Packet Call Processing in UMTS

WHITE PAPER

Authors: Krishna Kumar. A Annie Thamarackal. C Anand Srinivasan Satish Venkob

© Wipro Technologies Page 2 of 14 . they are not giving us a conglomerate picture on what exactly happens to a call (e.g.WHITE PAPER Packet Call Processing in UMTS Abstract This paper.. depicts the end-to-end packet call processing in UMTS network. we are trying to give the reader an easier understanding on the end-to-end procedures by providing a better visual percept through various inter-working diagrams of the Call establishment and termination procedures. Through this paper. Though the 3GPP Specifications talks about different protocols and their roles in Call processing. based upon the 3GPP Specifications. “Packet Call Processing in UMTS”. Telnet or FTP session) originated by a mobile or an external world. The main goal of this paper is to be a panacea to the questions lying within us regarding the 3G Mobile panoramas.

......... 5....................12 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ...........................8 Mobile Terminated Call Transfer ...............................................WHITE PAPER Packet Call Processing in UMTS Table of Contents 1..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................7 Mobile Originated Call Transfer ...............................................................................................................................7 PACKET CALL PROCESSING................................5 Components in CN ................................................................................................................................. INTRODUCTION .................5 Control Plane of UMTS ...................................................14 ABOUT WIPRO TECHNOLOGIES...........................4 NETWORK ELEMENTS INVOLVED IN PACKET CALL PROCESSING ..............................13 REFERENCES ......................................................... 2.................................................................................................................................................................................6 Data Plane of UMTS ...........................7 Call Initiation...........................................................................................4 Components in UTRAN................................................................................................................................10 Address Mapping.... 9.......................................................... 7...........................11 ACRONYMS ...................................................................................................................................................13 ABOUT THE AUTHORS ...............................5 UMTS ARCHITECTURE........................10 Uplink and Downlink PDU ...............11 Call Termination....................................................... 8................................................ 4....................................... © Wipro Technologies Page 3 of 14 ........................................9 Packet Data Transfer.....................................................................14 3......................................................................................... 6..........................................

Radio access network (UTRAN) . UMTS is one of the major technologies for realizing the third generation mobile communications. NODE B NODE B NODE B NODE B NODE B HLR RNC Iu-CS EIR 3G MSC/ VLR PSTN/ISDN Gs Gr Gf RNC Iu-PS A Packet data Network BTS BTS BTS BSC Gb 3G SGSN Gn GGSN Figure 1: Packet Domain Architecture © Wipro Technologies Page 4 of 14 .WHITE PAPER Packet Call Processing in UMTS 1. Defined by 3GPP and supported by major telecommunications operators and manufacturers. UMTS also supports existing mobile technologies like GSM and GPRS thus protecting the current investments in these technologies. This paper details the Packet Call Handling procedures in UMTS through an ideal architecture for Control and Data Plane in PS domain. Apart from addressing the capacity requirements of mobile Internet traffic by increasing mobile transmission speeds up to 2Mbps. 2. UMTS will deliver broadband voice and data (video etc) traffic to mobile users. This is depicted in Fig 1.includes radio functions such as radio resource management (realized through Node-B and RNC network elements) Core Network (CN) . This paper is applicable to Release 4 architecture only and does not describe the scenario for Release 5 All IP architecture.includes call control and mobility management (realized through MSC. Introduction Third generation mobile networking is the latest technology in the wireless world. SGSN and GGSN network elements). • • Network Elements Involved in Packet Call Processing The mobile radio system consists of two basic subsystems. The 3GPP standards group has standardized the interfaces between these entities.

data bearer connections are setup. © Wipro Technologies Page 5 of 14 . GGSN (Gn interface). • GGSN Gateway GPRS Support Node (GGSN) contains routeing information for packet-switched (PS) attached users and provides interworking with external PS networks such as the packet data network (PDN). The Control Plane performs all the signaling functions and the User Plane performs all the data transfer functions. • RNC Radio Network Controller (RNC) enables Radio Resource Management by UTRAN. It is involved in handover decisions.The SGSN monitors user’s location and performs security functions and access control. • HLR Home Location Register (HLR) contains packet domain subscription data and routeing information. Implicitly. data transfer and mobility management . the Medium Access Control (MAC) layer handles functions such as priority handling between data flows of one MS. Through the control plane functions. 3. provide support for mobile terminated IP sessions (Push services). unacknowledged. terminated and maintained. The HLR is accessible from the SGSN via the Gr interface and from the GGSN via the Gc interface. The Control Plane and User Plane of the layered protocol structure between the MS and 3G-GGSN in PS domain is shown in Fig. Iur and Iub interfaces and is responsible for centralized operation and maintenance of the entire RNS (RNC and Node B’s). and multiplexing/demultiplexing of higher layer protocol data units (PDUs) into/from transport blocks delivered to/from the physical layer. 3G SGSN has protocol end point for the GMM and SM layers and the peer for these layers in the MS side. the logical architecture comprises of a Control Plane and a User Plane. UMTS Architecture In UMTS.WHITE PAPER Packet Call Processing in UMTS SGSN has core interface endpoints to RNC (Iu PS interface). The Reliable Link Control (RLC) layer supports transfer of user data in transparent. and acknowledged mode. Components in CN • SGSN Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN) as a network element is meant to handle PS domain call control. user data screening/security and charging. It handles protocol exchanges between Iu. In both planes. 3 respectively. and the Radio Network Controller via the Iub interface. which are based on RF signal quality measurements. Components in UTRAN • Node B Node B (also called the Base Station Controller or Radio Base Station) provides the gateway interface between the handset/RF interface. It also does the allocation of dynamic addresses to MS. 2 and Fig.

The GPRS tunneling protocol for the control plane (GTP-C) tunnels signaling messages between SGSNs and GGSNs. packet based. In the control plane. and MS measurement reporting functions. and release of RRC connections between the MS and UTRAN. Control Plane signaling is used to create. and PDP context activation and deactivation. The Radio Access Network Application Protocol (RANAP) in the control plane encapsulates and carries higher-layer signaling. detach. stream oriented transport protocol operating on top of a connectionless packet network such as IP. and manages the GTP connections on the Iu interface. © Wipro Technologies Page 6 of 14 . handles signaling between the UTRAN and 3G-SGSN. Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP) is designed to transport PSTN signaling messages over IP networks. MTP3 User Adaptation (M3UA) is an adaptation module.WHITE PAPER Control Plane of UMTS Packet Call Processing in UMTS GMM / SM RRC RLC MAC L1 MS RELAY RRC RRC GMM/SM RANAP SCCP M3UA SCTP/IP RANAP SCCP M3UA SCTP/IP AAL5 ATM GTP-C UDP IP L2 L1 GTP-C UDP IP L2 L1 RLC MAC L1 AAL5 ATM Uu RNS Iu-Ps SGSN Gn GGSN Figure 2: UMTS Control Plane The GPRS Mobility Management and Session Management (GMM/SM) layer handles functions such as attach. The Radio Resource Control (RRC) layer handles functions such as the establishment. and between SGSNs in the backbone network. establishment. and release of Radio Bearers. security. which enables Users in the IP Domain to access the Services provided by the SS7 network transparently. modify. reconfiguration. RRC connection mobility functions. and delete tunnels. but is capable of broader applications. signaling is transferred via a Signaling Connection Control Part (SCCP) connection on the Iu interface. SCTP is a reliable. maintenance. routeing area update.

International Mobile Equipment Identity (IMEI) and Cell Identity. For a session to be created. One IuUP protocol instance is associated to one RAB Context. The GMM Context contains details like International Mobile Subscriber Identity(IMSI). A Session can be defined as a transaction initiated by the MS or an external PDN for exchanging data packets between them. The Iu User Plane (IuUP) protocol is used to convey user data associated to Radio Access Bearers (RAB). A PS Signalling connection is also established between the MS and the SGSN during this procedure. and header compression and decompression. This is done by performing an Attach Procedure initiated by GMM. Packet Call Processing Call Initiation The pre-requisite for any Packet Data transfer is a creation of a session. The GPRS tunneling protocol for the user plane (GTP-U) uses a tunneling mechanism to carry data packets between UTRAN and 3G-SGSN. as shown in Fig 4. IuUP is transparent in PS mode. and between the SGSN and GGSN in the backbone network. An example for a session could be an FTP or a Telnet session.WHITE PAPER Packet Call Processing in UMTS Data Plane of UMTS APPLN IP / PPP RELAY PDCP RLC MAC L1 L1 MS PDCP RRC RELAY IUUP GTP-U UDP IP IP/PPP GTP-U UDP IP L2 L1 IUUP GTP-U UDP GTP-U UDP IP L2 L1 RLC MAC IP AAL5 ATM RNS AAL5 ATM Gn Uu Iu-Ps Figure 3: UMTS Data Plane SGSN GGSN The Packet Data Convergence Protocol (PDCP) layer handles transmission and reception of PDUs using services provided by the RLC protocol. © Wipro Technologies Page 7 of 14 . which leads to the creation of a GMM Context. 4. the presence of MS must be known to the network.

On Iu side.g. e. For each session.. a Create PDP Context Procedure is performed to create the transport bearer layer for both Data and Signaling plane between SGSN and GGSN. On the Gn side. IPv4).g. which is created by means of a RAB Assignment Procedure initiated by RANAP on CN side. the MS initates the Session creation.129.10). a PDP context is created. This context is stored in the MS. a RAB Context corresponds to a PDP Context..187. the PDP address assigned to the mobile station (e. Mobile Originated (MO) and Mobile Terminated (MT). This is created by means of a PDP Context Activation Procedure initiated by SM as shown in Fig 5. a mobile station must apply for one or more addresses used in the PDN. It contains the PDP type (e. for an IP address in case the PDN is an IP network. This address is called PDP address (Packet Data Protocol address). and the GGSN. which describes the characteristics of the session. the MS can establish a session for data transfer. But in MT. GMM Uu RANAP ATTACH REQUEST Iu RANAP GMM Attach Initiation INITIAL UE AUTHENTICATION & CIPHERING REQ DIRECT TRANSFER Attach In Progress AUTHENTICATION & CIPHERING RESP DIRECT TRANSFER Attach Completed _ATTACH_ACCEPT DIRECT TRANSFER MS RNS SGSN Figure 4: UMTS Call Initiation Procedure (GMM Attach) Mobile Originated Call Transfer To exchange data packets with external PDNs after a successful attach. and the address of a GGSN that serves as the access point to the PDN. In MO. the SGSN.. GTP-U tunnels the data and GTP-C tunnels the control signals in both uplink and downlink direction.g. the GGSN on receiving PDU’s from external PDNs notify the MS to start the Session Creation Procedure. The Call Origination can be of two types.WHITE PAPER Packet Call Processing in UMTS Once the Attach Procedure is done. © Wipro Technologies Page 8 of 14 . the requested Quality of Service (QoS).222. The RRC establishes the appropriate radio bearer by sending a Radio Bearer Setup message to the MS if there is sufficient uplink and downlink capacity available to support the new radio link.

the GGSN delivers the PDUs by initiating the Network Requested PDP Context Activation Procedure. The GGSN will queue the received PDUs for some definite period of time. If no PDP Context has been previously established for that PDP address. This is performed by GTPC by sending a PDU Notification Request towards SGSN. A PDP Context will be created for the requested PDP Address and Access Point Name (APN). the GGSN checks if a PDP Context is established for that PDP Address. the mobile station is “visible” for the external PDN and is able to send and receive data packets. Then the MS initiates the PDP Context Activation Procedure. as in a Mobile Originated Call. as shown in Fig 6. Once the signaling is established. A user may have several simultaneous PDP contexts active at a given time. When receiving a PDP PDU. © Wipro Technologies Page 9 of 14 . This will result in the creation of control and data tunnels on the Gn side and also RAB Contexts on the RNC side. Request PDP Context Activation is send by SM towards MS.WHITE PAPER Packet Call Processing in UMTS Uu SM RRC Session Initiation RRC RANAP Iu RANAP SM GTP-c Gn GTP-c ACTIVATE PDP CONTEXT REQUEST DIRECT TRANSFER RAB ASSIGNMENT REQ RB SETUP REQ RB SETUP COMPLETE RAB ASSIGNMENT RSP CREATE PDP CONTEXT REQ RAB Established ACTIVATE PDP CONTEXT ACCEPT DIRECT TRANSFER CREATE PDP CONTEXT RSP Session Established MS Context Established SGSN GGSN RNS Figure 5: UMTS Mobile Originated Call Transfer Procedure Mobile Terminated Call Transfer In Mobile Terminated Call. till a positive response is received from SGSN. Once the end-to-end session has been established. SGSN initiates the Paging Procedure through GMM to locate the MS. GGSN initiates the activation of a PDP Context. the GGSN will route the queued packets to the MS depending on TFT parameters. If PS Signaling connection is not available. With an active PDP context.

If Static. this is allocated by GGSN.WHITE PAPER Packet Call Processing in UMTS Uu SM RRC RRC RANAP Iu RANAP SM GTP-c Gn GTP-c Session Initiation PDU NOTIFICATION REQ REQUEST PDP CONTEXT ACTIVATION DIRECT TRANSFER PDU NOTIFICATION RSP Session Activation Started ACTIVATE PDP CONTEXT REQUEST DIRECT TRANSFER RAB Establishment RAB Establishment Procedures done Procedures done here ACTIVATE PDP CONTEXT ACCEPT DIRECT TRANSFER CREATE PDP CONTEXT REQ CREATE PDP CONTEXT RSP Session Activated MS RNS SGSN Context Established GGSN Figure 6: UMTS Mobile Terminated Call Transfer Procedure Packet Data Transfer IP Address Address Mapping The mobile is identified by the PDP address in the PDN. the user gets this PDP Address with the subscription and if dynamic. In the uplink direction. The TEID on Iu and Gn interfaces are different and are mapped by relay functionality for data transfer across the interfaces. the PDP address is mapped to a TEID depending on TFT. the RB ID is selected based on the QoS requirements. The PDP Address can be static or dynamic. Example for a PDP address could be an IP address in case the PDN is an IP network. GGSN Gn TEID SGSN Gn TEID Iu TEID RNS Iu TEID RB ID UE RB ID Indicates mapping across elements Figure 7: Address Mapping in Data Plane © Wipro Technologies Page 10 of 14 . In the downlink direction.

and the GGSN the relay function stores all valid PDP PDUs until they are forwarded to the next network node or until the maximum holding time of the PDP PDUs is reached. The end-to-end PDP Context Deactivation Procedure is depicted in Fig 8. SGSN and GGSN relay function may optionally perform re-sequencing of PDP PDUs before transfer of the PDP PDUs. the MS should choose the PDP context that best matches the QoS requested by the sender of this PDP PDU (e. RAB Assignment Procedure initiated by RANAP releases the RAB Context on the RNC for this particular session. especially the radio resource. At the RNC.WHITE PAPER Uplink and Downlink PDU Packet Call Processing in UMTS For each downlink PDUs. the GGSN routes them to the different GTPU tunnels based on the TFTs assigned to the PDP contexts. when multiple PDP contexts exist for the same PDP address of an MS. the RNC. For each uplink PDP PDU.. SM RRC Uu RRC RANAP Iu RANAP SM GTP-c Gn GTP-c DEACTIVATE PDP CONTEXT REQ Session Deactivation DIRECT TRANSFER Started DEACTIVATE PDP CONTEXT ACCEPT DIRECT TRANSFER DELETE PDP CONTEXT REQ DELETE PDP CONTEXT RSP Context Deleted RAB ASSIGNMENT REQ RB RELEASE REQ RB RELEASE COMPLETE RAB ASSIGNMENT RSP Session Deactivation Completed MS RAB Deleted RNS SGSN GGSN Figure 8: UMTS Call Termination Procedure initiated by MS (Deactivation Procedure) © Wipro Technologies Page 11 of 14 . Call Termination The MS can terminate a call associated with a particular application by performing a Deactivation Procedure initiated by SM. GTPC will send Delete PDP Context Request towards GGSN to delete the PDP context stored in GGSN. The PDP PDUs are discarded when buffering is longer than their maximum holding time. The discarding protects resources from useless transfer attempts.g. an application supporting QoS). The relay function of a network node transfers the PDP PDUs received from the incoming link to the appropriate outgoing link. In UMTS. the SGSN.

The RAB associated with the context will also be deleted by means of RAB Assignment Procedure of RANAP. This is performed by means of a Detach Procedure initiated by GMM. This will also lead to the termination of all active sessions as in MS Initiated Detach procedure.WHITE PAPER Packet Call Processing in UMTS The PDP Context Deactivation can also be initiated by GGSN. This results in the deactivation of all PDP Contexts and RAB Contexts by means of PDP Context Deactivation Procedure associated with this MS. by switching off the mobile. This is performed by GTPC by sending a Delete PDP Context Request to SGSN. 5. initiated by SM. The MS can also terminate the calls when it does not want to use the SGSN services anymore. When the last PDP Context associated with a PDP Address is deactivated. No data transfer in both downlink or uplink direction is possible once the mobile is detached. which will trigger the Deactivation Procedure between SGSN and MS. GMM Detach Initiation RRC Uu RRC RANAP Iu RANAP GMM GTP-c Gn GTP-c DETACH REQUEST DIRECT TRANSFER DELETE PDP CONTEXT REQ DELETE PDP CONTEXT RSP RAB ASSIGNMENT REQ RB RELEASE REQ RB RELEASE COMPLETE RAB ASSIGNMENT RSP Context Deleted RAB Deleted DETACH ACCEPT DIRECT TRANSFER Detach Completed MS RNS IU RELEASE COMMAND SGSN GGSN Figure 9: UMTS Call Termination Procedure initiated by MS (Detach Procedure) The Network can also initiate a Detach Procedure due to HLR triggers. and then PDU transfer for this PDP Address is disabled. Acronyms 3GPP CN FTP 3rd Generation Partnership Project Core Network File Transfer Protocol © Wipro Technologies Page 12 of 14 . A Detach Request will be sent by GMM on the SGSN towards MS. which will respond with a Detach Accept.

Anup Kumar Sureka for the critical reviews and inputs to our paper. We would also like to offer special thanks to our Technical Manager.060 v3. Technical Specification Group Services and System Aspects. • • References 3GPP TS 24. Mobile Radio Interface Layer 3 Specification. Acknowledgement We would like to thank our colleagues in 3G-SGSN-CORE team for their valuable comments.0: “3rd Generation Partnership Project.0: “3rd Generation Partnership Project. Mobile Radio Interface Signalling Layer 3. General Packet Radio Service (GPRS). support. Technical Specification Group Core Network.WHITE PAPER GGSN GMM/SM GTPC IMSI IMEI IP MS MTP PDN PDP PDU PS QoS RAB RLC RNC RRC SCCP SCTP SGSN TFT UE UMTS UTRAN Gateway GPRS Support Node Packet Call Processing in UMTS GPRS Mobility Management and Session Management GPRS Tunnelling Protocol Control International Mobile Subscriber Identity International Mobile Equipment Identity Internet Protocol Mobile Station Message Transfer Protocol Packet Data Network Packet Data Protocol Protocol Data Unit Packet Switched Quality of Service Radio Access Bearer Radio Link Control Radio Network Controller Radio Resource Control Signalling Connection Control Part Stream Control Transmission Protocol Serving GPRS Support node Traffic Flow Template User Equipment Universal Mobile Telecommunication System UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network 6.8. Core Network Protocols.8. Technical Specification Group Core Network. Mr. Stage 2 (Release 1999)” • © Wipro Technologies Page 13 of 14 .7.0: “3rd Generation Partnership Project.008 v3. and innovative ideas. 7. Stage 3 (Release 1999)” 3GPP TS 23. General Aspects (Release 1999)” 3GPP TS 24. Service Description. guidance.007 v3.

His areas of interest include Data Networking. Retail. All rights reserved. Satish Venkob finished his Bachelors degree in Computer Science from Bangalore University . Specifications subject to change without notice. Technical Specification Group Radio Access Network. Anand Srinivasan is a Senior R&D Engineer in Wireless Business Unit of Telecom and Internetworking Group at Wipro Technologies.6. reading technical stuff etc 9. electronic. ARM.413 V3. It provides turnkey solutions for Finance. The company’s top clients include Lucent.WHITE PAPER • Packet Call Processing in UMTS 3GPP TS 29. UTRAN Iu Interface RANAP Signaling (Release 1999). General Packet Radio Service (GPRS). Canon.He has been working in the Wireless Protocol arena from past 2 years in Wireless Business Unit of Telecom and Internetworking Group at Wipro Technologies. Wireless and Distributed Computing. His hobbies include Music. He has an expertise in Telecom domain with an extensive knowledge in AMPS-PCS. without express written permission from Wipro Technologies. recording. The focus is largely in the areas of information services outsourcing and technology software development. About Wipro Technologies Wipro Technologies is the global technology services division of Wipro Limited (NYSE: WIT). Utilities. Technical Specification Group Core Network. Hitachi. © Wipro Technologies Page 14 of 14 .0 : “3rd Generation Partnership Project. 3GPP TS 25. GPRS and UMTS. Wipro Technologies. Currently he is involved in the 3G UMTS protocol layer development and integration. She has a Bachelors degree in Computer Science and Engineering. stored in a retrieval system. He has a Bachelors degree in Electronics and Communication Engineering and a Masters degree in Business Administration. She is a domain expert in Telecom (UMTS & GPRS). • 8. AT&T and Transco. Telecom and Technology clients. www. Specifications subject to change without notice.4. No part of this document may be reproduced. IBM.wipro. Sony. mechanical. photocopying. Epson. Cisco. About the authors Krishna Kumar A is a Project Manager in Wireless Business Unit of Telecom and Internetworking Group at Wipro Technologies. transmitted in any form or by any means. All other trademarks mentioned herein are the property of their respective owners. GPRS Tunnelling Protocol (GTP) across the Gn and Gp Interface (Release 1999)". or otherwise. Annie Thamarackal C is a Senior Software Engineer in Wireless Business Unit of Telecom and Internetworking Group at Wipro Technologies.com © Copyright 2002.060 V3. Toshiba.0: "3rd Generation Partnership Project.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful