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Middle-class jobs in the United States increasingly require some level of education
or training beyond high school. While a four-year bachelor’s degree is not required
for many of these middle-skill positions, advanced training ofen is necessary.
According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, a worker with some postsecondary edu-
cation but no degree earns approximately 13 percent more than a worker with only
a high school diploma and is 7 percent less likely to be unemployed, while a worker
with an associate’s degree earns approximately 20 percent more than a worker
with only a high school diploma and is 28 percent less likely to be unemployed.36
Research also shows that one year of postsecondary education and an occupational
credential can serve as a tipping point for substantially increased earnings.37
In addition, labor economists estimate that our workforce will encounter a short-
age of fve million “middle-skill” workers by 2018. Tese middle-skill workers are
individuals who have jobs that pay middle-class wages but also need some type of
postsecondary credential—typically earned through community college or work-
force training. Te vast majority of workers who will fll these middle-skill jobs in
2018, however, are already beyond our elementary and secondary school systems.
According to the Georgetown Center on Education and the Workforce, three-
quarters of middle-class workers in 1970 had no education or training beyond
high school. By 2007, however, the percentage of middle-class workers with only
a high school diploma had been cut in half to 39 percent. And the labor market
trend is moving further toward higher education, as 97 percent of net new jobs
being created between 2008 and 2018 are expected to require some type of post-
secondary degree or credential.38
Unfortunately, our existing workforce training system is not up to the task. High costs
and other barriers, especially for working learners who try to gain skills while holding
onto their current job, have restricted access to these programs for many Americans—
even as our economic competitors focus on ramping up their training eforts.
18 Center for American Progress | making Our middle Class Stronger
To ensure that Americans who want to upgrade their skills are able to do so, we
propose making it easier to take time of for training, increasing the fexibility and
availability of job training funding, and dramatically ramping up apprenticeship
programs that create career ladders.
Increase mid-career training by providing workers the right
to request time off from work for training
American workers should have a legal right to request time of for job training
that is mutually benefcial to the worker and their employer. Tis policy would
encourage workers to upgrade their skills by shifing the presumption that work-
ers should be fearful about asking for time of for training to one that encourages
workers to make that request.
Tis would beneft both workers—by helping to ensure they are able to
acquire new skills and consequently boost their incomes—and employers. In a
Massachusets study of incumbent worker training programs more than 90 per-
cent of employers reported improvements in productivity and competitiveness;
nearly 50 percent reported giving employees pay raises; and more than 20 percent
reported avoiding layofs as a result of training.39
In Britain a policy similar to our
proposal enjoys the support of business groups and labor.40
Specifcally, our recommendation is that Congress should guarantee all workers at
companies with at least 50 employees the right to request time of for job training.
Workers would have the right to get help from outside resources—such as career
counselors, workplace-learning advisors, union representatives, or public work-
force ofce staf—to design their request for time of to enroll in job training. Te
requested job training would need to be relevant to the worker’s job, workplace, or
business. Employers would not be required to approve workers requests for train-
ing but would be required to respond to the request within 30 days.
Each state, with support from the U.S. Department of Labor, would create
an online system to track worker requests and the corresponding employer
responses. Te system would create a platform for workers and employers to
engage in a dialogue about the need for job training and provide transparent infor-
mation about an employer’s support for job training.
Reduce costs and barriers to job training | www.americanprogress.org 19
Create a flexible Pell Grant for adult workers to enroll
in career training
Adult workers who have not fnished some type of postsecondary degree or
credential should be eligible for professional career counseling services and a
federally funded career training account. In other words, we need a more fexible
Pell Grant for adult workers.
Research has shown that access to postsecondary education and training sig-
nifcantly helps adult workers earn beter wages and that combining customized
workforce training with professional career counseling provides almost $50,000 in
additional lifetime benefts per adult worker.41
Unfortunately, there is not enough
job training being funded by the federal workforce system. Only one-ffh of adults
receiving services through the Workforce Investment Act Adult and Dislocated
Worker programs actually receive job-training services, and only 6 percent earn
credentials with labor market value.42
Furthermore, the Pell Grant program is not designed well for adults with full-time
jobs who want to take one course per semester or obtain an occupational certifcate.
Career training accounts—or Pell Grants for adult workers—would be avail-
able to adult workers ages 24 to 55 who earn less than $60,000 annually and do
not possess a college degree, technical certifcation, or an industry-recognized
credential equal to at least one full year of postsecondary education. Training
funds would be limited to 48 months from the frst day of enrollment in a training
course. Tese training accounts should be capped at a total amount equal to one
year of a maximum Pell Grant—currently $5,635.43
To receive a fexible career-training Pell Grant, an adult worker would be required to
enroll in a vocational training program through their local public workforce system
or community college. Te training program would start with a comprehensive skills
assessment and multiple sessions with a career counselor or career advisor.
Career counselors would help adult workers in their eforts to pursue certifcates
and credentials in programs that can be fnished in one year to two years. Career
counselors would limit training options to occupations in high-growth and high-
demand industries in their regions and could limit enrollment to programs with
proven track records of success in order to ensure the highest return on invest-
ment for taxpayer funds.
20 Center for American Progress | making Our middle Class Stronger
Expand apprenticeship training to develop 1.5 million
Te workforce training system should increase its support of apprenticeship train-
ing and also expand the apprenticeship model into new industries. Increasing the
number of workers annually enrolled in apprenticeship training programs to 1.5
million—from the current level of 400,000—would create new pathways into the
middle class for millions of workers over the next decade and would help provide
employers with skilled workers who the market does not always provide.
According to the Department of Labor, apprenticeship completers earn an average
starting salary of $50,000 and make as much as $225,000 more than comparable
job seekers during their lifetimes.44
Apprentices also don’t have to wait until their
training program is fnished to earn money. A typical apprentice in carpentry, for
example, starts their apprenticeship at 60 percent of a journeyman’s salary, and
their wage is increased by 5 percent every six months over the course of the four-
year apprenticeship program. Tat means an apprentice is learning a valuable skill
that will lead to a middle-class career, while also earning an income rather than
accumulating thousands of dollars in student debt.
Specifcally, we propose an investment of $2 billion annually to support an
increase of 1 million new apprentices. Tis would enable the Department of
Labor’s Ofce of Apprenticeship to work with state-and-local workforce boards
to conduct outreach to the private sector, develop relationships with employers in
high-growth and emerging industries, and allocate fnancial aid to cultivate newly
registered apprenticeship programs.45
Raise workplace standards | www.americanprogress.org 21
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?