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Bo co n truyn ng thy kh

LI NI U

Cng vi s pht trin khng ngng ca cc thit b t ng ha, ngy


nay cc thit b truyn truyn dn, iu khin kh nn-thy lc s dng
trong my moc tr nn rng ri hu ht cc lnh vc cng nghip nh
my cng c CNC, phng tin vn chuyn, my dp, my xy dng, my p
phun, my bay, tu thy, my y khoa, dy chuyn ch bin thc phm, do
nhng thit b ny lm vic linh hot, iu khin ti u, m bo chnh xc,
cng sut ln vi kch thc nh gn v lp t d dng nhng khng
gian cht hp so vi cc thit b truyn ng v iu khin bng c kh hay
in.
Vit Nam cng khng nm ngoi s pht trin ca th gii, cc thit b
hin i dn dn thay th cc thit b lc hu v c k. Cc nh my, x
nghip c m rng, sn xut cc vt dng t nh n ln v ngy cng
phc tp mt cch hon ton t ng. V trong qu trnh sn sut, cn c s
lun chuyn phi nhanh chng gia cc dy chuyn. y, cc thit b c
in thng c s dng rng ri. phm vi n mn hc, em xin trnh
by thit k H THNG MY KHOAN T NG BNG THY LC . y l
my khoan c tnh bn t dng, gia cng c nhiu chi tit p ng tt
cho nhu cu sn xut hon lot.
TP.HCM , ngy 27 thng 5 nm 2012
Sinh vin

L Tn Hi ng

SVTH : L TN HI NG

Bo co n truyn ng thy kh

LI CM N

Sau qu trnh, tm hiu, nghin cu, thc hin ti, c s gip


tn tnh ca qu thy c b mn c in t khoa c kh my trng i
hc S phm K thut TPHCM, c bit l thy Nguyn Trng Thnh, em
hon thnh ti thnh cng tt p.
Cc thy c to iu kin cho em lm quen vi vic thit k, tnh
ton cc chi tit, hon thnh mt thit b my mc thc t. y l cc kin
thc, kinh nghim qu bo, lm tin em lm n c in t hon
chnh trong k sau, cng nh trang b them mt s kin thc ra trng,
vo mi trng lm vic c th khng b ng.
Em xin gi li cm n chn thnh nht n:
1. Khoa c kh my - Trng H S phm K thut TP.HCM
2. B mn c in t - khoa c kh ch to my
3. Thy Nguyn Trng Thnh gio vin hng dn ti, khoa c
kh ch to my, Trng H S phm K thut TP.HCM
4. Qu thy c b mn c in t, khoa c kh ch to my
5.

Tp th lp 091111

tn tnh hng dn, cung cp ti liu, gii p cc thc mc v gip


em kim tra, n c, nhc nh i ng hng, to cc iu kin tht
tt em c th hon thnh tt ti. Mc d c gng ht sc
nhng do y l ln u tin thc hin mt ti quy m n nn
trong qu trnh thc hin, nu em c lm sai, gy rc ri, lm phin
thy c th xin thy c ng gp v rt kinh nghim em thc hin
tt trong nhng n tip theo.

SVTH : L TN HI NG

Bo co n truyn ng thy kh

Mt ln na em xin chn thnh cm n s gip tn tnh ca


qu thy c v cc bn.
TP.HCM , ngy 27 thng 5 nm 2012
Sinh vin

L Tn Hi ng
NHN XT CA GIO VIN HNG DN
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SVTH : L TN HI NG

Bo co n truyn ng thy kh

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TP.HCM , ngy thng nm 2012
GVHD

NGUYN TRNG THNH

MC LC
Ni dung

Trang

Li ni u .................................................................................................................................. 1
Li cm n .................................................................................................................................. 2
Nhn xt ca gio vin hng dn ................................................................................... 3
Mc lc ......................................................................................................................................... 4
Phn 1: Phn tch phng n chn h thng truyn ng phn tch mch
thit k

I.Phn tch phng n, chn h thng truyn ng .................................................. 6


1.yu cu thit k ..................................................................................................................... 6
2.phng n thit k .............................................................................................................. 6
3.thit k ...................................................................................................................................... 7
II.thit k mch ......................................................................................................................... 7
1.Qui trnh ................................................................................................................................... 7
2.Chn xy lanh ........................................................................................................................... 7
3.Lp biu trng thi ....................................................................................................... 7
4.Lp qui trnh thc hin theo phng php tng .................................................... 8

SVTH : L TN HI NG

Bo co n truyn ng thy kh

5.S mch iu khin in thy lc ......................................................................... 8


Phn 2 : thit k h thng truyn ng thy lc ........................................................ 9
I.lch s hnh thnh v pht trin ...................................................................................... 9
1.lch s hnh thnh ................................................................................................................ 9
2.phm vi ng dng ................................................................................................................ 9
3.u v nhc im .............................................................................................................. 10
4.van in t ............................................................................................................................ 11
II.Tnh ton v thit k h thng thy lc ................................................................... 15
3.Tnh ton xy lanh : ............................................................................................................. 16
Phn III :thit k h thng g t .................................................................................... 23
1.Tnh ton bu long : ............................................................................................................. 23
Ti liu tham kho ................................................................................................................. 27

SVTH : L TN HI NG

Bo co n truyn ng thy kh

PHN 1 : PHN TCH PHNG N CHN H THNG TRUYN NG


THIT K MCH THIT K
I. Phn tch phng n, chn h thng truyn ng
1. Yu cu thit k :
Theo yu cu ca qui trnh sn xut, My khoan c kh nng khoan 4
chi tit cng mt lc mt cch bn t ng .Thng s k thut ca
phi nh sau:
Vt liu : thp c cng

760 (MPa)

Kch thc phi gia cng ln nht : D= 40mm, h = 100(mm)


.
a) Mi khoan :
Vt liu thp gi
ng knh mi khoan ln nht l : Dmax = 15(mm)
Chiu su ct t ln nht t = D/2 =7,5(mm)
Chiu su l khoan chi tit l 50(mm)

SVTH : L TN HI NG

Bo co n truyn ng thy kh

Lng chy dao :S = 0.53(vng/pht)


Vn tc ct V = 17,4(m/ph)

2. Phng n thit k
Cc phng n c a ra ban u l:
- S dng may khoan truyn ng bng bnh rng, thanh rng
dng tay iu khin
- Dng c cu truyn ng kh nn
- Dng c cu truyn ng thy lc
Qua phn tch, ta thy
Trc yu cu khoang c chnh xc tng i v c lc khoan ln,
linh hot trong khi thay i quy trnh cng ngh, nng sut cao:
- Phng n 1 kh t yu cu v nng sut
- Phng n 2 , lc khng ln,thiu chnh xc
- Ta chn phng n 3, dng c cu thy lc.
SVTH : L TN HI NG

Bo co n truyn ng thy kh

3. Thit k
-My khoan c thit k vi tng cng 8 xilanh (8 xi lanh y i)
vi cc cng tc hnh trnh
-Thanh c nng v gi vng bi 2 tr v mt thanh ngang chu
ti trng
II. Thit k mch
C cu nng ta dung 2 xy lanh
1. Quy trnh
Xi lanh A i ra chm vo cng tc hnh trnh S1(kt thc qu trinh
khoan l ng) sao xi lanh A i v. hnh trnh k tip l xi lanh B
v xi lanh quay C i ra cng lc, sau xi lanh A li thc hin chu
trnh nh lc u, khi xi lanh A tr v, ng thi c 2 xi lanh B, C u
v. kt thc 1 chu trnh.
2. Chn xy lanh
Dung xy lanh thy lc tc ng kp v van 5/2 iu khin

S1

S3

S2

F=0

F=0

S4

A
Y1

Y2
T

Y3

Y4

T
P

XI LANH A

XI LANH B

Y5

Y6
T

T
P

XI LANH QUAY

3. Lp biu trng thi :


SVTH : L TN HI NG

Bo co n truyn ng thy kh

Bc

A
B
C
(I)

( II)

(III)

(IV)

Vi cc cng tc hnh trnh t trn xung theo th t l:


S2,S1,S4,S3,S6,S5
4. Lp qui trnh thc hin theo phng php tng
E1 =
E2 =
E3 =
E4 =
A+ -> Y
A- -> Y
B+ -> Y
B- -> Y

5. S mch iu khin in kh nn :

SVTH : L TN HI NG

Bo co n truyn ng thy kh
+24V 1

2 3

4 5

16

20

21 22

23

24 25 26 27

START
K1
K1
S5
7

S3
KS1
K2

S2

K2

KS2

KS3

KS4

10

S4
K3
S2

S6

S4

K3

K3

K2

K1

Y1

Y2

S6
K2
KS2

KS3

KS1

S1

S1

K3

K1

KS4

Y3

Y5

Y4

Y6

0V

16

5
6

15

7
8

12

9
10

22

23

20

25

PHN 2 : THIT K H THNG TRUYN NG THY KH


SVTH : L TN HI NG

10

Bo co n truyn ng thy kh

I. Lch s hnh thnh v pht trin :


1. Lch s hnh thnh
Kh nn l mt khi nim c t rt lu, trc Cng nguyn, kh
nn,thy lc c bit n vi mt vi ng dng trong ch to v
kh. T nhng nm 140 TCN, con ngi bit ch to ra thit b
bn tn hay nm ng dng nguyn l kh nn.
Tuy nhin do s pht trin khoa hc k thut thi khng ng
b, khng c s phi hp v kin thc gia cc ngnh nh vt l, c
hc, vt liu nn phm vi ng dng ca kh nn cn rt hn ch,
ch yu l trong lnh vc ch to v kh.
n th k 17, k s ch to ngi c l Otto von Guerike
(1602 1686), nh ton hc ngi Php l Blaise Pascal (1623
1662) cng vi nh vt l hc ngi Php l Denis Papin (1647
1712) xy dng nn tng cho vic ng dng ca kh nn.
Trong th k 19 , hng lat cc pht minh ng dng kh nn ra
i. Ti Paris nhng nm 70 ca th k 19 xut hin mt trung
tm s dng nng lng kh nn c cng sut ln.
Thi gian gn y, do s pht trin ca nng lng in, ng
dng ca nng lng kh nn c gim. Tuy nhin do tnh an ton cao
hn s dng in nn vic s dng nng lng kh nn vn ng
mt vai tr kh quan trng trong cc lnh vc m nu s dng in
s gy nguy him.
2. Phm vi ng dng
a)

Trong lnh vc iu khin :


Nhng nm sau khi cuc cch mng cng nghip n ra, do s tt
yu ca qu trnh t ng ha trong sn xut, k thut iu
khin bng kh nn c pht trin rng ri v a dng hn.

SVTH : L TN HI NG

11

Bo co n truyn ng thy kh

H thng iu khin bng kh nn thng c s dng trong


cc lnh vc c nguy c xy ra cc nguy him cao do iu kin v
sinh mi trng kh tt v tnh an ton cao.
H thng iu khin bng kh nn thng c s dng trong
cc lnh vc nh: cc thit b phun sn, cc loi g kp chi tit,
lnh vc sn xut cc thit b in t hay trong cc thit b vn
chuyn v kim tra.
b)

Trong lnh vc truyn ng


_ Cc dng c, thit b, my va p trong lnh vc khai thc than,
khai thc hoc trong cc cng trnh xy dng.
_ Truyn ng quay vi cng sut ln bng kh nn, thy lc gi
thnh rt cao, cao hn t 10 n 15 ln so vi ng c in.
Nhng ngc li, th tch v nng lng ch bng 2/3 nh nhng
dng c vn vt, my khoan, my mi l nhng dng c c kh
nng

dng

truyn

ng

bng

kh

nn.

_ Truyn ng thng: cc g kp chi tit, cc thit b ng gi


cc thit b my gia cng, cc thit b lm sch hay cc h thng
phanh

hm

ca

t.

_ Trong cc h thng o c v kim tra cht lng sn phm.


3. u nhc im
a) u:
Truyen c cong suat cao va lc ln nh
cac c cau tng oi n gian.
Co kha nang giam khoi lng va kch thc c
cau chap hanh nh chon ap suat lam viec
cao.
Ket cau gon nhe, v tr cua cac phan t dan
khong phu thuoc vi nhau.

SVTH : L TN HI NG

12

Bo co n truyn ng thy kh

De e phong qua tai nh van an toan.


T ong hoa n gian, cac phan t tieu
chuan hoa
b) Nhc:
Mat mat hieu suat.
Khi tai trong thay oi, van toc truyen cung thay
oi.
Nhiet o anh hng en o nht..

4. Van in t :
Mot cuon day khi c tac ong bi mot dong ien th
trong cuon day o se sinh ra mot dong ien cam ng,
t trng c sinh ra trong ong day, va se tao ra mot
lc t trng. Lc t trng nay se lam di chuyen loi
sat at ben trong cuon day.
a) Van ien t 3/2 khong duy tr
Muc ch: van ien t 3/2 khong duy tr trang thai
khong b tac ong (cuon day khong co ien) th
ca P khong noi vi ca A, con ca A noi vi ca
R. Khi cuon day ien t Y1 co ien se ay nong
van sang phai lam cho ca P noi vi ca A.

b)

SVTH : L TN HI NG

13

Bo co n truyn ng thy kh

b.

a.

Hnh 2.4 Van ien t 3/2 khong duy tr:


1. Than; 2. Cuon day ien t Y; 3.Nong dan
hng loi sat;
4. Loi sat; 5. em lam kn; 6. em lam kn; 7.
Lo xo

Nguyen ly: van ien t 3/2 khong duy tr (mot au


a. Khi cuon day khong co ien

co cuon
va
mot
b. Khiday
cuon
day
coau
ienco lo xo) khi trang thai
khong tac ong lo xo (7) se ay loi (4) xuong pha
di e ong ca khong cho nguon kh nen t ca
P sang ca A, ong thi no se thong ca A vi
ca. Khi tac ong cuon day 2 co ien se tao ra
mot lc ien t hut loi sat (4) co em lam kn (5)
ong ca R ong thi noi ca P vi ca A.

Hnh 2.5 Ky hieu cuon day ien Hnh 2.6 Ky hieu van ien
t

t 3/2 theo DIN 40 713

theo DIN 40 713

SVTH : L TN HI NG

14

Bo co n truyn ng thy kh

ng dung:
- Tao ra tn hieu ien cho tn hieu thy lc. (EP- Wandler)
- ieu khien xi-lanh tac ong mot pha.
- ieu khien ong thy lc nen.
- ieu khien van ao chieu.
b) Van ien t 5/2 duy tr
Viec duy tr bang thiet b c kh ieu khien cac tn
hieu ien bang ma sat cua cac thanh truyen hoac
t lc thng trc. Mot tn hieu a vao no se t
duy tr cho en khi co mot tn hieu ngc lai va lam
tat tn hieu th nhat.
Cau tao:
- Hai au van ien t 5/2 duy tr co 2 cuon day Y1
va Y2.
- Khi cuon day Y1 co ien se sinh ra mot lc ien
t hut loi sat cuon day Y1 (co mot ng
kh nen phu t ca P se ay nong van sang
phai), lam cho nguon t ca P cua van 5/2 noi
vi ca A. Khi cuon day Y1 mat ien, nong van
van gi nguyen v tr o (duy tr); cho en khi
cuon day Y2 c cap tn hieu (co ien), luc
nay nong van se c ay sang trai va ca P
se noi vi vi ca B.
Lu y: v khong co lo xo t tra ve nh van ien t
khong duy tr, do o e xac nh v tr ban au cua
van loai nay, ngi ta quy c trang thai ban au khi
cha co tn hieu nao tac ong th v tr cua nong
SVTH : L TN HI NG

15

Bo co n truyn ng thy kh

van phai v tr ben trai; ngha la ca P se noi


vi ca B.

Hhnh 2.11 Van ien t 5/2 duy tr

ng dung:
- Van ien t 5/2 duy tr thng c ap dung
ieu khien xi-lanh tac ong hai pha u iem khi
s dung xi-lanh tac ong n lam c cau kep th
nguon ien cung cap cho van ien t loai nay
khong can phai duy tr trong suot thi gian kep.
- Tn hieu Y1 ch c tac dung khi tn hieu Y2
khong ton tai.

Y1

Y2
P
Hhinh 2.12 Mach ieu khien pit-tong hai

chieu
SVTH : L TN HI
NG

16

Bo co n truyn ng thy kh

5.Du thy lc
Du thy lc Valvoline Ultramax AW 32/46 /68/100 l loi nht
cao cp c ch to chuyn dng trong h thng thy lc hiu
sut cao. Cc sn phm ny c kh nng chng -xi ha v kh
nh tuyt vi cng nh c ch s FZG cao. Nhng sn phm ny
c h tr thm bng cc cht chng g v si bt. Du thy lc
Valvoline Ultramax AW c cng thc c bit nhm p ng cc
tiu chun thng s k thut Cincinnati Milacron P-69, DIN 51524
Part 2, Dennison HF-0 v Dennison HF-2. Cc sn phm ny c
kh nng lc, cc thuc tnh chng si bt, ch s nht cao,
bn mng tuyt vi nhm lm gim thiu s mi mn i vi cc
my bm, cc vng m, cc van, pt-tng, cc xi-lanh
2.c tnh vt l c bn ca du thy lc Valvoline
S

ISOVG GRADE

TT
1

0
nht ng hc,
cSt 400 C
0

4
7.9

6
9.1

1.8

3
6.2

9
5

9
5

9
5

24

24

24

24

2
00

2
00

00

2
00

1
0

1
0

1
0

2
0

2
0

2
0

im chy,oc, Max

3
4

0
im chp chy,
COC, 0C, Min

0
Th FZG, s ln
thnh cng

0
Th chng ri DIN
655,A&B,24h
0

6
00

Ch s nht

2
0

4
8

3
6

Th nh

7
3, Tiu chun k thut

SVTH : L TN HI NG

17

Bo co n truyn ng thy kh

Denison Hydraulics HF-0, Including T6H20C dry and


wet phase performance
Eaton M- 2950-S ( Trang b c ng)
Eaton I 286-S3( Trang b cng nghip)
Cincinnati Machine P-68, P-69 & P-70
DIN 51524 Part II
AFNOR NF E 48-603 (HM)
ASLE 64 -1 to 64-4, 70-1 to 70-3
CETOP RP91H
4.u vit ca du thy lc Valvoine
Tnh chng oxi ha v tnh chu nhit cao
Chng to bt trong qu trnh hot ng
Kim sot vic hnh thnh s to cn bn v keo
Bo v tt s ng cu pit tong v trit tiu s nght
lc
Bo v tt X pp khi s hao mn
Tng cng kh nng chng mi mn v cc thuc
tnh bi trn
Kh nng hot ng nhit cao v khi ng tt
nhit thp
Kh nh tt lm tng tui th cho cc chi tit.

5./My bm:
a/ Nguyn l my bm:
Bm bnh rng hot ng theo nguyn l thay i th tch.
Khi th tch ca bung ht tng, bm ht du, thc hin chu trnh ht.

SVTH : L TN HI NG

18

Bo co n truyn ng thy kh

Bm bnh rng thng thng c cu to gm mt hoc mt s cp


bnh rng n khp vi nhau, t trong mt v, trn v c cc ming
ht v ming y.
y ta chn my bm c p t 100(MPa) n 200(MPa) l t yu
cu ca heej thng thy lc ca my khoan
II. Tnh ton v thit k h thng thy lc :
1. Tnh ton c cu gi vt:
Vt liu : thp CQ45
Khi lng ring : 7848 Kg/m3
Do kch thc tm knh l 1500 x 1000 mm nn ta chn c cu gi
vt c kch thc theo ng cho hnh ch nht 750 x 500 x 10
Tm kim loi c hn vi mt hnh hp
Tng khi lng ca c cu gi vt l 38 Kg
2XILANH nm ngang(y h thng khoan)

SVTH : L TN HI NG

19

Bo co n truyn ng thy kh

Chn ngun thy lc c p sut Pn = 100 bar


Hiu sut khi vn hnh xi lanh = 0,9
Lc chiu trc Po = 1043 N
Khi lng ca b v ng c my khoan : M = 40 kg
=> Lc y cn thit m xilanh tc ng F = Po 40 x 10 = 643 N
Khong cch t tm ca xilanh khung ngang ti tm ca mi khoan: d =
170mm
Moment xon Mx tc ng ln xilanh khung ngang:
Mx = F x d = 643 x 0.17 = 110 N.m
T cc thng s va tnh c, chng ta chn xilanh khung ngang
theo chun ca hng Festo:
ng knh trong xilanh khng trc : D = 30 mm
Moment xon Mx = 170 N.m
Lc Fy = 7300 N
3/Cng sut ct

Ne =

M X .n
(KW)
9750

Trong
n: s vng quay mi khoan

SVTH : L TN HI NG

20

Bo co n truyn ng thy kh
1000.V
n = .D
1000.55
1752 [ vg/ph]
=
3,14.10

Vy:

Ne =

3,3.1752
1,1(KW)
9750

Chn ng c in hiu KRESS c cc thong s:


Cng sut ng c : N=0, Kw.
ng knh khoan ln nht : max=40 mm.
S vng quay [v/ph]: 8000 ; 9500 ; 13500 ; 20500 ; 24000 .
Chn s vng quay n=8000 [v/ph] .
Tc thc t:
V=

n..D 8000.3,14.10

200[m / ph]
1000
1000

Lng chy dao dao [mm/ph] : S=8000.0,2 =1600 [mm/ph] = 27 [mm/s] .


4/Xi lanh y u khoan:

SVTH : L TN HI NG

21

Bo co n truyn ng thy kh

Mun khoan c , phi tc dng vo mi khoan mt lc m thng c lin


kt ni b ca kim loi.
-Lc ct khoan khi tra theo s tay:
P0 = 10.CP.Dq.Sy.KP

Tra theo s tay cng ngh ch to my (GS. Nguyn Khc Lc)


Ta xc nh c:
Cp= 68 , q = 1 , x = 1,2 , y = 0,7 Kp = 1
Po = 6540,2
T Po chnh l lc p ca pittong thy lc ln vt gia cng:
Po = S*P =
Trong :
P: p sut ca du
D dng knh nng ca piton
D : dng knh cn xi lanh
ng c c p= 100 bar
Hiu sut my = 0.95
K = 0.5 0.8
ng knh xi lanh cn chn:
D = 60(mm)
Nhng do s dung xi lanh i, nn mi ng knh xilanh l d1 = 30(mm)

Phn III : THIT K H THNG G LP

SVTH : L TN HI NG

22

Bo co n truyn ng thy kh

1. Tnh ton bu long :(bu long gi xi lanh v h thng u khoan)


Vt liu lm bu long : thp C45 vi cc gii hn bn cho trc nh sau
,

, cng HB = 210

a) Lin kt gia ngm v xy lanh di chuyn vt


Trng lng ca xy lanh v u my l 200 Kg
iu kin bn ta c :
<[
[

] = 0.6

= 270

d > 9.43 mm
Diu kin bn ct :
<[ ]
[ ] = 0.25

= 112.5

d > 1.06 mm
D m bo cng vng vi h s an ton, ta chn vt c M12

TI LIU THAM KHO


SVTH : L TN HI NG

23

Bo co n truyn ng thy kh

1. Gio trnh h thng iu khin bng kh nn Nguyn Ngc Phng


2. Diu khin bng kh nn trong t ng ha k ngh - Peter Rohner
3. Tnh ton kt cu thp Nguyn Vn Yn
4. Tnh ton v thit k h dn ng c kh tp 1 v 2 Trinh Cht
5. http://en.airtac.com
6. http://www.festo.com
7. iu khin kh nn v thy lc L Vn Tin Dng
8. Hng dn s dng phn mm MDsolid Trn Minh T
9. Sc bn vt liu L Ngc Hng

SVTH : L TN HI NG

24

Bo co n truyn ng thy kh

SVTH : L TN HI NG

25