Contents

Learner’s LiCenCe
1 2 3 4 5 6
The learner’s licence test 4

7 8 9

Guidance and information signs

72

• Controls of the vehicle

Defensive driving (K53)

5 7 9

Road markings

83

Rules of the road

Traffic signals

88

Road signs

44

10 Additional signs 11 Learner’s practice test 12 Answers

92

Regulatory signs

46

99

Warning signs

60

106

DrivinG LiCenCe
13 The driving licence test
107

17 The yard test 18 The motorcycle test 19 The road test
20 Practical driving test

119

14 The K53 defensive driving system 109 15 The pre-trip inspection 16 Using the vehicle controls
111

126

133

117

141

1
WHAT THE TEST COVERS
To pass your learner’s licence test, you must know: • the rules of the road; • road traffic signs, signals and surface markings; • the controls of the vehicle.

THE LEARNER’S LICENCE TEST

DiSquAlifiCATiOn
You will not be able to obtain a learner’s licence if: • you have been previously disqualified by a court of law and this disqualification is still in force; or • you already have a licence for the same class of vehicle; or • your licence has been suspended temporarily and the suspension has not yet expired.

PRE-TEST REquiREmEnTS
To do the learner’s licence test, you must: • be of the minimum age required (see details below); • pass the health and eyesight requirements; • not be addicted to narcotic drugs or the excessive use of intoxicating liquor; • comply with all instructions given by the testing officer; • have acceptable identification, or a Traffic Register Certificate issued by the licencing authority; • have two recent black-and-white or colour identity photographs of passport size.

The licencing authority will give you all the details you need in this regard, and will tell you about the different codes of licences for the different classes of vehicles, as well as the fees you must pay. Be sure to contact them before booking your test.

minimum AgE REquiREmEnTS
The minimum age for obtaining a learner’s licence is: • 16 years: for a motorcycle without a side-car, and with an engine cylinder capacity not exceeding 125 cc; • 17 years: for light motor vehicles with a mass not exceeding 3 500 kg; • 18 years: for all other vehicles, including motorcycles with an engine cylinder capacity exceeding 125 cc.

WHAT THE liCEnCE AuTHORizES
When you have a learner’s licence: • you may drive on public roads, including freeways, only under the supervision of a person in possession of a valid driving licence for the same category of vehicle which you intend to drive – this person should be seated right next to you, or directly behind you if they are not able to sit next to you; • passengers are allowed in the vehicle provided they do not pay a fare; • in the case of a motorcycle without a side-car, you may not carry a passenger and therefore your instructor may not sit on the same motorcycle as you.

DuRATiOn Of liCEnCE VAliDiTy
Your learner’s licence will be valid for 18 months from the date of issue. Once you have obtained it, turn to the driver’s section (page 107) of this book so that you can start preparing yourself to take driving lessons with a qualified driving instructor.

4

3
1

Rules of the Road

• To make driving on public roads as safe as possible, there are rules that must be adhered to by all road users. • Concentrate on understanding the meaning of every rule in this chapter. You will then be able to answer questions no matter how they are phrased in the test. • The illustrations above each rule will help you to understand and remember the statements given below them. The things you musT do often have a green tick; those you musT noT Do have a red cross.

2

3

• Always obey the directions of a traffic or police officer. They overrule any road sign or rule of the road.

• obey all the rules of the road. If you don’t, you are committing an offence and may be prosecuted.

• The rule of the road is to drive on the left half of the road.

dRiving signals

1

2

3

• signal your intention early enough to warn others by using, for example, indicators, stop lights or hand signals.

• make sure your signals can be clearly seen from the front, from behind and from the side.

• use the brake lights to indicate that you are slowing down or intend to stop.

The following abbreviations are used in this book:
HMV = Heavy Motor Vehicles LMV = Light Motor Vehicles

Note: Drivers of medical and fire-fighting response vehicles, and persons specifically authorised to do so, are permitted to exceed the speed limit and to disregard road signs, but only if this is necessary during the course of their duties.

9

seat Belts

1

2

3

• The driver is responsible for ensuring that seat belts are worn by all passengers, front and rear.

• Where no seat belt is fitted on the front passenger seat, children up to the age of 14 must sit on the back seat.

• If seat belts have been removed, te vehicle may not be used on a public road.

4

5

TEST YOURSELF
QUESTION 3 Defensive driving means… A. Defending yourself on the road. B. maintaining a clear space around
your vehicle at all times.

C. making sure that the indicator
• If there is a vacant seat that has a seat belt fitted, no one may occupy a seat that isn’t fitted with a seat belt. • You may unfasten your seat belt while parking or reversing and during the yard test part of the driving test. has cancelled after completing a manoeuvre.

a

B

C

dRiving off/ReCkless, negligent and inConsideRate dRiving

1

2

TEST YOURSELF
QUESTION 4 Signal whenever you intend to... A. move to another lane. B. Accelerate. C. neither of these.

• Drive off from a stationary position only if it is saf to do so, and without causing any danger to other traffic.

• It is a criminal offence to disregard the safety of people or property when driving, or to drive recklessly, negligently or without reasonable consideration for other road users.

a

B

C

Reckless or negligent driving is a criminal offence that will result in a criminal record. If you collide with the back of another vehicle, or with a State vehicle, you will be prosecuted for reckless or negligent driving.

11

emeRgenCy Red tRiangles

1

2

TEST YOURSELF
QUESTION 5 To slow down or stop, you use…

45 m

A. The brakes only. B. The brakes and gears. C. none of these.

• At least one double-sided reflective triangle, meeting sABs specifications, must be carried in all motor vehicles. (motor cars first registered before 1 July 2006 are exempted.)

• In an emergency, the triangle must be displayed on the road at least 45 m behind the vehicle, facing approaching traffic.

a

B

C

lights

1

2

3

• Always switch on your vehicle headlights when driving between sunset and sunrise. • The beam must light up objects at least 100 m ahead.

• switch on your vehicle headlights whenever visibility is not clear for at least 150 m. (Having headlights on dipped beam during the day makes you more visible and is safer.)

150 m

• The headlight of a motorcycle must be on all the time while riding on a public road (even during the day).

4

5

6

12 m

• Don’t use the driving or main (bright) beam when the brightness will cause a glare to approaching traffic. • It should strike the road surface not more than 45 m ahead of the vehicle. • no more than two after-market spot lamps may be fitted.

• use the parking lights at night only when the vehicle is parked outside a demarcated parking area or if it is 12 m or more from a lit street lamp.

• use your vehicle’s emergency warning lights only in an emergency, or when your vehicle is standing in a hazardous position.

12

4

road signs

PurPose
A system of road traffic signs, signals and surface markings guides and directs the traffic flow, or warns motorists of traffic conditions ahead.

understand the system
If you understand the system, you will find it much easier to remember the meaning of each of the many road signs that form part of it.

forms of road signs
Road signs take three basic forms:

SignS
(usually mounted on poles or overhead structures)

MarkingS
(painted on the road surface)

SignalS
(traffic lights, warning flashing lights, hand and flag signals)

Categories of signs
To make it easier for the motorist to see, interpret and quickly respond to a road sign while driving, they have been grouped into four broad categories:

1 regulatory:
to tell you what you must do or may not do (i.e. to regulate traffic). Obey all regulatory signs, signals and markings.

2 Warning:
to warn you of potentially dangerous conditions on the road ahead.

3 guidance:
to guide you in respect of destination, routes, distances, places of interest, etc.

4 inforMation:
to give motorists useful information about the road situation ahead, which is not of a warning or regulatory nature.

44

5

RegulatoRy signs

• Regulatory signs control the actions of motorists by giving instructions. • You MUST obey all regulatory road signs. If you don’t, you are committing an offence and can be fined or prosecuted.

gRo upi ngs
• Regulatory signs are grouped according to the type of message conveyed. each group has its own shape and colour combination to help you to quickly read and interpret the sign while driving. • learn the meaning of each grouping of shapes and symbols in the tables below. • Then cover up the right-hand column and test yourself to make sure you understand the type of message conveyed by each group.

shape and colouR gRoup

Meaning
Control signs tell you: • where you must stop; • where you must yield (give way); • in what direction you must travel; • what special rules apply.

R2

R5

Hexagon

Triangle

R3

Round disc

R4.1

Rectangle

Square on point

Command signs give commands. They tell you: • what actions you must take; • what road or lane you must use. Permanent Temporary Prohibition signs tell you what is not allowed: • what MUST noT be done; • which claSS of Road USeR is noT allowed on that roadway or lane. Limit signs tell you what limits are allowed: • the maximum speed, vehicle mass, height, length, etc. allowed on the road; • where access is limited to authorized vehicles only. Reservation signs tell you about reserved areas: • that the roadway or lane (R), or the parking area (P) is ReSeRved foR ceRTaIn claSSeS of vehicle onlY; • other classes must not use that lane, roadway or portion of the roadway, or the parking area. Permanent Temporary

Permanent
68/R218

Temporary
68/R218

Permanent
66/R202012

Temporary

R201060

46

shape and colouR gRoup

Meaning
Comprehensive signs tell you that there is a comprehensive set of SeveRal ReGUlaTIonS and ReSTRIcTIonS that must be adhered to ahead, for example, when: • the roadway ahead is a freeway; • the area is designated as a residential area.

Permanent

Temporary de-restriction signs tell you: • that the comprehensive sign regulations no longer apply.

Permanent
141/R602 141/R602

Temporary

Permanent
155/R107+R511

Temporary

exclusive secondary signs may appear below a regulatory sign to indicate that the sign applies: • only during certain times of the day or night or week; • only to vehicles moving in a certain direction; • only to certain classes of vehicle; • only under certain conditions.

155/R107+R511

c ont Rol signs
These signs control driving actions and tell you:
• • • • where you must stop; where you must give way; in what direction you must travel; what special rules apply.

Stop
R1

R5

Pedestrian priority

Stop/Go (usually hand-held at roadworks)

R1.2

Stop/Yield

Yield to pedestrians

Colour codes:
• Red and white, except the (temporary) Stop/Go sign.
no entry
R4.1 R3

one-way roadway

R1.3

3-way stop

Railway crossing stop

how to Read these signs

+
R4.1

=
ICon white insert specifies which control applies, in this case the compulsory direction of travel.
R4.1 R4.1

eg:
MeanIng one-way roadway. You must drive only in the direction of the arrow.

BaCkgRound Red with white border indicates a control sign.

47

contRol signs (cont.)

1

2
4 1 3 2

3

SToP
• Stop completely and wait, with the front of the vehicle in line with the sign, or before the painted stop line. Proceed only when it is safe to do so. • If the sign is controlled by a person, proceed only when instructed to do so.

3-Way oR 4-Way SToP
• Stop as for every SToP sign. • Proceed only after the vehicles that stopped before you on any of the roads at the intersection have cleared the intersection, and only when it is safe to do so.

no enTRy
• don’t drive beyond this sign.

4

5

6

yIeLd
• Slow down, or stop before the broken line to give way to: – cross traffic (and trains) close enough to pose a danger; – pedestrians crossing or about to cross the roadway.

yIeLd aT MInI-CIRCLe
• Slow down and give way to any vehicle that will enter the mini-circle before you and cross your path. • Proceed in a clockwise direction when it is safe to do so. • don’t drive over the mini-circle.

SToP/yIeLd
• If you want to turn left, slow down and give way to all traffic from the right. • Proceed only if it is safe to do so. • If you want to cross over or turn right, regard the sign as a SToP sign and respond accordingly.

7

8

REMEMBER
Study all the road signs illustrated in the pictures and make sure that you understand them. Next, revise each row of signs as already explained on page 45. Additional road signs that must be studied are provided on pages 92–98.

yIeLd To onCoMIng TRaffIC
• Yield to any oncoming traffic at the narrow section of the roadway. • Proceed only when the road is clear of oncoming traffic.

PedeSTRIan PRIoRITy
• at an area set aside for pedestrians. • Service and emergency vehicles may enter only if they give way to pedestrians, do not go faster than 15 km/h, and deliver/load only in a marked loading zone.

48

6
• • • • •

warning signs

Warning signs indicate that there are hazardous conditions ahead, which require extra caution. They indicate that it may be necessary to slow down or make some other manoeuvre to maintain safety while driving. A warning sign may be used with other road signs, surface markings or advisory plates such as ‘recommended speed’. If you disregard a warning sign, this could result in a charge of negligent or reckless driving. Whenever you see a warning sign you should look out for other road signs as well, such as regulatory signs or other warning signs, and respond accordingly.

g e n e r a l r e s p o ns e to al l warni ng s i gns
• Approach with caution and take note of any other road signs. • Anticipate any possible hazard according to the nature of the warning, for example children or animals running into the road, dangerous road surface conditions, movements of other traffic or weather-related hazards. • Slow down if necessary, and be prepared to take evasive action. • Change down to a lower gear if necessary. • Obey any regulatory signs in the vicinity.

gro upi ngs
• Learn the meaning of each shape and symbol grouping in the tables below. • Then cover up the right-hand column and test yourself to make sure you understand the type of message conveyed by each group.

shape and colour group

Meaning
Advance warning signs warn of hazards some distance ahead. • hazards might include, for example, changes in the road layout or traffic flow, animals or pedestrians ahead, regulatory signs ahead.

Permanent
170/W101

Temporary
239/W335

255/W405

256/W401

257/W407

Hazard marker signs are placed AT Or neAr the hazard itself. • They indicate the position of, for example, a sharp curve or a T-junction, or an obstruction on the side of the road. Temporary
261/TW411

Permanent
252/W409

60

r oa d l ay o ut s i gns
These signs depict the layout of other roads ahead, in relation to the road on which you are travelling. each road is depicted by a solid black line.
164/W105

Permanent
170/W101

Temporary
171/W108

*
501W/461

Colour codes:
• black symbol on a white background, with a red border. • Temporary versions have a yellow background.
* An asterisk after a sign name means that the road may angle to the left or the right.

180/W116

Permanent
176/W118

Permanent

how to read these signs

+
170/W101 170/W101

=
170/W101

eg:
MeAnIng There is a crossroad ahead. approach with caution and be prepared to stop or yield.

BACkgROunD White triangle with a red border means advance warning of potential hazard ahead.

ICOn black icon specifies the type of hazard ahead.

1

2

3

CROSSROAD AHeAD
• another road crosses the road on which you are travelling. • Approach with caution and look out for any ‘Stop’ or ‘yield’ signs.

SeCOnDARy CROSSROAD AHeAD
• a secondary road ahead crosses the road on which you are travelling. your road has priority. • There may also be a ‘right-of-way’ information sign ahead to confirm that you have right of way.

PRIORIty CROSSROAD AHeAD
• a priority road ahead crosses the road on which you are travelling. vehicles on that road have priority. • you will have to yield to cross-traffic. • Look out for a ‘Stop’ or ‘yield’ sign ahead.

62

(B) Moving hazards ahead (cont.)

2

‘MOvIng HAzARDS AHeAD’ wARnIng SIgnS

horses and riders ahead

elephants ahead

Warthogs ahead

hippos ahead

wIlD AnIMAlS AHeAD
• There may be wild animals on or about to jump onto the road ahead. • Slow down and drive with caution. farm animals ahead farm animals ahead farm animals ahead

210/W310

208/W311

214/W312

(c) road or weather condition hazards ahead
Signs that warn of hazards associated with road or weather conditions ahead. Approach with caution, and respond as indicated below.

1

‘ROAD OR weAtHeR COnDItIOn HAzARDS AHeAD’ SIgnS

SPeeD HuMPS AHeAD
230/W332

gRAvel ROAD BegInS AHeAD • The road surface is about to change to a gravel surface. • Check in the mirrors and slow down to avoid throwing up stones which can damage windscreens. • Avoid sudden braking, and keep a safe following distance.

• There are speed humps on the road ahead to control vehicle speed. • Obey any speed limit sign.

gRAvel ROAD enDS AHeAD

• The road surface is about to change to a hard surface, for example tarred. • Approach with caution.

lOOSe StOneS AHeAD
226/TW338

MOtOR gAte AHeAD*
212/W316

• There may be loose stones or gravel on the roadway ahead. • Avoid severe braking, and maintain a safe following distance.

• There is a motor gate (cattle grid) ahead, and the thoroughfare may be narrow. • pass on the side to which the arrow is pointing.

gAte AHeAD
215/W314

• There is a gate, railway boom or barrier ahead. • Approach with caution in case the gate or boom is closed.

RAIlwAy CROSSIng AHeAD

tunnel AHeAD
216/W319

• There is a railway crossing ahead. • Approach with caution. • Obey any regulatory sign.

• There is a tunnel ahead. • Obey any regulatory sign. • Switch on the headlights. • don’t overtake.

SteeP DeSCent AHeAD*
224/W323

• There is a steep downhill ahead. • heavy vehicles may have to change to a lower gear.

68

examples of direction siGns

• Proceed straight ahead to travel towards Cape Town on National Route 7. • At the junction ahead, turning right will take you along Regional Route 45 towards Hopefield and Vredenburg. • Turning left will take you along Regional Route 45 towards Malmesbury.

• The crossroad at the T-junction is Regional Route 34. • Turning right will take you towards Richards Bay along Route 34. • Turning left will take you towards Empangeni along Route 34.

• You are travelling along Regional Route 568 which, at this point, is also Route 26. • The town of Vanderbijlpark is 8 km further on along Route 568. • The town of Heilbron is 66 km further on along Route 26.

• At the junction ahead turn right into Victoria Street to take the Regional Route 33 to Vryheid or Route 68 towards Melmoth. • Turning left into Victoria Street will take you along Route 68 towards Newcastle.

• Continue straight on if you wish to travel on Regional Route 103 towards Estcourt. • Turning left at the junction ahead will take you to National Route 3, which is a freeway (blue sign and freeway symbol) and a toll road. • This is Freeway On-ramp number 146.

• Turning right will take you into Queens Terrace into the town called Riverside. • Turning left will take you into Robinson Road, which will become Regional Route 58 leading into the town of Burgersdorp.

321/GD4

• You are travelling along Regional Route 50. • The distance to the town of Bapsfontein is 25 km. • The distance to Pretoria is 63 km.

• Prince Edward High School is to the left. • Lanseria Airport is 6 km along the road to the right. • The harbour is 3.5 km along the road to the right.

• You have reached the town of Virginia. • Venter Avenue is 0.8 km ahead. • Sand River Road to the city centre is 1.7 km ahead. • Harmony Drive is 2.5 km ahead.

76

8
1

Road maRkings

• Road markings serve the same purpose as road signs. They are painted on the surface of the road instead of being on a sign-post. • Regulatory markings must be obeyed in the same way as regulatory road signs.

2

3

stop liNe
• Indicates the position for stopping. • Stop your vehicle immediately behind the line.

Yield liNe
• Indicates the point at which motorists must give way. • If required, give way to other vehicles, pedestrians or traffic by stopping your vehicle behind the broken yield line.

block pedestriaN crossiNg
• Indicates the place where pedestrians cross the road. • Yield to pedestrians on or about to enter the crossing on your half of the road from either side.

4

5

6

No overtakiNg
• Overtaking is prohibited. • Don’t cross onto the right-hand side of the solid line, except to get to or from a property on the other side of the roadway, or to pass a stationary obstruction in the roadway, and then only if it is safe to do so.

No crossiNg
• Crossing the solid lines is prohibited. • Don’t allow any part of your vehicle to cross onto the right-hand side of the marking for any reason at all.

chaNNeliziNg liNe
• Crossing the line is prohibited. • Don’t allow any part of your vehicle to cross the marking for any reason at all.

83

9
1 2

TrAffiC signAls

Traffic signals serve the same purpose as road signs. They vary according to traffic flow, road conditions or time of day. Note that traffic light signals at intersections and pedestrian crossings are often also referred to as traffic lights or robots.

Ove r h e A d l A n e di re CT i O n CO nT rO l s i gnAl s
These regulate which lanes may be used and which may not be used. (regulatory signal)
TEST YOURSELF
QUESTION 90 When approaching this road‑marking a vehicle must‑stop...

A. After it has crossed the line. B. Behind the line. C. As it approaches the line. red cross
• This lane is not open for your use because it is open to oncoming traffic. • Don’t drive in this lane. Choose another lane.

green arrow
• This lane is open for your use, as it carries traffic in the same direction as you are travelling. • You may drive in any lane over which this sign is displayed.

A

B

C

T r A f f iC l i ghT s i gnAl s
These signals apply to motor vehicles and motorcycles, and in some cases to pedestrians as well.

1

2

3

steady red light
• Stop your vehicle immediately behind the stop line. • Wait for a green light before proceeding.

Flashing red light
• Stop before the white line. • Proceed as for a 4-way stop, but yield to any pedestrians crossing your path. • This signal is also used when a traffic light is out of order.

steady yellow light
• Stop before the white line. • If you are too close to stop safely, you may proceed with caution if it is safe to do so. • Wait for a green light to proceed.

88

11

leArner’s prACt ICe test
Do-It-Yourself test

Once you have finished studying the information on pages 4–98, complete the following test within a time limit of one hour. Try to get all the answers correct. The test is designed to help you prepare for the various ways in which the questions may be asked in the official test. Sometimes the question itself is not straightforward, and sometimes when you read the three options given you might become a little confused, so it is useful to have a strategy for approaching each question.

tIps for AnswerIng tHe questIons
• There is enough time to answer all the questions, so there's no need to rush the test. • It is important that you first read the question very carefully and make sure you clearly understand what is being asked. If necessary, read the question again … and again. • Where possible, try to answer the question in your mind without looking at the three options below the question. (Sometimes this isn't possible because the question does not indicate the topic and you need to read the three options for the question to make sense.) • When you feel you have a clear idea in your mind of what the correct answer should be, read the first option carefully and make sure you understand it before reading the next one, and so on. • Don't mark the correct answer until you have read all three options carefully. • There is always only one correct answer for each question. So if two answers appear to be correct, read the question and the options again and only then decide which answer is the most correct one for that question. • Place your mark in the space provided beneath A, B or C, as applicable (see the example on page 5).

How to mArk Your test
Once you have completed the test, check your answers by referring to the list on page 106. Score one mark for each correct answer. You should aim to score 100% by getting every answer correct. If you chose a wrong answer, go back to that question and read it again. Study the related information and picture again to make sure you understand why you were wrong. Mark that page and study it again.

1. Which sign means delivery vehicles must use this portion of the roadway only? A. B.

2. To slow down or stop, you use... A. The brakes only. B. The brakes and gears. C. Neither of these.

3. The directions of a traffic officer take precedence... A. Only at robots that are out
of order. B. Where there has been an accident. C. Always.

4. How should the driver react to this sign? A. No reaction. B. Keep to the left of the sign. C. Turn left.

C. Both of these.

A

B

C

A

B

C

A

B

C

A

B

C

99

13

The DRIVING lIceNce TesT

WhAT The lIceNce AUThORIZes
The driving licence authorizes you to drive a vehicle on a public road without being accompanied by another licenced driver. The vehicle must be of the same category as specified on the licence.

WhAT The TesT cOVeRs
During the test, you must demonstrate your ability to: • control and handle the vehicle safely and competently; • apply the K53 defensive driving system; • obey the road traffic rules, road signs and signals, and road markings, and respond appropriately in a real-life driving situation; • cope with traffic, pedestrians and route conditions; • be courteous to other road users.

sTRUcTURe OF The TesT
The driving licence test consists of two separate parts, each of which must be successfully completed. If you fail either of these parts the test will be discontinued immediately and you will have to apply for a full re-test at a later date. You may ask the examiner any questions about the test. Use of cellular phones and smoking are not allowed. On completion of the test, whether you have passed or failed, you must sign the test report and be given a copy after it has been discussed with you. Light anD heavy motor vehicLes the test for light and heavy motor vehicles includes: Part one: • a pre-trip inspection of the vehicle; • a yard test, which inludes reversing, parking and moving off on an incline. Part two: • a practical driving test in traffic (road test). The time allotted for the yard activities – the interior and exterior inspections and the yard manoeuvres – is 20 minutes in total (plus 59 seconds grace period). If you pass these two aspects of the test, you will continue with the practical driving test on a public road, which should take between 20 and 45 minutes. motorcycLes the test for motorcycles includes: Part one: • a pre-trip inspection of the motorcycle; • mounting and dismounting, starting, speed control, moving off and turning, lane change to the right and an incline start. Part two: • moving off, turning speed judgement, an emergency stop, an emergency swerve and a controlled stop. There is no time limit for part one of the test. Both parts of the test are conducted on a track at the testing centre. There is no practical riding test in traffic.

107

mINImUm AGe AND TesT-DAY ReQUIRemeNTs
You must be 18 years or older to apply for a driver's licence for all classes of vehicle, with the exception of motorcycles with an engine cylinder capacity not exceeding 125 cc for which you must be 16 years or older. on the day of the test you must report to the driving licence testing centre with: • a roadworthy vehicle; • your identity document; • your valid learner’s licence; • three passport-sized photographs; • the prescribed fee for the licence to be issued when you successfully complete the test.

The NeeD FOR A QUAlIFIeD DRIVING INsTRUcTOR
• It is strongly recommended that you take a pre-defined course of at least 10 to 20 hours of formal training with a driving instructor and school that has been accredited by the Southern African Institute of Driving Instructors (SAIDI). • During your driving lessons you should satisfy yourself that you can perform every procedure for the test. The driving test is a practical test. To help assess your ability, an example of the official test assessment checklist is included at the back of this book (pages 141–144).

ImmeDIATe FAIlURe
Light anD heavy motor vehicLes the test will be stopped immediately in the event of any of the following: • using a vehicle that is not licenced; • using an unroadworthy vehicle; • a violation of any traffic law, road sign, signal or road marking; • an uncontrolled, dangerous action on your part; • an avoidable collision; • bumping any obstacles, mounting the kerb or touching boundary lines during the test; • not successfully completing a manoeuvre within the maximum number of attempts allowed; • allowing the vehicle to roll forwards or backwards during the test; • inability to perform a hand signal when instructed to do so; • mechanical failure of the vehicle during the test; • scoring more than 50 penalty points in the yard test (penalty points are indicated in brackets on the test assessment checklist at the back of the book); • exceeding the absolute time limit of 20 minutes 59 seconds allowed for the Pre-Trip Inspection and Yard Test. motorcycLes the test will be stopped immediately in the event of any of the following: Part one: • using an unroadworthy or unlicenced motorcycle; • falling off or allowing the motorcycle to fall; • exceeding 50 penalty points (see page 143); • touching a boundary line; • rolling backwards or forwards during the manoeuvres; • disregarding a traffic law, road sign, signal or road marking; • carrying out an uncontrolled or dangerous action; • not wearing a suitable safety (crash) helmet. Only one attempt each is allowed for moving off, turning left and lane change to the right, and three attempts for speed control, provided that no immediate disqualification has occurred. Part two: • falling off or allowing the motorcycle to fall; • exceeding 90 penalty points; • touching a boundary line; • rolling backwards or forwards when moving off; • disregarding a traffic law, road sign, signal or road marking; • carrying out an uncontrolled or dangerous action; • not wearing a suitable safety (crash) helmet.

Only three attempts are allowed for each of the manoeuvres in this part of the test, provided that no immediate disqualification has occurred.

If you are disqualified for any one of these items the test will be stopped immediately and you will have to re-apply to do the test at a later date after more training and practice.

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14

tHE K53 DEFEnSIVE DRIVInG SYStEM

An important aspect of the driving test is the application of the defensive driving system already explained in detail in Chapter 2. You will be expected to know this system thoroughly and to apply it in the correct sequence during each manoeuvre and aspect of the test while maintaining a clear space around your vehicle at all times. The defensive driving system consists of the following elements:

SEARCH Continually look ahead, behind and sideways for any hazards. A hazard is anything that could cause you to reduce speed or change direction. Hazards include: intersections, vehicle and pedestrian entrances, pedestrians, animals, other vehicles, cyclists, poles, signs or any other fixtures.

IDENTIFY Classify the type of hazard in terms of how it might affect your speed or direction of travel.

PREDICT Evaluate the dangers associated with the hazard and how you could react to it.

DECIDE Choose a reaction that ensures everyone’s safety. EXECUTE Carry out the chosen action.

Each manoeuvre has its own specific sequence of actions that form part of the defensive driving system. These sequences, which are explained in the pages that follow, must be followed. The following table explains the terminology used to describe the sequence, and shows the icons that will be used to help you.

Icon
Observe

ActIon

ExplAnAtIon
This is a 360° observation. Look to the front, to the sides, in the mirrors and the blind spots so that you know what’s going on all around your vehicle and to see if it is safe behind you. Your wheels should always be straight when you check in the blind spots.

Look in the mirrors

Look in the rear-view mirrors to see if it is safe behind and alongside the vehicle.

Check the blind spot(s)

Turn your head and look over your shoulder into the blind spot on the side to which you intend moving to ensure that it is safe to change direction. Your wheels should always be straight when you check in the blind spots.

109

LIGHT MOTOR VEHICLES
4 1 12 8 4 10 9 12 16 11 2 18 13 1 2 4 15 14 14 1 15 10 11 3 7 5 9

3

6 5 13

6

17

4 7 8

Exterior inspection
1. On approach, check under the vehicle for leaks or obstructions. 2. Unlock all the doors. 3. Inspect the vehicle for possible damage from the top to bottom, in an anti-clockwise direction. 4. Ensure that the mirrors are not broken, and are secure and clean. 5. Check the windows and windscreen for damage and cleanliness. 6. Check the wiper blades for damage and leave them extended during the inspection. 7. Check the tyres for damage, wear, tread depth, valve cap and inflation. 8. Check the wheels for damage, grease or oil leaks, and the wheel nuts (if no hub cap is fitted) – visual inspection only. 9. Check all the lights, lenses and reflectors for damage, and that they are secure and clean. 10. Check the vehicle for damaged or loose panels or grilles. 11. Make sure that the bonnet, bumpers and exhaust are secure. 12. Make sure that the number plates are secure and clean and that the light is working. 13. Check that the licence disc is valid and secure. 14. Check the doors for opening, and the operation of the window winders and seat belts for stability and damage. 15. Check any information plates and chevrons for damage, cleanliness, stability and validity. 16. Mention that the oil, water, brake fluid and fan belt have been checked. 17. Mention that the spare wheel, jack and wheel spanner should be checked. 18. Check that the fuel cap is secure.

Interior inspection
After the exterior inspection you will be asked to get into the vehicle and operate the lights, indicators, wipers and hooter (horn). Operate the controls as required and then conduct the interior inspection. 1. From the driver's seat, ensure that the parking brake is applied and that the gear lever is in neutral (or P or N for automatic vehicles). 2. Check for obstructions inside the vehicle. 3. Check for warning lights and gauges, where applicable. 4. Adjust the seat to the correct driving position and set the mirrors for maximum rear-view vision. 5. Turn the ignition key to the ‘on’ position without starting the engine. 6. Check the operation of any electric windows. 7. Check all the instruments on the instrument panel and mention any changes. 8. Check the operation of the front and rear lights, indicators, horn and wipers. 9. Switch the ignition off and return all switches to the ‘off’ position. 10. Check the steering for excessive free-play. 11. Check the pressure on the brake and clutch pedals. 12. Return the wipers to the normal position. 13. Check that the doors are properly closed and that any passengers know how to operate them. 14. Fasten your seat belt and request any passengers to fasten theirs. 15. Ensure that the passengers know how to operate the seat belt release mechanism.

112

HEAVY MOTOR VEHICLES AND VEHICLES TOWING A TRAILER OVER 750 KG (Cont.)
1. From the driver’s seat ensure that the handbrake is applied and that the gear lever is in neutral (or in P or N for automatic vehicles). 2. Check for obstructions inside the vehicle. 3. Check for warning lights and gauges, where applicable. 4. Adjust the driver's seat for the correct driving position and set the mirrors for maximum rear-view vision. 5. Turn the ignition key to the ‘on’ position without starting the engine. 6. Check the operation of any electric windows. 7. Check all the instruments on the instrument panel. Mention any changes. 8. Check the operation of the front and rear lights, indicators, horn and wipers. 9. Switch the ignition off and return all switches to the ‘off’ position. 10. Check the steering for excessive free-play. 11. Check the pressure on the brake and clutch pedals. 12. Return the wipers to the normal position. 13. Check that all the doors are properly closed and that passengers know how to operate them. 14. Fasten your seat belt and request any passengers to fasten theirs. 15. Ensure that the passengers know how to operate the seat belt release mechanism.

4 12 3 2 1 4 14 15 14 8 10 11 7

9 13

5

6

Interior inspection

(The interior inspection is often conducted before the exterior inspection. Be prepared for either sequence of inspections.)

Note: In the event of there being a minor defect, you may be allowed to rectify it.

MOTORCYCLES
4. Check the brake disc(s) for wear, if possible. 5. Check the shock absorbers/forks for damage, security and oil leaks. 6. Check the mudguards for damage and security. 7. Check the lights and reflectors for damage, cleanliness and security. 8. Check the indicators for damage, cleanliness and security. 9. Check the windscreen/fairing for damage, cleanliness and security, if applicable. 10. Check the controls, cables, mirror and clutch fluid level, if applicable, for damage, cleanliness, security and operation. 11. Check the fuel tap/valve for damage, security, leaks and operation. 12. Check the gear lever for damage and security. 13. Check any side-covers for damage and security. 14. Mention that the battery should be checked for damage, security and fluid level. 15. Check the footrests, chain guard, chain (tension and lubrication) and the exhaust for damage and security. 16. Check the rear number plate for damage, cleanliness and security, and that the number plate light is working. 17. Check the seat for damage, cleanliness and security. 18. Check the foot brake for free play, damage and security, and the brake fluid level, if applicable. 19. Check the fuel tank and filler cap for security and leakage. 20. Mention that the coolant and engine oil levels should be checked, if applicable. 21. Check any radiator for damage and security. 22. Check the licence token for validity, cleanliness and security.

10 9 8 12 19 21 5 15 3 2 1 20 11 17 22 16

7 6

13 14 18

4

Off the motorcycle
1. On approach, check under the motorcycle for obvious leaks and/or obstructions. 2. Check for damage, preferably from top to bottom, and from left to right, while moving in an anti-clockwise direction. 3. Check the wheels for tread depth, wear and damage, sidewall damage, inflation, valve cap, spokes, wheel hub, oil and grease leaks (visual inspection only).

114

17

THE YARD TEST

For light motor vehicles, heavy motor vehicles and vehicles towing a trailer over 750 kg

PURPOSE
The purpose of the yard test is to check how well you handle your vehicle in the time allowed. Some testing centres allow learner drivers to practise the manoeuvres after working hours in the yard where the official test is conducted. Ask your driving instructor to arrange for you to use the yard if this is permitted in your area. This will give you the opportunity to become familiar with the test area.

WHAT THE TEST COVERS
During this part of the test, which is done in an area that is closed to normal traffic, stopping will be permitted at any stage during certain manoeuvres. Should the test be terminated at any stage, the full test must be repeated. Touching any obstacle or mounting a kerb is not allowed. The examiner will give you the instructions for each manoeuvre. The test includes the following:

Light motor vehicles

Heavy motor vehicles and vehicles towing a trailer over 750 kg (licence code EB)
30 minutes for the pre-trip inspection and test. Signalling and observing, as if on a public road, is required. Wearing seat belts is not necessary. All traffic signs, signals and markings must be obeyed. No uncontrolled or dangerous actions may be made. The principles of defensive driving must be applied. The push-pull steering method is not required. Alley docking to the right (2 attempts). A left turn (1 attempt). Parallel parking without a trailer from the left and the right (2 attempts each) – code EB only. Reversing in a straight line (1 attempt). An incline start (1 attempt).

20 minutes for the pre-trip inspection and test. Signalling and observing, as if on a public road, is required. Wearing seat belts is not necessary. All traffic signs, signals and markings must be obeyed. No uncontrolled or dangerous actions may be made. The principles of defensive driving must be applied. The push-pull steering method is not required. Alley docking to the left and right (2 attempts each). A three-point turn in the road (1 attempt). Parallel parking from the left and the right (2 attempts each).

– An incline start (1 attempt).

119

THE ROAD LAYOUT REQUIREMENTS (Cont.)

REMEMBER
Stopping and moving off in the same direction during a manoeuvre is not counted as an additional movement.
40 m 4m

If you stop for more than 5 seconds you must do a complete observation before moving off again.

For reVersing in a straight line (hMV only)
An area 40 m long and 4 m wide.

THE MANOEUVRES

3 Signal your intention

4 Select the correct gear

5 Obtain clutch control (manual vehicles) 6 Observe 360°

positioning For a ManoeuVre
In the yard test you must position the vehicle in preparation for each manoeuvre.

leaVing an area aFter a ManoeuVre
When you have completed a manoeuvre, you must drive out of the demarcated area without touching any obstacles, and follow the examiner’s instructions. 1 Check the mirrors

7 Release the handbrake

8 Steer out of the area

1 Stop where instructed

9 Cancel the signal 2 Cancel the signal if applicable 2 Check the blind spot 3 Apply the handbrake

4 Select neutral (N) or park (P)

121

THE MANOEUVRES (Cont.)

� �
6m

2.5 m

1 Check the mirrors and the blind spot 2 Signal

3 Select the appropriate gear


4 Obtain clutch control (manual vehicles)

three-point turn in the road (lMV only)
You will be instructed to drive to a particular area and execute a turn in the road. This manoeuvre must be completed in three movements only, without bumping any kerbs, and the vehicle must end up facing in the opposite direction, on the left-hand side of the road. You will be allowed only one attempt to complete the manoeuvre successfully. Repeat this sequence for each of the three movements: 1 Check the mirrors and the blind spot 2 Signal

alley docking (lMV from the left and right; hMV from the right only)
You will have to reverse into a demarcated parking bay and then drive out again (LMV – from both the left and the right). You will be allowed only two attempts to complete the manoeuvre provided that no obstacle has been touched. You must not bump the kerb or any obstacles, or change direction during the manoeuvre. Stopping is allowed at any stage. One forward movement may be permitted for each attempt by combination vehicles (i.e. a truck pulling a trailer) only. Should you touch the line with any wheel, the test wil be discontinued. The testing officer will direct you to the testing area and instruct you to perform the manoeuvre.

5 Observe 360°

6 Release the handbrake

7 Move off

8 Check the blind spot

9 Steer

10 Stop as instructed

11 Apply the handbrake

3 Select the correct gear 12 Select neutral (N) or park (P) 4 Obtain clutch control (manual vehicles) 5 Observe 360°

13 Cancel the signal

6 Release the handbrake

REMEMBER
7 Move off towards the other side of the road 8 Counter-steer in the other direction as you stop 9 Stop

Make sure your signals can be clearly seen from the front, from behind and from the side. Always check the blind spot/s just before changing direction.

10 Apply the handbrake

123

18

THE MOTORCYCLE TEST

WHAT THE TEST COVERS
• The test is conducted off the road. A specially prepared track is used to test your riding skills. You will be required to perform certain manoeuvres without stalling or rolling, and respond to different light signals. Each manoeuvre must meet certain standards that are measured in respect of distance and/or time. • During the test you must perform observations and give signals as though you were on a public road and you must wear a properly fastened crash helmet. Immediately after moving off, both feet must be placed on the rider’s footrests. Both wheels must remain in contact with the road at all times, and all road signs, signals, rules and markings must be obeyed. The testing officer will be examining: • How well you control the motorcycle. • How you comply with the rules of the road, road signs, signals and road markings. • Your use of the system of vehicle control: observation, signalling and road safety.

PA RT ONE O F T HE T E S T
3 Check the gauges and warning lights 4 Ensure neutral (N) is selected (green light) 5 Move the engine ‘kill’ switch to the ‘run’ position 6 Operate the choke if necessary

REMEMBER
Both wheels must remain in contact with the road at all times, and all road signs, signals, rules and markings must be obeyed.

ON

OFF

ON

STARTING THE ENGINE
You must demonstrate your ability to use the controls correctly to start the engine and to check the working of the lights, indicators and horn while maintaining your balance. 1 Open the fuel valve

7 Start the engine and release the starting mechanism 8 Cancel the choke once the engine is running smoothly

2 Turn the ignition switch to the ‘on’ position without starting

126

19

THE ROAD TEST

For light motor vehicles, heavy motor vehicles and vehicles towing a trailer over 750 kg.

PURPOSE
The purpose of the road test is to evaluate how well you handle the vehicle in traffic and your compliance with the rules of the road, road traffic signs and signals, and road markings. The examiner will also want to see how well you cope with other traffic, hazards and route problems in a practical driving situation on public roads. In addition, the examiner will want to see your application of the defensive driving system in the correct sequence, as well as your courtesy towards other road users. Sixty five percent of the route must be on public roads in an urban area. The test route should consist of the following: • a tarred multi-lane road containing a minimum of two controlled intersections and clearly demarcated road markings; • at least one 4-way stop intersection; • at least four intersections controlled by stop signs or traffic lights; • two right turns must be made at these intersections where there are no flashing green arrows; • at least one intersection controlled by a Yield sign where the applicant must give way; • at least one intersection controlled by a Yield sign where the applicant has right of way; • a quiet street for the emergency stop.

T HE T E S T
The following pages cover the manouevres and driving situations on which you will be tested. You must follow the K53 procedure in the correct sequences as shown in the panels.
1 Check the mirrors 7 Stop if necessary

2 Signal

8 Select 1st gear

3 Obey the traffic signal

9 Observe 360°

4 Check the mirrors

10 Move off when signalled to do so

TRAFFIC ConTRol SIGnAlS
You must demonstrate the correct response to traffic control signals given by authorised individuals. Be sure you know the rules of the road and the meaning of all the signals.

5 Slow down

noTe:
Authorised individuals include: police or traffic officers in uniform, scholar patrols, road workmen, persons leading, riding or driving bovine animals, signalmen at level crossings and drivers of emergency vehicles sounding a device or bell.

6 Select a lower gear if necessary and proceed if it is safe

133

THE TEST (Cont.)

5 Signal

6 Check the mirrors again

7 Apply the brake if necessary

8 Select a lower gear if necessary

CHAnGInG lAneS
You must demonstrate the correct and safe use of traffic lanes. Don’t change lanes while crossing an intersection. 1 Check the mirrors and both blind spots 2 Signal

oVeRTAKInG
You must demonstrate your ability to overtake vehicles and hazards safely. Maintain a clear space and safe approaching/ following distance for maximum visibility. 1 Obey all roads signs, signals, rules and markings 2 Check the blind spot

9 Check the blind spot

10 Steer past the hazard while maintaining a clear space 11 Cancel the signal

12 Accelerate if necessary

3 Obey all traffic signs and markings 4 Check the appropriate blind spot

3 Position the vehicle for maximum visibility 4 Check the mirrors and the blind spot

13 If intending to return to your lane, check the mirrors and relevant blind spot before signalling

5 Steer

6 Cancel the signal 1 Check in the mirrors and the relevant blind spot 2 Position the vehicle in the centre or far side of your lane 3 Do not accelerate while being overtaken

noTeS:
Where more than one lane is changed in one movement, the appropriate blind spot must be checked prior to crossing each lane line. Where the lane next to you does not continue, you will be penalised for not checking the blind spot to that side.

note
When being overtaken, check the mirrors and blind spots and move to the other side of your lane without accelerating.

beInG oVeRTAKen
You must demonstrate the correct response when being overtaken.

noTe:
The test will be discontinued if you increase speed while being overtaken on the righthand side of a road with two-way traffic.

134

20

practical driving test

This section gives you the opportunity to do a practical driving test similar to the one that you will do for the official driver's licence test. • You should do this test only once you and your instructor are confident that you can handle the vehicle competently in all the required manoeuvres and that you know all the requirements for defensive driving that have been included in the previous sections of this book. • To gain extra confidence, you should do this test more than once before going for the official test. Allow your instructor to check each point on this list and tick either ‘yes’ or ‘no’ for each question as you do the test. • The actual test is scored in terms of ‘penalty points’ that are allocated in respect of infringements of the test requirements. In some cases, a single infringement will result in up to five penalty points. • You will fail the pre-trip inspection and yard test if you take longer than 20 minutes (30 minutes for heavy motor vehicles) to carry them out, and you will fail the driving test if you are allocated 50 or more penalty points. • You will fail the road test if you are allocated more than an average of 8 penalty points per minute. This means that if the test took 20 minutes (the minimum time allowed), you may not have more than 160 (20 x 8) penalty points. • In the test below, the number of penalty points per infringement is indicated in brackets. The shaded boxes indicate critical areas (immediate failure).

t h e p r e - t ri p i ns pe ct i o n
This part of the test is divided into two sections and must be carried out in a place away from traffic.
the exterior inspection (lMv and hMv only)
Did the candidate: Check under the vehicle for oil leaks/obstructions? (1) Check the condition of the wipers? (1) Check the fuel cap? (1) Check the condition of the tyres/wheels (HMV only)? (1) Check the reflectors? (1) Check all the lenses? (1) Check the engine compartment for oil leaks? (1) Check the fifth wheel couplings (HMV only)? (5)

the interior inspection (lMv and hMv only)
Yes / no
Did the candidate: Check that all the doors were closed? (2) Check that the handbrake was on? (1) Select ‘neutral’ or ‘park’? (1) Check for obstructions in the vehicle? (1) Adjust the seat? (1) Adjust the rear-view mirrors? (2) Did the candidate check the operation of: The lights? (1) The indicators? (1) The wipers? (1) The hooter? (1)

Ye s / n o

Ye s / n o

Motorcycles only
Did the candidate: Check under the motorcycle for leaks and obstructions? (1) Check the mirrors for damage, cleanliness and security? (1) Check the chain tension and lubrication? (1) Check the condition of the tyres (wheels)? (1) Check the forks and shock absorbers for damage, security and oil leaks? (1)

Yes / no

141

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Our sincere thanks to the Southern African Advanced Driving Academy, in particular RW Chandler, for carefully reviewing the technical and instructional content of the first edition of this manual, and for endorsing and recommending it for use by all aspirant learner’s and driver’s licence candidates. We also wish to thank Pat Allen, national president of the Southern African Institute of Driving Instructors, and Howard Dembovsky, director, Justice Project South Africa, for their assistance with the latest content updates. Clive Gibson, Gavin Hoole, Bata Passchier Struik Lifestyle (an imprint of Random House Struik (Pty) Ltd) Company Reg. No. 1966/003153/07 80 McKenzie Street, Cape Town 8001 PO Box 1144, Cape Town, 8000, South Africa www.randomstruik.co.za First published in 2005 by Struik Publishers Reprinted in 2006 Second edition published in 2007. Reprinted in 2007, 2008, 2009 Third edition published by Struik Lifestyle in 2011 Copyright © in published edition: Random House Struik (Pty) Ltd 2005, 2007, 2011 Copyright © in text: Engage the Brain Training Systems 2005, 2007, 2011 Copyright © in illustrations: Engage the Brain Training Systems 2005, 2007, 2011 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, digital, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publishers and the copyright holders. Publisher: Linda de Villiers Managing editor: Cecilia Barfield Editors: Samantha Fick, Joy Clack, Gill Gordon Designers: Janine Cloete, Beverley Dodd Illustrator: Darren McLean DTP: Clinton Griffin ISBN 978-1-43170-031-8 (Print) ISBN 978-1-43170-036-3 (Epub) ISBN 978-1-43170-038-7 (PDF ebook) Please note: The National Road Traffic Act and regulations, and the test requirements, are revised by the authorities from time to time. This book is constantly updated to incorporate such changes, and every effort has been made to ensure the accuracy and current validity of the information provided therein. Nevertheless, the Publishers and the Authors shall not be held responsible or liable in any way whatsoever for any omissions or errors contained herein, whether due to timing of the release of the updated editions or for any other reason.

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