thu gii m c. tin cy cao v d bo dng. Si quang l mt phng tin truyn dn ng nht v khng gy ra hin tng pha-inh. Nhng tuyn cp quang c thit k thch hp c th chu ng c nhng iu kin v nhit v m khc nghit v thm ch c th hot ng di nc. Si quang c thi gian hot ng lu, c tnh trn 30 nm i vi mt s cp. Yu cu v bo dng i vi mt h thng cp quang l t hn so vi yu cu ca mt h thng thng thng do cn t b lp in hn trong mt tuyn thng tin; trong cp khng c dy ng, l yu t c th b mn dn v gy ra mt hoc lc c lc khng c tn hiu; v cp quang cng khng b nh hng bi s ngn mch, s tng vt in p ngun hay tnh in.

Tnh linh hot. Cc h thng thng tin quang u kh dng cho hu ht cc dng thng tin s liu, thoi v video. Cc h thng ny u c th tng thch vi cc chun RS.232, RS422, V.35, Ethernet, Arcnet, FDDI, T1, T2, T3, Sonet, thoi 2/4 dy, tn hiu E/M, video tng hp v cn nhiu na. Tnh m rng. Cc h thng si quang c thit k thch hp c th d dng c m rng khi cn thit. Mt h thng dng cho tc s liu thp, v d T1 (I 544 Mb/s) c th c nng cp tr thnh mt h thng tc s liu cao hn, OC-12 (622 Mb/s), bng cch thay i cc thit b in t. H thng cp si quang c th vn c gi nguyn nh c. S ti to tn hiu. Cng ngh ngy nay cho php thc hin nhng ng truyn thng bng cp quang di trn 70 km trc khi cn ti to tn hiu, khong cch ny cn c th tng ln ti 150 km nh s dng cc b khuch i laze. Trong tng lai, cng ngh c th m rng khong cch ny ln ti 200 km v c th 1000 km. Chi ph tit kim c do s dng t cc b lp trung gian v vic bo dng chng c th l kh ln. Ngc li, cc h thng cp in thng thng c vi km c th cn c mt b lp.

u im Mng hn - Cp quang c thit k c ng knh nh hn cp ng. Dung lng ti cao hn - Bi v si quang mng hn cp ng, nhiu si quang c th c b vo vi ng knh cho hn cp ng. iu ny cho php nhiu knh i qua cp ca bn. Suy gim tn hiu t - Tn hiu b mt trong cp quang t hn trong cp ng.

Tn hiu nh sng - Khng ging tn hiu in trong cp ng, tn hiu nh sng t si quang khng b nhiu vi nhng si khc trong cng cp. iu ny lm cho cht lng tn hiu tt hn. S dng in ngun t hn - Bi v tn hiu trong cp quang gim t, my pht c th s dng ngun thp hn thay v my pht vi in th cao c dng trong cp ng. Tn hiu s - Cp quang l tng thch hp ti thng tin dng s m c bit hu dng trong mng my tnh. Khng chy - V khng c in xuyn qua Cp quang, v vy khng c nguy c ha hn xy ra. Nhc im

Ni cp kh khn, dy cp dn cng thng cng tt. Chi ph - Chi ph hn ni v thit b u cui cao hn so vi cp ng.

1. Cu to ca cp quang Cp quang c cu to gm dy dn trung tm l si thy tinh hoc plastic c tinh ch nhm cho php truyn i ti a cc tn hiu nh sng. Si quang c trng mt lp lt nhm phn chiu tt cc tn hiu nh sng v hn ch s gy gp ca si cp quang. Cp quang bao gm cc thnh phn c bn sau:

Li si quang: L trung tm phn chiu ca si quang khi truyn nh sng Lp ph si quang: L mt lp bn ngoi bao bc li si quang phn x li nh sng tr vo li Lp m si quang: L lp v bn ngoi bo v si quang nhm hn ch cc tc c hc, mi trng tc ln si quang. Cc thnh phn chu lc: Thnh phn ny c cc hng sn xut cp si quang thm vo theo tng chng loi c th tng cng s chc chn ca cp nhm hn ch ti a lc c hc c th tc ln si cp quang. Lp v cp quang: L lp v ngoi cng bao bc cc si quang bn trong v c lm t cc loi nha c kh nng chu ng cc lc c hc cng nh tc ca mi trng

2. Phn loi cp quang Cp quang hin nay c hai loi chnh l Multimode (a mode) v Singlemode (n mode).

Cp quang Multimode hin nay c s dng rng ri trong cc ng dng truyn d liu vi khong cch 5Km, thng c cc doanh nghip, c quan s dng trong cc h thng mng ni b, truyn thng trong cng nghip,... Cp quang Singlemode l loi cp c ng knh li nh (<10 Micron), truyn c d liu vi khong cch khng gii rt xa, c cc n v vin thng s dng truyn d liu trong h thng ca h. Hin nay cc dch v vin thng hin nay c rt ng o ngi dn s dng nn cc nh cung cp dch v lin tc phi m rng h thng truyn dn quang ca h c

th p ng nhu cu ca khch hng, do vy lm cho cp quang Singlemode tr nn rt ph dng, h thnh h i rt nhiu.

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