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Presented by
Sharon Shen
UMBC
Overview
Introduction to Video/Image Compression
DWT Concepts
Compression algorithms using DWT
DWT vs. DCT
DWT Drawbacks
Future image compression standard
References
Need for Compression
Transmission and storage of uncompressed
video would be extremely costly and
impractical.
Frame with 352x288 contains 202,752 bytes of information
Recoding of uncompressed version of this video at 15 frames
per second would require 3 MB. One minute180 MB
storage. One 24hour day262 GB
Using compression, 15 frames/second for 24 hour1.4 GB,
187 days of video could be stored using the same disk space
that uncompressed video would use in one day
Principles of Compression
Spatial Correlation
Redundancy among neighboring pixels
Spectral Correlation
Redundancy among different color planes
Temporal Correlation
Redundancy between adjacent frames in a
sequence of image
Classification of Compression
Lossless vs. Lossy Compression
Lossless
Digitally identical to the original image
Only achieve a modest amount of compression
Lossy
Discards components of the signal that are known to be
redundant
Signal is therefore changed from input
Achieving much higher compression under normal viewing
conditions no visible loss is perceived (visually lossless)
Predictive vs. Transform coding
Classification of Compression
Predictive coding
Information already received (in transmission) is used
to predict future values
Difference between predicted and actual is stored
Easily implemented in spatial (image) domain
Example: Differential Pulse Code Modulation(DPCM)
Classification of Compression
Transform Coding
Transform signal from spatial domain to other space
using a wellknown transform
Encode signal in new domain (by string coefficients)
Higher compression, in general than predictive, but
requires more computation (apply quantization)
Subband Coding
Split the frequency band of a signal in various
subbands
Classification of Compression
Subband Coding (cont.)
The filters used in subband coding are known as
quadrature mirror filter(QMF)
Use octave tree decomposition of an image data into
various frequency subbands.
The output of each decimated subbands quantized
and encoded separately
Discrete Wavelet Transform
The wavelet transform (WT) has gained widespread
acceptance in signal processing and image compression.
Because of their inherent multiresolution nature,
waveletcoding schemes are especially suitable for
applications where scalability and tolerable degradation
are important
Recently the JPEG committee has released its new image
coding standard, JPEG2000, which has been based
upon DWT.
Discrete Wavelet Transform
Wavelet transform decomposes a signal into a set of
basis functions.
These basis functions are called wavelets
Wavelets are obtained from a single prototype wavelet
y(t) called mother wavelet by dilations and shifting:
(1)
where a is the scaling parameter and b is the shifting
parameter
) (
1
) (
,
a
b t
a
t
b a
÷
= ¢ ¢
Discrete Wavelet Transform
Theory of WT
The wavelet transform is computed separately for different
segments of the timedomain signal at different frequencies.
Multiresolution analysis: analyzes the signal at different
frequencies giving different resolutions
MRA is designed to give good time resolution and poor
frequency resolution at high frequencies and good frequency
resolution and poor time resolution at low frequencies
Good for signal having high frequency components for short
durations and low frequency components for long duration.e.g.
images and video frames
Discrete Wavelet Transform
Theory of WT (cont.)
Wavelet transform decomposes a signal into a set of basis
functions.
These basis functions are called wavelets
Wavelets are obtained from a single prototype wavelet y(t) called
mother wavelet by dilations and shifting:
(1)
where a is the scaling parameter and b is the shifting
parameter
) (
1
) (
,
a
b t
a
t
b a
÷
= ¢ ¢
Discrete Wavelet Transform
The 1D wavelet transform is given by :
Discrete Wavelet Transform
The inverse 1D wavelet transform is given
by:
Discrete Wavelet Transform
Discrete wavelet transform (DWT), which transforms a discrete
time signal to a discrete wavelet representation.
it converts an input series x
0
, x
1
, ..x
m
, into one highpass wavelet
coefficient series and one lowpass wavelet coefficient series (of
length n/2 each) given by:
Discrete Wavelet Transform
where s
m
(Z) and t
m
(Z) are called wavelet filters, K is the length of the
filter, and i=0, ..., [n/2]1.
In practice, such transformation will be applied recursively on the
lowpass series until the desired number of iterations is reached.
Discrete Wavelet Transform
Lifting schema of DWT has been recognized as a faster
approach
The basic principle is to factorize the polyphase
matrix of a wavelet filter into a sequence of
alternating upper and lower triangular matrices and
a diagonal matrix .
This leads to the wavelet implementation by means of
bandedmatrix multiplications
Discrete Wavelet Transform
Two Lifting schema:
Discrete Wavelet Transform
where s
i
(z) (primary lifting steps) and t
i
(z) (dual lifting steps) are filters
and K is a constant.
As this factorization is not unique, several {s
i
(z)}, {t
i
(z)} and K are
admissible.
Discrete Wavelet Transform
2D DWT for Image
Discrete Wavelet Transform
Discrete Wavelet Transform
2D DWT for Image
Discrete Wavelet Transform
Integer DWT
A more efficient approach to lossless compression
Whose coefficients are exactly represented by finite
precision numbers
Allows for truly lossless encoding
IWT can be computed starting from any real valued
wavelet filter by means of a straightforward modification
of the lifting schema
Be able to reduce the number of bits for the sample
storage (memories, registers and etc.) and to use simpler
filtering units.
Discrete Wavelet Transform
Integer DWT (cont.)
Discrete Wavelet Transform
Compression algorithms using DWT
Embedded zerotree (EZW)
Use DWT for the decomposition of an image at each level
Scans wavelet coefficients subband by subband in a zigzag
manner
Set partitioning in hierarchical trees (SPHIT)
Highly refined version of EZW
Perform better at higher compression ratio for a wide
variety of images than EZW
Discrete Wavelet Transform
Compression algorithms using DWT (cont.)
Zerotree entropy (ZTE)
Quantized wavelet coefficients into wavelet trees to reduce
the number of bits required to represent those trees
Quantization is explicit instead of implicit, make it possible to
adjust the quantization according to where the transform
coefficient lies and what it represents in the frame
Coefficient scanning, tree growing, and coding are done in
one pass
Coefficient scanning is a depth first traversal of each tree
Discrete Wavelet Transform
DWT vs. DCT
Discrete Wavelet Transform
Disadvantages of DCT
Only spatial correlation of the pixels inside the single
2D block is considered and the correlation from the
pixels of the neighboring blocks is neglected
Impossible to completely decorrelate the blocks at
their boundaries using DCT
Undesirable blocking artifacts affect the
reconstructed images or video frames. (high
compression ratios or very low bit rates)
Discrete Wavelet Transform
Disadvantages of DCT(cont.)
Scaling as addonadditional effort
DCT function is fixedcan not be adapted to source
data
Does not perform efficiently for binary images (fax or
pictures of fingerprints) characterized by large
periods of constant amplitude (low spatial
frequencies), followed by brief periods of sharp
transitions
Discrete Wavelet Transform
Advantages of DWT over DCT
No need to divide the input coding into nonoverlapping 2D
blocks, it has higher compression ratios avoid blocking
artifacts.
Allows good localization both in time and spatial frequency
domain.
Transformation of the whole image introduces inherent
scaling
Better identification of which data is relevant to human
perception higher compression ratio
Discrete Wavelet Transform
Advantages of DWT over DCT (cont.)
Higher flexibility: Wavelet function can be freely chosen
No need to divide the input coding into nonoverlapping 2
D blocks, it has higher compression ratios avoid blocking
artifacts.
Transformation of the whole image introduces inherent
scaling
Better identification of which data is relevant to human
perception higher compression ratio (64:1 vs. 500:1)
Discrete Wavelet Transform
Performance
Peak Signal to Noise ratio used to be a measure of image
quality
The PSNR between two images having 8 bits per pixel or sample
in terms of decibels (dBs) is given by:
PSNR = 10 log
10
mean square error (MSE)
Generally when PSNR is 40 dB or greater, then the original and
the reconstructed images are virtually indistinguishable by
human observers


.

\

MSE
2
255
Discrete Wavelet Transform
Improvement in PSNR using DWTJEPG over DCTJEPG at S = 4
PSNR Difference vs. Bit rate
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6
Bit rate (bps)
P
S
N
R
d
i
f
f
.
(
d
B
s
)
DWTJPEG
Discrete Wavelet Transform
Discrete Wavelet Transform
images.
Compression ratios used for 8bit 512x512
Lena image.
8
16
32
64
128
PSNR (dBs) performance of baseline JPEG
using on Lena image.
38.00
35.50
31.70
22.00
2.00
PSNR (dBs) performance of Zerotree
coding using arithmetic coding on Lena
image.
39.80
37.00
34.50
33.00
29.90
PSNR (dBs) performance of biorthogonal
filter bank using VLC on Lena image.
35.00
34.00
32.50
28.20
26.90
PSNR (dBs) performance of biorthogonal
filter bank using FLC on Lena image.
33.90
32.80
31.70
27.70
26.20
PSNR (dBs) performance of W6 filter bank
using VLC on Lena image.
33.60
32.00
30.90
27.00
25.90
PSNR (dBs) performance of W6 filter bank
using FLC on Lena image.
29.60
29.00
27.50
25.00
23.90
Comparison of image compression results using DCT and DWT
Discrete Wavelet Transform
Visual Comparison
(a) (b) (c)
(a) Original Image256x256Pixels, 24BitRGB (b) JPEG (DCT)
Compressed with compression ratio 43:1(c) JPEG2000 (DWT)
Compressed with compression ratio 43:1
Discrete Wavelet Transform
Implementation Complexity
The complexity of calculating wavelet transform depends on the
length of the wavelet filters, which is at least one multiplication
per coefficient.
EZW, SPHIT use floatingpoint demands longer data length
which increase the cost of computation
Lifting schemea new method compute DWT using integer
arithmetic
DWT has been implemented in hardware such as ASIC and
FPGA
Discrete Wavelet Transform
Resources of the ASIC used and data processing rates for DCT
and DWT encoders
Type of
encoders
using
ASIC
No. of
Logic
gates of
the ASIC
used
Amount of on
chip RAM
used by the
encoders
Data
processing
rates of the
encoders
using ASIC
DCT
34000
128 byte
210 MSa/sec
DWT
55000
55 kbyte
150 MSa/sec
Discrete Wavelet Transform
Number of logic gates
No. of logic gates used vs. Compression
technique
0
20000
40000
60000
DCT DWT
Compression technique
N
o
.
o
f
l
o
g
i
c
g
a
t
e
s
u
s
e
d
No. of logic gates
used
Discrete Wavelet Transform
Processing Rate
Discrete Wavelet Transform
Disadvantages of DWT
The cost of computing DWT as compared to DCT
may be higher.
The use of larger DWT basis functions or wavelet
filters produces blurring and ringing noise near edge
regions in images or video frames
Longer compression time
Lower quality than JPEG at low compression rates
Discrete Wavelet Transform
Future video/image compression
Improved low bitrate compression performance
Improved lossless and lossy compression
Improved continuoustone and bilevel compression
Be able to compress large images
Use single decompression architecture
Transmission in noisy environments
Robustness to biterrors
Progressive transmission by pixel accuracy and resolution
Protective image security
Discrete Wavelet Transform
References
http://www.ii.metu.edu.tr/em2003/EM2003_presentations/DSD/b
enderli.pdf
http://www.etro.vub.ac.be/Members/munteanu.adrian/_private/
Conferences/WaveletLosslessCompression_IWSSIP1998.pdf
http://www.vlsi.ee.upatras.gr/~sklavos/Papers02/DSP02_JPEG2
00.pdf
http://www.vlsilab.polito.it/Articles/mwscas00.pdf
M. Martina, G. Masera , A novel VLSI architecture for integer
wavelet transform via lifting scheme, Internal report, VLSI Lab.,
Politecnico diTor i no, Jan. 2000, unpublished.
http://www.ee.vt.edu/~ha/research/publications/islped01.pdf
Discrete Wavelet Transform
THANK YOU !
Q & A
Overview
Introduction to Video/Image Compression DWT Concepts Compression algorithms using DWT DWT vs. DCT DWT Drawbacks Future image compression standard References
Need for Compression
Transmission and storage of uncompressed video would be extremely costly and impractical.
Frame with 352x288 contains 202,752 bytes of information Recoding of uncompressed version of this video at 15 frames per second would require 3 MB. One minute180 MB storage. One 24hour day262 GB Using compression, 15 frames/second for 24 hour1.4 GB, 187 days of video could be stored using the same disk space that uncompressed video would use in one day
Principles of Compression
Spatial Correlation
Redundancy among neighboring pixels Redundancy among different color planes Redundancy between adjacent frames in a sequence of image
Spectral Correlation
Temporal Correlation
Lossy Compression Lossless Digitally identical to the original image Only achieve a modest amount of compression Lossy Discards components of the signal that are known to be redundant Signal is therefore changed from input Achieving much higher compression under normal viewing conditions no visible loss is perceived (visually lossless) Predictive vs.Classification of Compression Lossless vs. Transform coding .
Classification of Compression Predictive coding Information already received (in transmission) is used to predict future values Difference between predicted and actual is stored Easily implemented in spatial (image) domain Example: Differential Pulse Code Modulation(DPCM) .
in general than predictive. but requires more computation (apply quantization) Split the frequency band of a signal in various subbands Subband Coding .Classification of Compression Transform Coding Transform signal from spatial domain to other space using a wellknown transform Encode signal in new domain (by string coefficients) Higher compression.
) The filters used in subband coding are known as quadrature mirror filter(QMF) Use octave tree decomposition of an image data into various frequency subbands. The output of each decimated subbands quantized and encoded separately .Classification of Compression Subband Coding (cont.
JPEG2000. waveletcoding schemes are especially suitable for applications where scalability and tolerable degradation are important Recently the JPEG committee has released its new image coding standard. which has been based upon DWT. Because of their inherent multiresolution nature. .Discrete Wavelet Transform The wavelet transform (WT) has gained widespread acceptance in signal processing and image compression.
b (t ) ( ) a a (1) where a is the scaling parameter and b is the shifting parameter . These basis functions are called wavelets Wavelets are obtained from a single prototype wavelet y(t) called mother wavelet by dilations and shifting: 1 t b a .Discrete Wavelet Transform Wavelet transform decomposes a signal into a set of basis functions.
e.g.Discrete Wavelet Transform Theory of WT The wavelet transform is computed separately for different segments of the timedomain signal at different frequencies. images and video frames . Multiresolution analysis: analyzes the signal at different frequencies giving different resolutions MRA is designed to give good time resolution and poor frequency resolution at high frequencies and good frequency resolution and poor time resolution at low frequencies Good for signal having high frequency components for short durations and low frequency components for long duration.
Discrete Wavelet Transform Theory of WT (cont.) Wavelet transform decomposes a signal into a set of basis functions.b (t ) ( ) a a (1) where a is the scaling parameter and b is the shifting parameter . These basis functions are called wavelets Wavelets are obtained from a single prototype wavelet y(t) called mother wavelet by dilations and shifting: 1 t b a .
Discrete Wavelet Transform The 1D wavelet transform is given by : .
Discrete Wavelet Transform The inverse 1D wavelet transform is given by: .
into one highpass wavelet coefficient series and one lowpass wavelet coefficient series (of length n/2 each) given by: .xm. it converts an input series x0. which transforms a discrete time signal to a discrete wavelet representation.Discrete Wavelet Transform Discrete wavelet transform (DWT). . x1..
. and i=0.. [n/2]1.. such transformation will be applied recursively on the lowpass series until the desired number of iterations is reached..Discrete Wavelet Transform where sm(Z) and tm(Z) are called wavelet filters. . K is the length of the filter. In practice.
This leads to the wavelet implementation by means of bandedmatrix multiplications .Discrete Wavelet Transform Lifting schema of DWT has been recognized as a faster approach The basic principle is to factorize the polyphase matrix of a wavelet filter into a sequence of alternating upper and lower triangular matrices and a diagonal matrix .
Discrete Wavelet Transform Two Lifting schema: .
{ti(z)} and K are admissible.Discrete Wavelet Transform where si(z) (primary lifting steps) and ti(z) (dual lifting steps) are filters and K is a constant. several {si(z)}. As this factorization is not unique. .
Discrete Wavelet Transform 2D DWT for Image .
Discrete Wavelet Transform .
Discrete Wavelet Transform 2D DWT for Image .
) and to use simpler filtering units. . registers and etc.Discrete Wavelet Transform Integer DWT A more efficient approach to lossless compression Whose coefficients are exactly represented by finite precision numbers Allows for truly lossless encoding IWT can be computed starting from any real valued wavelet filter by means of a straightforward modification of the lifting schema Be able to reduce the number of bits for the sample storage (memories.
Discrete Wavelet Transform Integer DWT (cont.) .
Discrete Wavelet Transform Compression algorithms using DWT Embedded zerotree (EZW) Use DWT for the decomposition of an image at each level Scans wavelet coefficients subband by subband in a zigzag manner Set partitioning in hierarchical trees (SPHIT) Highly refined version of EZW Perform better at higher compression ratio for a wide variety of images than EZW .
make it possible to adjust the quantization according to where the transform coefficient lies and what it represents in the frame Coefficient scanning. and coding are done in one pass Coefficient scanning is a depth first traversal of each tree .Discrete Wavelet Transform Compression algorithms using DWT (cont. tree growing.) Zerotree entropy (ZTE) Quantized wavelet coefficients into wavelet trees to reduce the number of bits required to represent those trees Quantization is explicit instead of implicit.
DCT .Discrete Wavelet Transform DWT vs.
Discrete Wavelet Transform Disadvantages of DCT Only spatial correlation of the pixels inside the single 2D block is considered and the correlation from the pixels of the neighboring blocks is neglected Impossible to completely decorrelate the blocks at their boundaries using DCT Undesirable blocking artifacts affect the reconstructed images or video frames. (high compression ratios or very low bit rates) .
Discrete Wavelet Transform Disadvantages of DCT(cont. followed by brief periods of sharp transitions .) Scaling as addonadditional effort DCT function is fixedcan not be adapted to source data Does not perform efficiently for binary images (fax or pictures of fingerprints) characterized by large periods of constant amplitude (low spatial frequencies).
it has higher compression ratios avoid blocking artifacts. Allows good localization both in time and spatial frequency domain.Discrete Wavelet Transform Advantages of DWT over DCT No need to divide the input coding into nonoverlapping 2D blocks. Transformation of the whole image introduces inherent scaling Better identification of which data is relevant to human perception higher compression ratio .
it has higher compression ratios avoid blocking artifacts.Discrete Wavelet Transform Advantages of DWT over DCT (cont.) Higher flexibility: Wavelet function can be freely chosen No need to divide the input coding into nonoverlapping 2D blocks. Transformation of the whole image introduces inherent scaling Better identification of which data is relevant to human perception higher compression ratio (64:1 vs. 500:1) .
Discrete Wavelet Transform Performance Peak Signal to Noise ratio used to be a measure of image quality The PSNR between two images having 8 bits per pixel or sample in terms of decibels (dBs) is given by: PSNR = 10 log10 255 MSE 2 mean square error (MSE) Generally when PSNR is 40 dB or greater. then the original and the reconstructed images are virtually indistinguishable by human observers .
(d Bs) 2 1.5 0.4 Bit rate (bps) 0.3 0.5 PSNR diff.Discrete Wavelet Transform Improvement in PSNR using DWTJEPG over DCTJEPG at S = 4 PSNR Difference vs.6 .5 DWTJPEG 1 0.5 0 0.2 0. Bit rate 2.
Discrete Wavelet Transform .
PSNR (dBs) performance of W6 filter bank using FLC on Lena image. 8 16 32 64 128 38.images.90 27.00 34. PSNR (dBs) performance of biorthogonal filter bank using VLC on Lena image.50 28.00 34. PSNR (dBs) performance of W6 filter bank using VLC on Lena image.90 29.00 23. PSNR (dBs) performance of biorthogonal filter bank using FLC on Lena image.90 33.00 35.00 2.60 29.90 Comparison of image compression results using DCT and DWT .80 37.00 39.60 32.00 30.00 27.00 32.20 33.00 25.90 35.70 22.50 31.00 29.70 27.50 33. PSNR (dBs) performance of baseline JPEG using on Lena image. Discrete Wavelet Transform Compression ratios used for 8bit 512x512 Lena image.90 32.80 31.70 26.20 26. PSNR (dBs) performance of Zerotree coding using arithmetic coding on Lena image.50 25.
24BitRGB (b) JPEG (DCT) Compressed with compression ratio 43:1(c) JPEG2000 (DWT) Compressed with compression ratio 43:1 .Discrete Wavelet Transform Visual Comparison (a) (b) (c) (a) Original Image256x256Pixels.
which is at least one multiplication per coefficient. EZW. SPHIT use floatingpoint demands longer data length which increase the cost of computation Lifting schemea new method compute DWT using integer arithmetic DWT has been implemented in hardware such as ASIC and FPGA .Discrete Wavelet Transform Implementation Complexity The complexity of calculating wavelet transform depends on the length of the wavelet filters.
Discrete Wavelet Transform Resources of the ASIC used and data processing rates for DCT and DWT encoders Type of encoders using ASIC No. of Logic gates of the ASIC used 34000 Amount of on chip RAM used by the encoders Data processing rates of the encoders using ASIC 210 MSa/sec DCT 128 byte DWT 55000 55 kbyte 150 MSa/sec .
Com pression technique No. of logic gates used vs.Discrete Wavelet Transform Number of logic gates No. of logic gates used . of logic gates used 60000 40000 20000 0 DCT DWT Com pression technique No.
Discrete Wavelet Transform Processing Rate .
The use of larger DWT basis functions or wavelet filters produces blurring and ringing noise near edge regions in images or video frames Longer compression time Lower quality than JPEG at low compression rates .Discrete Wavelet Transform Disadvantages of DWT The cost of computing DWT as compared to DCT may be higher.
Discrete Wavelet Transform Future video/image compression Improved low bitrate compression performance Improved lossless and lossy compression Improved continuoustone and bilevel compression Be able to compress large images Use single decompression architecture Transmission in noisy environments Robustness to biterrors Progressive transmission by pixel accuracy and resolution Protective image security .
A novel VLSI architecture for integer wavelet transform via lifting scheme.ee.metu.it/Articles/mwscas00. http://www.. Martina. Masera .ee. G.tr/em2003/EM2003_presentations/DSD/b enderli.vlsi.vt. VLSI Lab.polito.pdf M.be/Members/munteanu. Internal report.pdf . 2000.pdf http://www.gr/~sklavos/Papers02/DSP02_JPEG2 00. unpublished.upatras.edu.Discrete Wavelet Transform References http://www.vub.etro.vlsilab. Jan. Politecnico diTor i no.edu/~ha/research/publications/islped01.ii.pdf http://www.pdf http://www.ac.adrian/_private/ Conferences/WaveletLosslessCompression_IWSSIP1998.
Discrete Wavelet Transform THANK YOU ! Q&A .
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