Aug 23-24, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

International Seminar on Computer Aided Analysis and Design Of Building Structures
•Institute of Engineers Malaysia •Computers and Structures Inc., USA •Asian Center for Engineering Computations and Software Asian Institute of Technology, Thailand

Building Structures Modeling and Analysis Concepts

Naveed Anwar
Asian Center for Engineering Computations and Software, ACECOMS, AIT

Overall Design Process

• • • • • • •

Conception Modeling Analysis Design Detailing Drafting Costing

Integrated Design Process

Modeling, Analysis and Design of Buildings

AIT - Thailand

ACECOMS

Electronic and Communication System Security System Other specialized systems Modeling. Analysis and Design of Buildings AIT .Building Systems • Building is an assemblage of various Systems – – – – – – – Basic Functional System Structural System HVAC System Plumbing and Drainage System Electrical.Thailand ACECOMS .

Analysis and Design of Buildings AIT .Thailand ACECOMS . Combined Footings Modeling. Deep Beams. Flat Slabs. Pile caps Shear Walls.Physical Building Structure Floor Diaphragm Frame and Shear Walls Lateral Load Resisting System Floor Slab System Gravity Load Resisting System Sub-structure and Member Design Beams.The Building Structural System . Two-way Slabs. Isolated Footings. Columns.

Conceptual • The Gravity Load Resisting System (GLRS) – The structural system (beams. girders. columns. slab.Thailand ACECOMS Modeling. etc) that primarily acts to resist the lateral loads • The Floor Diaphragm (FD) – The structural system that transfers lateral loads to the lateral load resisting system and provides in-plane floor stiffness AIT .The Building Structural System . bracing. shear walls. Analysis and Design of Buildings . etc) that act primarily to support the gravity or vertical loads • The Lateral Load Resisting System (LLRS) – The structural system (columns.

temperature. Pattern Loads. Seismic Loads.Thailand ACECOMS Modeling. Structural Un-symmetry – Important elements: Columns.How Gravity Loads are Distributed – Analysis of Gravity Load Resisting System for: • Dead Load. openings.Building Response • Objective: To determine the load path gravity and lateral loads • For Gravity Loads . beams. shrinkage – Important Elements: Floor slabs. bracing . beams AIT . • For Lateral Loads – How Lateral Loads are Distributed – Analysis of Lateral Load Resisting System for: • Wind Loads. Live Live Load. Analysis and Design of Buildings . etc. Joists. shear walls.

Structural Response To Loads .

Analysis and Design of Buildings AIT .The Simplified Structural System STRUCTURE EXCITATION Loads Vibrations Settlements Thermal Changes pv RESPONSES Displacements Strains Stress Stress Resultants Modeling.Thailand ACECOMS .

Analysis and Design of Buildings AIT . Modeling.Analysis of Structures pv Real Structure is governed by “Partial Differential Equations” of various order Direct solution is only possible for: • Simple geometry • Simple Boundary • Simple Loading.Thailand ACECOMS .

We can only analyze a “Model” of the Structure C . Analysis and Design of Buildings AIT .We therefore need tools to Model the Structure and to Analyze the Model Modeling.Real Structure cannot be Analyzed: It can only be “Load Tested” to determine response B .Thailand ACECOMS .The Need for Modeling A .

The Need for Structural Model STRUCTURE EXCITATION Loads Vibrations Settlements Thermal Changes pv RESPONSES Displacements Strains Stress Stress Resultants Structural Model Modeling.Thailand ACECOMS . Analysis and Design of Buildings AIT .

with an accuracy acceptable to engineers” Modeling.Finite Element Method: The Analysis Tool • Finite Element Analysis (FEA) “A discretized solution to a continuum problem using FEM” • Finite Element Method (FEM) “A numerical procedure for solving (partial) differential equations associated with field problems.Thailand ACECOMS . Analysis and Design of Buildings AIT .

Analysis and Design of Buildings CONTINUOUS MODEL OF STRUCTURE (Governed by either partial or total differential equations) DISCRETE MODEL OF STRUCTURE (Governed by algebraic equations) AIT .Thailand ACECOMS .Continuum to Discrete Model pv 3D-CONTINUM MODEL (Governed by partial differential equations) Modeling.

Thailand ACECOMS (Principle of Virtual Work) Modeling.From Classical to FEM Solution Classical Actual Structure Assumptions Equilibrium Structural Model Stress-Strain Law Compatibility FEM “Partial Differential Equations” “Algebraic Equations” K = Stiffness r = Response R = Loads AIT . Analysis and Design of Buildings .

Simplified Structural System Loads (F) Fv Deformations (D) D F K F=KD Modeling.Thailand ACECOMS . Analysis and Design of Buildings AIT .

Thailand ACECOMS . Analysis and Design of Buildings AIT .The Structural System STRUCTURE RESPONSES pv EXCITATION • Static • Dynamic • Elastic • Inelastic • Linear • Nonlinear Modeling.

Nonlinear-Dynamic Elastic OR Inelastic Modeling.The Equilibrium Equations 1. Linear-Static Elastic OR Inelastic 2. Nonlinear .Thailand ACECOMS .Static Elastic OR Inelastic 4. Analysis and Design of Buildings AIT . Linear-Dynamic Elastic 3.

Thailand ACECOMS .Basic Steps in FEA Evaluate Real Structure Create Structural Model Discretize Model in FE Solve FE Model Engineer Interpret FEA Results Physical significance of Results Engineer + Software Software Modeling. Analysis and Design of Buildings AIT .

Thailand ACECOMS . Analysis and Design of Buildings Plate/ Slab Out of Plane. Only Axial Modeling.Discretization of Continuums General Solid ( Orthogonal dimensions) Z H. B much less than L Regular Solid ( T small compared to Lengths ) Y X Beam Element Solid Element Plate/ Shell Membrane/ Panel In-Plane. Only Bending Shell In-Plane and Bending AIT .

Global Modeling of Structural Geometry (f) Grid-Plate Modeling. Analysis and Design of Buildings AIT .Thailand ACECOMS .

Thickness • 3 D Elements (Brick type) – Can be used in 3D Model – 6-20 Nodes.Dimensions of Elements • 1 D Elements (Beam type) – Can be used in 1D. Modeling.Thailand ACECOMS . Analysis and Design of Buildings AIT . A. • 2 D Elements (Plate type) – Can be used in 2D and 3D Model – 3-9 nodes. I etc. 2D and 2D – 2-3 Nodes.

Thailand ACECOMS .DOF for 1D Elements Dy Rz Dy Dx Dz Dy Dx 2D Truss 2D Beam 3D Truss Ry Dy Rz Dy Dx Rz Rx Rz Dz Dy Dx Rx 2D Frame 2D Grid 3D Frame Modeling. Analysis and Design of Buildings AIT .

Thailand ACECOMS . Analysis and Design of Buildings AIT .DOF for 2D Elements Ry ? Dy Rz Dy Ry ? Dy Dz Rz Dx Rx Dx Rx Membrane Plate Shell Modeling.

Thailand ACECOMS . Analysis and Design of Buildings AIT .DOF for 3D Elements Dy Dz Dx Solid/ Brick Modeling.

Analysis and Design of Buildings 3D Frame 2D Grid AIT . analyze and interpret • Can be in 2D or in 3D space 2D Frame Modeling.Frame and Grid Model • The structure represented by rod or bar type elements • Does not model the cross-section dimensions • Suitable for skeletal structures • Sometimes surface type structures can also be represented by frame model • The simplest and easiest model to construct.Thailand ACECOMS .

Membrane Model
• • • • • • Ignore bending stiffness Tension / Compression In- plane Shear For in plane loads Principle Stresses suitable for very thin structures / members • Thin Walled Shells, • Specially Suitable for Ferro Cement Structure

Modeling, Analysis and Design of Buildings

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Plane Stress and Plane

Plane Strain Problem

Plane Stress Problem

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Plate Bending Model
• Primarily Bending mode • Moment and Shear are predominant • Suitable for moderately thick slabs and plates • For Out-of-plane loads only • Can be used in 3D or 2D models • Suitable for planks and relatively flat structures

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Analysis and Design of Buildings AIT . Difficult to design the section for combined actions Modeling.General Plate-Shell Model • Combined Membrane and Plate • Suitable for general application to surface structures • Suitable for curved structures • Thick shell and thin shell implementations available • Membrane thickness and plate thickness can be specified separately • Numerous results generated.Thailand ACECOMS .

Analysis and Design of Buildings AIT .Solid Model • • • • Shear Axial deformation mode in 3D Suitable for micro-models Suitable for very thick plates / solids May not be applicable much to ferocement structures • Use 6 to 20 node elements Modeling.Thailand ACECOMS .

Analysis and Design of Buildings AIT .Soil-Structure Interaction • Simple Supports • Fix. Roller etc.Thailand ACECOMS . Pin. • Support Settlement • Elastic Supports • Spring to represent soil • Using Modulus of Sub-grade reaction • Full Structure-Soil Model • Use 2D plane stress elements • Use 3D Solid Elements Modeling.

Rz OK OK OK Dx. Ry. Rz OK Rx. Dz Dx. Rz Rx. Rz OK OK OK OK Dz Rx. Rz. Dz OK Rx. Ry. Ry. Rz. Rz OK Rx. Dz Dz OK Rx ? Dx. Analysis and Design of Buildings AIT .Connecting Different Types of Elements Truss Truss Frame Membrane Plate Shell Solid Frame Membrane Plate Shell Solid OK Rx. Dy OK OK Rx ? OK OK OK Rx. Dy Dx. Ry. Dz OK OK Rx. Ry. Rz OK Orphan Degrees Of Freedom: 0 1 2 3 4 Modeling.Thailand ACECOMS . Rz Rx.

What Type of Analysis should be Carried Out?
Modeling, Analysis and Design of Buildings

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Analysis Type

The type of Analysis to be carried out depends on the Structural System
– The Type of Excitation (Loads) – The Type Structure (Material and Geometry) – The Type Response

Modeling, Analysis and Design of Buildings

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ACECOMS

Basic Analysis Types
Excitation Structure Response
Static Static Static Elastic Elastic Inelastic Linear Nonlinear Linear

Basic Analysis Type
Linear-Elastic-Static Analysis Nonlinear-Elastic-Static Analysis Linear-Inelastic-Static Analysis

Static
Dynamic Dynamic Dynamic Dynamic

Inelastic
Elastic Elastic Inelastic Inelastic

Nonlinear
Linear Nonlinear Linear Nonlinear

Nonlinear-Inelastic-Static Analysis
Linear-Elastic-Dynamic Analysis Nonlinear-Elastic-Dynamic Analysis Linear-Inelastic-Dynamic Analysis Nonlinear-Inelastic-Dynamic Analysis

Modeling, Analysis and Design of Buildings

AIT - Thailand

ACECOMS

Analysis and Design of Buildings AIT .Some More Solution Types • Non-linear Analysis – – – – – P-Delta Analysis Buckling Analysis Static Pushover Analysis Fast Non-Linear Analysis (FNA) Large Displacement Analysis • Dynamic Analysis – Free Vibration and Modal Analysis – Response Spectrum Analysis – Steady State Dynamic Analysis Modeling.Thailand ACECOMS .

Analysis and Design of Buildings AIT .Static Vs Dynamic • Static Excitation – When the Excitation (Load) does not vary rapidly with Time – When the Load can be assumed to be applied “Slowly” • Dynamic Excitation – When the Excitation varies rapidly with Time – When the “Inertial Force” becomes significant • Most Real Excitation are Dynamic but are considered “Quasi Static” • Most Dynamic Excitation can be converted to “Equivalent Static Loads” Modeling.Thailand ACECOMS .

Analysis and Design of Buildings AIT . strain etc. elastic and inelastic behavior depending upon level of loading. strain etc. stress. stress. Modeling.Thailand ACECOMS . after removal of load/ excitation • Most materials exhibit both. after removal of load/ excitation • Inelastic Material – Does not follow the same path during loading and unloading and may not returns to initial state of deformation.Elastic Vs Inelastic • Elastic Material – Follows the same path during loading and unloading and returns to initial state of deformation.

Thailand ACECOMS . Analysis and Design of Buildings AIT .Linear Vs Nonlinear • Linearity – The response is directly proportional to excitation – (Deflection doubles if load is doubled) • Non-Linearity – The response is not directly proportional to excitation – (deflection may become 4 times if load is doubled) • Non-linear response may be produced by: – Geometric Effects (Geometric non-linearity) – Material Effects (Material non-linearity) – Both Modeling.

Analysis and Design of Buildings AIT .Elasticity and Linearity Action Action Linear-Elastic Linear-Inelastic Deformation Deformation Action Action Nonlinear-Elastic Deformation Nonlinear-Inelastic Deformation Modeling.Thailand ACECOMS .

Analysis and Design .Physical Object Based Modeling.

components and members • Dicretization process is used to convert Structure to Finite Element Models for determining response Modeling. deformation characteristics and stress state • A Structure is of finite size and is made up of an assemblage of substructures.Continuum Vs Structure • A continuum extends in all direction.Thailand ACECOMS . has infinite particles. Analysis and Design of Buildings AIT . with continuous variation of material properties.

Thailand ACECOMS .Physical Categorization of Structures • Structures can be categorized in many ways. • For modeling and analysis purposes. Analysis and Design of Buildings AIT . the overall physical behavior can be used as basis of categorization – – – – – Cable or Tension Structures Skeletal or Framed Structures Surface or Spatial Structures Solid Structures Mixed Structures Modeling.

Plane Stress • Solid Structures AIT .Structure Types • Cable Structures • Cable Nets • Cable Stayed • Bar Structures • 2D/3D Trusses • 2D/3D Frames. Analysis and Design of Buildings . Shell • In-Plane. Grids • Surface Structures • Plate.Thailand ACECOMS Modeling.

Columns. plate element. • Physical Members can be modeled by using one or more “Conceptual Components” called Elements – 1D elements. • Modeling in terms Graphical Objects to represent Physical Components relieves the engineers from intricacies and idiosyncrasy of finite element discretization Modeling. shell element. Element • Structure can considered as an assemblage of “Physical Components” called Members – Slabs. 3D elements – Frame element. 2D element. etc. solid element.Thailand ACECOMS . Footings. Member. Analysis and Design of Buildings AIT . Beams.Structure. etc.

Thailand ACECOMS . Analysis and Design of Buildings AIT .Structural Members Modeling.

Thailand ACECOMS . Analysis and Design of Buildings AIT .Load Transfer Path For Gravity Loads • Most loads are basically “Volume Loads” generated due to mass contained in a volume • Mechanism and path must be found to transfer these loads to the “Supports” through a Medium • All types of Static Loads can be represented as: – Point Loads – Line Loads – Area Loads – Volume Loads Modeling.

The Load Transfer Path • The Load is transferred through a medium which may be: – – – – – A Point A Line An Area A Volume A system consisting of combination of several mediums • The supports may be represented as: – – – – Point Supports Line Supports Area Supports Volume Supports AIT . Analysis and Design of Buildings .Thailand ACECOMS Modeling.

Analysis and Design of Buildings AIT .Graphic Object Representation Object Load Point Load Concentrated Load Geometry Medium Node Support Boundary Point Support Column Support Point Line Area Volume Beam Load Wall Load Slab Load Slab Load Wind Load Seismic Load Liquid Load Beam / Truss Connection Element Spring Element Plate Element Shell Element Panel/ Plane Solid Element Line Support Wall Support Beam Support Soil Support Soil Support ETABS uses graphic object modeling concept Modeling.Thailand ACECOMS .

Thailand ACECOMS . Area Line Point Line Line Area Volume Area Volume Medium Boundary Modeling. Analysis and Design of Buildings AIT .Load Transfer Path is difficult to Determine • Complexity of Load Transfer Mechanism depend on: – Complexity of Load – Complexity of Medium – Complexity of Boundary Load Vol.

Thailand ACECOMS . Analysis and Design of Buildings AIT .Load Transfer Path is difficult to Determine Point Line Area Volume Transfer of a Point Load to Point Supports Through Various Mediums Modeling.

Analysis and Design of Buildings AIT .Objects in ETABS • Building Object Specific Classification – – – – – – – – – – Plank – One way slabs Slab – One way or Two way slabs Deck – Special one way slabs Wall – Shear Walls.Thailand ACECOMS . Deep Beams. Beam or Brace Shell Plate Membrane Beam Node • Finite Elements Modeling. In-Fill Panel Frame – Column.

Thailand ACECOMS Modeling. Analysis and Design of Buildings . in Local Coordinate System 2 1 2 1 +V2 2 +M2 +P 2 3 +T 3 +V3 +M3 +V3 +P 3 +M3 3 +V2 +T +M2 AIT .The Frame Element • The Actions Corresponding to Six DOF at Both Ends.

Analysis and Design of Buildings AIT . But not used generally Modeling.Shell Element General •Total DOF per Node = 6 (or 5) •Total Displacements per Node = 3 •Total Rotations per Node = 3 •Used for curved surfaces Application •For Modeling surface elements carrying general loads Building Specific Application •May be used for modeling of general slabs systems.Thailand ACECOMS .

Analysis and Design of Buildings AIT .Plate Element General •Total DOF per Node = 3 •Total Displacements per Node = 1 •Total Rotations per Node = 2 •Plates are for flat surfaces Application •For Modeling surface elements carrying out of plane loads Building Specific Application •For representing floor slabs for Vertical Load Analysis •Model slabs Modeling.Thailand ACECOMS .

• Model Shear walls. Floor Diaphragm etc AIT .Membrane Element General •Total DOF per Node = 3 (or 2) •Total Displacements per Node = 2 •Total Rotations per Node = 1 (or 0) •Membranes are modeled for flat surfaces Application •For Modeling surface elements carrying in-plane loads Building Specific Application •For representing floor slabs for Lateral Load Analysis.Thailand Modeling. Analysis and Design of Buildings ACECOMS .

Thailand ACECOMS .Meshing Slabs and Walls “Zipper” In general the mesh in the slab should match with mesh in the wall to establish connection Some software automatically establishes connectivity by using constraints or “Zipper” elements Modeling. Analysis and Design of Buildings AIT .

Thailand ACECOMS . Analysis and Design of Buildings AIT .Selection Of Structural Systems Basic Concepts and Considerations Modeling.

Common Sense Building Services Engineering En Ju gine Co dgem ering mm en on t an Se d ns e re ctu ite ch Ar So ftw are E ng in ee ri ng ms ste Sy ing er ine ng E Construction Engineering Structural System Selection Artificial Intelligence Ae sth e Ergo n Eng omics inee ring Structural Engineering En lue Va g rin ee gin tics Ec on om ics dge wle ing Kno ineer Eng Modeling. Value Eng.Knowledge Model for System Selection • • • • • • • • • • • • Architecture Building Services Construction Eng. Structural Eng. Aesthetics Ergonomics Eng. Analysis and Design of Buildings AIT .Thailand ACECOMS . Economics Artificial Intelligence System Eng. Knowledge Eng.

Analysis and Design of Buildings AIT .Determining System Suitability The Analytical Hierarchy Approach A weighted importance and suitability value analysis to determine the comparative value of a system or option Value of an Option Global Importance Weights and Scores Sub Importance Weights and Scores Suitability Value and Score Modeling.Thailand ACECOMS .

Analysis and Design of Buildings AIT .Thailand ACECOMS .q Cijkl Sijkl Cijnl Sijpl Cinkl Sinkl Cinnl Sinpl Smnpl Score Am Sub Criteria Bin Bmn Item p Score System Value (V) Item p Wt Score Item k Wt Score Item p Wt Score Modeling.Evaluating System Suitability The Suitability Equation Using the Suitability Equation Slab Systems Criteria Weights and Scores Main Criteria Ai Sub Criteria Bij Item k Wt System – 1 System – l System .

most desirable. suitable or desirable May not be important.2 0 Important. suitable or desirable Not important.Assigning Suitability Values Score or Weight Representation of Suitability 10 8.9 Most important.7 5 4.3 1. very suitable. essential Very important.Thailand ACECOMS . definitely not suitable. not desirable Definitely not required. Analysis and Design of Buildings AIT . most suitable. very desirable 6. not suitable. ignore Modeling. suitable or desirable May be or could be important.

Thailand ACECOMS . Analysis and Design of Buildings AIT .Selection of Structural System Function has considerable effect on the selection of structural system Based on Function/Occupancy of Tall Buildings: • Residential Buildings – Apartments – Hotels – Dormitories • Office and Commercial Buildings • Mixed Occupancy – Commercial + Residential • Industrial Buildings and Parking Garages Modeling.

Typical Characteristics of Residential Bldg • • • • • • • Known location of partitions and their load Column lines generally matches architectural layout Typical spans 15-22 ft Tall buildings economy in achieved using the thinnest slab One way pre-cast or flat slab – popular Lateral load resistance provided by frame or shear walls More or less fixed M/E system layouts Modeling.Thailand ACECOMS . Analysis and Design of Buildings AIT .

Thailand ACECOMS .Typical Characteristics of Office and Commercial Bldg • • • • Unknown location of partitions and their load Typical spans 20-35 ft Need for flexible M/E layouts Post-tension or ribbed and flat slab with drop panel – popular • Ideal balance between vertical and lateral load resisting systems: sufficient shear walls to limit the resultant tension under gravity plus wind • Lateral load resistance varies significantly Modeling. Analysis and Design of Buildings AIT .

Vertical Load Resisting Systems The Components Needed to Complete the Load-Transfer Path for Vertical Gravity Loads .

Thailand ACECOMS Modeling.Gravity Load Resisting Systems Purpose “ To Transfer Gravity Loads Applied at the Floor Levels down to the Foundation Level” • Direct Path Systems • Slab Supported on Load Bearing Walls • Slab Supported on Columns • Indirect Multi Path Systems • Slab Supported on Beams • Beams Supported on Other Beams • Beams Supported on Walls or Columns AIT . Analysis and Design of Buildings .

Vertical Load Resisting Systems 1.Thailand ACECOMS . Mat etc. lateral load resistance 2. Slabs supported on Long Rigid Supports – – – – – – Supported on stiff Beams or Walls One-way and Two-way Slabs Main consideration is flexural reinforcement Supported on Columns directly Flat Slab Floor systems Main consideration is shear transfer. Slabs supported on soil – – Slabs on Grade: Light. moment distribution in various parts. Heavy concentrated loads Modeling. Slab-System supported on Small Rigid Supports 3. uniformly distributed loads Footings. Analysis and Design of Buildings AIT .

Thailand ACECOMS .Vertical Load Behavior and Response Modeling. Analysis and Design of Buildings AIT .

Slab – Girder. Analysis and Design of Buildings AIT . Slab – Girder.Thailand ACECOMS .Popular Gravity Load Resting Systems • Direct Load Transfer Systems (Single load transfer path) – – – – Flat Slab and Flat Plate Beam-Slab Waffle Slab Wall Joist • Indirect Load Transfer System (Multi step load transfer path) – Beam. Beam. Joist Modeling.

Thailand Modeling. Triangular or Trapezoidal Load on Walls • For Beam Supported Slabs – Assume beams to support the slabs in similar ways as walls – Design slabs as edge supported on beams – Transfer load to beams and design beams for slab load • For Flat-Slabs or Columns Supported Slabs – Assume load transfer in strips directly to columns AIT . Analysis and Design of Buildings ACECOMS .Conventional Approach • For Wall Supported Slabs – Assume load transfer in One-Way or Two-Way manner – Uniform.

Analysis and Design of Buildings AIT .Thailand ACECOMS .Popular Gravity Load Resting Systems Modeling.

Thailand ACECOMS .Gravity Load Transfer Paths Single Path Slab On Walls Single Path Slab on Columns Dual Path Slab On Beams. Beams on Columns Modeling. Analysis and Design of Buildings AIT .

Gravity Load Transfer Paths Mixed Path Slab On Walls Slab On Beams Beams on Walls Complex Path Slab on Beams Slab on Walls Beams on Beams Beams on Columns Three Step Path Slab On Ribs Ribs On Beams Beams on Columns Modeling.Thailand ACECOMS . Analysis and Design of Buildings AIT .

Analysis and Design of Buildings AIT .Simplified Load Transfer To Lines To Points To Lines and Points Transfer of Area Load Modeling.Thailand ACECOMS .

Load Transfer Through Slab and Beam

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Slab Deformation and Beams

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Slab System Behavior

D B

Slab T = 200 mm Beam Width, B = 300 mm Beam Depth, D a) 300 mm b) 500 mm c) 1000 mm
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ACECOMS

Analysis and Design of Buildings b) Beam Depth = 500 mm AIT .Thailand ACECOMS .Moment Distribution in Beam-Slab Effect of Beam Size on Moment Distribution a) Beam Depth = 300 mm c) Beam Depth = 1000 mm Modeling.

Thailand ACECOMS .Moment Distribution in Slabs Only Effect of Beam Size on Moment Distribution a) Beam Depth = 300 mm b) Beam Depth = 500 mm c) Beam Depth = 1000 mm Modeling. Analysis and Design of Buildings AIT .

Thailand ACECOMS .Modeling and Analysis for Vertical Loads Modeling. Analysis and Design of Buildings AIT .

With columns” Model slab and beams for out-of plane loads Analyze un-symmetrical loads. Without columns” Slab analysis and design by using Coefficients Beam analysis as continuous beams Model slab/ beam for in-plane loads Model. Plate Model for the Floor 4.Thailand 2. AIT . Use “Direct Design” Methods – – – – – – – Model. analyze and design “Floor by Floor. geometry. Use Sub-Frame Concept 3. analyze and design “Floor by Floor. Analysis and Design of Buildings ACECOMS . Use full 3D Modeling Modeling.Modeling for Gravity Loads • Must be carried out for several load cases/ patterns • Does not change much for different floors 1. Use Grid. openings etc.

Analysis and Design of Buildings AIT .Thailand ACECOMS .The Design Strip Concept Middle Strip Design Strip Column Strip Middle Strip Design Strip Modeling.

Analysis and Design of Buildings .Thailand ACECOMS Modeling.Using Equivalent Frame Method – Design Strip Design Strip ½ Middle Strip Column Strip ½ Middle Strip Drop Panels Longitudinal Beams L2 L2 Transverse Beams L1 AIT .

Lateral Load Resisting Systems The Components Needed to Complete the Load-Transfer Path for Lateral Loads .

Lateral Load Bearing Systems Purpose “ To Transfer Lateral Loads Applied at any location in the structure down to the Foundation Level” • Single System • • • • Moment Resisting Frames Braced Frames Shear Walls Tubular Systems • Dual System • Shear Wall .Frames • Tube + Frame + Shear Wall AIT . Analysis and Design of Buildings .Thailand ACECOMS Modeling.

Thailand ACECOMS . Analysis and Design of Buildings AIT . liquid and material retention Modeling.Lateral Loads • Primary Lateral Loads – Load generated by Wind Pressure – Load generated due to Seismic Excitation • Other Lateral Loads – Load generated due to horizontal component of Gravity Loads in Inclined Systems and in Un-symmetrical structures – Load due to lateral soil pressure.

Sample Lateral Load Resistance Systems • Bearing wall system – Light frames with shear panels – Load bearing shear walls • Fully Braced System (FBS) – Shear Walls (SW) – Diagonal Bracing (DB) • Moment Resisting Frames (MRF) – Special Moment-Resisting Frames (SMRF) – Concrete Intermediate Moment-Resisting Frame (IMRF) – Ordinary Moment-Resisting Frame (OMRF) • Dual Systems (DS) – Shear Walls + Frames (SWF) – Ordinary Braced Frame (OBF) – Special Braced Frame (SBF) Modeling.Thailand ACECOMS . Analysis and Design of Buildings AIT .

Thailand ACECOMS . that produces moment in columns and in beams • The Beam-Column connection is crucial for the system to work • The moments and shear from later loads must be added to those from gravity loads Modeling.Moment Resisting Frame • The Load is transferred by shear in columns. Analysis and Design of Buildings AIT .

Thailand ACECOMS . in turn producing bending moment • The openings in wall become areas of high stress concentration and need to be handled carefully • Partial loads is resisted by the frames • Traditionally 75/25 distribution haws been used Modeling. Analysis and Design of Buildings AIT .Shear Wall and Frame • The lateral loads is primarily resisted by the shear in the walls.

Analysis and Design of Buildings AIT .Thailand ACECOMS . in turn producing bending moment.Shear Wall . • Partial loads is resisted by the frame members in moment and shear Modeling.Frame • The Walls are part of the frame and act together with the frame members • The lateral loads is primarily resisted by the shear in the walls.

Thailand ACECOMS . columns and beams in the braced zone. Analysis and Design of Buildings AIT . • The frame away from the braced zone does not have significant moments • Bracing does not have to be provided in every bay.Braced Frame • The lateral loads is primarily resisted by the Axial Force in the braces. but should be provided in every story Modeling.

Thailand ACECOMS .Tubular Structure • The system is formed by using closely spaced columns and deep spandrel beams • The lateral loads is primarily resisted by the entire building acting as a big cantilever with a tubular/ box cross-section • There is a “shear lag” problem between opposite faces of the tube due to in-efficiency of column beam connection • The height to width ratio should be more than 5 Modeling. Analysis and Design of Buildings AIT .

Analysis and Design of Buildings AIT .Braced Tube Systems • Diagonal Braces are added to the basic tubular structure • This modification of the Tubular System reduces shear lag between opposite faces Modeling.Thailand ACECOMS .

Response and Modeling .Lateral Load Resisting System Behavior.

Thailand ACECOMS . Analysis and Design of Buildings AIT . Full 3D Finite Element Model 4. 3D Frame Model 3. Rigid Diaphragm Model Modeling.Modeling for Lateral Loads 1. 2D Frame Models – – – – – – Convert building in to several 2D frames in each direction Suitable for symmetrical loads and geometry Make a 3D frame model of entire building structure Can be “open floor” model or “braced floor” model A full 3D Finite Element Model using plate and beam elements A special model suitable for buildings that uses the concept of Rigid Floor Diaphragm 2.

Analysis and Design of Buildings .Thailand ACECOMS Modeling. analyze and interpret – Fairly accurate for Gravity Load Analysis • Main Problems: – – – – Center of Stiffness and Center of Forces my not coincide Difficult to consider building torsional effects Several Frames may need to be modeled in each direction Difficult to model non-rectangular framing system AIT .Modeling as 2D Frame(s) • Convert 3D Building to an assemblage of 2D Frames – Using Independent Frames – Using Linked Frames – Using Sub-Structuring Concept • Advantages – Easier to model.

apply loads 4.Create a Simple 2D Model 2. Obtain results Modeling. Consider the Structure Plan and 3D View 3. Select and isolate Typical 2D Structure 1. Analysis and Design of Buildings AIT .Thailand ACECOMS . Discretize the Model.

Analysis and Design of Buildings . AIT . It has moment discontinuity at both ends Link Element act as a member which links the forces of one frame to another frame.Thailand ACECOMS Typical Frame Elevation Modeling. representing the effect of Rigid Floor.Using Linked Frames F1 Linked Elements Shear Wall F2 F3 Modeling Plan F1 F2 F3 Link Element can allow only to transmit the shear and axial force from one end to other end.

Full 3D Finite Element Model • The columns and beams are modeled by using beam elements • The slabs and shear walls are modeled by using plate elements – At least 9 or 16 elements in each slab panel must be used if gravity loads are applied to the slabs – If the model is only for lateral analysis. one element per slab panel may be sufficient to model the inplane stiffness – Shear walls may be modeled by plate or panel or plane stress element. Analysis and Design of Buildings AIT . The out of plane bending is not significant Modeling.Thailand ACECOMS .

Full 3D Finite Element Model Example: – Uses more than 4000 beam and plate elements – Suitable for analysis for gravity and lateral loads – Results can be used for design of columns and beams – Slab reinforcement difficult to determine from plate results Modeling. Analysis and Design of Buildings AIT .Thailand ACECOMS .

Plane Stress Use Diagonal Bracing • Use Diagonals – In 3D Frame Models • Use Conceptual Rigid Diaphragm – Link Frames in 2D – Master DOF in 3D – Use Approximately Use Plate Elements Modeling. Analysis and Design of Buildings AIT .Thailand ACECOMS .Modeling of Floor Diaphragm • Use Plate Elements – Panels.

3D Frames and Shear Walls). Analysis and Design of Buildings AIT .Thailand ACECOMS .The Rigid Floor Diaphragm • Combines the simplicity and advantages of the 2D Frame models with the accuracy of the 3D models • Basic Concept: – The building structure is represented by vertical units (2D Frames. connected by the invisible rigid diaphragm – The lateral movement of all vertical units are connected to three master degree of freedom – This takes into account the building rotation and its effect on the vertical units. – The modeling and analysis is greatly simplified and made efficient Modeling.

but they need not have same number of stories Modeling. so flexural influence of all floors to lateral stiff ness is neglected • All column lines of all frames at particular level can not deform independent of each other • The floor levels of all frames must be at the same elevation and base line. Analysis and Design of Buildings AIT .Thailand ACECOMS .Rigid Floor Diaphragm Concept • Modeled as Rigid Horizontal Plane of infinite in-plane stiffness (in X-Y plane) • Assumed to have a hinge connection with frame member or shear wall.

Analysis and Design of Buildings AIT .f. 1 rq UL3 X UL2 UL1 rY F3 .o.Thailand ACECOMS . 2 F2 . 3 rx F3 . 1 Local Frame DOF Modeling.’s UL Y F1 .How RFD Concept Works Building d.

Thailand ACECOMS . Analysis and Design of Buildings AIT .When Single Rigid Floor Cannot be Used Modeling.

Automatic Floor Meshing and Auto Load Transfer (In ETABS) Modeling.Thailand ACECOMS . Analysis and Design of Buildings AIT .

Thailand ACECOMS . Analysis and Design of Buildings AIT .Area Objects: Slab By default uses two-way load transfer mechanism Simple RC solid slab Can also be used to model one way slabs Modeling.

Area Object: Deck Use one-way load transfer mechanism Metallic Composite Slabs Includes shear studs Generally used in association with composite beams Deck slabs may be o Filled Deck o Unfilled Deck o Solid Slab Deck Modeling. Analysis and Design of Buildings AIT .Thailand ACECOMS .

Analysis and Design of Buildings AIT .Area Object: Plank By default use one-way load transfer mechanism Generally used to model pre-cast slabs Can also be simple RC solid slab Modeling.Thailand ACECOMS .

Thailand ACECOMS . Analysis and Design of Buildings AIT .Automatic Floor Meshing First step to Auto Load Transfer Modeling.

Basic Floor Modeling Object • Points – Columns – Load Points – Boundary Point • Lines – Beams • Areas – – – – Deck: Represents a Steel Metal Deck.Thailand ACECOMS . One way Load Transfer Plank : Represents clearly on-way slab portion Slab: Represents one-way or two-way slab portion Opening: Represents Openings in Floor Modeling. Analysis and Design of Buildings AIT .

Automatic Meshing • ETABS automatically meshes all line objects with frame section properties into the analysis model • ETABS meshes all floor type (horizontal) area objects (deck or slab) into the analysis model • Meshing does not change the number of objects in the model • To mesh line objects with section properties use Edit menu > Divide Lines • To mesh area objects with section properties use Edit menu > Mesh Areas Modeling.Thailand ACECOMS . Analysis and Design of Buildings AIT .

– Line objects assigned link properties are never automatically meshed into the analysis model by ETABS – ETABS automatically meshes (divides) the braces at the point where they cross in the analysis model – No end releases are introduced. Analysis and Design of Buildings AIT .Thailand ACECOMS . Modeling.Automatic Meshing • Automatic Meshing of Line Objects – Frame elements are meshed at locations where other frame elements attach to or cross them and at locations where point objects lie on them.

Thailand ACECOMS . Analysis and Design of Buildings AIT .Automatic Meshing of Line Objects Girder A Piece 1 Beam 1 Piece 2 Beam 2 Piece 3 Beam 1 Girder B a) Floor Plan Example showing how beams are automatically divided (meshed) where they support other beams for the ETABS analysis model Beam 2 b) Girders A and B As Modeled in the ETABS Analysis Model Modeling.

– Each column is assumed to have four beams connecting to it – The floor is broken up at all walls and all real and imaginary beams to create a mesh of four-sided elements Modeling.Thailand ACECOMS . Analysis and Design of Buildings AIT .Automatic Meshing of Area Objects – ETABS automatically meshes a floor-type area object up into foursided (quadrilateral) elements – Each side of each element of the mesh has a beam (Real or Imaginary) or wall running along it – ETABS treats a wall like two columns and a beam where the columns are located at the ends of the wall and the beam connects the columns.

Automatic Meshing of Area Objects Girder A Girder A Beam 1 Beam 2 Beam 3 Beam 1 Beam 2 Girder B a) Floor Plan Girder B b) ETABS Imaginary Beams Shown Dashed c) ETABS Automatic Floor Meshing Example of ETABS automatically generated mesh for floor-type area objects Beam 3 Modeling.Thailand ACECOMS . Analysis and Design of Buildings AIT .

Analysis and Design of Buildings AIT .Automatic Meshing of Area Objects Example of ETABS automatically generated mesh for floor-type area objects a) Floor Plan (No Beams) b) ETABS Imaginary Beams Connecting Columns Shown Dashed c) ETABS Imaginary Beams Extended to Edge of Floor Shown Dashed d) ETABS Automatic Floor Meshing Modeling.Thailand ACECOMS .

Thailand ACECOMS .Automatic Meshing of Area Objects – For floors that are automatically meshed by ETABS it is recommended that model beams (or at least null-type line objects) are connecting columns rather than no beams (or line objects) – This makes the automatic meshing for the analysis model cleaner. faster and more predictable – Including beams and/or null-type line objects between all columns in your model makes automatic floor meshing more predictable Modeling. Analysis and Design of Buildings AIT .

Automatic Meshing of Area Objects C4 C3 C4 C3 C4 C3 Illustration of how ETABS creates the distribution of imaginary beams C1 a) C4 C2 C1 b) C4 C2 C1 c) C4 C2 C3 C3 C3 C1 d) C4 C2 C1 e) C4 C2 C1 f) C4 C2 C3 C3 C3 C1 g) C2 C1 h) C2 C1 i) C2 Modeling.Thailand ACECOMS . Analysis and Design of Buildings AIT .

Thailand ACECOMS .Automatic Transformation and Transfer of Floor Loads to Appropriate Elements (Using the Auto Meshed Geometry) Modeling. Analysis and Design of Buildings AIT .

Analysis and Design of Buildings AIT .Load Transformation The main issue: How point loads.Thailand ACECOMS . line loads and area loads that lie on an area object in your object-based ETABS model are represented in the analysis model There are four distinct types of load transformation in ETABS for out-of-plane load transformation for floor-type area objects • • • • with deck section properties with slab section properties that have membrane behavior only all other types of area objects In-plane load transformation for all types of area objects Modeling.

Load Transformation Area Objects – load transformation occurs after any automatic meshing into the analysis model – ETABS normalizes the coordinates of the four corner points of the area object – The normalization is the key assumption in this method (-1. Analysis and Design of Buildings Example of transfer of out-of-plane loads for other area objects AIT . 1) 2 (r. 1) 2 1 r e4 Edg Edg Edge 1 Edge 1 e4 2 1 s 2 1 r e2 Ed g 4 3 Ed g Edge 3 e2 Edge 3 4 b) The r and s Axes s (-1. -1) 3 (1. -1) – It is a perfectly valid assumption if the quadrilateral is a square. rectangular or a parallelogram c) Corner Point r-s Coordinates d) Point Load. P  Modeling. -1) 3 3 a) Quadrilateral Element s (-1. 1) 4 (1. s) P 4 1 r (1. 1) (1.Thailand ACECOMS . -1) (-1.

Thailand ACECOMS .Load Transformation • The load distribution for deck sections is one way. Analysis and Design of Buildings AIT . in contrast to slab sections which are assumed to span in two directions • ETABS first automatically meshes the deck into quadrilateral elements • Once the meshing is complete ETABS determines the meshed shell elements that have real beams along them and those that have imaginary beams • It also determines which edges of the meshed shell elements are also edges of the deck. Modeling.

it is ignored by ETABS x Edge 3 Direction of deck span Edge 4 Edge 2 Edge 4 x/2 Edge 3 x/2 wx / 2 Edge 2 c) Loading on Edges 2 and 4 Uniform load = w Edge 1 a) Rectangular Interior Element of Meshed Floor Edge 1 b) Distribution of Uniform Load Example of rectangular interior meshed element with a uniform load Modeling. Analysis and Design of Buildings AIT .Thailand ACECOMS . that is. then the load from the imaginary beam tributary to that end point is lost.Load Transformation Rectangular Interior Meshed Element with Uniform Load If the supporting member at the end point of an imaginary beam is itself imaginary.

Load Transformation Rectangular Interior Meshed Element with Point Load – ETABS distributes the point load to the appropriate edge beams (based on the direction of the deck span) – If the beams along edges are real beams ETABS transfers the load onto adjacent beams If the supporting member at the end point of an imaginary beam is itself imaginary. then the load from the imaginary beam tributary to that end point is lost. Analysis and Design of Buildings AIT .Thailand ACECOMS . it is ignored by ETABS x1 x2 Edge 3 Direction of deck span Edge 4 P P * x1 x1 + x2 Edge 2 x2 P * x1 x1 + x2 d) Loading on Edge 4 c) Loading on Edge 2 P * x2 x1 + x2 Point load. P Edge 2 Edge 4 x1 P * x2 Edge 1 a) Rectangular Interior Element of Meshed Floor x1 + x2 b) Distribution of Point Load Modeling. that is.

Analysis and Design of Buildings AIT .Load Transformation Rectangular Interior Meshed Element with Line Load – A line load is transformed in a similar fashion to that for a point load using a numerical integration technique – The line load is discredited as a series of point loads which are transformed to surrounding beams – The series of point loads is then converted back to a line load on the surrounding beams – An area load that does not cover the entire element is also transformed in a similar fashion to that for a point load using a numerical integration technique.Thailand ACECOMS . Modeling.

Thailand 2 Edge 4 4 ACECOMS Edge Midpoint 4 4 4 2 .General Interior Meshed Element 3 Edge Uniform load Edge 3 Edge 3 2 2 Edge Edge Edge Edge Edge Direction of deck span Midpoint Edge 3 P3 2 Edge 3 Edge Line 3 P3 Edge Edge 1 a) General Interior Element of Meshed Floor Deck b) Edge 1 c) Edge 1 Edge P2 P1 Edge 1 P2 P1 Line 2 Line 1 2 Edge 4 4 3 Edge Edge 3 2 Edge Edge Edge 1 a) General Interior Element of Meshed Floor Deck b) Edge 1 d) Edge Edge 1 e) Transformation of Uniform Load f) Loading on Edge 1 Example of general interior meshed element with a point load g) Loading on Edge 2 h) Loading on Edge 3 i) Loading on Edge 4 Example of general interior meshed element with a uniform load Modeling. Analysis and Design of Buildings AIT .

Exterior Meshed Element Example of exterior meshed elements with real beams on all sides Edge of deck is at center of spandrel beam. typical in this example Beam 1b Beam 1a Beam 1b Beam 2b D E Beam 2b F Beam 2a A B Beam 2a C a) Floor Plan b) Deck Meshing A B C No beam at edge of deck Beam 4a Beam 4b a) Floor Plan b) Deck Meshing Modeling.Thailand ACECOMS Imaginary Beam 5 Example of exterior meshed elements with cantilever beams extending to edge of deck Beam 1b Beam 2b Beam 1b Beam 2b D Beam 3a E Beam 3a Beam 3b Beam 3b Beam 1a Beam 2a Beam 1a Imaginary Beam 6 No beam at edge of deck . Analysis and Design of Buildings AIT .

Analysis and Design of Buildings AIT .Exterior Meshed Element Imagin ary Be am 7 Beam 1b Beam 3a Beam 2b Beam 3b Beam 1b No beam at edge of deck D Beam 3a E Beam 3b A B C No beam at edge of deck a) Floor Plan b) Deck Meshing D Imagin ary Be am 8 E2 Example of exterior meshed elements with cantilever beams extending to edge of a skewed deck Imaginary Beam 5 Beam 1a Beam 2a Beam 1a Beam 2a ImaginaryBeam 6 Imagin ary Be am 8 Beam 2b Beam 2b a Imagin ry Bea m7 Beam 1b D Beam 3a E1 Beam 3b c) Condition at Skewed Deck Edge (Areas D and E) Modeling.Thailand ACECOMS ImaginaryBeam 6 .

Analysis and Design of Buildings AIT .Exterior Meshed Element Edge of deck D Beam 1 Column 1 Beam 1 E Column 1 Beam 2 A B Beam 2 C a) Floor Plan b) Deck Meshing Example of exterior meshed elements with overhanging slab Modeling.Thailand ACECOMS .

Thailand ACECOMS . Analysis and Design of Buildings AIT .Exterior Meshed Element G Beam 2b Beam 2b H E F Beam 3b Beam 3a I J Beam 1a Beam 1b Beam 1a Beam 1b D Beam 2a Beam 2a A B C K a) Floor Plan b) Deck Meshing Example of exterior meshed elements with overhanging slab Modeling.

e and f which are loading diagrams for Beam 1. 4' 6' 14' 0.6 klf Example of effect of openings on distribution of load over deck sections 4' 6' 0. Opening is either loaded or unloaded as noted in c. loaded opening 0.1 klf 1. Analysis and Design of Buildings AIT . unloaded opening 0. d.6 klf 1.2 klf Beam 1 2' c) Unframed.7k 0.6 klf 0.5k 0.5k 0.7k 0. loaded opening Modeling.1 klf 0.Thailand ACECOMS .Effect of Deck Openings 4' 6' 14' Note: Assume floor loading is 100 psf. unloaded opening a) Floor Plan with Unframed Opening 4' 6' 14' d) Unframed.6 klf 6' e) Framed.6 klf 2' 4' Beam 1 b) Floor Plan with Framed Opening (Beams on all Sides) f) Framed.

Thailand ACECOMS .Load Transformation Vertical Load Transformation for Floors with Membrane Slab Properties – only applies to floor-type area objects with slab section properties that have membrane behavior only – The load distribution for membrane slab sections is two way – The actual distribution of loads on these elements is quite complex – ETABS uses the concept of tributary loads as a simplifying assumption for transforming the loads Modeling. Analysis and Design of Buildings AIT .

Analysis and Design of Buildings .Thailand ACECOMS 3 4 3 Modeling.1 1 3 3 1 1 midpoints 1 h) Real beams on two adjacent sides plus one vertical support element at corner point 1 i) Real beam on one side plus two vertical support elements at corner points Floors with Membrane Slab Properties g) Real beam on one side plus one vertical support element at corner point 4 4 1 3 2 1 3 3 4 4 1 1 a) Real beams on all sides 2 2 3 3 1 2 2 3 3 2 2 1 1 c) Case 2 of real beams on three sides 3 3 3 1 2 1 2 l) Vertical support elements at two adjacent corner points (no real beams) 2 1 b) Case 1 of real beams on three sides 2 2 1 2 j) Vertical support elements at all corner points (no real beams) 2 1 2 k) Vertical support elements at three corner points (no real beams) 2 2 1 1 d) Real beams on two adjacent sides 2 midpoint 1 1 2 2 3 3 1 g) Real beam on one side plus one vertical support element at corner point 4 3 1 h) Real beams on two adjacent sides plus one vertical support element at corner point 3 1 1 1 e) Real beams on two opposite sides 2 1 1 f) Real beam on one side 3 3 2 midpoints 2 1 2 1 Real beam at shell edge 1 n) Vertical support elements at one corner point (no real beams) No beam at shell edge Tributary area dividing line Vertical support element Legend 1 m)Vertical support elements at two opposite corner points (no real beams) 1 i) Real beam on one side plus two vertical support elements at corner points Tributary areas for various conditions of a membrane slab AIT .

Floors with Membrane Slab Properties 3 3 4 4 1 1 a) Full uniform load transformation 3 3 4 4 1 1 c) Line load transformation 2 2 4 4 1 1 d) Point load transformation 2 2 4 4 1 1 b) Partial uniform load transformation 3 3 2 2 3 3 2 2 Example of load distribution on a membrane slab Modeling.Thailand ACECOMS . Analysis and Design of Buildings AIT .

Type of Slab Systems in SAFE Modeling. Analysis and Design of Buildings AIT .Thailand ACECOMS .

0 Column Layout Plan Modeling.Thailand ACECOMS . Analysis and Design of Buildings AIT .0 5.8 4.5 5.8 2.0 4 6.0 4.0 4.5 4.The 5-Story Walkup Flats A B C D E F G 6 5 6.0 3 2 1 2.

0 5.8 2.Thailand ACECOMS .15 4 B1 6.0 4.0 C1 C1= 0.8 C2 = 0.0 Slab and Beam Layout Modeling.5 S1 = 0.5 5.0 3 2 1 B2 2. Analysis and Design of Buildings AIT .0 4.4 B1 = 0.25 x 0.5 4.3 x 0.3 x 0.The 5-Story Walkup Flats A 6 5 B C D E F G C2 6.4 B2 = 0.8 4.25 x 0.

0 6 5 4 3 2 1 Section Modeling.0 3.Thailand ACECOMS . Analysis and Design of Buildings AIT .5 2.0 3.0 3.0 3.The 5-Story Walkup Flats 3.

0 1 A Plan Typical Floor (B1.0 4 8.0 F 6. B2.0 2 7.0 B 6.0 3 8.35 Story Office Building 5 7.0 G AIT . Analysis and Design of Buildings .Thailand ACECOMS Modeling.0 C 8.0 E 6. 4-35) 6.0 D 8.

Thailand ACECOMS Modeling.0 E 6.0 C 8.0 G AIT .0 2 7.0 4 8.0 1 A Plan Floor 1-2 6. Analysis and Design of Buildings .35 Story Office Building 5 7.0 B 6.0 F 6.0 3 8.0 D 8.

0 F 6.0 D 8. Analysis and Design of Buildings .0 C 8.0 E 6.0 1 A Plan Floor 3 6.Thailand ACECOMS Modeling.0 3 8.0 2 7.0 G AIT .0 B 6.35 Story Office Building 5 7.0 4 8.

Analysis and Design of Buildings 2 @ 2.8 4 3 2 1 AIT .35 Story Office Building 32 @ 3.5 2 @ 5.Thailand ACECOMS .0 Section at C and D 5 Modeling.

5 2 @ 5. Analysis and Design of Buildings 2 @ 2.35 Story Office Building 32 @ 3.0 Section at B and E 5 Modeling.8 4 3 2 1 AIT .Thailand ACECOMS .

8 4 3 2 1 AIT .5 2 @ 5.Thailand ACECOMS .35 Story Office Building 32 @ 3.0 Section at A and G 5 Modeling. Analysis and Design of Buildings 2 @ 2.

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