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thi hc phn Tr tu nhn to

(M hc phn IT4040; Lp 14491)

Nm hc : Ngy thi: Thi gian lm bi thi:

2010-2011. 23-12-2010. 100 pht.

Ghi ch: Khng c dng ti liu. Trnh by bi thi r rng, ngn gn, v chnh xc.

Cu 1. (1,5 im) 1-a (1 im). i vi vic biu din tri thc, tnh nhp nhng trong s k tha (ambiguity in inheritance) l g? Hy cho v d minh ha v gii thch. 1-b (0,5 im). Trong mt th biu din s k tha (inheritance graph), hy cho v d minh ha (v gii thch) v mt nt ngn chn (pre-emptor) ca mt cnh dng (positive edge) i vi mt nt khc. Cu 2. (3 im) Xt bi ton thp H Ni, vi 3 cc (k hiu 1,2,3) v 3 a (A l a nh nht, B l a trung bnh, v C l a ln nht). Mi trng thi c biu din bi b ba (i j k): a nh nht (A) nm cc i; a trung bnh (B) nm cc j; v a to nht (C) nm cc k. Ti mi trng thi, bt k cc no, nu c nhiu hn 1 a, th a nh hn phi nm trn a ln hn. Trng thi u ca bi ton n0 (1 1 1), ngha l c 3 a u nm cc 1. Trng thi ch ca bi ton n* (3 3 3), ngha l c 3 a u nm cc 3. Mi ln di chuyn a, ch c php di chuyn 1 a (t cc ny sang cc khc). i vi mt trng thi n, hm nh gi chi ph tng th f(n)=g(n)+h(n); trong : g(n): s ln dch chuyn a thc hin, chuyn t trng thi u n0 n trng thi hin ti n; h(n): c lng s ln dch chuyn a cn thit, chuyn t trng thi hin ti n n trng thi ch n*, c cho c th nh sau: - nu cc 3 cha c a no, th h(n)=2; - nu cc 3 c a A, th h(n)=3; - nu cc 3 c a B, th h(n)=3; - nu cc 3 c a C, th h(n)=1; - nu cc 3 c cc a A,B, th h(n)=4; - nu cc 3 c cc a B,C, th h(n)=1; - nu cc 3 c cc a A,C, th h(n)=2; v - nu cc 3 c cc a A,B,C, th h(n)=0. p dng gii thut tm kim A*, hy din gii chi tit qu trnh tm kim t trng thi u n0 n trng thi ch n*. Cu 3. (3 im) Gi s chng ta c c s tri thc KB gm tp cc gi thit sau: a b; a c;

c d; (b d) e.

p dng phng php chng minh bng hp gii, hy din gii chi tit qu trnh chng minh nh l: (d e). Cu 4. (2,5 im) 4-a (0,5 im). Hy gii thch ngn gn v chnh xc v vn over-fitting trong hc my. 4-b (2 im). Gi s chng ta c mt tp d liu hc (training dataset) nh sau v mc chp nhn ca khch hng i vi cc mu xe -t c gii thiu ra th trng. Mi v d hc (mt biu din ca mt mu xe -t) c biu din bi 4 thuc tnh: Gi: Khng-Gian-Cha: Mc-An-Ton: Mc-Chp-Nhn: vi cc gi tr c th {cao, trung-bnh, thp}, biu din gi ca mu xe -t; vi cc gi tr c th {rng, trung-bnh, nh}, biu din mc ca khng gian cha bn trong ca mu xe -t; vi cc gi tr c th {cao, thp}, biu din mc an ton ca mu xe -t; v thuc tnh phn loi, biu din mc chp nhn (cao hay thp) ca khch hng i vi mu xe -t. Gi cao cao cao cao cao cao cao trung-bnh trung-bnh trung-bnh trung-bnh trung-bnh trung-bnh trung-bnh trung-bnh thp thp thp thp thp Khng-GianCha nh trung-bnh rng nh nh rng trung-bnh nh trung-bnh nh nh trung-bnh trung-bnh nh trung-bnh nh nh rng nh rng Mc-AnTon thp cao thp thp thp thp cao cao thp thp cao cao cao thp cao thp cao thp cao cao Mc-ChpNhn thp cao cao thp thp thp thp cao cao thp thp cao cao thp cao thp cao cao thp cao

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S dng phng php phn loi Nave Bayes, hy din gii chi tit qu trnh tnh ton a ra d on v mc chp nhn (cao hay thp) ca khch hnh i vi mu xe -t c: gi thp, khng gian cha bn trong rng, v mc an ton thp?