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NG NH KHOA

PHNG PHP PHN


T HU HN
L thuyt
Bi tp
Chng trnh MATLAB

THI NGUYN 2011

Ng Nh Khoa

PHNG PHP PHN T HU HN

THI NGUYN 2011

M U
Gio trnh Phng php Phn t hu hn (PP PTHH) c bin son da trn
cun: Gio trnh Phng php Phn t ha hn L thuyt, bi tp v chng trnh
Matlab. GS.TS. Trn ch Thnh, TS. Ng Nh Khoa. NXB Khoa hc K thut 2007. V
kinh nghim ging dy mn hc cng tn trong nhng nm gn y cho sinh vin khoa
C kh, trng i hc Bch khoa H Ni v hc vin cao hc ngnh C hc K thut,
trng i hc K thut Cng nghip - i hc Thi Nguyn. Ni dung gio trnh c
mc ch trang b cho sinh vin cc ngnh k thut: Cng ngh ch to my, K thut
c kh, v.v. Vi cc ni dung:
-

Nhng kin thc c bn nht ca PP PTHH ng dng,

p dng phng php gii quyt mt s bi ton k thut khc nhau,

- Nng cao k nng lp trnh Matlab trn c s thut ton PTHH.


Gio trnh bin son gm 11 chng.
Sau phn gii thiu phng php PTHH, mt s loi phn t thc v phn t qui
chiu hay gp (Chng 1), gio trnh cp n mt s php tnh ma trn, phng php
kh Gauss (Chng 2) v thut ton xy dng ma trn cng v vct lc nt chung
cho kt cu (Chng 3). Phng php Phn t hu hn trong bi ton mt chiu chu
ko (nn) c gii thiu trong Chng 4 v ng dng vo tnh ton h thanh phng
(Chng 5). Tip theo, gio trnh tp trung vo m t phn t hu hn tam gic bin
dng hng s trong bi ton phng ca l thuyt n hi (Chng 6) v ng dng vo
tnh ton kt cu i xng trc (Chng 7). Chng 8 gii thiu phn t t gic km
theo khi nim tch phn s. Chng 9 m t phn t Hermite trong bi ton tnh dm
v khung. Chng 10 trnh by phn t hu hn trong bi ton dn nhit mt v hai
chiu. Chng 11 xy dng thut ton PTHH tnh tm-v chu un.
Cui mi chng (t chng 4 n chng 11) u c chng trnh Matlab km
theo v mt lng bi tp thch ng ngi c t kim tra kin thc ca mnh.
Rt mong nhn c nhng gp xy dng ca bn c.
Tc gi

MC LC
Chng 1.........................................................................................................................................................................1
GII THIU PHNG PHP PHN T HU HN...........................................................................................1

5.1.
5.2.
5.3.
3.1.
3.2.
5.4.
5.5.
5.6.
5.7.
5.8.
5.9.

GII THIU CHUNG.......................................................................................1


XP X BNG PHN T HU HN............................................................1
NH NGHA HNH HC CC PHN T HU HN...............................1
Nt hnh hc.......................................................................................................1
Qui tc chia min thnh cc phn t .................................................................2
CC DNG PHN T HU HN.................................................................2
PHN T QUY CHIU, PHN T THC...................................................3
MT S DNG PHN T QUI CHIU.......................................................4
LC, CHUYN V, BIN DNG V NG SUT.......................................6
NGUYN L CC TIU HO TH NNG TON PHN.........................6
S TNH TON BNG PHNG PHP PHN T HU HN ........7

Chng 2.........................................................................................................................................................................9
I S MA TRN V PHNG PHP KH GAUSSIAN.................................................................................9

1.
1.1.
1.2.
1.3.
1.4.
1.5.
1.6.
1.7.
1.8.
1.9.
1.10.
1.11.
1.12.
2.
2.1.
2.2.

I S MA TRN..............................................................................................9
Vct...................................................................................................................9
Ma trn n v....................................................................................................9
Php cng v php tr ma trn.........................................................................10
Nhn ma trn vi hng s.................................................................................10
Nhn hai ma trn...............................................................................................10
Chuyn v ma trn.............................................................................................11
o hm v tch phn ma trn..........................................................................11
nh thc ca ma trn......................................................................................11
Nghch o ma trn..........................................................................................12
Ma trn ng cho........................................................................................12
Ma trn i xng............................................................................................12
Ma trn tam gic.............................................................................................13
PHP KH GAUSS...........................................................................................13
M t ................................................................................................................13
Gii thut kh Gauss tng qut........................................................................14

Chng 3.......................................................................................................................................................................17
THUT TON XY DNG MA TRN CNG CHUNG ...........................................................................17
V VCT LC NT CHUNG...............................................................................................................................17

1.
1.1.
1.2.
2.
2.1.
2.2.

CC V D.........................................................................................................17
V d 1..............................................................................................................17
V d 2 .............................................................................................................19
THUT TON GHP K V F..........................................................................21
Nguyn tc chung.............................................................................................21
Thut ton ghp ni phn t:............................................................................23

Chng 4.......................................................................................................................................................................24
PHN T HU HN TRONG BI TON MT CHIU...................................................................................24

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

M U.............................................................................................................24
M HNH PHN T HU HN.....................................................................24
CC H TRC TO V HM DNG....................................................25
TH NNG TON PHN.................................................................................27
MA TRN CNG PHN T ...................................................................28
QUI I LC V NT.....................................................................................28
IU KIN BIN, H PHNG TRNH PHN T HU HN................30
V D...................................................................................................................32
................................................................................................................................36
ii

BI TP CHNG 4...........................................................................................37
Chng 5.......................................................................................................................................................................39
PHN T HU HN TRONG TNH TON H THANH PHNG..................................................................39

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

M U.............................................................................................................39
H TO A PHNG, H TO CHUNG......................................39
MA TRN CNG PHN T....................................................................41
NG SUT ........................................................................................................41
V D..................................................................................................................42
BI TP CHNG 5...........................................................................................43

Chng 6.......................................................................................................................................................................47
PHN T HU HN TRONG BI TON HAI CHIU ....................................................................................47

1.
1.1.
1.2.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

M U.............................................................................................................47
Trng hp ng sut phng.............................................................................47
Trng hp bin dng phng...........................................................................48
RI RC KT CU HO BNG PHN T TAM GIC.............................48
BIU DIN NG THAM S.........................................................................50
TH NNG ........................................................................................................53
MA TRN CNG CA PHN T TAM GIC .....................................53
QUI I LC V NT ....................................................................................54
V D ..................................................................................................................56
BI TP CHNG 6...........................................................................................60

Chng 7.......................................................................................................................................................................62
BI TON I XNG TRC CHU TI TRNG I XNG.......................................................................62

1.
2.
3.

M U.............................................................................................................62
M T I XNG TRC...............................................................................62
PHN T TAM GIC.......................................................................................63
BI TP CHNG 7...........................................................................................72

Chng 8.......................................................................................................................................................................74
PHN T T GIC...................................................................................................................................................74

1.
5.1.
5.2.
5.3.
5.4.
5.7.
5.8.
5.9.

M U.............................................................................................................74
PHN T T GIC.......................................................................................74
HM DNG....................................................................................................74
MA TRN CNG CA PHN T........................................................76
QUI I LC V NT..................................................................................78
TCH PHN S...............................................................................................78
TNH NG SUT...........................................................................................81
V D...............................................................................................................82
BI TP CHNG 8...........................................................................................83

Chng 9.......................................................................................................................................................................84
PHN T HU HN TRONG TNH TON KT CU DM V KHUNG...................................................84

1.
5.10.
5.11.
5.12.
5.13.
5.14.
5.15.
5.16.

GII THIU........................................................................................................84
TH NNG....................................................................................................84
HM DNG HERMITE...............................................................................85
MA TRN CNG CA PHN T DM...........................................86
QUY I LC NT.....................................................................................87
TNH MMEN UN V LC CT...........................................................89
KHUNG PHNG...........................................................................................89
V D.............................................................................................................91
BI TP CHNG 9...........................................................................................96

Chng 10.....................................................................................................................................................................98
PHN T HU HN TRONG BI TON DN NHIT....................................................................................98

1.
2.

GII THIU........................................................................................................98
BI TON DN NHIT MT CHIU............................................................98
iii

2.1.
2.2.
2.3.
3.
3.1.
3.2.
3.3.
3.4.
3.5.

M t bi ton ..................................................................................................98
Phn t mt chiu.............................................................................................98
V d..................................................................................................................99
BI TON DN NHIT HAI CHIU ...........................................................101
Phng trnh vi phn qu trnh dn nhit hai chiu.......................................101
iu kin bin.................................................................................................102
Phn t tam gic.............................................................................................102
Xy dng phim hm.....................................................................................104
V d ..............................................................................................................107
BI TP CHNG 10.......................................................................................110

Chng 11...................................................................................................................................................................111
PHN T HU HN TRONG TNH TON KT CU TM - V CHU UN........................................111

1.
2.
3.
1.
2.

GII THIU......................................................................................................111
L THUYT TM KIRCHOFF......................................................................111
PHN T TM KIRCHOFF CHU UN......................................................113
PHN T TM MINDLIN CHU UN........................................................119
PHN T V...................................................................................................121
BI TP CHNG 11.......................................................................................124

TI LIU THAM KHO.........................................................................................................................................125

iv

Chng 1
GII THIU PHNG PHP PHN T HU HN

5.1. GII THIU CHUNG

S tin b ca khoa hc, k thut i hi ngi k s thc hin nhng n ngy


cng phc tp, t tin v i hi chnh xc, an ton cao.
Phng php phn t hu hn (PTHH) l mt phng php rt tng qut v hu
hiu cho li gii s nhiu lp bi ton k thut khc nhau. T vic phn tch trng thi
ng sut, bin dng trong cc kt cu c kh, cc chi tit trong t, my bay, tu thu,
khung nh cao tng, dm cu, v.v, n nhng bi ton ca l thuyt trng nh: l
thuyt truyn nhit, c hc cht lng, thu n hi, kh n hi, in-t trng v.v. Vi
s tr gip ca ngnh Cng ngh thng tin v h thng CAD, nhiu kt cu phc tp
cng c tnh ton v thit k chi tit mt cch d dng.
Hin c nhiu phn mm PTHH ni ting nh: ANSYS, ABAQAUS, SAP, v.v.
c th khai thc hiu qu nhng phn mm PTHH hin c hoc t xy dng ly
mt chng trnh tnh ton bng PTHH, ta cn phi nm c c s l thuyt, k thut
m hnh ho cng nh cc bc tnh c bn ca phng php.
5.2. XP X BNG PHN T HU HN

Gi s V l min xc nh ca mt i lng cn kho st no (chuyn v, ng


sut, bin dng, nhit , v.v.). Ta chia V ra nhiu min con ve c kch thc v bc t
do hu hn. i lng xp x ca i lng trn s c tnh trong tp hp cc min ve.
Phng php xp x nh cc min con ve c gi l phng php xp x bng cc
phn t hu hn, n c mt s c im sau:

- Xp x nt trn mi min con ve ch lin quan n nhng bin nt gn vo nt ca


ve v bin ca n,

- Cc hm xp x trong mi min con ve c xy dng sao cho chng lin tc trn


ve v phi tho mn cc iu kin lin tc gia cc min con khc nhau.

- Cc min con ve c gi l cc phn t.


5.3. NH NGHA HNH HC CC PHN T HU HN

Nt hnh hc
Nt hnh hc l tp hp n im trn min V xc nh hnh hc cc PTHH. Chia
min V theo cc nt trn, ri thay min V bng mt tp hp cc phn t ve c dng n
gin hn. Mi phn t ve cn chn sao cho n c xc nh gii tch duy nht theo cc
to nt hnh hc ca phn t , c ngha l cc to nm trong ve hoc trn bin
ca n.
3.1.

3.2.

Qui tc chia min thnh cc phn t


Vic chia min V thnh cc phn t ve phi tho mn hai qui tc sau:

Hai phn t khc nhau ch c th c nhng im chung nm trn bin ca


chng. iu ny loi tr kh nng giao nhau gia hai phn t. Bin gii gia cc
phn t c th l cc im, ng hay mt (Hnh 1.1).

Tp hp tt c cc phn t ve phi to thnh mt min cng gn vi min


V cho trc cng tt. Trnh khng c to l hng gia cc phn t.
v2
v1

v1

bin gii

v2

v2
bin gii

v1

bin gii

Hnh 1.1. Cc dng bin chung gia cc phn t


5.4. CC DNG PHN T HU HN

C nhiu dng phn t hu hn: phn t mt chiu, hai chiu v ba chiu. Trong
mi dng , i lng kho st c th bin thin bc nht (gi l phn t bc nht), bc
hai hoc bc ba v.v. Di y, chng ta lm quen vi mt s dng phn t hu hn hay
gp.
Phn t mt chiu

Phn t bc nht

Phn t bc hai

Phn t bc ba

Phn t hai chiu

Phn t bc nht

Phn t bc hai

Phn t bc ba

Phn t ba chiu
Phn t t din

Phn t bc ba

Phn t bc hai

Phn t bc nht

5.5. PHN T QUY CHIU, PHN T THC


Vi mc ch n gin ho vic xc nh gii tch cc phn t c dng phc tp,
chng ta a vo khi nim phn t qui chiu, hay phn t chun ho, k hiu l vr.
Phn t qui chiu thng l phn t n gin, c xc nh trong khng gian qui chiu
m t , ta c th bin i n thnh tng phn t thc ve nh mt php bin i hnh
hc re. V d trong trng hp phn t tam gic (Hnh 1.2).
(5)

y
(4)

r3

0,1

r2
r1

vr
0,0

1,0

v3
(3)

v2
(1)

v1
(2)

Hnh 1.2. Phn t quy chiu v cc phn t thc tam gic

Cc php bin i hnh hc phi sinh ra cc phn t thc v phi tho mn cc qui
tc chia phn t trnh by trn. Mun vy, mi php bin i hnh hc phi c
chn sao cho c cc tnh cht sau:

a. Php bin i phi c tnh hai chiu (song nh) i vi mi im trong phn t qui
chiu hoc trn bin; mi im ca vr ng vi mt v ch mt im ca ve v ngc
li.
b. Mi phn bin ca phn t qui chiu c xc nh bi cc nt hnh hc ca bin ng
vi phn bin ca phn t thc c xc nh bi cc nt tng ng.
Ch :
3

Mt phn t qui chiu vr c bin i thnh tt c cc phn t thc ve


cng loi nh cc php bin i khc nhau. V vy, phn t qui chiu cn c gi
l phn t b-m.

C th coi php bin i hnh hc ni trn nh mt php i bin n gin.


(, ) c xem nh h to a phng gn vi mi phn t.

5.6. MT S DNG PHN T QUI CHIU

Phn t qui chiu mt chiu

-1

-1

/2

Phn t bc hai

Phn t bc nht

1
0 /2

-1

-1

Phn t bc ba

Phn t qui chiu hai chiu

0,0

Phn t bc nht

vr

0,0

1 ,1
/2 /2

vr

1 ,2
/3 /32 ,1
/3 /3

/2

/3

Phn t bc hai

vr

0,0

/3

/3

Phn t bc ba

Phn t qui chiu ba chiu


Phn t t din

0,0,1

0,0,1

0,0,1

vr
0,0,0

vr

0,1,0

0,1,0
1,0,0

vr

1,0,0

Phn t bc nht

0,1,0
1,0,0

Phn t bc hai

Phn t bc ba

Phn t su mt

0,1,1

vr

vr

1,1,0

Phn t bc nht

0,1,1

vr

0,1,1

1,1,0

Phn t bc hai

1,1,0

Phn t bc ba

5.7. LC, CHUYN V, BIN DNG V NG SUT

C th chia lc tc dng ra ba loi v ta biu din chng di dng vct ct:


- Lc th tch

f : f = f[ fx, fy , fz]T

- Lc din tch T : T = T[ Tx, Ty , Tz]T


- Lc tp trung Pi: Pi= Pi [ Px, Py , Pz]T
Chuyn v ca mt im thuc vt c k hiu bi:
u = [u, v, w] T
Cc thnh phn ca tenx bin dng c k hiu bi ma trn ct:

(1.1)

= [x , y, z, yz, xz, xy] T


Trng hp bin dng b:
u
=
x

v
y

w
z

(1.2)

v w
+
z y

u w
+
z x

u v
+
y x

(1.3)

Cc thnh phn ca tenx ng sut c k hiu bi ma trn ct:

= [x , y, z, yz, xz, xy] T


(1.4)
Vi vt liu n hi tuyn tnh v ng hng, ta c quan h gia ng sut vi bin
dng:
=D

(1.5)

Trong :

1

1

1
E
D=

0
0
(1 + )(1 2 ) 0
0
0
0

0
0
0

0
0
0
0 ,5
0
0

0
0
0
0
0 ,5
0

0
0
0

0
0

0 ,5

E l mun n hi, l h s Poisson ca vt liu.


5.8. NGUYN L CC TIU HO TH NNG TON PHN

Th nng ton phn ca mt vt th n hi l tng ca nng lng bin dng U


v cng ca ngoi lc tc dng W:

=U+W
(1.6)
Vi vt th n hi tuyn tnh th nng lng bin dng trn mt n v th tch
c xc nh bi:

1 T

2

Do nng lng bin dng ton phn:


U =

dv

(1.7)

Cng ca ngoi lc c xc nh bi:


n

W = u T FdV u T TdS u i Pi
V

i =1

(1.8)

Th nng ton phn ca vt th n hi s l:


=

n
1
T
T
T
T

dV

u
f
dV

u
TdS

ui Pi

2V
i =1
V
S

(1.9)

Trong : u l vct chuyn v v Pi l lc tp trung ti nt i c chuyn v l ui


p dng nguyn l cc tiu th nng: i vi mt h bo ton, trong tt c cc di
chuyn kh d, di chuyn thc ng vi trng thi cn bng s lm cho th nng t cc
tr. Khi th nng t gi tr cc tiu th vt (h) trng thi cn bng n nh.
5.9. S TNH TON BNG PHNG PHP PHN T HU HN

Mt chng trnh tnh bng PTHH thng gm cc khi chnh sau:


Khi 1: c cc d liu u vo: Cc d liu ny bao gm cc thng tin m t nt v
phn t (li phn t), cc thng s c hc ca vt liu (mun n hi, h s
dn nhit...), cc thng tin v ti trng tc dng v thng tin v lin kt ca kt
cu (iu kin bin);
Khi 2: Tnh ton ma trn cng phn t k v vct lc nt phn t f ca mi phn
t;
Khi 3: Xy dng ma trn cng tng th K v vct lc nt F chung cho c h
(ghp ni phn t);
Khi 4: p t cc iu kin lin kt trn bin kt cu, bng cch bin i ma trn
cng K v vec t lc nt tng th F;
Khi 5: Gii phng trnh PTHH, xc nh nghim ca h l vct chuyn v chung Q;
Khi 6: Tnh ton cc i lng khc (ng sut, bin dng, gradin nhit , v.v.) ;
Khi 7: T chc lu tr kt qu v in kt qu, v cc biu , th ca cc i lng
theo yu cu.
S tnh ton vi cc khi trn c biu din nh hnh sau (Hnh 1.3);

c d liu u vo
- Cc thng s c hc ca vt liu
- Cc thng s hnh hc ca kt cu
- Cc thng s iu khin li
- Ti trng tc dng
- Thng tin ghp ni cc phn t
- iu kin bin

Tnh ton ma trn cng phn t k


Tnh ton vct lc nt phn t f
Xy dng ma trn cng K v vct lc chung F
p t iu kin bin
(Bin i cc ma trn K v vec t F)
Gii h phng trnh KQ = F
(Xc nh vct chuyn v nt tng th Q)
Tnh ton cc i lng khc
(Tnh ton ng sut, bin dng, kim tra bn, v.v)
In kt qu
- In cc kt qu mong mun
- V cc biu , th
Hnh 1.3. S khi ca chng trnh PTHH

Chng 2
I S MA TRN V PHNG PHP KH GAUSSIAN
p dng phng php PTHH trong cc bi ton k thut thng lin quan n mt
lot cc php ton trn ma trn. V vy, cc php ton c bn trn ma trn v phng
php kh Gaussian (Gauss) gii h phng trnh tuyn tnh s l 2 ni dung chnh
c cp trong chng ny.
1. I S MA TRN

Cc cng c ton hc v ma trn c cp trong phn ny l cc cng c c bn


gii bi ton tm nghim ca h phng trnh tuyn tnh, c dng nh sau:
a11 x1 + a12 x2 + a1n xn = b1
a21 x1 + a22 x2 + a2 n xn = b2

(2.1)

an1 x1 + an 2 x2 + ann xn = bn

trong , x1, x2, , xn l cc nghim cn tm. H phng trnh (2.1) c th c biu


din dng thu gn:
Ax = b
(2.2)
trong , A l ma trn vung c kch thc (n n), v x v b l cc vct (n 1), c
bin din nh sau:
a11
a
A = 21

a n1

a12
a 22

a n2

a1n
a 2 n

a nn

x1
x

x = 2

xn

b1
b

b = 2

bn

1.1. Vct
Mt ma trn c kch thc (1 n) c gi l vct hng, ma trn c kch thc
(n 1) c gi l vct ct. V d mt vct hng (1 4):
r = { 2 2 12 6}

v vct ct (3 1):
11

c=2
34

1.2. Ma trn n v
Ma trn n v l ma trn ng cho vi cc phn t trn ng cho chnh bng 1,
v d:

1 0 0

I = 0 1 0
0 0 1

1.3. Php cng v php tr ma trn.


Cho 2 ma trn A v B, cng c kch thc l (m n). Tng ca chng l 1 ma trn
C = A + B v c nh ngha nh sau:
cij = aij + bij
(2.3)
V d:
3 2 8 5 5 7
5 1 + 1 2 = 4 3

php tr c nh ngha tng t.


1.4. Nhn ma trn vi hng s
Nhn 1 ma trn A vi hng s c c nh ngha nh sau:
cA=[caij]
V d:

(2.4)

3 2 300 200
10 2
=

5 1 500 100

1.5. Nhn hai ma trn


Tch ca ma trn A kch thc (m n) vi ma trn B kch thc (n p) l 1 ma trn
C kch thc (m p), c nh ngha nh sau:
A

(2.5)

(m n)
(n p)
(m p)
trong , phn t th (ij) ca C l (cij) c tnh theo biu thc:
n

cij = aik bkj


k =1

(2.6)

V d:
4 5
2 8 5
54 70
3 1 4 2 5 = 38 36

6 4

Ch :
- iu kin tn ti php nhn 2 ma trn A B l s ct ca ma trn A phi
bng s hng ca ma trn B.
- Trong phn ln cc trng hp, nu tn ti tch 2 ma trn A B v B A, th tch
2 ma trn khng c tnh cht giao hon, c ngha l A B B A.

10

1.6. Chuyn v ma trn


Chuyn v ca ma trn A = [aij] kch thc (m n) l 1 ma trn, k hiu l AT c
kch thc l (n m), c to t ma trn A bng cch chuyn hng ca ma trn A thnh
ct ca ma trn AT. Khi , (AT)T = A.
Chuyn v ca mt tch cc ma trn l tch cc chuyn v ca ma trn thnh phn
theo th t o ngc, c ngha l:
(A B C)T=CT BT AT.

(2.7)

1.7. o hm v tch phn ma trn


Trong nhiu bi ton k thut, cc phn t ca ma trn khng phi l 1 hng s,
chng l cc hm s 1 bin hay nhiu bin. V d:
x + 2 y 5 x 2 xy

A = 2+ x
y
6x
x + 4 y

Trong cc trng hp , cc ma trn c th c o hm hay tch phn. Php o


hm (hay php tch phn) ca 1 ma trn, n gin l ly o hm (hay ly tch phn) i
vi mi phn t ca ma trn:
da ( x)
d
A( x) = ij
dx
dx

(2.8)

Adxdy = [ a dxdy]
ij

(2.9)
Chng ta s s dng thng xuyn biu thc (2.8) xy dng h phng trnh
PTHH trong cc chng sau. Xt ma trn vung A, kch thc (n n) vi cc h s
hng, vct ct x = {x1 x2 ... xn}T cha cc bin. Khi , o hm ca Ax theo 1 bin xp
s l:
d
( Ax) = a p
dx p

(2.10)

trong , a l vct ct v chnh l ct th p ca ma trn A.


1.8. nh thc ca ma trn
Cho ma trn vung A = [aij], kch thc (n n). nh thc ca ma trn A c nh
ngha nh sau:
det( A) = a11 det( A11 ) a12 det( A12 ) + L ( 1)

n +1

a1 n det( A1n ) = ( 1)
j =1

i+ j

aij det( Aij ) (2.11)

trong , Aij l ma trn kch thc (n-1 n-1) thu c bng cch loi i hng i ct j ca
ma trn A.

11

V d:
a11
a
A = 21

an1

a12 a1n
a22 a2 n

an 2 ann

a22
a
A11 = 32

a n 2

a23 a2 n
a33 a3n

an 3 ann

Cng thc (2.11) l cng thc tng qut. Theo cng thc ny, nh thc ca ma trn
vung c kch thc (n n) c xc nh theo phng php truy hi t nh thc cc
ma trn c kch thc (n-1 n-1). Trong , ma trn ch c 1 phn t (1 1) c:
det(apq) = apq
(2.12)
1.9. Nghch o ma trn
Cho ma trn vung A, nu det(A) 0, th A c ma trn nghch o v k hiu l A-1.
Ma trn nghch o tha mn quan h sau:
A-1 A = A A-1 = I
(2.13)
Nu det(A) = 0, A l ma trn suy bin v khng tn ti ma trn nghch o. Nu
det(A) 0 ta gi A l ma trn khng suy bin. Khi , nghch o ca A c xc nh
nh sau:
A 1 =

adjA
det A

(2.14)

i+ j
Trong , adjA l ma trn b ca A, c cc phn t a ij = ( 1) det( A ji ) v Aji l ma trn

thu c t A bng cch loi i hng th j v ct th i.


V d:
Nghch o ca ma trn A kch thc (2 2) l:

a
A = 11
a21
1

a12
a22

1 a 22
det A a 21

a12
a11

1.10. Ma trn ng cho

Mt ma trn vung c cc phn t bng khng ngoi tr cc phn t trn ng


cho chnh c gi l ma trn ng cho. V d:
2 0 0

D = 0 3 0
0 0 5

1.11. Ma trn i xng


Ma trn i xng l mt ma trn vung c cc phn t tho mn iu kin:
aij = aji hay: A = AT
(2.15)
Nh vy, ma trn i xng l ma trn c cc phn t i xng qua ng cho chnh.

12

1.12. Ma trn tam gic


Ma trn c gi l ma trn tam gic trn hay ma trn tam gic di, tng ng l
cc ma trn c tt c cc phn t nm di hay nm trn ng cho chnh bng khng.
V d, cc ma trn c minh ho di y tng ng l ma trn tam gic trn A v
ma trn tam gic di B:
2 3 11
A = 0 4
0
0 0 9

2 0 0
B = 3 4 0
11 0 9

2. PHP KH GAUSS

Xt h phng trnh tuyn tnh c biu din dng ma trn nh sau:


Ax = b
trong , A l ma trn vung kch thc (n n). Nu detA 0, th ta c th thc hin
php bin i phng trnh trn bng cch nhn 2 v vi A-1 v nhn c nghim: x =
A-1b. Tuy nhin, trong hu ht cc bi ton k thut, kch thc ca ma trn A l rt ln
v cc phn t ca A thng l s thc vi min xc nh rt rng; do , vic tnh ton
ma trn nghch o ca A l rt phc tp v d gp phi sai s do vic lm trn trong cc
php tnh. V vy, phng php kh Gauss l mt cng c rt hu ch cho vic gii h
phng trnh i s tuyn tnh.
2.1. M t
Chng ta s bt u m t phng php kh Gauss thng qua mt v d minh ho sau
y; sau tm hiu gii thut kh Gauss tng qut.
Xt h phng trnh:
x1 + 2 x 2 + 5 x3 = 1

(1)

2 x1 + 5 x2 + 3 x3 = 2

(2)

x1 x2 + 15 x3 = 4

(3)

Bc 1: bng cc php bin i tng ng kh x1 trong cc phng trnh (2) v


(3), ta c h:
x1 + 2 x2 + 5 x3 = 1

(1)

0 x1 x2 + 7 x3 = 4

(21)

0 x1 + x2 + 20 x3 = 5

(31)

Bc 2: kh x2 trong phng trnh (31), ta c h:


x1 + 2 x2 + 5 x3 = 1

(1)

0 x1 x2 + 7 x3 = 4

(21)

0 x1 + 0 x2 + 27 x3 = 9

(32)

13

y, ta nhn c h phng trnh m ma trn cc h s lp thnh ma trn tam


gic trn. T phng trnh cui cng (32), ta tm c nghim x3, ln lt th cc
nghim tm c vo phng trnh trn n, (21) v (1). S nhn c cc n s cn tm
1
3

5
3

8
3

nh sau: x3 = ; x2 = ; x1 = . Phng php tm nghim khi ma trn cc h s l


ma trn tam gic trn ny c gi l phng php th ngc.
Cc thao tc trn c th c biu din di dng ngn gn nh sau:
2 5
1
1
1 2 5 1
1 2 5 1
2

5 3 2 0 1 7 4 0 1 7 4

1 1 15 4
0 1 20 5
0 0 27 9

bng phng php th ngc, cui cng ta nhn c cc nghim:


1
x3 = ;
3
2.2.

5
x2 = ;
3

x1 =

8
3

Gii thut kh Gauss tng qut

Gii thut kh Gauss tng qut s c biu din thng qua cc bc thc hin i
vi mt h phng trnh tuyn tnh tng qut nh sau:
a11
a
21
a31


ai1


a
n1

a12
a22

a13
a23

a32

ai 2

a33

ai 3

an 2

an3

a1 j a1n x1 b1
a2 j a2 n x2 b2

a3 j a3n x3 b3

=
aij ain xi bi


anj ann xn bn

(2.16)

thc hin phng php kh Gauss, ta xt cc th tc tc ng n cc ma trn


h s A v ma trn cc s hng t do b nh sau:
a11
a
21
a31


ai1


a
n1

a12
a22

a13
a 23

a32

ai 2

a33

ai 3

an 2

an3

a1 j a1n
a 2 j a 2 n
a3 j a3 n


aij ain


a nj ann

b1
b
2
b3


b
i

b
n

(2.17)

Bc 1. S dng phng trnh th nht (hng 1) loi x1 ra khi cc phng trnh cn


li. Bc ny s tc ng n cc phn t nm trong vng nh du v lm cho cc
phn t t hng 2 n hng th n ca ct 1 bng khng nh php bin i (2.18) sau:

14

ai1
( 1)
aij = aij a a1 j

11

b ( 1) = b ai1 b ; i, j = 2,..., n
i
1
i
a11

(2.18)

Bc 2. S dng phng trnh th hai (hng 2) loi x2 ra khi cc phng trnh cn


li. Bc ny s tc ng n cc phn t nm trong vng nh du di y v lm
cho cc phn t t hng 3 n hng th n ca ct 2 bng khng.
a11
0

a12
( 1)
a22
( 1)
a32

ai( 12)

an( 12)

a13
( 1)
a23
( 1)
a33

ai(31)

an( 13)

a1 j
a2( 1j)
a3( 1j)

aij( 1)

anj( 1)

a1n
a2( 1n)
a3( 1n)

ain( 1)

( 1)
ann

b1
b (1)
2
b3(1)


b (1)
i

b (1)
n

(2.19)

Cc bc nh trn s c lp li n khi trong vng nh du ch cn 1 phn t. Mt


cch tng qut, ti bc th k ta c:
a11
0

a12

a13

a 22

a 23

a33

ak( k+11,k) +1 a k( k+11,j)

ai(,kk+11)

ai(,kj1)

a n( k,k+11)

an( k, j 1)

( 1)

( 1)

( 2)

a1 j

a2 j

a3 j

( 1)

( 2)

a1n
a 2( 1n)
a3( 2n)


a k( k+11,n)


ai(,kn1)


a n( k,n1)

b1
b (1)
2
b3( 3)


( k 1)
bk +1

( k 1)
bi


( k 1)

bn

(2.20)

bc ny, cc phn t trong min nh du c tc ng nh php bin i


(k)
aik( k 1) ( k 1)
(
k 1)
aij = aij
( k 1) a kj ; i, j = k + 1,..., n
a kk

aik( k 1) ( k 1)
(k)
(
k 1)
( k 1) bk ; i, j = k + 1,..., n
bi = bi
a kk

(2.21)

Cui cng, sau n-1 bc nh trn, chng ta nhn c h (2.16) di dng:


a11

a12

a13

a14

(1)
22

(1)
23
( 2)
33

(1)
24
( 2)
34
( 3)
44

a
0

a1n x1 b1
a2(1n) x2 b2(1)
a3( 2n) x3 b3( 2 )
=

a4( 3n) x4 b4( 3)


( n1)
( n 1)
ann xn bn

(2.22)

15

T h (2.22) ny, bng phng php th ngc t di ln ta nhn c cc


nghim ca h phng trnh (2.16) nh sau ( y, tin theo di, chng ta b qua k
hiu ch s trn trong cc h s ca ma trn A v b):
n

xn =

bn
; , xi =
ann

bi aij x j
j =i +1

aii

i = n 1, n 2, ,1

(2.23)

16

Chng 3
THUT TON XY DNG MA TRN CNG CHUNG
V VCT LC NT CHUNG
Vic ghp cc ma trn cng k v cc vct lc f ca cc phn t to ra ma
trn cng K v vct lc nt F chung cho c h, t thit lp h phng trnh
PTHH l mt vn quan trng.
Ta s cng cc s hng ca ma trn cng ca mi phn t vo cc v tr tng
ng ca ma trn cng chung v cng cc s hng ca vct lc vo vct lc chung.
Cch d nht ghp cc phn t l gn s cho mi dng v ct ca ma trn
cng phn t ng vi bc t do ca phn t y, sau chng ta s lm vic qua cc s
hng ca ma trn phn t; tc l cng cc s hng ny vo ma trn chung m mi dng,
mi ct cng c gn ng nhng s trn.
Di y ta s xt hai v d.
1. CC V D

1.1. V d 1
Mt kt cu c chia ra 8 phn t tam gic nh Hnh 3.1. Mi phn t c 3 nt;
mi nt c 1 bc t do (v d nhit ).
7

8
5

9
7

3
6

5
2

3
Hnh 3.1

M t qu trnh ghp ni ma trn cng chung K vi gi s ch xt 3 phn t u tin:


1, 2 v 3 vi cc ma trn cng bit nh sau:
7 3 1
8 1 2
9 4 1

2
3
k = 3 6 2 ; k = 1 7 3 ; k = 4 6 0
1 2 5
2 3 4
1 0 5
1

17

Li gii
1. Xy dng bng ghp ni phn t (ng n cc nt ngc chiu kim ng h)
Bc t do
Phn t
1
2
3

1
4
2

2
2
3

4
5
5

2. Xt tng phn t
Vi phn t 1, cc dng v ct c nhn dng nh sau:
1 2 4
7 3 1 1
k = 3 6 2 2
1 2 5 4
1

Ma trn ny c cng vo ma trn cng chung v ta s c:


1 2
7
3

0
K =
1
0

3
6
0
2
0

3 4 5
0
0
0
0
0

1
2
0
5
0

0
0
0
0
0

1
2
3

4
5

Ma trn cng ca phn t 2 c gn s bi:


4 2 5
8 1 2
k = 1 7 3
2 3 4
2

4
2
5

Cc s hng ca ma trn k2 c cng thm vo ma trn chung, cho ta


1

3
0
1
0
7
3 6 + 7 0 2 + 1 3

0
0
0
0
0
K =
1 2 + 1 0 5 + 8 2
0
3
0
2
4

1
2
3

4
5

Vi phn t 3:

18

2 3 5
9 4 1 2
k = 4 6 0 3
1 0 5 5
3

Cc s hng ca ma trn k3 c cng tip vo ma trn chung trn, cho ta


1

3
0
1
0
7
3 13 + 9
4
3 3 +1

0
4
6
0 0+0
K =
3
0
13
2
1
0 3 + 1 0 + 0 2 4 + 5

1
2
3

4
5

Vic cng cc vct lc phn t vo vct lc chung c tin hnh hon ton
tng t.
V d 2
Gi s c hai phn t 1 v 4 trong bi ton hai chiu; mi phn t c 3 nt, mi nt
c 2 bc t do (Hnh 3.2). Hy m t qu trnh ghp ni ma trn cng chung K v
vct lc nt chung, theo cc ma trn cng phn t v vct lc nt phn t k1, k4, f1
v f4 cho trc nh sau:
1.2.

22
3

7
1
k =
4
6

3
29
9
9
1
7

7
9
30
6
3
5

4
9
6
31
4
8

6
1
3
4
16
2

2
7
5
;
8
2

24

3
6

4
1
f =
1
7

5

23
1

6
k4 =
8
3

1
19
2
6
7
5

6
2
30
7
8
7

8
4
7
25
2
4

3
7
8
2
27
7

5
5
7
;
4
7

28

9
7

6
f4 =
2
4

5

4
2

1
1

i
1

Hnh 3.2
19

Cc nt ca phn t 1 l: (1, 2, 5). Bc t do tng ng ca phn t l:

{q

2 i 1

q2i 1

q2 j 1

q2 j

q2 k 1

q2 k } = { q1
T

q2

q3

q4

q9

q10 }

Cc hng v ct ca ma trn cng phn t 1 c gn cc s ng vi bc t do tng


ng ca n v cc s hng ca ma trn c cng vo cc v tr tng ng ca ma trn
cng chung.
1
22
3

7
1
k =
4
6

1
22
3

4
0

0
K = 0

0
6

0
0

3
29
9
9
0
0
0
0
1
7
0
0

7
9
30
6
0
0
0
0
3
5
0
0

3
29
9
9
1
7

7
9
30
6
3
5

4
9
6
31
4
8

6
1
3
4
16
2

4 5 6 7 8
4
9
6
31
0
0
0
0
4
8
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

9
6
1
3
4
0
0
0
0
16
2
0
0

10
2 1
7 2
5 3

8 4
2 9

24 10

10 11 12
2 00 0 1
7 0 0 2
5 0 0 3

8 0 0 4
0
0 0 5

0
0 0 6
0
0 0 7

0
0 0 8
2 0 0 9

24 0 0 10

0
0 0 11
0
0 0 12

Tin hnh tng t i vi ma trn cng ca phn t 4. Cc nt ca phn t 4 l: (5,


2, 6). Bc t do tng ng ca phn t l:

{q

2 i 1

q2i 1

q2 j 1

q2 j
9

23
1

6
k4 =
8
3

q2 k 1
10

q2 k } = { q9

q10

12

11

q3

q4

q11

q12 }

1 6 8 3 5 9
19 2 4 7 5 10
2 30 7 8 7 3

6 7 25 2 4 4
7 8 2 27 7 11

5 7 4 7 28 12

Cc s hng ca ma trn c cng vo cc v tr tng ng ca ma trn cng chung,


ta nhn c kt qu nh sau:

20

1
22
3

4
0

0
K= 0

0
6

0
0

5 6 7 8

10

11

0 0 0 0

29

0 0 0 0

60

16 0 0 0 0

9 13

12

8 7

56

0 0 0 0 12 14 2 4

0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0

12 0 0 0 0

39

3 5

12 0 0 0 0

43

7 5

0 0 0 0

27

0 0 0 0

28

1
2
3

4
5

6
7

8
9

10

11
12

Vct lc nt ca cc phn t 1 v 4 cng c cng vo vct lc nt chung theo cch


tng t:

3
6

4
f1 =
1
7

5

3 1
6 2

4 3

1 4
1
0 5
2

0 6
3

F = 0 7
4
0 8

9
7 9
10

5 10
0 11

0 12

9
7

6
4
; f =
2
4

5

3 1
6 2

10 3

3 4
9
0 5
10

0 6
3

F =0 7
4
0 8

11
16 9
12

12 10
4 11

5 12

2. THUT TON GHP K V F

Nguyn tc chung
Qua hai v d trn ta thy ma trn cng chung K chnh l tng ca cc ma trn
m rng [ke] ca cc phn t. Vct lc chung F cng chnh l tng ca cc vct lc
m rng {fe} ca cc phn t:
2.1.

{ }

K = k e ; F = f e
e

(3.1)

chun ho cc bc ghp ni, ta xy dng bng nh v index cho mi phn t. Bng


index s cho bit v tr ca mi s hng ca {qn} trong {Qn}. Kch thc ca bng index
21

l (noe edof ), vi edof l k hiu cho s bc t do ca phn t v noe l k hiu cho


tng s phn t.
Mi nt c mt bc t do
Tr li v d 3.1, bng index chnh l bng ghp ni phn t trn.
T
Khi y: Q = { Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q5 }

- Vi phn t 1 (e =1) :
= { Q1 Q2

4)

= { Q4

Q2

Q5 }

5)

Q3

Q5 }

index(2, :) = ( 4

- Vi phn t 3 (e =3)

= { Q2

(1

index(1, :) =

- Vi phn t 2 (e =2)

Q4 }

index(3, :) = ( 2

5)

Ch : k hiu (:) trong index(e,:) ch cc phn t thuc hng e ca index.


Mi nt c hai bc t do
Tr li v d 3.2 xt trn, bng index l:
Bc t do
Phn t
1
...
4

2
...
10

4
...
4

10
...
12

Q = { Q1 Q2

Q4

11

Khi y:
Q3

Q5

Q6

Q7

Q8

Q9

Q10

Q11 Q12 }

- Vi phn t s 1
q

= { Q1 Q2

Q10 }

Q3

Q4

Q9

Q10

Q3

Q4

Q11 Q12 }

10

index(1, :) = (1

10 )

- Vi phn t s 4
q

= { Q9

index(4, :) = ( 9

11

12 )

Vi s gip ca bng index, mi s hng kij ca ma trn ke c cng vo K IJ ca


[K] sao cho:
I = index(e,i), vi i = 1.. sdof
J = index(e,j), vi j = 1.. sdof
hoc:

K IJ = K index ( e,i ) index ( e , j ) + k e i j

(3.2)

Tng t, mi s hng fi ca {fe}c chuyn sang FI ca {F} sao cho:


K I = Findex ( e ,i ) + f e i

(3.3)
22

2.2.

Thut ton ghp ni phn t:

Bc 1: Khi to ma trn vung [K] c kch thc (sdof sdof) v vct ct {F} c
kch thc (sdof 1), vi cc s hng bng khng. Trong , sdof l k hiu cho tng
s bc t do ca cc nt trong ton h.
Bc 2: Vi mi phn t e (e = 1:noe), cng ng v tr mi s hng kij ca ca ma trn
phn t ke vo s hng K IJ ca ma trn [K]:
K IJ = K IJ + k e i j ; i, j = 1 : edof ; I = index(e, i ), J = index(e, j )

(3.4)

Bc 3: Vi mi phn t e (e = 1:noe), cng ng v tr mi s hng fi ca ca vct


lc phn t f vo s hng FI ca vct lc chung F:
FI = FI + f e i ; i = 1 : edof ; I = index(e, i )

(3.5)

S thut ton c m t nh Hnh 3.3 sau:

...
K=zero(sdof,sodf);
F=zero(sdof,1);
e =1; i = 1; j = 1;

j = j + 1;
j edof

K(i (e,i) (e,ni))=K(i,n(e,i) (e,ni)+dke(i,) j) d, d ed e x e x x x

i = i+1;
i edof

F
e = e +1;
e noe

...

F(i (e,)) =nFi (i (e,i))+nfe(id) d e e x x

Hnh 3.3. S thut ton ghp ni phn t

23

Chng 4
PHN T HU HN TRONG BI TON MT CHIU
1. M U

gii bi ton mt chiu (1D) bng phng php phn t hu hn, chng ta s s
dng nguyn l cc tiu ho th nng ton phn v cc quan h: quan h ng sut-bin
dng, quan h bin dng-chuyn v. Vi bi ton hai chiu (2D) v ba chiu (3D), cch
tip cn cng tng t.
Trong bi ton mt chiu, cc i lng: chuyn v, bin dng, ng sut ch ph
thuc vo bin x. Ta biu din chng nh sau:
u = u ( x );

= ( x );

(4.1)

= ( x)

Quan h gia ng sut vi bin dng, bin dng vi chuyn v:


= E ; =

du
dx

(4.2)

Vi bi ton mt chiu, vi phn th tch dv c vit di dng:


dv=Adx
trong , A l din tch mt ct ngang.

(4.2)

2. M HNH PHN T HU HN

C th chia thanh ra nhiu phn t, mi phn t c tit din ngang khng i (hoc
thay i). Chng hn, ta chia thanh ra 5 phn t vi cc nt c nh s t 1 n 6, cc
ch s nt ny l ch s nt ton cc (Hnh 4.1a); mi phn t c hai nt 1 v 2, cc ch
s nt ny l ch s nt cc b (Hnh 4.1b).
Trong bi ton mt chiu, mi nt ch c mt chuyn v theo phng x . V vy mi
nt ch c mt bc t do, n nt c n bc t do.
Chuyn v tng th c k hiu l Qi ; i = 1, n; chuyn v a phng ca mi
phn t c k hiu l qj; j = 1, 2
Vct ct Q = [ Qi ] c gi l vct chuyn v chung (tng th).
T

Lc nt c k hiu l Fi ; i = 1, n.
Vct ct F = [ Fi ] c gi l vct lc nt chung (tng th).
T

1
Q1

2
3
Q2 Q3

4
Q4

5
Q5

Hnh 4.1a. Ch s ton cc

6
Q6

1
q1

2
q2

Hnh 4.1b. Ch s cc b

24

ghp ni cc phn t vi nhau, ta s dng bng ghp ni cc phn t nh sau:


Bng 3.1. Bng ghp ni cc phn t
Phn t
1
2
3
4
5

Nt
1(u)
1
2
3
4
5

2(cui)
2
3
4
5
6

Ch s a phng

Ch s chung

3. CC H TRC TO V HM DNG

Kho st mt phn t e nh Hnh 4.2. Theo s nh s nt cc b:


Nt th nht l 1
Nt th hai l 2
e

1
x1

x2

= -1

=1

(b)
(a)
Hnh 4.2. Phn t trong h to x v

Theo k hiu, x = x1 l ta ca nt th nht; x = x2 l ta ca nt th hai. Ta nh


ngha h ta qui chiu (hay chun ho) c k hiu l nh sau:
=

2
( x x1 ) 1 x = x1 = 1
x2 x1
x = x2 = 1

(4.3)

[ 1 : 1] x [ x1 : x2 ]

Vy:

Ta s dng h ta a phng ny xc nh hm dng vi mc ch ni suy ra


trng chuyn v trong cc phn t.
By gi trng chuyn v cn tm cho mt phn t s c ni suy bng mt php
bin i tuyn tnh (Hnh 4.3).
u2

u1
1

q2

q1
1

Hnh 4.3. Ni suy tuyn tnh trng chuyn v ca mt phn t

25

thc hin c php ni suy ny, cn a vo mt hm dng tuyn tnh:


1
1+
N1 ( ) =
; N 2 ( ) =
2

(4.4)

Cc hm dng c minh ho trn Hnh 4.4. th ca hm dng N1 trn Hnh 4.4a


c suy ra t phng trnh (4.4): N1 = 1 ti = -1 v N1 = 0 ti = 1. Tng t ta c
th ca N2.
N2

N1

u
u=N1q1+N2q2

1
1
-1

1
1
-1

2
1

N1 =

N2 =

1
2

1+
2

q1

2
1

q2
2

(c)
(b)
(a)
Hnh 4.4. (a), (b). Hm dng N1, N2; (c). Ni suy tuyn tnh

Mt khi cc hm dng c xc nh, trng chuyn v ca phn t s c biu din


qua cc chuyn v nt q1 v q2 nh sau:
u = N 1 q1 + N 2 q 2

(4.5)

Hoc di dng ma trn:


u = Nq
Trong :

N = N1 , N 2
q = [ q1

(4.6)

q1 ]

(4.7)
Trong biu thc trn, q l vct chuyn v ca phn t. T (4.5), ta thy u = q1 ti nt 1;
u = q2 ti nt 2 v u bin thin tuyn tnh trong phn t (Hnh 4.4c).
Ta bit:

N = 1
x = x1 = 1 1
u = q1
N 2 = 0
N = 0
x = x2 = 1 1
u = q2
N 2 = 1

By gi ta ni suy ta x nh cc hm dng N 1 , N 2
x = N1 x1 + N 2 x2

So snh:

(4.8)

x = N1 x1 + N 2 x2

u = N1q1 + N 2 q2

ta thy chuyn v u v to x c ni suy trn cng phn t nh cng cc hm dng


N1 v N2. Trong trng hp ny, ta c php biu din ng tham s.
26

Ch : Cc hm dng cn tho mn:


1) o hm bc nht phi hu hn,
2) Chuyn v phi lin tc trn cc bin ca phn t.
Mt khc:
du du d
=
=
dx d dx

(4.9)

m:
d
2
=
dx x2 x1

(4.10)

suy ra
u = N1q1 + N 2 q 2 =

1
1+
q1 +
q2
2
2

du q1 + q2
=
d
2

1
( q1 + q2 )
x2 x1

(4.11)
(4.12)
(4.13)

do :
= Bq; B =

1
[ 1 1]
x 2 x1

(4.14)

Trong ma trn B c gi l ma trn bin dng-chuyn v ca phn t.


Theo nh lut Hooke, ta c biu thc tnh ng sut:

= EBq

(4.15)

Ch :
B, , l cc i lng hng s;
Cc biu thc u = Nq; = Bq; = EBq m t chuyn v, bin dng v ng sut
qua cc gi tr chuyn v nt ca phn t. Ta s th cc biu thc ny vo biu
thc th nng ca thanh thit lp ma trn cng v ma trn lc nt ca phn
t.
4. TH NNG TON PHN

p dng cng thc (1.3) - Chng 1, ta tnh c th nng ton phn ca thanh:
=

n
1 T
T
T
T

A
d
x

u
f
Adx

u
Tdx

ui Pi

2L
i =1
L
L

(4.16)

Khi vt th c chia ra lm nhiu phn t hu hn, th


=

n
1
T
T
T

A
d
x

u
f
Adx

u
Tdx

Qi Pi

e
e

2 e e
i =1
e
e

(4.17)

27

5. MA TRN CNG PHN T

Gi:
Ue =

1 T
Adx
2 e

l th nng bin dng ca phn t, ta c:


Ue =

1 T T
1 T T
q
B
E
B
q
A
dx
=
q
B
E
B
A
dx

q
e
e
e
e
2 e
2 e

(4.18)

Ch rng: Ae, Ee v B l cc i lng hng s, v


dx =

l
x2 x1
d dx = e d , vi: 1 1; le = x2 x1
2
2

Khi y, ta c biu thc ca nng lng bin dng ca phn t:


Ue =

1 T
q
2

1
le

T
A
E
B
B
d q
e
e

1
2

vi:
B=

1
[ 1 1]
x2 x1

ta c:

Ue =

1 T Ae Ee 1 1
q
q
2
le 1 1

Gi:
ke =

Ae Ee 1 1
le 1 1

(4.19)

l ma trn cng ca phn t .


Khi , biu thc th nng (4.18) c biu din dng thu gn nh sau:
Ue =

1 T e
q k q
2

(4.20)

6. QUI I LC V NT

Khi vt th c ri rc ha bng cc phn t hu hn vi cc nt xc nh, ta


phi qui i cc loi lc tc dng v nt.
Ln lt xt tng thnh phn biu din cng ca ngoi lc trong biu thc th nng
(4.17), ta c:
- Cng do lc khi:
Ae f N1dx
e

u
f
Adx
=
q

e
Ae f N 2 dx
e

28


le 1 1
l
d = e
N1dx =
2 1 2
2
e

1
N dx = le 1 + d = le
2
2 1 2
2
e

m:

u T f Adx = q T
e

Ae f le
2

1
T
e
=q f
1

Vi:
fe=

Ae f le
2

(4.21)

l lc th tch quy i v nt ca phn t


- Cng do lc din tch:

u
e

T dx = ( N1q1 + N 2 q 2 )

T N1dx

T e
T dx = q e
=q T
T N 2 dx
e

Vi:
Te =

T le
2

(4.22)

c gi l lc din tch qui i v nt ca phn t


Cui cng, biu thc c vit gn di dng
1
= Q T KQ Q T F
2

(4.23)

Trong :
Q l vct chuyn v nt chung,
K l ma trn cng chung, c xc nh t cc ma trn cng ke ca cc
phn t:

F l vct lc nt chung, c xc nh t cc vct lc nt: fe, Te, P ca cc


phn t:

( f
e

+T e + P F

Vi phn t mt chiu v mi nt c mt bc t do, ta vn s dng bng ghp ni phn


t trn thit lp ma trn cng K v vct lc F.

29

7.

IU KIN BIN, H PHNG TRNH PHN T HU HN

Sau khi ri rc ha vt th nh phng php phn t hu hn, ta xc nh c biu


thc th nng ton phn (4.23).
By gi phi xy dng phng trnh cn bng t xc nh cc chuyn v nt,
sau tnh ng sut, bin dng v cc phn lc lin kt.
Bng cch cc tiu biu thc th nng i vi Q, tc l cho cho th nng bin
dng "chu" iu kin bin, ta s thu c phng trnh cn bng.
Di y ta trnh by cch nhp iu kin bin. Phng php ny c p dng
khng ch cho bi ton mt chiu m cn cho c bi ton hai, ba chiu.
iu kin bin thng c dng:
Qi = ai
Biu thc trn c ngha l chuyn v Qi phi bng ai .
y, chng ta s p dng phng php kh nhp cc iu kin bin.
Kho st trng hp n gin: Q1 = a1.
Vi mt kt cu c n bc t do, ta c
Q = { Q1 Q2 Qn }
F = { F1

F2 Fn }

Ma trn cng tng th c dng:


K11
K
K = 21

K n1

K12
K 22

K n2

K1n
K 2 n

K nn

(4.24)

K l ma trn i xng
Ta vit biu thc ca th nng di dng khai trin nh sau:
Q1 K11Q1 + Q1 K12Q2 + + Q1 K1n Qn

1 + Q2 K 21Q1 + Q2 K 22Q2 + + Q2 K 2 n Qn
=
( Q1 F1 + Q2 F2 + + Qn Fn )
2

+ Q K Q + Q K Q ++ Q K Q
n
n
1
1
n
n
2
2
n
nn
n

(4.25)

Thay Q1 = a1 vo phng trnh trn, ta c:


a1 K 11a1 + a1 K 12Q2 + + a1 K 1n Qn

1 + Q2 K 21a1 + Q2 K 22Q2 + + Q2 K 2 n Qn
=
( a1 F1 + Q2 F2 + + Qn Fn )
2

+ Q K a + Q K Q ++ Q K Q
n n2 2
n nn n
n n1 1

(4.26)

Ch rng chng ta kh chuyn v Q1 trong biu thc ca th nng trn. p dng


iu kin cc tiu th nng:

30


= 0; i = 2,..., n
Qi

(4.27)

ta thu c:

K 22Q2 + K 23Q3 + + K 2 n Qn = F2 K 21a1


K 32Q2 + K 33Q3 + + K 3n Qn = F3 K 31a1

K n 2 Q2 + K n 3 Q3 + + K nnQn = Fn K n1 a1

(4.28)

31

Khi y, h phng trnh PTHH c biu din nh sau:


K 22
K
32

K n2

K 23
K 33

K n3

K 2 n Q2 F2 K 21 a1
K 3n Q3 F3 K 31 a1
=

K nn Qn Fn K n1a1

(4.29)

Nhn xt: Ma trn cng (n-1) (n-1) trn c nhn t ma trn cng (n n) ban
u (4.23) bng cch b i hng th nht v ct th nht (v Q1 = a1). H phng trnh
(4.28) c vit di dng c ng:
KQ = F
(4.30)
Ma trn K trong (4.30) l ma trn khng k d cn ma trn K ban u (4.24) l ma trn
k d (det K=0).
p dng phng php kh Gauss (xem chng 2) gii h phng trnh (4.30), ta s
tm c chuyn v Q;
Nh bng thng tin ghp ni phn t gii thiu phn u, ta s xc nh c
chuyn v nt q ca phn t t chuyn v chung Q tm c trn.
p dng cng thc = EBq ta tm c ng sut;
xc nh phn lc lin kt R1, ta vit phng trnh cn bng cho nt 1:
K11Q1 + K12Q2 + + K1nQn = ( f e + T e )1 + R1

(4.31)

Trong Qi c xc nh, (fe+Te)1 l lc tc dng ti ni t lin kt cng bit.


8. V D
V d 4.1.
Cho mt trc bc chu tc dng ca lc P = 10 N (hnh 4.5a). Bit tit din cc
on: A1=20 mm2; A2 = 10 mm2; chiu di cc on l1 = l2 = 100 mm; v mun n
hi: E1 = E2 = 200 gPa. Hy xc nh chuyn v ti B v C; bin dng, ng sut trong
cc on trc AB, BC.
P=10 kN

(a)

(b)

Hnh 4.5. (a) Trc bc chu ko ng tm; (b) S phn t

32

Li gii
Chia trc lm hai phn t: 1 v 2, Hnh 4.5b.
1. Bng ghp ni phn t c thit lp nh sau:
Phn t
Nt i
1
1
2
2
2. Xc nh ma trn cng ca phn t 1: k1 v 2: k2
k1 =

Nt j
2
3

A1 E1 1 1 4 4
A E 1 1 2 2
=
10 4 N
k2 = 2 2
=
10 4 N

mm
mm
l1 1 1 4 4
l2 1 1 2 2

3. Ma trn cng chung K:


4
0
4

K = 4 4 + 2 2 10 4 N
mm
0
2
2

4. Vct lc nt chung F: F = [R 0 10]T


5. H phng trnh phn t hu hn:
4
0 Q1 R
4

10 4 4 4 + 2 2 Q2 = 0
0
2
2 Q3 10

6. p t iu kin bin:
Do Q1 = 0 (lin kt ngm ti A), do ta loi dng 1 v ct 1 trong h phng trnh
trn. Cui cng ta thu c h phng trnh:
6 2 Q2 0
10 4
=
2 2 Q3 10

7. Xc nh chuyn v, bin dng, ng sut


Gii h phng trnh trn ta c:
Q2 = 0,25 10-3 mm
Q3 = 0,75 10-3 mm
p dng cng thc (4.31), ta tm c phn lc lin kt:
R1 =104 (-4 Q2 ) = -10 N
Bin dng c tnh cho mi phn t

1 = (-q1 + q2 )/l = 0,25 x10-5 /100 = 2,5 x10-6


2 = (-q2 + q3 )/l = 5 x10-6
ng sut c tnh cho mi phn t
1 = E 1 = 0,5 N/mm2
2 = E 2 = 1 N/mm2
33

V d 4.2.
Cho mt trc bc chu lin kt ngm 2 u v tc dng ca lc P = 200 kN (hnh
4.6a). Bit tit din cc on: A1=2400 mm2; A2 = 600 mm2; chiu di cc on l1 =
300mm, l2 = 400 mm; v mun n hi: E1 = 70 gPa, E2 = 200 gPa. Hy xc nh
chuyn v ti B; ng sut trong cc on trc AB, BC v phn lc ti A v C.
P=200 KN

1
B
C
A
Hnh 4.6. Trc bc chu ko ng tm

Li gii
Chia trc lm hai phn t: 1 v 2, nh hnh 4.5b v d 4.1.
1. Bng ghp ni phn t c thit lp nh sau:
Phn t
1
2

Nt i
1
2

Nt j
2
3

2. Xc nh ma trn cng ca phn t 1: k1 v 2: k2


k1 =

A1 E1 1 1 2400 70 103 1 1 N
=
1 1 mm
l1 1 1
300

k2 =

A2 E2 1 1 600 200 103 1 1 N


=
1 1 mm
l2 1 1
400

3. Ma trn cng chung K:


0
560 560

K = 560 860 300 10 3 N


mm

300 300

4. Vct lc nt chung F:
F = [R1 200 103 R3]T
5. H phng trnh phn t hu hn:

34

0 Q1 R1
560 560

10 560 860 300 Q2 = 200 10 3


0
300 300
Q3 R3
3

6. p t iu kin bin:
Do Q1 = 0 (lin kt ngm ti A) v Q3 = 0 (lin kt ngm ti C) , do ta loi dng 1,
ct 1 v dng 3, ct 3 trong h phng trnh trn. Cui cng ta thu c phng trnh:
860 Q2 = 200
7. Xc nh chuyn v, bin dng, ng sut
Gii phng trnh trn ta c:
Q2 = 0,23257 mm
p dng cng thc (4.31), ta tm c cc phn lc lin kt:
R1 =103 (-560 Q2 ) = -130,233 KN
R3 =103 (-300 Q2 ) = -69,767 KN
Bin dng c tnh cho mi phn t

1 = (-q1 + q2 )/l1 = 0,23257 /300 = 7,752 10-4


2 = (-q2 + q3 )/l2 = -0,23257 /400 = 5,814 10-4
ng sut c tnh cho mi phn t
1 = E1 1 = 54,26 N/mm2
2 = E2 2 = 116,28 N/mm2
V d 4.3.
Cho mt trc trn chu lin kt ngm ti A, khe h gia u C v thnh cng l
1,2mm, chu tc dng ca lc P = 60 kN ti B (hnh 4.7). Bit tit din ca thanh l
A=250 mm2; v mun n hi: E = 20 103N/mm2 Hy xc nh chuyn v ti B; v
phn lc ti A v C.
P=60 KN
x
A

150mm

150mm

C
1,2mm

Hnh 4.7. Tnh kt cu bng phng php PTHH

Li gii

35

y, ta xem nh thc hin bc kim tra kt lun rng, trong qu trnh bin
dng, u C ca trc tip xc vi thnh cng v tip tc bin dng. Tng t cc v
d trn, ta chia trc lm hai phn t (1) v (2). Khi , ma trn cng chung K c
xc nh nh sau:
1 1 0
250 20 10 3
K=
1 2 1 N

mm
150
0 1 1

Vct lc nt chung F:
F = [R1 60 103 R3]T
H phng trnh phn t hu hn:
1 1 0 Q1 R1
250 20 10 3

1 2 1 Q2 = 60 10 3
150

0 1 1
Q3 R3

p t iu kin bin: Do Q1 = 0 (lin kt ngm ti A) v Q3 = 1,2 (khe h ti C) , do


ta loi dng 1, ct 1. Cui cng ta thu c h phng trnh:
3,3333 104 (2 Q2 1,2) = 60 103
3,3333 104 (- Q2 + 1,2) = R3
Xc nh chuyn v, bin dng, ng sut
Gii phng trnh trn ta c:
Q2 = 1,5 mm;
R3 =3,3333 104 (-Q2 + 1,2) = - 10 kN
R1 =3,3333 104 (- Q2) = -50 kN

36

BI TP CHNG 4
1. Cho kt cu 1D c ri rc ho bi 2 phn t mt chiu nh Hnh C4.1 di
y.

a. Hy chng t rng ma trn cng tng th K l ma trn k d.


b. Ch ra mt vct chuyn v Q0 0 m tho mn KQ0 = F = 0. Bng cch m t
qua hnh v, hy phn tch ngha ca cc chuyn v ny. V ch ra nng lng
bin dng n hi trong cu trc trng hp ny ?

c. Chng minh dng tng qut rng, vi bt k vct chuyn v Q 0 l nghim


ca h phng trnh KQ = 0, vi K l ma trn k d.
x
2
Hnh C4.1

2. Xt kt cu thanh bng thp, mun n hi E=200109N/m2. C lin kt v


chu lc nh Hnh C4.2. Xc nh cc chuyn v nt (cc chm en trn hnh), ng sut
trong cc phn t v cc thnh phn phn lc ti ngm. Hy gii bi ton bng tay v
nghin cu k Chng trnh cho, sa i li mt s im nu cn thit v b sung
phn chng trnh tnh ng sut trong cc phn t; thc hnh tnh ton bng chng
trnh v so snh kt qu.
400mm2

250mm2
P=300 kN

150mm

150mm

300mm

Hnh C4. 2

3. Xt kt cu thanh bng thp, mun n hi E=200109N/m2. C lin kt v


chu lc nh Hnh C4.3. Xc nh cc chuyn v nt, ng sut trong cc phn t v cc
thnh phn phn lc ti ngm.

37

250mm2

400mm2

P=300 kN

150mm

150mm

P=600 kN
200mm

200mm

3.5mm

Hnh C4. 3

4. Xt kt cu lin kt v chu lc nh Hnh C4. 4. Thanh nm ngang c xem


nh l tuyt i cng, cc thanh treo c lm bng thp v nhm, c mun n hi
nh ch ra trn hnh v. Tnh ng sut trong mi thanh treo.

thp
22 cm

Nhm
24 cm

E=200109 N/m2
40 cm

30 cm

E=70109 N/m2
50cm
20 cm

Thanh tuyt i cng, trng lng khng ng k

60 KN
Hnh C4. 4

38

Chng 5
PHN T HU HN TRONG TNH TON H THANH PHNG

1. M U

Trong chng ny chng ta s p dng phng php phn t hu hn tnh ton


h thanh phng (h gm n thanh lin kt vi nhau bi cc khp quay). H thanh phng
in hnh c trnh by trn Hnh 5.1.
Q12
Q11 7

6
Q2

Q4
2

Q16

Q8
Q5

Q15

Q13 8
Q6

Q3

Q1
1

Q14

Q10
Q7

Q9
5

Hnh 5.1. H thanh phng

Trong h thanh, ti trng hoc phn lc lin kt t cc khp ni; b qua ma st


trong cc khp ni. R rng, mi phn t ca h thanh hoc chu ko, hoc chu nn.
Ta c th gp h thanh tnh nh hoc siu tnh.
2. H TO A PHNG, H TO CHUNG

H thanh khc vi cc kt cu mt chiu xt trong Chng 4 ch: trong h


thanh, cc phn t (cc thanh) c cc phng khc nhau. c th tnh n s khc
nhau v phng ca cc phn t trong h, ta cn phi a ra khi nim h to a
phng v h to chung.
Mt phn t thanh c m t trong h to a phng v h to chung nh
trong Hnh 5.2.

39

q4sin

q2
q3cos

q4

y
q1
1

q3

q2sin

q1cos
x
(a)

q1

q2
(b)

Hnh 5.2. (a) Phn t thanh trong h to a phng v (b) trong h to chung

Trong s nh s nt a phng, hai nt ca phn t c nh s 1 v s 2. H to


a phng hng theo trc x, chy t nt 1 n nt 2. Tt c cc i lng trong h
to a phng c k hiu bi du (). H to chung (x,y) l c nh v khng
ph thuc vo phng ca cc phn t.
Trong h to chung, mi nt cng c hai bc t do. Chng hn, nt j s c hai chuyn
v l Q2j-1 v Q2j.
Gi q1 v q2 l cc chuyn v ca nt 1 v 2 tng ng trong h to a phng. Ta
k hiu vct chuyn v trong h to a phng bi:
q = [q1 , q2]T
(5.1)
Trong h to chung, vct chuyn v c 4 thnh phn:
q = [q1, q2 , q3 , q4 ]T
(5.2)
Ta i tm quan h gia q v q.
D thy
q1 = q1 cos + q2 sin

(5.3a)

q2 = q3 cos + q4 sin

(5.3b)

K hiu

= cos

(5.4a)

m = sin

(5.4b)

q = T q
Trong T l ma trn chuyn i h c s, c vit di dng:

(5.5)

Ta c th vit

l m 0 0
T =

0 0 l m

(5.6)

40

3. MA TRN CNG PHN T

Cc phn t trong h thanh u l cc phn t mt chiu. V vy, ta p dng nhng kt


qu ca chng 4 vo h thanh.
Trong h to a phng, ta xc nh c ma trn cng ca phn t
k' =

Ee Ae 1 1
le 1 1

(5.7)

thit lp ma trn cng ca phn t trong h to chung, ta ch ti biu thc


nng lng bin dng ca phn t
1
U e = q 'T k ' q'
2

(5.8)

Thay q = Tq vo biu thc trn, ta c


Ue =

1 T T
q T k 'T q
2

(5.9)

Cui cng, nng lng bin dng trong h to chung c vit di dng:
1
U e = qT k q
2

(5.10)

Trong k l ma trn cng ca phn t trong h to chung v


k = TT k' T
Thay biu thc ca T t (5.6) v ca k' t (5.7) vo (5.11), ta c
l2
lm

m2
Ee Ae lm
k=
le l 2 lm

2
lm m

lm

lm m 2
l2
lm

lm
m 2

(5.11)

l2

(5.12)

T cc ma trn cng ca cc phn t v nh bng ghp ni phn t, ta s thu c


ma trn cng chung ca c h thanh.
4. NG SUT

Nh lu trn, mi phn t trong h thanh hoc chu ko, hoc chu nn. Do ,
ng sut trong thanh c xc nh bi: = Ee
Hoc
= Ee

q'
q ' 2 q '1 Ee
=
[ 1 1] 1 = Ee [ 1 1] Lq
le
le
q ' 2 l e

Th biu thc ca L t (5.6) vo biu thc trn ta c:


=

Ee
[ l
le

m l

m] q

(5.13)

Sau khi tm c chuyn v, ta s xc nh c ng sut trong mi phn t ca h.

41

5.

V D

Kho st h gm hai thanh chu lc P nh hnh di. Cc thanh c cng din tch mt
ct ngang v cng vt liu. Xc nh chuyn v ti im t lc.
y

3
2
1

300
L, A, E

300
2

(b)
P
Hnh 5.3. (a) Kt cu bng chu lc, (b) s phn t
(a)

Li gii
1. M hnh ho h thanh bi 2 phn t hu hn; mi nt phn t c 2 bc t do.
2. Xc nh ma trn cng ca cc phn t
p dng cng thc (5.12), ta tnh c cc ma trn cng ca cc phn t.
Vi phn t 1: l = cos = 1; m = sin = 0; L1 = L
1

EA 0
1
k =
L 1

Vi phn t 2: l = cos =

0 1 0
0 0 0
0 1 0

0 0 0

3
1
2
; m = sin = ; L2 =
L
2
2
3
3 3

8
3
EA
8
k2 =
L 3 3

8
3

3
8
3
8
3
8
3

3 3
8
3
8
3 3
8
3

8
3

8
3

8
3

T y, ta thit lp c ma trn cng chung K v h phng trnh:

42

1
0

EA
0
L

0
0
0
0
0
0

1
0
3 3
1+
8
3

8
3 3

8
3
8

0
0
3

8
3
8
3
8
3

0
0
3 3

8
3
8
3 3
8
3

0 R1

0 R2
3 Q3 0

=
8 Q4 P
3
0 R5
8 0 R
6
3
8
0
0
3
8

p dng iu kin bin: Q1 = Q2 = Q5 = Q6 =0, ta thu c h phng trnh PTHH:


3 3
EA 1 + 8

L
3

3
Q 0
8 3 =

3 Q4 P
8

Gii h phng trnh trn, ta c:


LP

Q3
EA
= 8
LP
Q4

+ 3
3
EA

Thay cc gi tr chuyn v trn vo (5.14), ta tm c phn lc lin kt:


R = { R1

R2

R5

R6 } =

3 0 3 1P

BI TP CHNG 5
1. Mt kt cu thanh ging nh trn Hnh C5.1. Vt liu cc thanh bng thp, c
mun n hi E=200gPa. Xc nh ma trn cng tng th ca h.
Q2i

P
2

1000 mm2

Q2i-1
1

500 mm
3

1250 mm2
750 mm
Hnh C5.1

43

2. Mt kt cu gin gm 3 thanh c nh s
(nt v thanh) nh trn Hnh C5.2. Vt liu ca cc
thanh I v II l nhm, vt liu ca thanh III l thp. Tit
din ca thanh I l 15cm2 v tit din ca thanh II v III
l 8cm2. Xc nh chuyn v ca nt 2 v ng sut trong
cc thanh. Gii bi ton bng tay v bng cch s dng
phn mm tnh ton kt cu tng ng. Khi gii bng
tay yu cu biu din ma trn cng tng th di
dng ton b v di dng rt gn. Cho Enhm = 70gPa,
Ethp = 210gPa.

8 kN
1 I

II
y
x
0,7m

5 kN

III 1m

4
0,5m

Hnh C5.2. Dn chu lc

a
a
3. Mt kt cu gin gm 5 thanh c nh s
(nt v thanh) nh trn Hnh C5.3. Vt liu ca cc
2
x
thanh u l thp v c mun n hi Ethp = 210gPa. 1
3

2
Tit din ca thanh I, II v III l 15cm v tit din ca
I
II
thanh IV v V l 8cm2. Xc nh chuyn v ca cc nt
V
IV
v ng sut trong cc thanh. Gii bi ton bng tay v
III
bng cch s dng chng trnh tnh ton kt cu tng P
P
5
4
ng. Khi gii bng tay nn ch n tnh i xng ca
Q
Q
y
kt cu. Cho a = 0,5 m; = 600; P = 2kN; Q = 4kN.
Hnh C5.3. Dn chu lc
4. Mt cy cu ng st c ghp t cc thanh
thp, E = 210x109N/m2, tit din ca cc thanh thp bng nhau v bng 3250 mm2. Mt
on tu dng trn cu, cu phi chu ti trng ca on tu (Hnh C5.4). Tnh chuyn
v theo phng ngang gi di ng R di tc dng ca cc ti trng. Xc nh chuyn v
ti cc nt v ng sut trong mi thanh cu.

280 kN

210 kN

600

360 kN
3.118m

280 kN

600

R
3.6m

3.6m

3.6m

Hnh C5.4. M hnh mt nhp cu chu lc

44

5. Mt kt cu cu c tnh ton thit k theo m hnh dn thanh nh trn Hnh


C5.5. Kt cu ny c cu thnh t 6 nhp. Ti trng biu din trn hnh v m t trng
thi lm vic nguy him nht ca kt cu. Vt liu s dng trong kt cu l thp vi
mun n hi Ethp = 210gPa. Xc nh tit din cho cc thanh sao cho ti u theo iu
kin bn. Cho a=5,5m; b=4,5m; c=1m; P1=25kN; P2=15kN; P3=40kN v P4=20kN.
Ch : Kt cu ny s c tnh ton, thit k li theo m hnh khung (xem bi tp
Chng 8).
P1

P2

P3

P4

b
c

a
Hnh C5.5. M hnh dm cu chu lc

6. S kt cu ca mt chic cn cu
c th hin trn Hnh C5.6, ti trng thit k l
10 tn. Chn loi thp ph hp v s dng h s
an ton bng 4, xc nh tit din cho tt c cc
thanh. Cho a=3m; b=9m; P=10000kg.

a
a

Hnh C5.6. M hnh cn cu

7. Mt kt cu gin cng xn phi chu


ti nh trn Hnh C5.7; cc thanh u bng thp
v c tit din 8cm2, ng sut cho php ca vt
liu l 600mPa. Kim tra xem thit k c tha
mn iu kin bn hay khng? Thit k li (thit
k tinh) vi iu kin s dng cng loi vt liu
v gi nguyn ng bao ca kt cu. Thit k
li y c th hiu l thay i cch sp xp cc
thanh, loi b mt s thanh, hoc thay i tit din ca cc thanh. Mt trong cc mc
ch ca thit k tinh v d l tm cch lm gim khi lng tng th ca kt cu. Cho
a=0,5m ; b=0,9m; c=0,4m; d=0,6m; =600; P = 30kN; Q = 40kN.
45

a
b

Hnh C5.7. M hnh dn cng xn chu lc

8. Cho kt cu gin nh Hnh C5.8. Vt liu v tit din ca cc thanh ging nh


bi 7. Hy phn tch bi ton ging nh lm vi bi ton 7. Cho a=0,4m; b=6,5m;
c=0,4m; = 300; P = 40kN; Q = 60kN.

a
a
b

Hnh C5.8. M hnh dn cng xn chu lc

46

Chng 6
PHN T HU HN TRONG BI TON HAI CHIU
1. M U

Trong chng ny, chng ta p dng phng php PTHH tnh kt cu phng
(2D) ca bi ton n hi. Cc bc c tin hnh ging nh bi ton mt chiu xt
trong chng 4.
Vct chuyn v u c xc nh bi: u = [u v]T
(6.1)
Trong : u, v l cc chuyn v theo phng x v y tng ng (Hnh 6.1).
T

v
y
(x,y)

fy

i
u=0
v=0

fx

x
Hnh 6.1. Bi ton hai chiu

ng sut v bin dng c k hiu bi:

= [x, y, xy]T

(6.2)

= [x, y, xy] T
Lc th tch, lc din tch v vi phn th tch c xc nh nh sau:
f = [fx fy]T ; T = [Tx Ty]T v dv = tdA
trong : t l dy theo phng z.
Quan h gia bin dng v chuyn v:
u
=
x

v
y

u v
+
y x

(6.3)
(6.4)

(6.5)

Xt quan h ng sut vi bin dng cho hai trng hp:


1.1. Trng hp ng sut phng

x
E

y =
2
1
xy

Hoc:

1
0 x


1
0 y

1
0 0
xy

= D

(6.6)

(6.7)
47

Trong
1
0

E
1
D=
0
1 2
1
0 0

(6.8)

1.2. Trng hp bin dng phng

1
E


1
y =
(
1
+

)(
1


0
0
xy

0 x

0 y
1 2
xy
2

(6.9)

Hoc:

= D

(6.10)

Trong

1
E

D=
1
(1 + )(1 2 )
0
0

0
1 2

2
0

(6.11)

E l mun n hi; l h s Poisson ca vt liu.


2. RI RC KT CU HO BNG PHN T TAM GIC

Min hai chiu c ri rc ho bng cc phn t tam gic nh hnh 6.2. Mi phn t
tam gic c 3 nt, mi nt c 2 chuyn v (theo phng x v y).
Ta k hiu vct chuyn v nt chung bi:
Q = { Q1 Q2 Qn }

(6.12)
T

10
11

10

Q2 6
Q1 1
1

5
4

Q4

11

Q3

Q6
3

Q2j

Q5
j

Q2j-1

Hnh 6.2. Ri rc kt cu bng phn t tam gic

tin tnh ton, cc thng tin v vic chia min thnh cc phn t tam gic s
c th hin qua cc bng to nt v bng nh v cc phn t.
48

Bng nh v cc phn t c thit lp nh sau:


Bc t.do
Phn t
1
2
3
...
11

1
3
3

2
4
4

3
13
5

4
14
6

11
11
13

12
12
14

13

14

10

21

22

Qui c: ng i t nt u n nt cui trong mi phn t theo chiu ngc chiu


kim ng h. Bng nh v phn t m t tnh tng ng gia chuyn v a phng v
chuyn v chung ca phn t. Cc thnh phn chuyn v trong h to a phng ca
nt i c k hiu l q2i-1 v q2i theo phng x v y tng ng.
Ta k hiu vct chuyn v ca phn t bi:
q = { q1

q 2 q6 }

(6.13)

T bng nh v cc phn t trn, sau khi tm c vct chuyn v chung Q, ta s


tm c vct chuyn v nt ca tng phn t ri t i xc nh cc i lng
khc nh ng sut, bin dng trong mi phn t.
Chuyn v ti mt im bt k trong phn t c biu din qua cc thnh phn
chuyn v ca nt phn t. i vi phn t tam gic c bin dng l hng s, cc hm
dng bin thin tuyn tnh trong phn t.
Ta c th biu din cc hm dng N1, N2, N3 nh trn Hnh 6.3.
N1

N1=1

=1

N2

=1

N3 =1

N3
1

3
=1

N2 =1
2

=1

=1

=1

Hnh 6.3. Biu din hnh hc cc hm dng

Nhn xt:

- Hm dng N1=1 nt 1, gim tuyn tnh n 0 ti nt 2 v nt 3. Tng t i vi


-

N2 v N3.
Bt k mt t hp tuyn tnh no ca cc hm dng trn cng u biu din mt mt
phng.

- Tng N1+ N2+ N3 biu din mt mt phng c chiu cao l mt n v cc nt 1, 2


v 3; mt phng ny song song vi mt phng (1, 2, 3). V vy, vi N1, N2 v N3 bt
k, ta c: N1+ N2+ N3 = 1

49

Trong ba hm dng, c hai hm l c lp. Cc hm dng c biu din qua v


nh sau:
N1= 1- - ; N2 = ; N3 =.

(6.14)

Trong v c gi l cc to chun ho hay to t nhin.


Tng t nh trong bi ton mt chiu (to x c bin i qua to , cc
hm dng l hm s ca ), trong bi ton hai chiu, cc to x, y cng c biu din
qua cc to v .
V mt vt l, cc hm dng c biu din bi cc to din tch. Khi ni mt
im nm trong mt tam gic vi ba nh, tam gic s c chia ra ba tam gic c
din tch A1, A2, A3 nh Hnh 6.4.
A1
;
A

N1 =

N2 =

A2
;
A

N3 =

A3
A

A2

A1
(x,y)
2

A3
1
Hnh 6.4. To din tch

Trong A l din tch ca phn t.


3. BIU DIN NG THAM S

Ta biu din chuyn v trong phn t qua cc hm dng v cc chuyn v nt ca n


nh sau:
u = N1q1 + N 2 q3 + N 3 q5

v = N1q 2 + N 2 q 4 + N 3 q6

(6.15)

hay
u = Nq

(6.16)

Trong
N
N = 1
0

0
N1

N2
0

0
N2

N3
0

0
N 3

(6.17)

50

Thay (6.14) vo (6.15), ta c biu thc xc nh chuyn v qua chuyn v nt xt trong


h to quy chiu nh sau:
u = ( q3 q1 ) + ( q5 q1 ) + q1

v = ( q4 q2 ) + ( q6 q2 ) + q2

(6.18)

i vi phn t tam gic, nh php m t ng tham s, ta c th biu din to (x,y)


qua to nt phn t vi cng cc hm dng trn:
x = N1 x1 + N 2 x 2 + N 3 x3

y = N1 y1 + N 2 y 2 + N 3 y 3

(6.19)

x = ( x2 x1 ) + ( x3 x1 ) + x1

y = ( y 2 y1 ) + ( y3 y1 ) + y1

(6.20)

Hay

Ta k hiu:

xij = xi - xj
yij = yi - yj

T (6.20), suy ra:


x = x21 + x31 + x1

y = y 21 + y31 + y1

(6.21)

y l mi lin h gia (x, y) vi (, ). xc nh cc thnh phn bin dng, ta cn


tnh cc o hm ring u v v theo x v y.
Ta c:
u = u(x(, ), y(, )).
v = v(x(, ), y(, )).
p dng qui tc o hm hm hp:
u u x u y
=
+
x y
u u x u y
=
+
x y

(6.22)

Hoc di dng ma trn:


u x

u = x

y u
x

y u

y

(6.23)

Trong ma trn vung (2x2) c gi l Jacobian ca php bin i, k hiu l J:


x
J = 21
x31

y 21
( ((
y31

Trin khai ly o hm ca x v y theo v , ta c:

51

u
u

x
1
=
J
u
u



y
1
J 1 l ma trn nghch o ca J : J =

(6.24)

1
det J

y31
x
31

y 21
x21

(6.25)

Trong :
det J = x21 y31 x31 y21
Ta cng bit rng, det J chnh bng hai ln din tch tam gic.
| det J| = 2A
(6.26)
Ch : Nu cc nt 1, 2, 3 c xp t theo chiu ngc chiu kim ng h, th det J
lun c du dng.
T (6.24), (6.25), ta c th vit:
u
x
1
u =
det J
y

u
u

y31 y 21

u
u
x31

+ x21

(6.27)

Thay vai tr ca u bi v, ta cng c biu thc tng t:


v
1
x
v =
det J
y

v
v

y31 y 21

v
v
x31

+ x21

(6.28)

Khi y, cc thnh phn bin dng c xc nh bi:


u

x
v
=

y
u + v
y x
y 23q1 + y31q3 + y12 q5

=
x32 q2 + x13 q4 + x21q6

det J

x32 q1 + y23 q2 + x13 q3 + y31q4 + x21q5 + y12 q6

(6.29)

Hoc di dng ma trn:

=Bq

(6.30)

Trong :
y 23
1
B=
0
det J
x32

0
x32
y 23

y31
0
x13

0
x13
y31

y12
0
x21

0
x21
y12

(6.31)

52

y l ma trn lin h gia bin dng v chuyn v nt, trong cc s hng u l cc


hng s v c xc nh qua cc to nt ca cc phn t.
4. TH NNG

Th nng ca h c xc nh bi:
=

1 T
Dt dA u T ft dA T Tt dl ui T Pi

2A
i
A
L

(6.32)

Trong :
T: lc din tch; f: lc th tch; t: chiu dy phn t
Pi: lc tp trung, Pi = [Px, Py]iT
Theo s phn t hu hn, th nng c vit di dng:
=
e

1 T
Dt dA u T ft dA T Tt dl u i T Pi

2e
e e
e e
i

(6.33)

Hoc
= U e u T ft dA T Tt dl u i Pi
T

(6.34)

Trong :
Ue =

1 T
Dt dA
2 e

l nng lng bin dng ca phn t


5. MA TRN CNG CA PHN T TAM GIC

Th biu thc ca bin dng vo biu thc ca th nng bin dng ca phn t, s c:
Ue =

1 T
1
Dt dA = q T B T DBqt dA

2e
2e

(6.35)

V: t, D, B l hng s v cc ma trn hng s, do


Ue =

1 T T
q B DB qt e dA
2
e

(6.36)

Mt khc: dA = Ae , nn cui cng ta c:


e

Ue =

1 T
1
q t e Ae B T DB q = q T k e q
2
2

(6.37)

Trong :
k e = t e Ae B T DB

(6.38)

l ma trn cng ca phn t tam gic; t l dy ca phn t; Ae l din tch ca


phn t; B l ma trn lin h bin dng-chuyn v nt ca phn t; D l ma trn lin h

53

ng sut-bin dng, n ph thuc vo vt liu kho st. V D l ma trn i xng, do


ke cng l ma trn i xng.
T cc ma trn cng ke ca cc phn t, ta s suy ra ma trn cng K ca c kt
cu; khi y, th nng bin dng ca c kt cu c xc nh bi:
1
U e = QT K Q
2

(6.39)

Ma trn K l ma trn i xng, thng c dng di bng


Ch : Mun gim chiu rng di bng trong ma trn K, ta cn gim hiu s gia cc
ch s nt ca mi phn t trong kt cu.
6. QUI I LC V NT
6.1. Qui i lc th tch

Ta c:

u
e

ft dA = t e ( uf x + vf y ) dA

(6.40)

p dng biu thc ni suy ca u v v ta c:

ft dA = q1 t e f x N1 dA + q 2 t e f y N1 dA
e
e

+ q3 t e f x N 2 dA + q 4 t e f y N 2 dA
e
e

+ q5 t e f x N 3 dA + q6 t e f y N 3 dA
e
e

(6.41)

Vi ch :

1 1

N
e

0 0

dA =

0 0

(1 ) dd = 3 A

det J dd = 2 Ae

(6.42a)

0 0

1 1

dA =

1 1

1 1

det J dd = 2 Ae

dd = 3 A

(6.42b)

0 0

1 1

1 1

0 0

0 0

dA = N 2 det J dd = 2 Ae

dd = 3 A

(6.42c)

biu thc (6.41) s cho

ft dA = q T f e

Trong f l vct lc th tch qui i v nt, v


fe =

t e Ae
{ fx
3

fy

fx

fy

fx

fy}

(6.43)

Sau khi xc nh c cc lc nt fe ca phn t, ta suy ra vct lc F chung.

54

6.2.

Qui i lc din tch

Lc din tch thng l cc lc tc dng trn cc cnh ni cc nt phn t. Vn


l ta phi qui i cc lc ny v nt.
Gi s cnh l12 chu tc dng ca lc ko Tx v Ty (Hnh 6.5).

Tt dl =

(uT

+ vTy ) t dl

(6.44)

l1 2

l12

Ty2

Ty

2
Ty1

Tx2
Tx

Tx1

Hnh 6.5. Lc tc dng trn cnh phn t

Thay u = Nq, ta s c:

u
Tt
dl
=
q
t
T
N
dl
+
q
t
T
N
dl
1 e x 1
2
e y
1
L

l12
l12

+ q3 t eTx N 2 dA + q 4 t eT y N 2 dA

l12
l12

(6.45)

V N3 = 0 trn cnh (1-2) suy ra: N1 + N2 = 1;


do

l12

1
dl = l12
2

Trong

( x2 x1 ) 2 + ( y 2 y1 ) 2

l12 =

Tt dl = q T e

y, q l tp hp cc bc t do nt tng ng vi cnh 1-2.


q = { q1

q2

q3

q4 }

t e l12
{Tx
2

Ty

Tx

(6.46)

Cui cng
Te =
6.3.

Ty

0 0}

(6.47)

Lc tp trung

tin cho vic tnh ton, ngi ta thng ly nt ti im t lc tp trung.


Nu i l nt c lc: Pi = [Px, Py]T tc dng, th
55

uiTPi = Q2i-1 Px + Q2i Py


Cui cng ta c th vit

(6.48)

+Te + P F

(6.49)

( f

Sau khi tnh c nng lng bin dng v cc thnh phn lc nt, ta vit biu thc th
nng ton phn di dng:
1
= Q T KQ Q T F
2

(6.50)

p dng iu kin cc tiu ho th nng, ta thu c h phng trnh:


KQ=F
Gii h phng trnh (6.51), ta tm c vct chuyn v nt Q.

(6.51)

6.4. Tnh ng sut

V bin dng l hng s trong phn t, do ng sut cng l hng s. Ta cn xc


nh gi tr ng sut trong mi phn t: = D .
M: = Bq, do :

= DBq
(6.52)
T chuyn v chung Q, nh bng ghp ni phn t, suy ra cc chuyn v nt q ca tng
phn t, sau thay vo (6.52) s tnh c ng sut. ng sut chnh v phng chnh
c xc nh nh vng Mohr ng sut.
7. V D

Cho mt tm kim loi hnh vung, cnh di 2m, chu lc nh Hnh 6.6.
P

(a)

p=10mN/m2

P
3

P=100 kN

2m
y

P=100 kN

2
(b)

1
1

Hnh 6.6. M hnh PTHH tnh tm vung chu ko

56

Bit E = 182 gPa; = 0,3; t = 0,01 m. Xc nh ng sut trong tm cho hai trng
hp:
a. Ch c P = 100 kN tc dng,
b. Ch c p = 10 mN/m2 tc dng.

Li gii
Do kt cu i xng, chu ti trng i xng, nn ta ch cn xt mt phn t tm vi
hai phn t (Hnh 6.6b).
Ta thit lp c bng nh v cc phn t
Bc t.do
Phn t
1
2

1
3

2
4

3
7

4
8

5
5

6
6

iu kin bin:
Ti nt 1: u = v = 0, tng ng ta c Q1 = Q2 = 0;
Ti nt 2: v = 0, tng ng ta c Q4 = 0;
Ti nt 3: u = 0, tng ng ta c Q5 = 0;
p dng cc cng thc (6.38): ke = te Ae BT DB Ta xc nh c ma trn cng cho
tng phn t.
Phn t 1
650
1000 350 350 300
1350
650
1350
300 350 350 1000

1000 300 1000


0
0
300
3
k1 =
10 ( N / mm )
0
350
350
0
350 350
350 350
0
350
350
0

300
0
0
1000
300 1000

Phn t 2
0
350 350
0
350
350
0
1000
300 1000 300
0

350 300 1350


650
1000 350
3
k2 =
10 ( N / mm )

350

1000
650
1350

300

350

0
300
1000 300 1000
0

0
350 350
0
350
350

Ma trn cng chung K

57

650
1000 350 350 300
0
0
1350
650
1350
300 350 350 1000
0
0

1000 300 1350


0
0
650
350 350

350 350
0
1350
650
0
300 1000

K=
10 3
350 350

0
650
1350
0
1000 300

650
0
0
1350
350 350
300 1000
0
0
350 300 1000 350 1350
650

0
350 1000 300 350
650
1350
0

Trng hp 1: P = 100 kN
Sau khi p t iu kin bin ta c h phng trnh:
1350 650 350 350 Q3 0
650 1350 350 350 Q 0
3
6 = 10 3
10
350 350 1350 650 Q7 100

350 350 650 1350 Q8 0

Gii h phng trnh, ta c:


Q3 = 9,9715 10-3 (mm)
Q6 = 9,9715 10-3 (mm)
Q7 = 99,919 10-3 (mm)
Q8 = -42,938 10-3 (mm)
tnh ng sut trong mi phn t, ta p dng cng thc (6.52):

=DBq
Trong
200 60 0
D = 10 9 60 200 0 ( N / m )
0
0 70
q1 = 10 6 { 0 9,9715 0 0 9,9715 0}

0 0 1 0 1 0
B = 0 1 0 1 0 0
1 0 1 1 0 1
1

Cui cng ta tnh c ng sut trong phn t 1


x 2,593

y = 2,593 ( MPa )
0

xy

Thc hin cc bc tng t cho phn t 2:


q 2 = 10 6 { 0 9,9715 9,9715 0 99,919 42,938}

58

1 0 0 0 1 0
B 2 = 0 0 0 1 0 1
0 1 1 0 1 1

V ng sut trong phn t 2:


x 17 ,407

y = 2 ,5926 ( MPa )
2 ,5926

xy

Trng hp 2: p =10 mN/m2


p dng cng thc (6.47) tnh lc nt qui i, ta c:
F3 = 50000 N v F7 = 50000 N
Ta thit lp c h phng trnh:
1350 650 350 350 Q3 50
650 1350 350 350 Q 0
6 = 10 3
10 3
350 350 1350 650 Q7 50

350 350 650 1350 Q8 0

Gii h phng trnh, ta tm c cc chuyn v nt


Q3 = 54,9451 10-3 (mm); Q6 = -16,4835 10-3 (mm);
Q7 = 54,9451 10-3 (mm); Q8 = -16,4835 10-3 (mm).
Cui cng ta tnh c cc thnh phn ng sut trong cc phn t 1 v 2 (c cng gi
tr):
x 10

y = 0 ( MPa )
0
xy

Trong c hai trng hp t ti, kt qu theo phng php phn t hu hn trng vi


kt qu chnh xc.

59

BI TP CHNG 6
1. Tm chuyn v ti hai im A v B v phn b ng sut trong tm phng c
kch thc v chu ti trng nh Hnh C6.1. Vt liu ca tm l thp c mun n hi
Ethp=210gPa v h s Poisson =0,22; vi a = 0,2 m ; b = 0,3 m; t = 5 mm v q = 8
kN/m2. Hy xt vi cc trng hp chia li nh sau:
a. Hai phn t tam gic nh trn Hnh C6.1a
b. Ba phn t tam gic nh trn Hnh C6. 1b
c. So snh kt qu trong hai trng hp trn v a ra nhn xt v khuyn co.
d. Thay i lin kt ca tm nh trn Hnh C6.1c v d, liu cc kt qu tnh trn
Hnh C6.1a v b c thay i hay khng? Gii thch?
3A

3A

II
II

III 5

I
1

2B

3A

3A
II

q
I

a
b)

II
b

b/2

a)
4

q b/2

2 B

II
I 5
I
1

b/2
b/2

2B

c)
d)
Hnh C6.1.Cc dng lui vi phn t tam gic

2. Mt vng dt ( h << ri , re ) chu p sut


trong p nh trn Hnh C6.2. Hy tnh chuyn v v
ng sut trong vng. y l dng bi ton vt i
xng trc chu ti i xng trc v c th s dng
cc phn t dng v i xng trc gii. Nhng
y ta s s dng m hnh bi ton ng sut phng
gii quyt. Vi: ri = 15mm; re = 30mm;
p = 120N/mm2; E = 70000 N/mm2; = 0,3 v h =
1mm.
So snh kt qu tm c vi cc kt qu gii
tch nh sau:

re
ri

Hnh C6.2. Vng dt chu p lc


60

2
2
ri pr
re
(1 ) + ( 1 + ) 2
ur =
2
2
r
E re ri
2
2
2
ri p re
ri p
1 2 ; = 2
r = 2
2
2
re ri r
re ri

re 2
1 + 2
r

3. Mt tm thp hnh tam gic c bt cht


d
vo mt ct thp bng 5 bu-lng ng knh 8mm
a b
c
P
nh trn hnh v C6.3. Gi thit l ct thp v bulng l rt cng so vi tm thp v b qua ma st
a
gia tm v ct, hy xc nh xem bu-lng no
a
chu ti trng ln nht v xc nh gi tr . So
a
snh vi kt qu theo phng php gii tch thng d
dng cho mt nhm bu-lng chu ti lch. Nu tm
trn lm bng nhm th ti trng m bu-lng phi
chu c thay i khng?
Lu : Do kch thc tng i gia bu-lng, tm
v ct, ch cn m phng mi bu-lng bng mt
Hnh C6.3. Kt cu lp ghp
hoc mt vi nt, v t cc chuyn v nt ny
bng khng (= 0). Phn lc ti cc nt c nh ny
s chnh l ti m bu-lng tng ng phi chu.
Tuy nhin c mt phn b kh chnh xc ca
ng sut trn tm ta cn phi c mt li mn
cho tm. S dng phn t tam gic tuyn tnh. Bit:
a = 100mm; b = 120mm; c = 300mm; d = 600mm;
E = 210gPa; = 0,22 v P = 4kN.
4. Bi ton tng ng nh bi 3, ln ny
tm thp c dng hnh thang nh trn hnh v C6.4
v c bt bng tm bu-lng ng knh 16mm.
S dng phn t tam gic tuyn tnh. Bit: a = 50mm; b = 75mm; c = 500mm v P =
8kN.

61

2b

a
2b
2b
a

Hnh C6.4. Kt cu lp ghp

Chng 7
BI TON I XNG TRC CHU TI TRNG I XNG

1. M U

tnh ton mt vt i xng trc hay cn gi l vt trn xoay chu ti trng i


xng trc, ta a bi ton v bi ton hai chiu n gin.
V vt i xng hon ton i vi trc z, nn cc thnh phn bin dng v ng sut
khng ph thuc vo gc quay . Do , bi ton c xem xt nh mt bi ton hai
chiu trong mt phng (rz), trong z l trc ng, r l trc hng knh.
2. M T I XNG TRC

Kho st mt vi phn th tch nh trn Hnh 7.1:


z

z
Pi
bin L

dV

dA

w
r,z

(a)

(b)
Hnh 7.1. Vt i xng trc
62

Vi phn th tch dv = rd drdz = rd dA. Khi biu thc th nng s c dng:


1
=
2


0 A

rdAd

frdAd

0 A

u
0 L

Trdld u i Pi
T

(7.1)

vi Pi l lc tp trung tc dng trn chu tuyn i xng qua trc z.


V tt c cc bin trong tch phn trn khng ph thuc vo , do , h thc (7.1)
cho ta:
1

T
= 2 T rdA u T frdA u T Trdl ui Pi
A
L
2A
i

(7.2)

y:
u = [u w]T
f = [fr fz]T
T = [Tr Tz]T

(7.3)
(7.4)
(7.5)

T (7.3), ta c quan h gia bin dng v chuyn v u:


= { r

rz

u
=
r

w
z

u w
+
z r

(7.6)

Vct ng sut:
= { r z rz } T

(7.7)

Quan h gia ng sut v bin dng:

= D

(7.8)

vi:

E (1 ) 1
D=
(1 + )(1 2 ) 0

1 2
2(1 )

1
0

(7.9)

3. PHN T TAM GIC

Xt mt min hai chiu (mt ct) c trch ra t vt th trn xoay. Ta chia min
ny thnh cc phn t tam gic. Mt phn t i din vi 3 nt l 1, 2, 3 v cc chuyn
v tng ng q1, q2, q3, q4, q5 v q6 c biu din nh trn Hnh 7.2.

63

z
q6
q5

(r3,z3) 3
q2
1
(r1,z1)

Ae

q1

q4
u

q3

2
(r2,z2 )

r
Hnh 7.2. Phn t tam gic i xng trc

Vi ch rng cc to r v z ng vai tr ging nh x v y trong bi ton hai chiu


xt trong Chng 6.
Nh cc hm dng N1, N2, N3 bit trong chng 6, ta biu din hm chuyn v bi:
u = Nq
(7.10)
trong :
N
N= 1
0
q = { q1

0
N1
q2

N2
0
q3

q4

0
N2
q5

0
N 3

N3
0
q6 }

(7.11)
(7.12)

Ch rng:
N1 = 1 - - , N2 = , N3 =
Suy ra:
u = (1 ) q1 + q3 + q5

v = (1 ) q2 + q4 + q6

(7.13)

Dng php m t ng tham s ta cng c:


r = (1 ) r1 + r2 + r3

z = (1 ) z1 + z 2 + z3

(7.14)

T ta c:
u
u

r
u = J u



z

(7.15)

64

w
w

r
w = J w



z

(7.16)

Trong ma trn vung (2 2) c gi l Jacobian ca php bin i, k hiu l J:


r
J = 21
r31

z 21
( ((
z 31

(7.17)

K hiu: rj = ri - rj ; z = zi - zj
Suy ra:
detJ = r21z31 r31z21
vy :
|detJ| = 2Ae
Nghch o (7.15) v (7.16) ta c:
u
u

r
1
u = J u ;



z

(7.18)

w
w

r
1
w = J w



z

(7.19)

Trong , J 1 l ma trn nghch o ca J v c xc nh bi:


J 1 =

1
det J

= { r

z 31
r
31

rz

z 21
r21
u
} T =
r

(7.20)
w
z

u w
+
z r

u = (1 ) q1 + q3 + q5

v = (1 ) q 2 + q 4 + q6

(7.21)
(7.22)

Thay cc quan h trn vo biu thc bin dng - chuyn v (7.6), ta c:


z 31 ( q3 q1 ) z 21 ( q5 q1 )

det J

r31 ( q 4 q 2 ) + r21 ( q6 q 2 )

det
J
=
r ( q q ) + r21 ( q5 q1 ) + z 31 ( q 4 q 2 ) z 21 ( q6 q 2 )
31 3 1

det J

N1 q1 + N 2 q3 + N 3 q5

Hoc di dng ma trn:

= Bq
Trong , ma trn bin dng - chuyn v B c xc nh bi:

(7.23)

65

z 23
det J

0
B=
r32
det J
N
1
r

0
r32
det J
z 23
det J
0

z 31
det J
0
r13
det J
N2
r

0
r13
det J
z 31
det J
0

z12
det J
0
r21
det J
N3
r

0
r21

det J
z12
det J

(7.24)

3.1. Ma trn cng ca phn t


Trc ht ta xc nh biu thc th nng bin dng nh sau:
1

T
= 2 T D r dA 2 u T fr dA 2 u T T r dl ui Pi (7.25)
e
2 e
e
e

S hng u trong du mc [], chnh l nng lng bin dng ca phn t. Sau khi thay
= Bq, ta s c:
Ue =

1 T
q 2 B T D B r dA q
2 e

(7.26)

i lng
k e = 2 B T D B r dA
e

(7.27)

c gi l ma trn cng ca phn t.


Ch rng hng th t ca ma trn B v tch phn (7.25) c cha bin r. Trong thc t,
n gin ho vic xc nh ma trn cng ke, ta tnh gn ng gi tr ca B v r i
vi trng tm ca tam gic v coi y l gi tr c trng ca tam gic . Do , i
vi trng tm tam gic th:
N1 = N 2 = N 3 =

K hiu: r =

1
3

(7.28)

r1 + r2 + r3
; trong r l bn knh ca trng tm tam gic.
3

K hiu B l ma trn quan h bin dng-chuyn v ca phn t c tnh i vi trng


tm tam gic, khi ta c:
T

k e = 2 r B D B dA
e

Cui cng, ma trn cng ca phn t c xc nh bi:


T

k e = 2 r Ae B D B

(7.29)

Ch : s hng 2 r Ae chnh l th tch ca phn t vnh, cn din tch Ae c xc nh


bi: Ae =

det J
2

3.2. Lc nt qui i
3.2.1. Lc th tch
66

Ta c:
2 u T frdA = 2 ( uf r + wf z ) rdA
e

= 2 [ ( N1q1 + N 2 q3 + N 3 q5 ) f r + ( N1q2 + N 2 q4 + N 3 q6 ) f z ] rdA


e

Ly xp x cc bin bng cc gi tr tng ng ti trng tm tam gic, ta c:


2 u T frdA = q T f e

(7.30)

trong :
fe =

K hiu f r ,

2 r Ae
fr
3

fr

fr

(7.31)

f z , r trong (7.31) ch cc i lng c biu din i vi trng tm

ca tam gic.
3.2.2. Lc din tch

Xt trng hp lc tc dng u trn cnh ni nt 1 v nt 2 c cc thnh phn l Tr, Tz


(Hnh 7.3).
3

q4
q3

2
l12

r
q2
q1

Tz

Tr

Hnh 7.3. Lc tc dng trn cnh phn t

Da vo biu thc:
2 u T Trdl = q T T e

(7.32)

trong :
q = { q1

q2

q3

T e = 2l12 { aTr

q4

q5

q6 }

aTz

bTr

bTz }

(7.33)
T

(7.34)

vi
a=

2r1 + r2
r + 2r2
; b= 1
6
6

l12 =

( r2 r1 )

+ ( z 2 z1 )

(7.35)
2

Ch trong tch phn (7.32), r = N1r1 + N2r2. Khi cnh 1-2 song song vi trc z, th
a = b = 0,5r1 v r1 = r2
67

3.3. ng sut
Sau khi tnh c th nng ton phn, iu kin bin s c p dng trong qu
trnh cc tiu ho th nng, cui cng ta c thu c h phng trnh dng quen
thuc sau:
KQ=F
(7.36)
trong : K l ma trn cng chung; Q l vct chuyn v nt chung; F l vct lc
nt chung.
T (7.36) ta s gii c cc chuyn v nt Q, sau nh bng nh v phn t s suy ra
chuyn v qi ca tng phn t.
Tip tc p dng biu thc quan h ng sut-bin dng v bin dng-chuyn v, ta s
tnh c
= D Bq

(7.37)

Ch : l mt ng sut chnh, hai ng sut chnh khc l 1 v 2 s c xc nh


qua r, z v rz nh vng trn Mohr ng sut.

68

3.4. V d
Cho mt ng tr di c ng knh trong bng 80mm, ng knh ngoi bng
120mm. ng c ghp cng xung quanh ng sinh vi mt vt cng khc v chu p
lc t bn trong p = 2 mPa. Bng m hnh hai phn t hu hn trn chiu di 10mm,
hy xc nh cc chuyn v, ng sut ca im bn trong thnh ng, bit E = 200 gPa,
= 0,3.
Li gii
M hnh 2 phn t trn chiu di 10mm theo phng z c minh ho nh trn
Hnh 7.4.
Vi ng chu lin kt nh trn, chuyn v pha ngoi ng khng c; coi lin kt
ti nt 3 v 4 l c nh. Tng t, chuyn v dc trc cng khng c; lin kt ti nt 1
v 2 l c nh theo phng dc trc z.
z
2mPa

F1

4
1

F2

10mm

2
3

40mm
60mm

80mm
120mm

Hnh 7.4. M hnh hai phn t

Theo nhn xt trn ta c:


Q2 = Q4 = 0 (chuyn v dc trc)
Q5 = Q6 = Q7 = Q8 = 0 (chuyn v pha ngoi ng)
Ta lp bng nh v cc phn t:
Bc t.do
Phn t
1
2

1
3

2
4

3
5

4
6

7
7

8
8

Khi ly gc to trng vi nt 2, ta c bng to cc nt nh sau:


Nt
1
2
3
4

r
40
40
60
60

z
10
0
0
10

69

Tnh ma trn D theo biu thc (7.9):


2,69 10 5

1,15 10 5
D=

5
1,15 10

1,15 10 5
2,69 10 5
0
1,15 10 5

0
0
0,77 10 5
0

1,15 10 5

1,15 10 5

2,69 10 5

Vi c 2 phn t, ta u c: detJ = 200mm2 v din tch ca phn t l Ae= 100mm2.


Cc lc nt c xc nh bi:
2r1lp 2 3,14 40 10 2
F1 = F2 =

= 2514 ( N )

Xt phn t 1
r1 =

1
( 40 + 40 + 60 ) = 46,67 ( mm)
3

0
0
0
0,05
0
0,05
0
0,1
0
0,1
0
0

B1 =
0,1
0,05 0,1
0
0
0,05

0
0,0071
0
0,0071 0
0,0071

Xt phn t 2
r2 =

1
( 40 + 60 + 60 ) = 53,33 ( mm)
3

0
0,05
0
0
0
0,05
0
0
0
0,1
0
0,1
B2 =
0,1
0,05
0,1
0,05
0,1
0

0
0,00625
0
0,00625 0
0,00625

p dng cng thc (7.29), ta tnh c:


4,03 2,58 2,34 1,45 1,932

8,45
1,37 7,89 1,93

2,30 0,24 0,16


k 1 = 10 7
7,89
1,93

DX
2,25

0
2,22
1,69
0,085
2,05

0,645 1,29 0,645 1,29

5,11
3,46 2,42
k 2 = 10 7
9,66
1,05

DX
2,62

1,13
0,565
1,13

0
0

0,565
1,69
0
2,17

9,01
0,241

9,01

Ghp 2 phn t vi ma trn cng l k1 v k2 ri p t cc iu kin bin: Q2 = Q4 =


Q5 = Q6 = Q7 =Q8 = 0.
70

Ta thu c h hai phng trnh, hai n s:


4,03 2,34 Q1 2514
10 7

=
2,34 4,35 Q3 2514

Gii h phng trnh trn ta thu c:


Q1 0,014 10 2
( mm)
=
2
Q3 0,0133 10

Chuyn v nt ca tng phn t:


q1 = { 0,014 0 0,0133 0 0 0} 10 2
T

q 2 = { 0,0133 0 0 0 0 0} 10 2
T

( mm)
( mm )

Xc nh ng sut
Da vo phng trnh quan h ng sut - bin dng (7.37) ; ta nhn c cc kt qu
sau:
EMBED Equation.3 1 = { 166 58,2 54 28,4} T 10 2 ( mPa )
EMBED Equation.3 2 = { 169 ,3 66 ,9 0 54} T 10 2 ( mPa )

71

BI TP CHNG 7
1. Mt ng dy hnh tr chu p sut trong p
nh trn hnh v C7.1, tm chuyn v v ng sut
trong ng. y l dng bi ton vt i xng trc
chu ti i xng trc. Hy s dng cc phn t
phng tuyn tnh (tam gic hoc t gic) gii cho
mt lt mng (bi ton bin dng phng).
ri = 15; re = 30 mm; h = 10 mm ;

re
ri

E = 70000N/mm2; = 0,3 ;
p = 120 N/mm2.

So snh kt qu tm c vi cc kt qu tm c
bng phng php gii tch nh sau:
2
2
ri pr
re
(1 ) + ( 1 + ) 2
ur =
2
2
r
E re ri
2
2
2
r p r
r p
r = 2 i 2 1 e2 ; = 2 i 2
re ri r
re ri

Hnh C7.1. Vng dt chu p lc

re 2
1 + 2
r

2. Mt tm trn ng knh R=120mm, chiu


dy h=15mm, b ngm cht trn ton b bin chu
mt p sut phn b u p=2mPa theo phng vung gc trn mt mt ca n.

- Xc nh vng cc i ca tm bit rng vt liu ca tm c mun n hi


E=210 gPa v h s Poisson =0,3.
- So snh vi kt qu gii tch biu din di dng: wmax =
trong , D l cng chng un: D =

Eh 3
12 1 2

pR 4
64 D

p
h
R
Hnh C7.2. a trn chu lc phn b u

3. ng tr rng khng y (Hnh C7.3) chu p lc tc dng t pha trong, ln


1MPa. Xc nh bin dng ca ng v s phn b ca ng sut chnh. Bit E = 200 gPa
v = 0,3.

72

200 mm

1 mPa

100 mm

16 mm
Hnh C7.3. ng thp h, chu p lc trong lng ng

4. Mt khun thp hnh chic cc, c t va kht vo mt ai thp hnh vnh


khn (Hnh C7.4a). Chy dp tc dng lc p ln phi to ra vt c hnh dng nh
chic cc. Gi s qu trnh dp l l tng vi lc tc dng vo khun thay i tuyn
tnh theo b mt chu lc p (Hnh C7.4b). Xc nh v tr v ln ca ng sut chnh
ln nht trong khun trong cc trng hp sau:
a. Khun khng c ai thp vnh khn bao ngoi.

b.
c.

Khun c ai thp bao ngoi v khng c s trt gia khun thp vi ai thp.
Khun c ai thp bao ngoi c k n ma st trt (gi : cn phi tch ring
b mt tip xc gia khun v ai thp. Nu I v J l l mt cp im trn b
mt tip xc, khi rng buc gia cc im l: Q2I-1 Q2J-1 = 0.
Chy dp
Phi

Khun
ai thp
hp kim

p3

3
190

320
300

100

p1

p2

220
320

p2

420

(a)

(b)

Hnh C7.4. M hnh chu lc ca b chy - ci dp

73

Chng 8
PHN T T GIC

1. M U

Trong chng 6 v 7 chng ta lm quen vi phn t tam gic 3 nt c bin dng


l hng s. Trong chng ny, chng ta s kho st phn t t gic 4 nt, mi nt c 2
bc t do. Cc phn t t gic c ng dng nhiu trong k thut gii cc bi ton
hai v ba chiu.
5.1. PHN T T GIC

Kho st mt phn t t gic tng qut nh Hnh 8.1. Phn t c bn nt: 1, 2, 3 v


4 c nh s ngc chiu kim ng h, mi nt c 2 bc t do; (xi, yi) l to ca
nt i. Vct chuyn v nt ca phn t c k hiu bi:
q = { q1

q 2 q8 }

Chuyn v ca mt im M(x, y) bt k trong phn t c k hiu l u: u = [u(x,


y), v(x, y)] T
q6

q8
4

q7

(1,1)
3

(0,0)

q2
1

q5

(-1,1)
4

q1

M(x,y)

q4
2

q3

1
(-1,-1)

2
(1,-1)

Hnh 8.1. Phn t t gic 4 nt


5.2. HM DNG

Ging nh cc chng trc, trong chng ny, phn t qui chiu t gic c dng
hnh vung c xc nh trong h to (, ) (Hnh 8.1). Cc hm dng Ni (i = 1, 2,
3, 4) c tnh cht: Ni = 1 ti nt i v bng khng ti cc nt khc. Chng hn: N1 bng 1
ti nt 1; bng 0 ti cc nt cn li (2, 3, 4). Yu cu N1 = 0 ti nt 2, 3, 4 c ngha l N1
= 0 dc theo cnh =1 v =1. V vy, N1 phi c dng: N1 = c(1- )(1- ) ; trong c
l hng s cn xc nh.
1
4

T iu kin N1= 1 ti nt 1 ( = -1; = -1), suy ra: c = .

74

Tng t nh trn, ta cng xc nh c biu thc ca cc hm dng cn li. Cui


cng, biu thc ca cc hm dng Ni nh sau:
1
(1 )(1 )
4
1
N 2 = (1 + )(1 )
4
1
N 3 = (1 + )(1 + )
4
1
N 4 = (1 )(1 + )
4
N1 =

(8.1)

Ta c th biu din cc hm dng mt cch tng qut nh sau:


Ni =

1
(1 + i )(1 + i )
4

(8.2)

trong (i , i) l to ca nt i.
By gi ta m t trng chuyn v ca phn t theo chuyn v nt ca n. Ta thy:
u = N1q1 + N2q3 + N3q5 + N4q7
v = N1q2 + N2q4 + N3q6 + N4q8
(8.3)
Hoc di dng ma trn
u = Nq
(8.4)
Trong
N
N = 1
0

0
N1

N2
0

0
N2

N3
0

0
N3

N4
0

0
N 4

(8.5)

Nh cch m t ng tham s, ta biu din to ca mt im trong phn t qua to


cc nt phn t cng nh cc hm dng Ni trn:
x = N1x1 + N2x2 + N3x3 + N4x4
y = N1y1 + N2y2 + N3y3 + N4y4
(8.6)
Trc ht, ta tnh o hm ca hm hp f = f(x, y) = f[x(, ), y(, )] theo v .
f f x f y
=
+
x y
f f x f y
=
+
x y

Hoc:

(8.7)

f
f

x
f = J f


y

x

Trong J l ma trn Jacbin : J = x

(8.8)
y

(8.9)

75

T (8.1) v (8.6), ta c:
1 ( 1 ) ( x2 x1)
J=
4 ( 1 ) ( x4 x1)

( + 1 ) +( x3 )x4 (
( + 1 ) +( x3 )x2 (

1) (
1) (

y2
y4

) y(1
) y(1

) 1( +
) 1( +

y+3) y4 J11 J12


y+3) y2 J 21 J 22

=
(8.10)

Nghch o (8.8) ta c quan h:


f
f

x
1
f = J f


y

(8.11)

Hoc
f
1
x
f =
det J
y

f
J 12

J 11 f

J 22
J
21

(8.12)

Ta s s dng cc biu thc trn xy dng ma trn cng ca phn t.


5.3. MA TRN CNG CA PHN T

Nng lng bin dng ca vt th n hi c xc nh bi:


1 T
dV
2 V

(8.13)

1
U = t e T dA
2
e
V

(8.14)

U=

hoc

Quan h gia bin dng v chuyn v:


u

x x
v
= y =

y
xy u v
+
y x

(8.15)

Nu trong (8.12), coi vai tr ca f l u, ta c:


u
x
1
u =
det J
y

J 22
J
21

u
J 12

J 11 u

(8.16)

J 22
J
21

v
J 12

J 11 v

(8.17)

Tng t,
v
1
x
v =
det J
y

76

Biu thc (8.15), (8.16) v (8.17) cho ta:


u


u

= A
v


v

(8.18)

Trong A c xc nh bi
J 22
1
A=
0
det J
J 21

J 12
0
J 11

0
J 21
J 22

0
J 11
J 12

T phng trnh ni suy (8.3), ta c th vit:


u


u

= Gq
v


v

Trong
1
0
1+
0
1
0
1 0
1 0
1
0
1+
0
1
0
1
G=
0
1
0 1+
0
1
4 0 1

1
0
1
0 1+
0
1
0

(8.19)

(8.20)

(8.21)

Cui cng ta c:

= Bq
Trong :
B = AG
v ng sut c xc nh bi

(8.22)
(8.23)

= DBq
Quay li biu thc nng lng bin dng (8.14),

(8.24)

1 1

1
1
U = q T t e B T DB det J d d q = q T k e q
e 2
e 2
1 1

(8.25)

1 1

Trong :

k e = t e B T DB det J d d

(8.26)

1 1

chnh l ma trn cng ca phn t t gic.


77

5.4. QUI I LC V NT

5.5. Lc th tch
tch phn:

f dV

(8.27)

vi: u = Nq v gi thit rng cc thnh phn lc khi f = [fx, fy]T phn b l hng s
trong mi phn t, ta s c:

f dV = q T f e

(8.28)

1 1
f x
f e = t e N T det J d d
1 1
f y

Trong :

(8.29)

5.6. Lc din tch


Gi s lc din tch T = [Tx, Ty ]T bng hng s, tc dng trn cnh 2-3 ca phn t
t gic. Dc theo cnh 2-3, = 1 v khi y cc hm dng tr nn:
1
1+
N1 = N 4 = 0;

N2 =

N3 =

Ta tnh c cc thnh phn ca vct lc nt phn t:


Te =

t e l 23
{ 0 0 Tx
2

Ty

Tx

Ty

0 0}

(8.30)

Ch : Trong cng thc ma trn cng (8.26) v cng thc qui i lc th tch (8.29),
cc i lng B v detJ u l cc hm s ca v . Ta cn phi s ho cc tch phn
trn. Di y chng ta nhc li mt vi khi nim v tch phn s.
5.7. TCH PHN S
6.1. Tch phn s mt bin
Cho tch phn
I=

f ( ) d

(8.31)

Ta s xp x tch phn I trn di dng mt tng n im xp x nh sau:


I=

f ( ) d = w1 f ( 1 ) + w2 f ( 2 ) + K

+ wn f ( n )

(8.32)

Trong w1, w2, ..., wn l cc hm trng s v 1, 2, ..., n l cc im Gauss. T tng


ca phng php cu phng Gauss l chn n im Gauss v n hm trng s sao cho
tch phn (8.31) cho kt qu chnh xc nht i vi a thc f(). Ni khc i, cng thc
tch phn n im l chnh xc cho tt c cc a thc bc cao, v cng thc tch phn
trn vn ng thm ch khi f khng phi l mt a thc. hiu c bn cht ca
phng php, chng ta xt cng thc tch phn 1- im v tch phn 2- im nh sau:
78

6.1.1. Cng thc tch phn 1- im

Khi n = 1:
I=

f ( ) d = w1 f ( 1 )

(8.33)

C 2 tham s w1 v 1 cn xc nh, vi yu cu l (8.33) cho kt qu chnh xc khi f()


l mt a thc bc nht. iu ny c ngha l nu f() l mt a thc bc nht, th sai s:
1

= ( a0 + a1 ) d w1 f ( 1 ) = 0

(8.34a)

= 2a0 w1 ( a0 + a11 ) = 0

(8.34b)

= a0 ( 2 w1 ) w1a11 = 0

(8.34c)

hoc

T (8.34c), suy ra = 0 khi:


w1 = 2

1 = 0

(8.35)

Vi hm f tng qut v tu , ta c:
1

I = f ( ) d = 2 f ( 0 )

(8.36)

Kt qu tnh ging nh phng php trung im (phng php hnh ch nht), nh m


t Hnh 8.2 sau.
f()
)

Phn din tch


xp x = 2f(0)

f(0)

Phn din tch


chnh xc

-1

Hnh 8.2. Cu phng 1 im Gauss


6.1.2. Cng thc tch phn 2- im

Khi n = 2
1

I=

f ( ) d = w f ( ) + w f ( )
1

(8.37)

2
3
y, c 4 thng s cn xc nh l: w1; w2 ; 1 v 2. Chn f ( ) = a0 + a1 + a 2 + a3 ,
ta c:

79

= a0 + a1 + a2 2 + a3 3 d [ w1 f ( 1 ) + w2 f ( 2 ) ] = 0

(8.38)

tho mn (8.38): = 0, khi ta phi c:


w1 + w2 = 2
w + w = 0
2 2
1 1
2

2
2
w

+
w

=
1
1
2
2

3
3
w11 + w2 2 = 0

(8.39)

H phng trnh phi tuyn (8.39) c nghim duy nht l:


w1 = w2 = 1

1 = 2 = 3 = 0,57735

(8.40)

T y, chng ta c th kt lun rng phng php cu phng Gauss n-im s cho kt


qu chnh xc nu f l mt a thc bc (2n-1) hoc nh hn. Bng di cho cc gi tr
ca wi v i theo cng thc Gauss vi n =1,...,6.
Bng 8.1. im Gauss v hm trng lng
n
1
2

wi

0,577350269
2
0,774596669
2
0

0,861136311
6
0,339981043
6

0,3478548451

0,5555555556
0, 888888889
6

0,6521451549

i
0,906179845
9
0,538469310
1
0

wi
0,2369268851

0,932469514
2
0,661209386
5
0,238619186
1

0,1713244924

0,4786286705
0,5688888889

0,3607615730
0,4679139346

6.2. Tch phn s hai bin


Xt tch phn
1 1

I = f ( , ) d d

(8.41)

1 1

Ta c
1 n

1 1

I wi f ( i , ) d w j wi f ( i , j ) wi w j f ( i , j )
n

(8.42)

i =1 j =1

6.3. Tch phn ma trn cng


80

T cng thc (8.26):


1 1

k e = t e B T DB det J d d
1 1

Ch k l ma trn cng (8x8) i xng, do ta ch cn ly tch phn cc s hng


pha trn ng cho chnh l .
K hiu

( , ) = t e B T DB det J

(8.43)

ij

v p dng cng thc (8.42), ta c


k ij = w1 ( 1 ,1 ) + w1w2 ( 1 , 2 ) + w2 w1 ( 2 ,1 ) + w2 ( 2 , 2 )
2

(8.44)

Trong :
w1 = w2 = 1

1 = 1 = 0,57735; 2 = 2 = 0,57735

Cc im Gauss theo cng thc tch phn 2- im trn c m t trn Hnh 8.3. Nu
gi cc im Gauss ln lt l 1, 2, 3, 4 th kij trong (8.44) c vit di dng:
4

k i j = Wk K

(8.45)

K =1

Trong K l gi tr ca v WK l hm trng s ti im tch phn k. Ch rng WK


= (1)(1) = 1. Cng thc (8.45) rt thun li cho chng ta khi lp trnh tnh ton ma trn
cng.

13
=1 2
3
4

1
3

Hnh 8.3. im Gauss theo qui tc tch phn 2 im

1
1
=
3
3

5.8. TNH NG SUT

Khng ging nh phn t tam gic c bin dng hng s; vi phn t t gic, ng
sut = DBq khng phi l hng s trong phm vi mt phn t, m chng thay i theo
v . Trong thc t, ng sut c tnh ti cc im Gauss, y cng l nhng im
81

c s dng trong khi tnh ma trn cng ke. Nh vy, vi phn t t gic, ta s c 4
gi tr ng sut. trnh sinh ra nhiu s liu, ta ch cn tnh ng sut ti mt im cho
mi phn t, chng hn im ( = 0, = 0).
5.9. V D

Kho st mt phn t ch nht nh hnh v di y. Gi thit phn t chu trng


thi
ng
sut
phng
v
c
cc
thnh
phn
chuyn
v:
q = { 0 0 0,051 0,076 0,152 0,081 0 0}

( mm) . Bit E = 206 gPa, = 0,3. Hy

xc nh cc i lng J, B v ti im ( = 0, = 0).
q8

q6

q7

4
(0,1)

q5

3
(2,1)
q4
q3

q2
q1
1 (0,0)

2 (2,0)

Bi gii
Theo cng thc (8.10), ta c:
J=

1 2(1 ) + 2(1 + )
4 2(1 + ) + 2(1 + )

(1 ) (1 + ) 1
=
(1 + ) + (1 + ) 0

0
1
2

p dng cng thc (8.19), ta c:


1

1 2
A=
0
12
0

0
1
2

0
1

p dng cng thc (8.21) v (8.23) vi = 0, = 0 ta s c:


1
4

B= 0

1
2

0
1
2
1

1
4
0

1
2

0
1
2
1
4

1
4
0
1
2

0
1
2
1
4

1
4

0
1
2

0
1

2
1

4

Ma trn D c xc nh bi (6.8)
0
1 0,3
206 10 3
D=
0,3 1
0
1 0,09
0
0 0,35

Cui cng ta tnh c ti im = 0, = 0:


= DBq = { 461 159 282} T

( MPa )

82

BI TP CHNG 8
1. Xc nh chuyn v ti hai im A v B, v phn b ca ng sut trong tm.
Vt liu ca tm l thp c mun n hi E=210 gPa v h s Poisson = 0,22. Hy
chia tm ra thnh hai phn t ch nht theo hai cch c m t trong cc hnh: Hnh
C8.1a,b. So snh kt qu trong hai trng hp trn v so snh vi kt qu tm c bng
cc phn t tam gic nh trong bi ton 1 chng 6. Bit: a = 0,2 m; b = 0,3 m; t =
5mm v q = 8 kN/m.
3A

3A

2
b

1
1

2 B

2 B

Hnh C8.1. S ho PTHH vi phn t t gic

2. Mt kt cu c m t nh Hnh C8.2. Bng cc phn t ch nht tuyn tnh,


hy gii li bi ton theo yu cu nh bi ton 4 chng 6.
a

a = 50mm;
b = 75mm;
c = 500mm
P = 8kN.

2b

a
2b
2b
a

Hnh C8.2. Kt cu lp ghp

3. Xc nh ma trn cng tng th cc li phn t nh trn hnh v C8.3. Gi


thit mi nt c mt bc t do v gi [K(e)] l ma trn cng ca phn t th e. (Kt
qu c th biu din thng qua cc s hng Kij(e)).
3

2
1
1

5
4

8
3

7
2

10
3

6
3

7
Hnh C8.3. S li phn t

9
4

83

Chng 9
PHN T HU HN TRONG TNH TON KT CU DM V KHUNG

1. GII THIU

Dm v khung c ng dng rng ri trong k thut. Trong chng ny chng ta


s p dng phng php phn t hu hn tnh dm sau m rng cho kt cu
khung hai chiu.
Ta ch xt dm c mt ct ngang i xng so vi mt phng ti trng. S ho
dm chu un v bin dng ( vng) ca trc dm c minh ho nh Hnh 9.1 di
y.
Pkp

Mkm
kp

km

(a)

y
v

(b)
Hnh 9.1. (a) S ho dm chu un; (b). Bin dng ca trc dm

Trong trng hp bin dng nh, ta c kt qu quen bit sau:


=

M
y
J

(9.1)

(9.2)

d 2v M
=
dx 2 EJ

(9.3)

Phng trnh vng:

Trong : l ng sut php, l bin dng di, M l mmen un ni lc trn mt ct


ngang, v l vng ca trc x v J l mmen qun tnh ca mt ct ngang i vi trc
trung ho (trc z i qua trng tm mt ct ngang).
5.10. TH NNG

Nng lng bin dng trong mt phn t c chiu di dx c xc nh bi:


du =

1
dAdx
2 A

(9.4)

Thay (9.1) v (9.2) vo (9.4) ta c:


84


1
1M2
1 M2
2
du = dAdx = 2 y dA dx =
dx
2A
2 EJ A
2 EJ 2

(9.5)

T (9.5) ta tnh c nng lng bin dng ton phn trong dm:
U=

d 2v
1

dx
EJ
2 L dx 2

(9.6)

Th nng ca dm c xc nh bi:
2

L
L
d 2v
1
= EJ 2 dx pvdx Pkp vkp M km km
2 0 dx
kp
km
0

(9.7)

Trong : p l ti trng phn b trn mt n v di; Pkp l lc tp trung ti im kp; Mkm


l mmen ca ngu lc ti im km; vkp l vng ti im kp v km l gc xoay ca
mt ct ngang ti km.
5.11. HM DNG HERMITE

Gi s ta chia dm thnh bn phn t nh Hnh 9.2, mi phn t c 2 nt; mi nt


c 2 bc t do. Hai bc t do ca nt i c k hiu l Q2i-1 v Q2i. Trong Q2i-1 l
vng; Q2i l gc xoay.
Q l vct chuyn v chung:
Q = [ Q1, Q2 , Q3, ..., Q10 ]T
(9.8)
T
Bn bc t do a phng ca mi phn t c k hiu bi: q = [q1, q2, q3, q4] . trong
: q1, q3 l vng v q2, q4 l gc xoay.
Q1

Q3

Q2

Q5
Q6

Q4

Q6

Q9

q1

Q10

Q8

q4

q2
1
v1

q3

v2
v2

1 (b)
(a)
Hnh 9.2. Ri rc dm bng phn t hu hn

Cc hm dng ni suy chuyn v trn mt phn t dm s c xc nh theo ;


trong -1 1.
Cc hm dng i vi phn t dm khc vi cc hm dng m ta bit trong cc
chng trc. V c c chuyn v ngang ( vng) v gc xoay do chng ta a vo
hm dng Hermite nh sau:
Hi = a i + b i + c i2 + di 3; vi (i = 1, 2, 3, 4)

(9.9)

Cc hm dng Hermite tho mn cc iu kin:


H1
= -1 1
=1 0

H1
0
0

H2
0
0

H2
1
0

H3
0
1

H3
0
0

H4
0
0

H4
0
1
85

Cc h s ai, bi, ci v di c xc nh nh cc iu kin trong bng trn.


Kt qu cho ta:
H1 = ( 1 - )2(2 + )/4 = (2 - 3 + 3)/4
H2 = (1 - )2 (1 + )/4 = (1 - - 2 + 3)/4
H3 = (1 + )2(2 - )/4 = (2 + 3 - 3)/4

(9.10)

H4 = (1 + )0( - 1)/4 = (-1 - + 2 + 3)/4


Biu din hnh hc cc hm dng nh Hnh 9.3:

Hnh 9.3. Hm dng Hermite


5.12. MA TRN CNG CA PHN T DM

Trc ht, ta s dng cc hm dng Hermite trn xy dng biu thc chuyn v
v():
v() = H1v1 + H2 (dv/d)1 + H3v2 + H4 (dv/d)2

(9.11)

Mt khc:
x=

x +x
x x
1
1+
x1 +
x2 = 1 2 + 2 1
2
2
2
2

V (x2 - x1 = le) l di phn t, do : dx =

(9.12)

dv dv dx
le
=
d ; v
, nn ta c quan h
d dx d
2

o hm sau:
dv le dv
=
d 2 dx

(9.13)

Ch rng (dv/dx) ti nt 1 v nt 2 chnh l q2 v q4, suy ra:


v( ) = H1q1 +

le
l
H 2 q 2 + H 3 q3 + e H 4 q4
2
2

(9.14)
86

hay vit di dng c ng:


v=Hq
Trong :

H = H1

(9.15)
le
H2
2

le

H4
2

H3

(9.16)

Nng lng bin dng ca phn t c xc nh bi:


2

d 2v
1
U e = EJ 2 dx
2
dx
e

T (9.13) suy ra:


dv 2 dv
d 2v 4 d 2v
=
v 2 = 2 2
dx le d
dx
le d

Thay v = Hq, ta c:
2

d 2v
16 d 2 H
2 = q T 4

2
dx
l
d

e
2
d H 3
1 + 3

=
2
2
d 2

Ch : dx =

d 2H

q
2
d

le
2

3

2

1 + 3 le
2 2

(9.17)

le
d , biu thc ca nng lng bin dng ca phn t c vit di dng:
2

9 2
4

+1
1 T 8 EJ
Ue = q
2
le3 1

3
( 1 + 3 ) le
8
2
1 + 3 2

le
4
DX

9
2
4
3
( 1 + 3 ) le
8
9 2

(1 + 3 ) le
8

1 + 9 2 2
le

16
d q
3
(1 + 3 ) le
8

2
1 + 3 2

le
4

(9.18)

cui cng ta thu c:


1
U e = qT k e q
2

(9.19)

Trong ke l ma trn cng ca phn t dm


6le
12
6l
4le
EJ
ke = 3 e
le 12 6le

2le
6le

12
6le
12
6le

6le
2le
6le

4le

(9.20)

5.13. QUY I LC NT

Cc dng ti trng tc dng gy un trn phn t dm nh ch ra trong Hnh 9.4.


87

p0

(a)
P0

(b)

M0

x0

x0

x
l

p0 x
p ( x) =
l

x
l

(c)

(d)
Hnh 9.4. Cc dng ti trng gy un trn phn t dm

Vic quy i cc ti trng ny v nt c thc hin nh sau:

5.1. Lc phn b u, cng p (Hnh 9.4a)


ple 1

q
pvdx
=
H
d

e
2

(9.21)

Thay biu thc ca H t (9.10) v (9.16) vo (9.21), sau ly tch phn ta c:

pvdx = f

eT

(9.22)

Trong :
fe =

ple
[ 6 le
12

6 le ]

(9.23)

5.2. Lc phn b bc nht (0: p0) (Hnh 9.4b)

pvdx =
e

p0 le 1

p0 x
vdx =
H (1 + ) d q

le
4 1

(9.24)

Thay biu thc ca H t (9.10) v (9.16) vo (9.24), sau ly tch phn ta s nhn
c:
fe =

p0 le
[ 9 2le
60

21 3le ]

(9.25)

5.3. Lc tp trung P0 (Hnh 9.4c)


Pkp v kp = P0 H

= 0

(9.26)

Tng t nh trn, ta c:

f = P0 H 1 ( 0 )

le
H 2 ( 0 ) H 3 ( 0 )
2

le

H 4 ( 0 )
2

(9.27)

trong :
88

2 x0
1
le

0 =

(9.28)

5.4. Ngu lc c mmen M0 (Hnh 9.4d)


Tng t nh trn, ta c:
T
M
2
2
f e = 30 6 x0 ( x0 le ) le le 4 x0le + 3x0 6 x0 ( x0 le ) x0le ( 3x0 2le )
le

(9.29)

Ch : vct lc nt fe cng c th c biu din theo bin 0, bng cch thay


x0 =

le
( x0 1) vo biu thc (9.29).
2

5.14. TNH MMEN UN V LC CT

p dng h thc mmen un v lc ct:


M = EJ

d 2v
dM
; Q=
, trong : v = Hq
2
dx
dx

Suy ra
M =

EJ
[ 6 q1 + ( 3 1) le q2 6 q3 + ( 3 + 1) le q4 ]
2
le

Q=

6 EJ
( 2q1 + le q2 2q3 + le q4 )
3
le

(9.30)
(9.31)

5.15. KHUNG PHNG

Kho st mt kt cu phng gm cc dm lin kt cng vi nhau. Cc phn t trong


kt cu c th c nhiu phng khc nhau. Hnh 9.5 gii thiu mt phn t khung.
q5
q5

q4

q4
q6 (q6)
y
q2

q2

q1

y
x

q1
q3 (q3)
Hnh 9.5. Phn t khung phng

Mi nt phn t c hai chuyn v theo x,y v mt gc xoay. Ta k hiu vct


chuyn v nt ca phn t bi:
q = [ q1, q2, q3, q4, q5, q6]T
(9.32)

89

Ta qui c h to a phng (x, y) sao cho x hng dc theo phn t khung


vi cc cosin ch phng l = cos v m = sin .
Trong h to a phng, vct chuyn v nt c xc nh bi:
q' = [ q'1, q'2, q'3, q'4, q'5, q'6]T
(9.33)
Ch : q3 = q3 ; q6 = q6, ta tm c biu thc quan h gia q v q:
q' = Lq
(9.34)
Trong :
m 0 0
0 0
l
m l 0 0
0 0

0
0 1 0
0 0
L=

0 0 l
m 0
0
0
0 0 m l 0

0 0 0
0 1
0

(9.35)

y, ta coi q'2, q'3, q'5, q'6 nh cc bc t do ca mt phn t dm chu un; cn q'1 v


q'4 ging nh cc chuyn v ca mt phn t thanh chu ko hoc nn (Chng 4).
Tng hp cc cng theo ng v tr cn c, ta xc nh c ma trn cng ca
phn t khung nh sau:
EA
l
e
0

0
e
k' =
EA
le

12 EJ
l 3e
6 EJ
l 2e

6 EJ
l 2e
4 EJ
le

12 EJ
l 3e
6 EJ
l 2e

6 EJ
l 2e
2 EA
le

EA
le
0
0
EA
le
0
0

0
12 EJ
l 3e
6 EJ
l 2e
0
12 EJ
l 3e
6 EJ
l 2e

6 EJ
l 2e
2 EA

le
0

6 EJ
l 2e
4 EA
le
0

(9.36)

Tng t nh phn h thanh phng (Chng 5), ta c th xc nh c nng lng


bin dng ca phn t khung:
1
1
1
U e = q'T k 'e q ' = q T LT k 'e Lq = q T k e q
2
2
2

(9.37)

trong :
ke = LT k'e L
(9.38)
l ma trn cng ca phn t trong h to chung (x, y).
Trong cc chng trnh phn t hu hn, trc ht ta xc nh ma trn ke, sau
tin hnh nhn cc ma trn trn theo (9.38) c ke.

90

x
p

y
y

P le
Hnh 9.6. Qui i lc phn b v nt
2

Pl 2 e
12
Nu trn khung c ti trng phn b tc dng, chng hn nh Hnh 9.6. Ta c:
qTf' = qT LT f'
trong

f ' = 0

Ple
2

Pl 2 e
12

Ple
2

Pl 2 e

12

(9.39)

Vy, ti trng nt do p gy ra s c xc nh bi:


f = LT f'
(9.40)
Cc gi tr ca f c cng vo vct lc nt chung, vi ch l chiu dng ca p
c ly theo chiu ca y'.
Lc tp trung v mmen ca ngu lc un cng c cng mt cch n gin vo
vct lc nt chung.
p t iu kin bin, cui cng ta thu c h phng trnh PTHH: KQ = F cho
php tnh chuyn v ti mt im bt k ca khung chu lc.
5.16.

V D

8.1. V d 1
Cho mt dm chu lc nh Hnh 9.7. Bit E = 200 gPa, J = 4 106 mm4, = 1000
mm, p = 12 kN/m. Xc nh gc xoay ti B, C v vng ti im gia on BC.

91

p
A

l
Q3

Q1
Q2
1

Q5
Q6

Q4
1

Hnh 9.7. Tnh dm chu un bng phng php PTHH

Li gii
Chia dm ra 2 phn t; mi phn t c 2 nt; mi nt c 2 bc t do (Hnh 9.7).
Cc chuyn v Q1 = Q2= Q3= Q5= 0; cn tm Q4 v Q6.
Ta c:

)(

EJ
200 10 9 4 10 6
=
= 8 10 5 N / m
3
3
1
le
6 12 6
12
6
4 6 2
1
2
5

k = k = 8 10
12 6 12 6

2 6 4
6

p dng cng thc (9.23), ta tnh c lc nt qui i: F4 = -1000 Nm ;F6 = 1000


Nm
Ghp hai phn t, ta thu c ma trn cng chung ca dm
k 144 + k 2 22
K =
2
k 24

k 2 24
8 2
5
=
8

10

2 4
k 2 44

v h phng trnh
8 2 Q4 1000
8 10 5

=
2 4 Q6 1000

Gii h phng trnh trn s c


Q4 2.679 10 4
=
4 (Rad)
Q6 4.464 10

i vi phn t 2: q1 = 0; q2 = Q4; q3 = 0; q4 = Q6. xc nh vng ti im gia


ca phn t 2, ta p dng cng thc (9.15): v = Hq, ti = 0
Suy ra:
v = 0+

le
l
H 2 Q4 + 0 + e H 4 Q6 = 8.93 10 5 (m) = 0.0893(mm)
2
2

92

8.2. V d 2
Xc nh chuyn v ti im B ca khung chu lc nh hnh di. Bit A = 0,006m2;
J = 0,0002m4; E = 200 gPa.
Li gii
1. Bng nh v cc phn t
Kt cu c chia ra 2 phn t nh Hnh 9.8; s nt chung l 1, 2 v 3.
Bc t.do

1
7

2
8

3
9

7
4

8
5

9
6

J(m4)

EJ/l3

A(m2)

0,000
2
0,000
2

78,12
5
78,12
5

0,006
0,006

PT
1
2
2. Cc thng s lin quan
PT

()

sin

1
2

22,0
2
0

0.37
5
0

E(N/m2 l(m
)
)
9
0,927 200.10
8
1
200.109 8
cos

p=4 kN/m
P=50kN

5m
2

3
3m
1
Q9

Q3
1

3m

8m

1
Q8

Q5

Q6

Q7
3

Q2

Q4

1
Q1
Hnh 9.8. Bi ton khung phng chu lc

3. Ma trn cng ca cc phn t


p dng cng thc (9.36), ta tnh c ma trn cng ca cc phn t:

93

129 51,82 1,406 129 51,82 1,406

21,90 3,477 51,82 21,9


3,477

20
1,406 3,477
10
k 1 = 10 6

129
51,82
1,406

DX
21,9
3,477

20

0
0
150
0
0
150

0,9375 3,75
0
0,9375 3,75

20
0
3,75
10
k 2 = 10 6

150
0
0

DX
0,9375 3,75

20

4. Xc nh vct lc nt ca cc phn t:
- Trn phn t 1, lc tp trung P khng t ng nt, nn c th s dng cc cng thc
(9.10), (9.27) v (9.28), ta c:
12,82
31,68

58
,
59

f 1 = 10 3
(N ) ;

5
,
932

15,66

35,15

- Trn phn t 2, c lc phn b u tc dng, p dng cng thc (9.34) v (9.35), ta


c:
0
16

21
,
33

f 2 = 10 3
(N )
0

16

21,33

Ghp hai ma trn cng trn ta s c ma trn cng chung K; ghp hai vct lc
nt phn t trn ta c vct lc nt chung F. p dng iu kin bin (Q1 = Q2= Q3=
Q4= Q5= Q6 =0); cui cng ta thu c h phng trnh:
51,82 1,406 Q7
279
5,932

3
10 51,82 22,84 0,2735 Q8 = 10 1,34
56,48
40 Q9
1,406 0,2735

Gii h phng trnh trn, ta c cc thnh phn chuyn v ti im B:


94

Q7 0,0111 (mm)

Q8 = 0,01631 (mm)
Q 0,001412 ( Rad )
9

95

BI TP CHNG 9
1-6. Trong cc bi ton v dm, biu din trn cc hnh v t 9.10.1-9.10.6. Bit:
EJ = 3E6 Nm2; L = 4 m; xC = 0,4L; q = 15kN/m; m = 10kN.m. Hy xc nh: Ma trn
cng tng th v vct lc tng th ; cc chuyn v tng th v mmen un ti im C
trn dm. Ch : S dng s lng phn t cn thit ti thiu trong mi bi.
q
x
L

Hnh C9.2

Hnh C9.1
q

2L

Hnh C9.3
m
m

4J1

2J1

J1

P
x

Hnh C9.4
q

x
L

Hnh C9.5

x
L

Hnh C9.6

7. Hy ch ra tnh hi t ca cc m hnh phn t hu hn cho mt dm ta trn


hai gi n gin v chu ti phn b u, nh Hnh C9.7. Hy chia li mn dn
xc nh chuyn v ( y l vng) cc i v ng sut cc i vi sai s nh hn
5%. Dm c chiu di gp 10 ln chiu cao v c chiu dy n v. So snh kt qu tnh
c vi ng sut un v vng gia dm c k n nh hng ca bin dng trt
theo biu thc gii tch sau:
3qL2
=
;
4bc 2

y max

5qL4
3qL2 (1 + )
=
+
16 Ebc 3
5Ebc
q
x
L

2c
b

y
Hnh C9.7. Dm lin kt ta bn l chu un

8. Xc nh vng cc i v ng sut cc i cho mt dm cng xn chu ti


phn b u, nh Hnh C9.8. Chiu dy ca dm bng n v v chiu di ca dm gp

96

5 ln chiu cao ca n. So snh kt qu tnh c vi ng sut un v vng gia


dm c k n nh hng ca bin dng trt theo biu thc gii tch sau:
=

3qL2
;
4bc 2

y max =

5qL4
3qL2 (1 + )
+
16 Ebc 3
5Ebc
q
2c

x
L
y

Hnh C9.8. Dm cng xn chu un

9-10. Trong cc bi ton v khung biu din trn cc hnh v t Hnh 9.10.9 9.10.10. Hy xc nh: Ma trn cng tng th; vct lc nt tng th; cc chuyn v
nt v cc phn lc ti cc lin kt. Cho Q = 15 kN ; P= 10 kN; L = 3m; E = 200 gPa;
ng knh D = 0,1m.
L

L
P

P
L

Hnh C9.9

Hnh C9.10

11. Cho kt cu khung xe p nh Hnh C9.11. Thit k theo ch ti trng


nh sau: ti tc dng theo phng thng ng ti v tr yn xe l 75 kg v ti v tr tay li
xe (ghi ng) l 12 kg. K n nh hng ca lc qun tnh bng cch s dng h s ti
trng 2,5. Gi thit ban u l tt c cc dm u l thp ng vi ng knh ngoi l 25
mm v chiu dy thnh ng l 1,5 mm. Kim tra xem khung xe c b ph hy cc b (ti
mt im no trn khung) nu vt liu l thp giu cacbon vi gii hn n hi l
600gPa? Nu ph hy xy ra th hy
75 kg
790
255
thit k li (thit k tinh) v d thay
12 kg
vt liu bng loi c gii hn n
380
hi cao hn hoc c tit din ln
305
hn hoc thay i hnh dng ca
khung chng ph hy. Nu
458
khung c thit k qu tha bn
813
th hy thit k tinh gim khi
915
lng ca khung.
Hnh C9.11. M hnh khung xe p chu lc

97

Chng 10
PHN T HU HN TRONG BI TON DN NHIT
1. GII THIU

Trong k thut, vic xc nh ng sut nhit trong qu trnh hn, ng sut nhit do
cc ng c nhit hot ng gy ra v xc nh cc bin dng nhit do nh sng mt tri
gy ra trn cc kt cu v.v, c ngha rt quan trng. gii quyt vn trn, ta cn
thit phi bit s phn b nhit trong vt.
Di y, ta xt bi ton dn nhit mt chiu v hai chiu trong mi trng dng
nh phng php phn t hu hn.
2. BI TON DN NHIT MT CHIU

2.1. M t bi ton
Bi ton dn nhit mt chiu cn c gi l bi ton thanh nhit, Hnh 10.1.
Vt dn
nhit
QAdx

qA
dng
nhit

dx

Hnh 10.1. M hnh bi ton dn nhit mt chiu

2.2. Phn t mt chiu


Gi thit nhit bin thin tuyn tnh dc chiu di thanh, khi ta c th s dng
m hnh phn t 2 nt vi hm dng tuyn tnh xy dng m hnh PTHH cho bi
ton truyn nhit mt chiu (Hnh 10.2). Nhit ti cc nt c k hiu l T (ti nt
1 l T1 v nt 2 l T2) l cc n s cn tm.
q=h(TL-T)
T1=T0

2
1

3
2

Hnh 10.2. M hnh phn t hu hn cho bi ton dn nhit

Trong chng ny, cc k hiu c s dng nh sau:


T l nhit ,
98

k l h s dn nhit ca vt liu (W/m 0C),


q l mt dng nhit (W/ m2),
Q l ngun nhit trn mt n v th tch hoc trn mt n v din tch,
h l h s i lu nhit (W/m2 0C),
nh lut Fourier cho rng: Dng nhit i qua thanh t l thun vi grain nhit
T/x theo phng dn. Do ,
Q = kA

dT
dx

(10.1)

Trong : Q l nhit lng; k l h s dn nhit; A l din tch mt ct ngang (mt ng


nhit vung gc vi hng truyn nhit).
v:
dT T j Ti T j Ti
=
=
dx x j xi
le

(10.2)

do :
Qi =

kA
(T j Ti ); Q j = kA (Ti T j )
le
le

hoc di dng ma trn:


kA 1 1 Ti Qi
=
=
le 1 1 T j Q j

(10.3)

y l phng trnh cn bng ca phn t cho bi ton thanh nhit.


So snh vi bi ton mt chiu (Chng 4), ta d thy c mt s tng t:
EA
kA

; u T;
l
l

f Q

Tin hnh ghp cc phn t nh trong bi ton mt chiu (1D). Cui cng ta cng
thu c h phng trnh PTHH di dng tng qut:
KT = R
(10.4)
2.3. V d
Kho st s phn b nhit qua vch phng c ghp t 3 lp vt liu nh Hnh
10.3; vi h s dn nhit ca cc lp vt liu l: k1=80 10-3W/mm 0C; k2=1 103
W/mm 0C; k3=80 10-3 W/mm 0C.

99

T1=2000C
1

1
k1

2
k2

3
k3

10

10

T4=200C

Hnh 10.3. M hnh bi ton dn nhit qua vch phng 3 lp

Li gii
Ta c th m t bi ton nh mt thanh nhit gm 3 phn t; din tch mt ct
ngang bng 1 n v.
Trc ht ta xy dng bng ghp ni cc phn t, nh bng sau:
Bc t.do
Phn t
1
2
3

1
2
3

2
3
4

Sau tnh cc ma trn dn nhit ca cc phn t:


1 1
80 10 3 1 1
= 8 10 3

10 1 1
1 1

(w / C)

1
1 1
3 1
1 1 = 0,2 10 1 1

(w / C)

1
1 1
3 1
1 1 = 8 10 1 1

(w/ C)

1 10 3
5

80 10 3
10

T y, ta tnh c ma trn dn nhit K:


8
0
0
8
8 8,2 0,2 0
10 3
K =
0 0,2 8,2 8

0
8 8
0

(w / C)
0

v h phng trnh PTHH c dng:


8
0
0 T1 R1
8
8 8,2 0,2 0 T 0
2 =
10 3
0 0,2 8,2 8 T3 0

0
8 8 T4 R4
0

p t iu kin bin: T1 = 2000C, T4 = 200C vo h phng trnh trn (tc l loi b


dng 1, ct 1 v dng 4, ct 4); sau gii h phng trnh, ta s c:
100

T2 = 195,710C
T3 = 24,29 0C
Thay cc gi tr ca T vo h phng trnh trn, ta tm c lng nhit cn cung cp
ti nt 1 v 4 s l:
R1 = -R4 = 34,32 10-3 W/mm2
3. BI TON DN NHIT HAI CHIU

3.1. Phng trnh vi phn qu trnh dn nhit hai chiu


Mc ch ca chng ta y l i xc nh s phn b nhit T(x, y) trong mt
vt th di, hnh lng tr; chng hn trong ng khi c tit din ngang ch nht nh
Hnh 10.4.

qx
y

dy

A-A
dx

qy

x
(a)

(b)

Hnh 10.4. (a). M hnh bi ton dn nhit hai chiu


(b).Vi phn th tch dn nhit

Kho st mt vi phn th tch nh Hnh 10.4b. Vi phn th tch c dy t l hng


s theo phng z. Lng nhit pht sinh trong phn t c k hiu l Q(W/m3). V
lng nhit i vo vi phn th tch cng vi lng nhit pht sinh phi bng lng nhit
i ra; do :
q y

q x dy t + q y dx t + Qdxdy t = q x + x dx dy t + q y +
dy dx t
x
y

(10.5)
T (10.5), suy ra:
q x q y
+
Q = 0
x
y

(10.6)

thay q x = k T x ; q y = k T y vo (10.6), ta s c phng trnh dn nhit:

101

T T
+Q = 0
k
+ k
x x y y

(10.7)

Phng trnh vi phn o hm ring m t qu trnh dn nhit 2 chiu (10.7) l mt


trng hp ring ca phng trnh tng qut cho qu trnh dn nhit Helmholtz.
3.2. iu kin bin
Phng trnh (10.7) phi c gii quyt vi cc iu kin bin xc nh. C ba dng
iu kin bin nh m t trn Hnh 10.5.
Cc iu kin bin c pht biu c th nh sau:

i.
ii.
iii.

Cho trc nhit T = T0 trn bin ST;


Cho trc mt nhit qn = q0 trn Sq;
Cho trc qui lut trao i nhit gia b mt ca vt v mi trng qn =
h(T-T) trn Sc.
ST: T=T0
Sc: qn = h(T-T)
A

Sq: qn = q0
Hnh 10.5. Cc iu kin bin ca bi ton dn nhit hai chiu

Phn bn trong vt k hiu l A. Bin tng cng l S = (ST + Sq + Sc). Ngoi ra, vct
mt nhit qn vung gc vi bin dn. y ta qui c: q0 >0 nu nhit i ra ngoi vt
v q0 <0 nu nhit i vo trong vt.
3.3. Phn t tam gic
Di y, chng ta s s dng phn t tam gic gii bi ton dn nhit (Hnh
10.6). Vic m rng cho phn t t gic ng tham s cng c thc hin tng t
nh Chng 8.

102

T3

=1 3
2

T(x,y)

T1 1

T2
x

=1

Phn t quy chiu

Hnh 10.6. Phn t tam gic bc nht trong bi ton dn nhit hai chiu

Ta biu din trng nhit trong phn t c biu din bi:


T = T1 N1 + T2 N2 + T3 N3
Hoc:
T = NTe
Trong :
N = [1 ] l cc hm dng v T e = [T1 T2

(10.8)

T3 ] tng ng l nhit
T

ti cc nt v l cc n s cn tm.
Tng t nh Chng 6, vi phn t tam gic ng tham s ta c:
x = N1 x1 + N2 x2+ N3 x3
y = N1 y1 + N2 y2 + N3 y3
Suy ra

(10.9)

T T x T y
T T x T y
=
+
=
+
v
x y
x y

(10.10)

T
T

x
T = J T


y

(10.11)

Hay

J l ma trn Jacobian c xc nh bi:


x
J = 21
x31

y 21
y31

Trong : xij = xi - xj; yij = yi - yj v det J = 2 Ae , vi Ae l din tch ca phn t tam


gic.
Nghch o (10.11), dn n:
T
T

1
x
1
=
J
T
T =

det J
y

y31
x
31

y 21 1 1 0 e
T
x21 1 0 1

(10.12)

103

Hay:
T
x
e
T = BT T

y

(10.13)

Trong
BT =

1 y 21 y31
det J x31 x 21

y31
x31

y 21
1 y 23
=

x21 det J x32

y31
x13

y12
x 21

(10.14)

Kt qu l:
T
T x
T
eT
e
T = T BT BT T

y
y

T
T T
=

+
x y
x

(10.15)

3.4. Xy dng phim hm


Nh cp mc trn, chng ta cn gii phng trnh (10.7) vi cc iu kin
bin: (i). T = T0 trn ST; (ii). qn = q0 trn Sq; (iii). qn = h(T-T) trn Sc. Vic gii bi ton
ny tng ng vi vic cc tiu ho phim hm:
=

2
2

T
1 T
1
2

k
+
k

2
QT

tdA + q 0TtdS + h( T T ) tdS

2 A x
2

y
Sq
Sc

(10.16)

sao cho T = T0 trn ST.


Th (10.15) vo hai s hng u trong biu thc tch phn th nht ca , ta s c:
2
T
1 T
tdA
= k
+ k
2 A x
y

=
e

T
1
T
kT e BT BT T e tdA

2e

(10.17)

1 T
1 T
1 T
T
= T e ktAe BT BT T e = T e kT T e = T e K T T e
2
e 2
e 2

Trong ma trn dn nhit ca phn t c xc nh bi:


T

kT = ktAe BT BT

(10.18)

v ma trn dn nhit ca c h:
K T = kT

(10.19)

a. Xt s hng th ba trong biu thc tch phn th nht ca , c ba trng hp xy


ra:
1. Khi Q =Qe l hng s trong phn t; dy phn t t = const.

QTtdA =

Q NtdA T
e

(10.20)

104

V N i dA = 3 Ae , do vct lng nhit:


e

rQ =

Qe tAe
[1 1 1] T
3

(10.21)

2. Khi Q bin thin tuyn tnh vi Qe = [Q1, Q2 , Q3 ]T. Khi y, ta c:


Q(, ) = NQe

(10.22)

Th (10.22) vo QTtdA , s c:
A

rQ =

tAe
[ 2Q1 + Q2 + Q3
12

Q1 + 2Q2 + Q3

Q1 + Q2 + 2Q3 ]

(10.23)

3. Trng hp im nhit. Gi s Q0 l bin ca im nhit ti (0, 0) trong phn t.


Nu im nhit trng vi nt ca phn t th Q0 c cng vo vct ti trng v phi;
nu im nhit nm bn trong phn t th:

QTtdA = tQ T

= tQ0 N ( 0 , 0 )T e = rQ T e
T

0 0

(10.24)

T
Trong : rQ = tQ0 N ( 0 , 0 )
Hay
T
rQ = tQ0 [1 0 0 0 0 ]

(10.25)

b. Xt tch phn tip theo

q TtdS = q NtdS
0

Sq

e
T

(10.26)

Gi thit rng iu kin bin mt nhit q = q0 c cho vung gc vi cnh 2-3 ca


phn t nh Hnh 10.7.
=0
=1

q = q0
x
1

=0
=0

=1
=0

Hnh 10.7. iu kin bin dn trn cnh 2-3 ca phn t tam gic

Khi y, dc theo cnh 2-3, ta c: N = [ 0 1 ] v dS = l 23 d . V vy

q0 NtdS q T e =

e
q
l
0 23 [ 0 1 ]d tT =

Te

(10.27)

Trong :
105

rQ =

q0 tl 23
[ 0 1 1] T
2

(10.28)

Tng t, nu iu kin bin mt nhit q = q0 c cho vung gc vi cnh 1-2 ca


phn t, ta s c:
rQ =

q0 tl12
[1 1 0] T
2

(10.29)

V nu iu kin bin mt nhit q = q0 c cho vung gc vi cnh 1-3 ca phn


t, ta s c:
rQ =

q0 tl13
[1 0 1] T
2

(10.30)

c. Xt tch phn cui cng


1
1
1
2
2
h( T T ) tdS =
hT 2 tdS hTT tdS +
hT tdS
2S
2S
2S
S
=
=

1
2

T hN

1
2

eT

eT

hT T e

NtdS c T e

Te +

hT

NtdS c T e +

e
1
2
hT t dS c
2
e

2 hT t dS
2

(10.31)

Nu cnh 2-3 l cnh to nhit i lu ca phn t, khi y N = [ 0 1 ] v


dS = l 23 d , nn ta c:
0 0 0
htl 23
hT =
0 2 1

6
0 1 2
r =

htT l 23
[ 0 1 1] T
2

(10.32)

(10.33)

Nu cnh 1-2 l cnh to nhit i lu ca phn t, khi y N = [1 0] v


dS = l12 d , nn ta c:
2 1 0
htl12
hT =
1 2 0

6
0 0 0
r =

htT l12
[1 1 0] T
2

(10.34)

(10.35)

Nu cnh 1-3 l cnh to nhit i lu ca phn t, khi y N = [1 0 ] v


dS = l13 d , nn ta c:
2 0 1
htl13
hT =
0 0 0

6
1 0 2

(10.36)

106

r =

cui cng, s hng

htT l13
[1 0 1] T
2
1

2 hT t dS
2

(10.37)

trong (10.31) c b qua v n khng cha cc

thnh phn ca vect Te, nn s t ng b trit tiu trong php ton tm cc tr ca


phim hm.
Cui cng, ta vit phim hm (10.16) di dng:
1
= T T KT R T T
2

(10.38)

K = kT + hT

(10.39)

R = ( rQ rq + r )

(10.40)

Trong
e

Vic cc tiu ho phim hm phi c thc hin sao cho tho mn iu kin T = T0
tt c cc nt trn ST.
3.5. V d
Mt vt th di, tit din ngang ch nht, c h s dn nhit l 1,5W/m 0C chu
iu kin bin nh Hnh 10.8. Hai mt i din trn v di c gi nhit 180 0C;
mt tri cch nhit; mt phi chu s trao i nhit i lu vi T = 250C; h = 50 W/m2
0
C. Xc nh s phn b nhit trong vt th.
Li gii
Do mt ct ngang i xng nn ta ch xt mt na chiu cao mt ct ngang. Phn
mt ct kho st c chia ra 3 phn t vi 5 nt nh Hnh 10.8.
T=1800

T=1800
5

0,6m

4
3

k=1,5W/m C

h, T

h, T

1
T=1800
0,4m

2
q=0

Hnh 10.8. M hnh bi ton thanh dn nhit

T s li phn t nh trn, ta xy dng c bng ghp ni cc phn t:

107

Bc t.do

1
2
3

1
5
5

2
1
3

3
3
4

Phn t

Theo cng thc (10.14)


BT =

1
det J

y 23
x
32

y12
x 21

y31
x13

Ta tnh c
1 0,15 0,15 0
0,4 0,4
0,06 0
1 0,15 0,15 0,3
B2 =
0,4 0
0,12 0,4
B1 =

B3 =

1 0,15 0,15 0
0,4 0,4
0,06 0

p dng cng thc kT = kAe BT T BT (t=1 n v), ta tnh c cc ma trn nhit ca cc


phn t:
kT = (1,5) (0,03) BT( 1) BT( 1)
T

0,2813 0,2813 0
= 0,2813 2,2813 2
0
2
2
kT

0,86 0,2813
1,14

= 0,86
1,14
0,2813
0,2813 0,2813 0,5625

kT

0,2813 0,2813 0
= 0,2813 2,2813 2
0
2
2

Tip theo, cn tnh ma trn hT cho phn t c cnh i lu. V hai phn t 1 v 3
cng c cnh 2-3 (nt a phng) i lu, p dng biu thc (10.32) ta c:
0 0 0
htl 23
hT =
0 2 1
6
0 1 2

thay s vo ta c:
1

hT = hT

0
0 0
= 0 2,5 1,25
0 1,25 2,5
108

Ma trn dn nhit ca c h (kch thc 5x5) s c xy dng nh bng ghp ni


cc phn t trn. Ch n iu kin bin T = 1800C ti nt 4 v 5 (b hng 4, ct 4;
hng 5, ct 5), ta c:
1,4213 0,2813 0,2813
K = 0,2813 4,7813
0,75
0,2813 0,75
9,563

By gi ta i tnh vct lng nhit R theo cng thc (10.33):


r =

ta c:
1

r = r =

htT l 23
[ 0 1 1] T
2
50 25 0,15
[ 0 1 1] T
2

Vy
R = 93,75 [ 0 1 2 ]T
Gii h phng trnh: (KT = R) ta c:
T = {T1 T2

T3 T4

T5 } = {124,5 34 40,4 180 180}


T

Nu chia cnh 2-4 ra nhiu nt, ta s c kt qu chnh xc hn.

109

BI TP CHNG 10
1. Trong mt bi ton dn nhit ca mt kt cu, ngi y
ta cho bit rng nhit ti cc nt ca phn t tam gic s
(5) l: T6 = 488,66 0K; T7 = 425,16 0K; T8 = 496,08 0K, nh
trn Hnh C10.1. Xc nh graien nhit trong phn t.
Xc nh xem ng ng nhit 4910K ct bin ca phn
t ti u?

2. Trong mt bi ton dn nhit tng t nh bi 10.1


y
ngi ta bit nhit ti cc nt ca phn t ch nht s
(10) l: T5 = 258,46 0K; T6 = 288,66 0K; T7 = 325,16 0K; T8
= 196,08 0K nh trn Hnh C10.2. Xc nh graien nhit
trong phn t. Xc nh xem ng ng nhit 260 0K
ct bin ca phn t ti u?

Hnh C10.1
7

10

6
Hnh C10.2

3. Kho st mt bc tng c chiu dy L=30 cm, h


30 cm
s dn nhit ca vt liu k = 0.7 W/m .oC. B mt trong c
nhit 28oC v b mt ngoi tip xc vi khng kh lnh
nhit -15oC. H s i lu nhit ca b mt l h =
40W/m2 .oC. Hy xc nh gi tr nhit trung bnh phn
k=0.7W/moC
o
28 C
b trong tng v lng nhit i qua tng.

h=40W/m2 oC
T = -15oC

Hnh C10.3
4. Xt kt cu nhit nh Hnh C10.4. Mt ngoi ca b
Lp cch nhit
pht nhit (dng bng) c gn vi 1 lp cch nhit, mt trong c gn vi mt tm
Phn t pht nhit
thp khng g dy 2cm, h s dn nhit k =16.6W/m.oC. B mt kia ca
tm thp c
o
tip xc vi khng kh nhit 20 C. Nhit lng pht sinh t b pht nhit cng
500W/m2. Hy xc nh nhit ti b mt m di nhit gn vi tm Thp
thp trng
tn nhit.
k =16.6W/moC
h =5W/m2.0C
T =20oC
2cm

Hnh C10.4

110

Chng 11
PHN T HU HN TRONG TNH TON KT CU TM - V CHU UN
1. GII THIU

Tm v v l cc dng kt cu c s dng nhiu trong k thut v chng thng


chu bin dng chu un. Cc phng trnh PTHH i vi cc kt cu tm-v thng
phc tp hn nhiu so vi cc dng kt cu khc. Chng 11 s gii thiu v hai l
thuyt tm c s dng ph bin trong cc bi ton kt cu tm-v: l thuyt tm kinh
in ca Kirchoff (gi tt l tm Kirchoff) v l thuyt tm bc nht ca Mindlin (gi tt
l tm Mindlin).
Cc thut ton PTHH i vi tm chu un tng ng vi hai l thuyt trn c
thit lp chi tit.
Phn t v c xem l t hp ca phn t tm chu un v phn t tm chu trng
thi ng sut phng.
2. L THUYT TM KIRCHOFF

Gi thit c bn ca l thuyt un tm Kirchoff l: on thng vung gc vi mt


trung bnh (mt phng chia i chiu cao tm) vn thng v vung gc vi mt trung
bnh sau khi bin dng. H qu ca gi thit ny l ta b qua cc thnh phn bin
dng ct ngang ( yz = xz = 0 ). Do , cc thnh phn chuyn v trong mt phng: u, v
v w c biu din nh sau:
w
x
w
v ( x, y , z ) = z
y

w( x, y, z ) = w 0 ( x, y )

u ( x, y , z ) = z

(11.1)

trong , mt phng (0, x, y) l mt gia ca tm, trc z vung gc vi b mt tm. Cc


thnh phn u, v v w tng ng l chuyn v theo phng x, phng y v phng z; w0
l chuyn v ti mt trung bnh (gi thit bin dng mng: u0 = v0 = 0).
V b qua bin dng ct, nn cc thnh phn bin dng trong mt phng c vit
dng sau:

{ } T = { x

xy } = z{ x y xy }

{ } T = { x

2w
y xy } = 2
x

(11.2)

Trong :
2w
y 2

2w

xy

(11.3)

c gi l cc thnh phn cong.

111

Thay cc biu thc (11.2) v (11.3) vo quan h ng sut bin dng { } = [ D]{ } ta
c biu thc sau:
{ } = z[ D]{ }
(11.4)
Trong :

{ } = { x

y xy } T

1
0

[ D] = E 2 1 0
1
1 v
0 0

Cc thnh phn ni lc trn cc mt ct ngang c m t trong Hnh 11.1.


z

Qx
Mxy

Mx
y

Qy
My
Mxy

dx

M xy +
x
dy

M +

Hnh 11.1. Ni lc trn phn t tm chu


xy un

M x
Mx +
dx
x

M xy
x

Qx +

M xy
y

dx

Q x
dx
x

Cc thnh phn mmen c xc nh bi:


h
2

{ M } = { } z dz

dy

(11.5)

112

Trong : { M } = { M x

My

M xy } v h l chiu dy tm. Thay biu thc (11.4) vo


T

(11.5), ta thu c quan h gia mmen v cc thnh phn cong nh sau:

{ M}

= D { }

(11.6)

Trong :
h
[ D] = 12
[ D]
3

(11.7)

Cc phng trnh cn bng (cn bng mmen i vi cc trc x, y v cn bng lc i


vi trc z, c suy ra t iu kin cn bng tnh hc ca phn t tm (Hnh 11.1). Sau
khi b qua cc thnh phn bc cao, ta thu c cc phng trnh cn bng sau:

M x M xy
+
Qx = 0
x
y

M xy M y
+
Q y = 0
x
y

Qx Q y
+
+ p=0

x
y

(11.8)

Trong , Qx v Qy l cc lc ct v p l ti trng phn b gy un tm (phng tc


dng vung gc vi mt phng tm). Kh cc thnh phn lc ct trong cc phng trnh
ca h (11.8) ta c:
2 M xy 2 M y
2M x
+
2
+
+ p=0
xy
x 2
y 2

(11.9)

T hp cc biu thc (11.3), (11.6) v (11.9), qua mt s php bin i n gin cui
cng ta nhn c phng trnh vi phn cn bng i vi tm chu un nh sau:
4w
4w
4w
p
+
2
+
=
4
2
2
4
Dr
x
x y
y

(11.10)

Trong :
Dr =

Eh 3
12(1 2 )

l cng chng un ca tm.


3. PHN T TM KIRCHOFF CHU UN

Da trn l thuyt tm kinh in trnh by trn, chng ta s xy dng thut


ton PTHH cho phn t t gic bn nt ti nh chu un. Phn t c m t trong
Hnh 11.2.

113

z
y
4
(x4,y4)

1
(x1,y1)

y
3
(x3,y3)
(x2,y2)

x
Hnh 11.3. Phn t t gic Kirchoff

Mi nt ca phn t c 3 bc t do: Chuyn v w theo phng z v hai gc xoay x


= w,x v y = w,y (du phy l k hiu ca o hm ring phn ca w theo cc bin x v
y) quanh trc x v y tng ng. K hiu vct chuyn v nt l di, ta c:

d i = wi


y i

x i

(11.11)

Vi phn t t gic 4 nt, vct chuyn v nt phn t c biu din nh sau:

q = d1T

d 2T

d 3T

d 4T

(11.12)

v vct chuyn v ti mt im bt k ca phn t l:

d = w0

x y}

(11.13)

Vct chuyn v nt phn t (11.11) c cha cc thnh phn l o hm bc nht


tng ng vi cc gc xoay ti nt. Do , cc thnh phn chuyn v ca vct chuyn
v (11.13) s c ni suy qua cc gi tr chuyn v nt nh sau:

- Thnh phn chuyn v vng tm (w) c xp x theo hm ni suy Hecmit,


tc l:
w
w
w
w
w = H 1 w10 + H 2 + H 3 + ... + H 10 w40 + H 11 + H 12
x 1
x 4
y 1
y 4

(11.14)

- Cc thnh phn chuyn v gc xoay c ni suy qua cc thnh phn chuyn v


nt:
w
x =
=
x x
w
y =
=
y y

H
i =1

3i 2

H
i =1

w
w
wi + H 3i 1 + H 3i
x i
y i

(11.15)

w
w
wi + H 3i 1 + H 3i
x i
y i

(11.16)

3i 2

Khi , quan h gia vct chuyn v c ni suy qua vct chuyn v nt phn t nh
sau:
d = B q.
(11.17)
114

Trong : B l ma trn ni suy, c biu din nh sau:

H1
H2

B = H1
H2
x
x

y H1 y H 2

H 3 H 10

H3
H 10
x
x

H3
H 10
y
y

H 11

H 11
x

H 11
y

H 12

H 12
x

H 12
y

(11.18)

Thay vo biu thc (11.3) ta c th biu din cc thnh phn bin dng qua vct
chuyn v di dng:
{ } = [ L]{ d } ;
(11.19)
vi L l ma trn ton t o hm, c xc nh nh sau:

0
x

L = 0 0

0

y


y

x

(11.20)

Cui cng, cc thnh phn bin dng c vit li di dng:

{ } = Ld = L Bq = Bq

(11.21)

vi B l ma trn quan h bin dng-chuyn v.


T biu thc nng lng bin dng n hi:
Ue =

1 t
dV
2V

(11.22)

a cc quan h (11.2), (11.3) v (11.4) vo (11.22) v qua mt s khai trin, ch n


biu thc ca cc thnh phn ni lc, ta c biu thc ca nng lng bin dng n
hi:
Ue =

1
2

h
2

z{ } ( z[ D]{ } ) dSdz =

h Se
2

1
2

h
2

2
T
{
}
[
]
{
}

dS

z dz
h S

e
2

h3
T
T h
T
{

}
[
D
]
{

}
dS
=
q
B
[
D
]
BdS

24 Se
24 Se

Cui cng, th nng bin dng n hi ca phn t c biu din di dng c


ng:
Ue =

1 t e
qk q
2

(11.23)

trong ke l ma trn cng phn t t gic Kirchoff v c xc nh theo biu


thc:

115

ke =

h3
B T [ D ] BdS

24 Se

(11.24)

xc nh c ma trn cng phn t t gic Kirchoff, ta cn xy dng c


cc hm ni suy Hecmit Hi (i = 1, 2, .., 12). Cc hm ny c xc nh trong h to
quy chiu (, ) v vi tnh cht:

,
-1,-1
1,-1
1,1
-1,1

H1
1
0
0
0

H1
0
0
0
0

H1
0
0
0
0

,
-1,-1
1,-1
1,1
-1,1

H4
0
1
0
0

H4
0
0
0
0

H4
0
0
0
0

,
-1,-1
1,-1
1,1
-1,1

H7
0
0
1
0

H7
0
0
0
0

H7
0
0
0
0

,
-1,-1
1,-1
1,1
-1,1

H10
0
0
0
1

H10
0
0
0
0

H10
0
0
0
0

Nt 1
H2 H2
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
Nt 2
H5 H5
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
Nt 3
H8 H8
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
Nt 4
H11 H11
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1

H2
0
0
0
0

H3
0
0
0
0

H3
0
0
0
0

H3
1
0
0
0

H5
0
0
0
0

H6
0
0
0
0

H6
0
0
0
0

H6
0
1
0
0

H8
0
0
0
0

H9
0
0
0
0

H9
0
0
0
0

H9
0
0
1
0

H11
0
0
0
0

H12
0
0
0
0

H12
0
0
0
0

H12
0
0
0
1

Ta c th chn cc hm dng Hi di dng sau:


H = a0 + a1 + a2+ a32 + a4 + a52 +
+ a63 + a72 + a82 + a93+ a103 + a113
T bng trn, ta s xc nh c cc h s ai (i = 0 .. 11). Cui cng, ta s thu
c cc hm ni suy Hecmit nh sau:

H1 =

1
(1 )(1 ) 2 2 2
8

H2 =

1
(1 )(1 ) 1 2 ; H 3 = 1 (1 )(1 ) 1 2
8
8

H4 =

1
(1 + )(1 ) 2 + 2 2
8

(
(

(11.25a)

)
(11.25b)

116

H5 =

1
(1 + )(1 ) 1 2 ; H 6 = 1 (1 + )(1 ) 1 2
8
8

1
(1 + )(1 + ) 2 + + 2 2
8

H7 =

H8 =

(11.25c)

1
(1 + )(1 + ) 1 2 ; H 9 = 1 (1 + )(1 + ) 1 2
8
8

H 10 =

1
(1 )(1 + ) 2 + 2 2
8

H 11 =

1
(1 )(1 + ) 1 2 ; H12 = 1 (1 )(1 + ) 1 2
8
8

)
(11.25d)

Quan h gia 2 h to (x,y) v (, ) c th hin di dng:


2( x xC )
2( y yC )

=
;

a
b

x = a + x ; y = b + y
C
C

2
2

(11.26)

trong : a, b l kch thc phn t ch nht; xC, yC l ta trng tm C ca phn t.


Nh thy trn y, cc hm ni suy Hi tng ng vi nt i c biu din theo
cc to quy chiu (,). Cc biu thc ca ma trn ton t L (11.20), c cha o
hm ring phn ca cc hm Hi ly theo bin x v y ca h to thc. Do , ta cn
thc hin php tnh o hm ca hm hp:
x

= x


x
= [ J ] x
y


y
y

(11.27a)

v:

J 11*
x
1
= [J] = *

J 21
y


J

J

*
12
*
22

(11.27b)
a 0
.
0 b

vi: [ J ] 1 l ma trn nghch o ca ma trn Jacbin [ J ] =


Vy ta c:

[J]

J 11*
= *
J 21

1
J 12* a
=
*
J 22
0

0
1

(11.28)

117

v:

1
x a
= 1 ;

y b

2 1
x 2 a 2
2 =
2 1
y b 2

2
2

2
2

(11.29)

Khi cc biu thc (10.20) ca ma trn ton t o hm c biu din theo h


to quy chiu (, ):

L = 0

2
a
0
2
b

2
b
2
a

(11.30)

v ma trn B c biu din nh sau:


4 2 H1
2
2
a 2
4 H1
B= 2
b 2

2
8 H1
ab

4 2H2
a 2 2
4 2H2
b 2 2
8 2H2
ab

4 2H3
a 2 2
4 2H3
b 2 2
8 2H3
ab

4 2 H 10
a 2 2
4 2 H 10

b 2 2
8 2 H 10

ab

4 2 H 11
a 2 2
4 2 H 11
b 2 2
8 2 H 11
ab

4 2 H 12

a 2 2
4 2 H 12
b 2 2

8 2 H 12
ab

(11.31)

Trong :
2 H1 3
= (1 ) ;
2
4
2
H2 1
= (1 )( 3 1) ;
2
4

2 H1 3
= (1 ) .
2
4
2
H2
=0.
2

2H3
= 0;
2

(11.32a)
(11.32b)

2H3 1
= (1 )( 3 1)
2
4
2
2
H4 3
H4
3
= (1 ) ;
= (1 + )
2

4
4
2
2H5 1
2H5
(
)(
)
=
1

+
1
=0
;
2
4
2

(11.32d)

2H6 1
= (1 + )( 3 1)
2
4

(11.32f)

2H6
= 0;
2
2H7
3
= (1 + ) ;
2

2H7
3
= (1 + ) .
2

(11.32c)

(11.32e)

(11.32g)

2 H8 1
2 H8
(
)(
)
=
1
+

+
1
= 0,
;
2
4
2

(11.32h)

2H9
=0;
2

2H9 1
= (1 + )( 3 + 1)
2
4

(11.32i)

2 H 10 3
= (1 + ) ;
2
4

2 H 10
3
= (1 )
2

(11.32k)

118

2 H 11 1
2 H11
(
)(
)
=
1
+

1
=0
;
4
2
2

(11.32m)

2 H12
=0;
2

(11.32n)

2 H 12 1
= (1 )( 3 + 1)
2
4

1. PHN T TM MINDLIN CHU UN


Khc vi l thuyt tm Kirchoff, l thuyt tm ca Mindlin c k n nh hng
ca cc thnh phn bin dng ct ngang ( yz xz 0 ). Khi , biu thc ca nng
lng bin dng n hi ca tm c cha thm biu thc nng lng bin dng ct
ngang:
Ue =

trong :

1
{ b } T { b } dV + 1 { s } T { s } dV

2V
2V

{ b } = { x

y xy } T

{ b } = { x

(11.33)

(11.34)

xy } T

(11.35)

l cc thnh phn ng sut v bin dng un, cn:

{ s } = { xz

yz } T

(11.36)

{ s } = { xz

yz } T

(11.37)

l cc thnh phn ng sut v bin dng ct ngang (trong cc mt phng vung gc vi


mt trung bnh).
Trong cc tnh ton k thut theo l thuyt tm ca Mindin, ta cn phi s dng thm h
s hiu chnh ct, h s ny thng c chn l

5
. Khi , nng lng bin dng n
6

hi ca tm chu un c k n nh hng ca bin dng ct s c biu din di


dng:
Ue =

1
{ b } T [ Db ]{ b } dV + 5 { s } T [ Ds ]{ s } dV

2V
12 V

(11.38)

trong :

1
0

[ Db ] = E 2 1 0
1
1 v
0 0

(11.39)

[ Ds ] =

(11.40)

v
G 0

0 G

Theo l thuyt tm Mindlin, trng chuyn v c biu din nh sau :

119

u ( x, y, z ) = z x ( x, y )

v ( x , y , z ) = z y ( x , y )

w( x, y , z ) = w 0 ( x, y )

(11.41)

trong , x , y l cc gc xoay ca mt trung bnh quanh trc y v trc x tng ng.


y, ta gi thit: khng c cc thnh phn bin dng trong mt phng trung bnh (khng
c bin dng mng). Cc thnh phn gc xoay ny c biu din bi:
w

xz
x

w
y =
yz

x =

(11.42)

V chuyn v w v cc gc xoay x , y l cc thnh phn c lp nhau, nn chng ta cn


c cc hm dng ni suy chng mt cch c lp. Do , vi phn t tm chu un
c k n bin dng ct ngang ny s yu cu s dng phn t tng thch C0. Cc hm
dng ng tham s s c s dng cho cc phng trnh PTHH ca phn t tm chu
un, c th nh sau :

i =1

x = N i ( , )( x ) i
i =1

y = N i ( , ) ( y ) i
i =1

w = N i ( , ) wi

(11.43)

y, n l s nt ca phn t. n gin ha bi ton, ta c th s dng cc hm


dng song tuyn tnh (Chng 8) cho phn t t gic bn nt. i vi cc bi ton c
yu cu cao v chnh xc, ngi ta thng s dng cc hm dng bc cao hn.
Ta c:

{ b } = z[ B p ]{d e }

{ s } = z[ Bs ]{d e }

(11.44)

trong :
N 1

x
Bp = 0

N
1
y

[ ]

0
N 1
y
N 1
x

N 2
x

N 2
y

0
N 2
y
N 2
x

N 3
x

N 3
y

0
N 3
y
N 3
x

N 4
x

N 4
y

0
N 4
y
N 4
x

(11.45)

120

N1

N
0
1

x
[ Bs ] =
0 N N1
1

N2

N2

N2
x
N2
y

N3
0

N
0 3
N3
N3

N4

N4

N4
x
N4

(11.46)
v

{d } = {
e

x1

y1 w1 x 2 y 2

w2 x 3 y 3

w3 x 4 y 4

w4 }

(11.47)

Thay cc biu thc trong (11.44) vo (11.38) ta c :


Ue =

T
1 e T
5
T
T
{
d } { Bb } [ Db ]{ b } dz dA { d e } + { d e } { Bs } [ Ds ]{ Bs } dz dA { d e }
2
12
V z

Ae z

(11.48)

Cui cng, ta thu c ma trn cng ca phn t tm t gic bc nht chu un di


dng:
ke =

h3
{ Bb } T [ Db ]{ b } dA + 5 h { Bs } T [ Ds ]{ Bs } dA

12 Ae
6 V

(11.49)

trong , h l chiu dy tm.


Ch : khi chiu dy h ca tm rt nh so vi kch thc ca 2 phng cn li (tm
mng), nng lng bin dng n hi do cc thnh phn bin dng ct (t l vi h) s
ln hn nhiu so vi nng lng bin dng n hi do cc thnh phn bin dng un (t
l vi h3) gy ra. Hin tng ny c gi l nghn ct (shear locking), khin cho
li gii s ca bi ton khng hi t. khc phc hin tng ny, ngi ta c th s
dng k thut tch phn rt gn (reduced integration) hoc tch phn la chn
(selective integration). Ni dung chnh ca cc k thut ny l: biu thc nng lng
ca bin dng un s c tnh theo lut tch phn ng cp, cn biu thc nng lng
ca bin dng ct s c ly tch phn mc km chnh xc hn mt cp. Chng
hn, vi phn t t gic 4 nt ng tham s, ta s dng tch phn s vi 2 2 im
Gauss i vi biu thc tch phn nng lng bin dng un, cn i vi biu thc tch
phn nng lng bin dng ct ch s dng 1 im Gauss. Tng t, vi phn t t gic
9 nt ng tham s, nu s dng tch phn s 3 3 im Gauss i vi biu thc tch
phn nng lng bin dng un, th ta s ch s dng tch phn s 2 2 im Gauss i
vi biu thc tch phn nng lng bin dng ct.
2. PHN T V
Kt cu v tng t nh kt cu tm nhng c cong khng i hoc thay i
theo cc phng x v y. C th coi kt cu tm phng l trng hp ring ca kt cu
v, khi bn knh cong bng v cng. Khi v c chia thnh mt s hu hn cc phn
t c kch thc nh, th mi phn t c th c xem nh l phn t tm phng
chu un vi mt phng xc nh trong khng gian. Tuy nhin, mi phn t ny li c
phng khc nhau (phng vct php tuyn ca mt), v vy bin dng un trong phn
t ny c th gy ra bin dng trong mt phng cho phn t k tip.
121

Kt qu l, mt phn t v c th c xc nh nh l t hp ca mt phn t chu


un v mt phn t trng thi ng sut phng, tng t nh phn t khung 2 chiu
c xy dng t phn t dm chu un v phn t thanh chu ko hoc nn. Hnh 11. 3
m t t hp hai phn t ni trn to ra phn t v c 5 bc t do ti mi nt: ba
chuyn v thng v hai chuyn v gc. Ma trn cng ca phn t v c biu din
nh sau:
[ K b ]
0

0 { d b } { Fb }
=
[ K m ] { d m } { Fm }

(11.50)

trong : K, d v F tng ng l ma trn cng, vct chuyn v nt v vct lc nt.


Cc ma trn v cc vct trn bao gm hai phn, mt l t phn t tm chu un v hai
l t phn t tm chu ko (nn). Cc ch s di b v m ch cc bin dng un v bin
dng mng (ko, nn) ca phn t v.
w

x
y

v
y
x

u
Hnh 11. 3. Phn t v l t hp ca 2 phn t

Khi cc phn t v c phng khc nhau, v d khi


xt v tr gc ca mt hnh hp (Hnh 11.4), ti y
c 3 phn t k nhau; ta c th thy rng thnh phn
gc xoay ca phn t ny s l gc xon ca phn t
k tip. Do , khi ghp ni cc ma trn cng
phn t v vct lc nt phn t ta cn phi tnh n
gc xon ni trn. Kt qu l, s bc t do ca cc Z
ma trn v vct phn t cn phi tng thm 1 ti
mi nt. Nh vy, phng trnh (11.50) s c vit
li nh sau :
[ K b ]

0
0

0
[ Km ]
0

0 { db } { Fb }

0 { d m } = { Fm }
0 z 0

zk
w
k

zj

i
zi

Y
Hnh 11. 4

(11.51)
Cc ma trn v vct trong phng trnh (11.45)
c xc nh trong h trc to a phng ca
122

mi phn t, vi trc x v y nm trong mt phng trung bnh ca phn t v v trc z l


trc vung gc vi mt phng phn t. V vy, ghp ni cc ma trn v vct ny
thnh ma trn cng tng th v vct lc nt tng th h trc to chung th
chng phi c bin i sang h trc to chung trc khi tin hnh ghp ni. Nu
gi ma trn chuyn i h trc l T, ta c :

{ d } = [ T ]{ d }
l

(11.52)

Trong , l v g l k hiu cho h trc a phng v h trc chung tng ng.


Nh vy, ma trn T chuyn i cc bc t do chung sang cc bc t do a phng.
N cha cc cosin ch phng ca cc trc to a phng trong h trc to
chung.
Ti mi nt, quan h gia cc bc t do trong h to a phng v h to chung
c m t bi:
u l c11
l
v c21
wl c31
l=
x 0
y l 0
l
z 0

c12
c22

c13
c23

0
0

0
0

c32
0
0
0

c33
0
0
0

0
c11
c11
c11

0
c12
c12
c12

0 u g

0 v g
0 w g

c13 x g
c13 y g

c13 z g

(11.53)

Trong , cij l cosin ca gc hp bi trc to a phng xi v trc to chung Xj.


Quan h ny c s dng cho tng nt phn t. Nh vy, ma trn chuyn i T i vi
phn t t gic 4 nt s c biu din di dng:
[Td ]
0
[T ] =
0

0
[Td ]
0
0

0
0
[Td ]
0

0
0
0
[Td ]

(11.54)

vi Td c xc nh theo biu thc (11.53).


Cui cng, ta xc nh c ma trn cng v vct lc nt phn t nh sau :

[ K ] = [T ] [ K ][T ]
[ F ] = [T ] [ F ]
g

(11.55)
(11.57)

Ch : khi v suy bin v tm phng, ma trn cng tng th s l mt ma trn k d


v trc ta gn thm gc xon vo vct chuyn v nt. khc phc hin tng
trn, ngi ta thng cng thm mt gi tr nh vo bc t do gc xon. Gi tr cng
thm ny khng c qu nh cho ma trn c sa i l mt ma trn khng k
d. ng thi, gi tr ny cng khng qu ln trnh nh hng n chnh xc ca
kt qu tnh. Trong thc t tnh ton, ngi ta thng khc phc hin tng trn bng
cch t K(i,i) = 1, vi i l ch s ng vi bc t do gc xon.

123

BI TP CHNG 11
1. Mt kt cu tm bng hp kim nhm, c mun n hi E = 75gPa v h s
Poisson = 0,3. Tm c kch thc 500 100mm v chiu dy h = 5mm; chu lin kt
ta bn l trn 2 cnh i din v chu ti trng phn b u, cng p= 0,5 N/mm
trn sut chiu rng v nm gia chiu di ca n nh trn Hnh C11.1. Xc nh
vng cc i ca kt cu bng phng php phn t hu hn. So snh vi kt qu gii
tch theo l thuyt dm: vng ca dm chu un (c k n c nh hng ca lc
ct):
w=

hL3
hL
+
48 EJ 4GS *
5
6

Trong : G l modul n hi trt ; S* l tit din chu ct thc t: S * = S .


Gi : c th dng m hnh dm hoc m hnh tm (chu c ko nn v un), v ch
tnh i xng ca kt cu.
z

y
b=100mm

h=5mm

x
L =500mm

Hnh C11.1. S ho tm ch nht chu un

2. Cho kt cu nh bi tp 1, hy tnh vng cc i ca kt cu khi chu ti


trng phn b u trn ton b b mt tm, vi cng p= 0,1 N/mm2.
3. Hy gii bi ton vi kt cu v ti trng nh bi tp 2, nhng thay lin kt
ta bn l trn hai cnh bng lin kt ngm trn c hai cnh ny.

124

TI LIU THAM KHO

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NXB Khoa hc K thut H Ni, 2007.

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Elements in Engineering. Third Edition.

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MATLAB. Second Editor. CRC Press, 2000.

4. J. N. Reddy. An Introduction To The Finite Element Method. Third Edition. Tata


McGraw-Hill, 2005.

5. Klaus Jrgen Bathe. Finite Element Procedures. Prentice-Hall of India, New


Delhi, 2005.

6. K Chandrashekhara. Theory of Plates. Universities Press, 2001.


7. O. C. Zienkiewicz and R. L. Taylor. The Finite Element Method, Fifth Edition.
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8. O. C. Zienkiewicz and K. Morgan. Finite Element and Approximation. New


York: Wiley Iterscience, 1982.

9. Akin J. E. Finite Element for Analysis and Design. Academic Press Limited,
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10. Batoz J. L. Et Dhatt DG. Modlesation des structues par lements finis.Vol. 1,
2, 3. Ed. Herms. Paris, 1995.

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Maloine S.A. Editeur, 1981.

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125