Onno van Braam - www.onnovanbraam.

com - Tutorial Collection 2007

3Ds Max Tutorial Collection 2007

Onno van Braam www.onnovanbraam.com
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Onno van Braam - www.onnovanbraam.com - Tutorial Collection 2007

Copyright © 2007 Onno van Braam, EVOlution WebDevelopment All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form of by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by any information storage retrieval system, without permission from the Author. Although every precaution has been taken in the preparation of this book, the publisher and author assume no responsibility for errors or ommissions. Neither is any liability assumed for damages resulting from the use of the information contained herein. Trademarks All terms mentioned in this book that are known to be trademarks or service marks have been appropriately capitalized. Onno van Braam cannot attest to the accuracy of this information. Use of a term in this book should not be regarded as affecting the validity of any trademark or service mark. Warning and Disclaimer Every effort has been made to make this book as complete and as accurate as possible, but no warranty of fitness is implied. The information provided is on an “as is” basis. The author and the publisher shall have neither liability nor responsibility to any person or entity with respect to any loss or damages arising from the information contained in this book.

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Onno van Braam - www.onnovanbraam.com - Tutorial Collection 2007

Table of Contents
MODELING.................................................................................................................................4 Polygon Modeling 1: Introduction...........................................................................................5 Polygon Modeling 2: Vertex Sub-Object...............................................................................11 Polygon Modeling 3: Edge Sub-Object.................................................................................20 Polygon Modeling 4: Polygon Sub-Object............................................................................23 Polygon Modeling 5: Techniques I....................................................................................... 32 Polygon Modeling 6: Techniques II...................................................................................... 40 Polygon Modeling 7: Car Body.............................................................................................51 Polygon Modeling 8: Car Rims.............................................................................................61 Polygon Modeling 9: Car Tyres............................................................................................74 Polygon Modeling A: The Process of Modeling a Car..........................................................84 Introduction to Splines..........................................................................................................92 Spline Car Modeling...........................................................................................................100 TEXTURING............................................................................................................................ 06 1 Map Channels.....................................................................................................................107 Multi/Sub-Object.................................................................................................................114 Composite Maps.................................................................................................................117 Car Mapping.......................................................................................................................134 OTHER....................................................................................................................................145 Blueprint Setup...................................................................................................................146 Depth of Field Using a ZDepth pass...................................................................................161 Making of... the Shelby Mustang GT500 Wheel.................................................................177

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Onno van Braam - www.onnovanbraam.com - Tutorial Collection 2007

MODELING

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.In the tutorials sometimes next to an action there is a number. At the moment I use Max 5 so everything you see will apply to Max 5.VSO: Vertex Sub-Object . for instance like (1).com . State of Mind I do not claim to know all. everybody should develop his own style of modeling but it's always very useful to see other people do it. but don't worry if you don't since I'll try to use many. On the contrairy. Since then you will see what he/she does differently and makes you 5 .www. they didn't improve any of the modeling.MS / MS'ing: MeshSmooth / MeshSmoothing Summary In these tutorials I will be covering the basics of editable poly-modeling in 3D Studio Max. From all the tools available when using editable polies to how to apply them and maybe more importantly: when to use them.ESO: Edge Sub-Object . this refers to the next image in the tutorial and then the part of the image. So (1) refers to the most left part of the upcoming image.onnovanbraam.Onno van Braam . but from what I have seen from the so called 'new features' PDF file of Max 6. many (partial) screenshots and icons to make clear what I do. I'll assume you have a basic idea of how 3D Max works.PSO: Polygon Sub-Object . and where to find things.Tutorial Collection 2007 Polygon Modeling 1: Introduction Conventions .EP: Editable Poly . or that my techniques are the techniques and all other sucks. And therefore everything explained should apply to Max 6 without any problems.

You'll balance them in your head. . my way is more efficient or a bit of both of course. It might be that this all sounds like bollocks. but when you only know your own techniques. Editable Poly Editable polies are a certain type of objects used in 3D Max. but the one we will be using solely is the editable poly. It will be this moment when you have confidence enough to jump in and model what you want! I must warn though. which is aquired by doing it a lot and looking at other peoples methods and techniques.www.I use it for almost everything that I model. enough of the philosphical / psychological mumbling. Vertices. opposed to editable meshes. so it's logical that a tutorial I write is about the 6 . in stead of Editable Polies) are very intuitive. But any way: you are thinking about what you do and how you do it! This is essential. and is the basis of these tutorials: why do you do what you do? Have you ever thought about it? Probably because you think that what you are doing is best. as where Rhino rules the NURBS modeling waves. edges and polygons are simple and easy to comprehend mathematical objects.. but I think that in the end knowing how to model is all about a certain state of mind. or think: bah. It takes effort and dedication.. Then when you have aquired this intuition. it still is a very simple. There's others like editable meshes. spline objects etc. this is smart. even though when using MeshSmooth (which will be covered extensively) you are not WYSIWYG'ing (what you see is what you get).Editable poly has a vast amount of built in tools. I'll try to use that.Tutorial Collection 2007 think about your own and his/her way. this moment doesn't come easily. Why you ask? Because of many reasons: . and that may be true.com . and try to see the pro's and con's of each way and then decide: hm. NURBS. . . Alrighty.Do what a program does best: Max is perfect for polygon modeling if you ask me. an intuition. then and only then will you make progress in skill and art like never before.onnovanbraam. easy going way of modeling.EP's (I'll use EP from now on. you will never know.Onno van Braam ..

right click on the object name (the one in grey) and select 'Convert to: Editable Poly'. we'll be starting here: start 3D Max. splines. In short: you need an EP. but when rendering you just need polygons to actually see something.Tutorial Collection 2007 technique I use.onnovanbraam. then select it. create any object of any size.com .www. edges (1 dimensional objects: lines). right click on it. and polygons (2 dimensional objects: surfaces). open the modifier tab. so for instance a box. A Simple Start Okay. An other way of doing this is creating the object. find the 'Convert to:' option and select 'Editable Poly'. These are the three building stones with which almost everything in the 3D modeling world is built. 7 . it's just for explaining purposes. meshes etc.Onno van Braam . EP's are built up from vertices (zero dimensional objects: points).). You may create them differently (using NURBS.

by which I mean that when you go into this mode. You will notice soon enough that each sub-object is very different. ever use Border and Element. Edge. if everything is okay you have 5 options: Vertex.com . I call it: 'you can go into vertex sub-object mode'. there are so-called sub-objects. they do about the same thing in each SO. it then becomes yellow. Yet certain aspects are exactly the same in each sub-object and do the same thing (only applied to vertices. so they won't be covered in detail. 'Grow / Shrink' in each Sub-Object. With the shortcut 'Insert' you can change the sub-object to the next one (try it!). yet very similar in what you can do. You go into sub-object mode by left clicking 'Editable Poly' in the modifier tab (Ctrl + B does the same).Onno van Braam .onnovanbraam. When you left click 'Editable Poly' again (or press Ctrl + B) you go out of the sub-object mode. Polygon and Element.www. edges or polygons depending on in which sub- 8 . By clicking the plus sign on the left you can expand it and see which sub-objects are available for your object. but the effect is not always the same! There is a sort of symmetry or cohesion between the sub-objects which is very beautiful. For instance you can 'Extrude'.Tutorial Collection 2007 When modeling with EP's. Border. You can do almost the same in each sub-object. I personally never. you can edit the positions of the vertices of your EP.

Vertex Sub-Object The dots. When you are in PSO it's usually because you want to create something.Tutorial Collection 2007 object you are.. surfaces of your model: polygons. Obviously when modeling you'll want to change the positions of your vertices since that is the bare essential part of modeling. There's also options which I will skip completely.com . I won't go into detail about what you can do with them.onnovanbraam. Additionaly ESO is very handy for creating new surfaces.www. Do not think this is all true or the general definition. Chamfering will be the magic operation. once you understand how it works in the vertex sub-object). Edge Sub-Object The lines of your model: edges. hardly ever to change your model..Onno van Braam . Not very often would you want 9 . I mainly use this SO for fine-tuning. This will be extensively explained in Tutorial 2. but you want certain parts to become less smooth when using MeshSmooth. it's just how I see it. In the next section I'll explain my view on the sub-objects. or because I think it's totally useless. It's the place to be when your model has the right shape. Therefore I won't be explaining (or just skipping) certain options since they come back three times. for instance the Soft-Selection works straight forward in the edge and polygon sub-object. 3 and 4. yet. Polygon Sub-Object The faces. but something you may not have realised: VSO (vertex sub-object) is mostly used to shape your model. the points of your model: vertices. either because I have never used it.

Tutorial Collection 2007 to change the form or shape by moving / scaling / individual polygons. whatever. Yet.com . to your model then the PSO is the place to be. 3 and 4 and see what you can do in each specific sub-object. when you would want to create additional blobs. When reading tutorials 2. extensions. it'll become clear why I said certain SO's are used for specific modeling actions.Onno van Braam .www. 10 .onnovanbraam.

'Convert To:'. if you haven't done it yet. Then go into sub-object mode (Ctrl + B) and to the Vertex Sub-Object (Insert.com . I will try to explain all options available when modeling in the vertex sub-object. 11 . but I'll will try to explain when a certain modeling action in the VSO is useful and give examples of when you could use it. or click the plus and select 'Vertex').www. If you haven't created an EP (editable poly) yet.Onno van Braam . 'Editable Poly'. by creating a new primitive and converting it to an EP by selecting it. What you should look like right now: Under this you can see all the options you have in the VSO. It may look like just a long list. open the modifier tab. then do so now.Tutorial Collection 2007 Polygon Modeling 2: Vertex Sub-Object Summary In this tutorial. right click.onnovanbraam. Then.

12 .onnovanbraam. which works very intuitively. notice how in your viewport all the dots of your model are shown more clearly. This is always the case in Max: Ctrl adds to your selection. Moving can be done by using the XYZ euler . as indicated by the five icons. they may have become little plus signs. While we are in this mode. deseleting vertices can be done by pressing Alt and then clicking the ones you don't want.Tutorial Collection 2007 Selection Under this roll-out you can switch to other sub-objects. Selecting multiple vertices can be done by pressing Ctrl.com . or more vertices by selecting them and then moving (shortcut: W) them. right now the vertex one is higlighted since we are in that mode. Alt subtracts it from your selection.Onno van Braam .www. or small blue dots for me as seen on this screenshot (switch between wireframe and smooth + highlights of your viewport by pressing 'F3'): So now you could select one.

since sometimes you have.Onno van Braam . They'll 13 . Grow: The inverse of shrink and also works in the same manner: if you haven't selected anything then there is nothing to grow from and it won't do anything. press 'Grow' and see that all adjacent vertices are selected. It needs a start. but they do affect your model. since you could drag select certain parts of your model and expect a certain number of vertices and then when this doesn't match the number shown. With this line you can see that.www. This I use more often than shrink.Tutorial Collection 2007 This is all basic knowledge and you really should be aquainted with it before continuing with this tutorial. so you don't see them.com . so no connection between two parts in the form of an edge or multiple edges.onnovanbraam. or by accident created additional vertices which are at the exact same position as other vertices. that it needs a 'hole' in your selection to be able to shrink. then grow will stop there (but of course will try to grow until one whole part of the model is selected). This may seem insignificant. Ring and Loop: This is 3D Max logic at it's best: they're there. for instance when using MeshSmooth. When there is a physical gap. without knowing it. so select all vertices then deselect (Alt) one and then press shrink to see what happens: all the adjacent (connected by a single edge) vertices to the one you just deselected. Keep in mind when using shrink. then you know something is going on! I'll show an example under the Edit Vertices Roll-Out. but it's not. usually when I have a large model but when the model is made up from separate parts: grow doesn't continue growing from one loose part of a model to another. It can be extremely helpfull. Also notice the little line: 'Vertex 6 Selected'. but you can't use them. So first up: Shrink: This is an option to make your current selection shrink (unsurprisingly). are also deselected. But select one vertex. For instance when I select all the vertices of my model and then press 'Shrink' nothing happens.

www. They kind of drag along with your originally selected vertices. On the other hand. Up the value of Falloff until you see the color of your vertices change: the color indicates how much influence it recieves from your originally selected vertex/vertices. Pinch and Bubble parameter to get a feel of what it does. Shade face toggle we will come back on later. Try it out and play with the Falloff. but softly. Especially when modeling technical and detailed stuff it's in my opinion useless. I personally hardly ever use it.com . Soft Selection Before you can use Soft Selection. mainly because it has a vagueness and non-controllableness that I don't like. Edit Vertices 14 .onnovanbraam. soft selection can be extremely handy for organic modeling! Deactivate the Soft Selection again. so that when you move those vertices is has a certain feedback on vertices which you didn't select. Soft selection is exactly the right description of what it does: you select certain vertices.Tutorial Collection 2007 be available in the Edge sub-object (and be very very useful).Onno van Braam . you click the radio button 'Use Soft Selection'. in the tutorial about the Polygon Sub-Object. only then will all the parameters become available.

com . Select vertices. in a copy kind of way. Break: When you perform this on selected vertices it breaks them loose from the current model.onnovanbraam. I'll show what I mean in the next three images (with the text shown in the selection roll-out): Obviously something has happened. since we went from one vertex to three.. When you move each one of the three vertices away from it's original position you can see what has happened: 15 .Tutorial Collection 2007 Remove: Not really sure why on Gods green earth they made a button to do this. I have seriously in all my years of modeling. never ever used it. :) It creates a number of vertices which is equivalent to the number of edges comming together in your original vertex..Onno van Braam . Just select what you want to delete and then press. Delete! Amazing. but ah well. press this button and they are removed. but true.www.

It melts two or more vertices together. The sphere cannot be drawn manually. manually or by the numbers) and see what happens. I can see a purpose for it. And they will melt at the average of their positions. now that I have fooled around with it for a bit. and as mentioned in the introduction.com . I am not quite sure what to make of it and when to use it. Maybe. Extrude: This one works a little differently from the buttons we have so far. With this you can drag one 16 . very often. Weld: Ah! Weld.Onno van Braam .www. Here also there is the manual and technical version. Try extrude on a single vertex (either way. You get a spike from the original vertex. Extrude creates something. This is something I use very. but used more often by me. In the by-the-numbers one you can set a threshold which is effectively a sphere around your selected vertices: all vertices within the sphere of influence of an other vertex will melt together.Tutorial Collection 2007 They are all independent. now we're talking. I deem this sub-object for shaping mostly. Target Weld: The brother of weld. So if you would have performed a break operation for instance and then selected the three newly created vertices and then pressed weld then the Break operation is undone in a non-undo-pressing kind of way.onnovanbraam. so by pressing the button you apply welding with the threshold as set in the by-the-number window. since we can either do some extruding manually (press the button) or do it by the numbers (press the little window next to it).

it smoothens it out a bit and creates a new. without any averaging of positions. face. yet not in vertex sub-object. But what it does is create an additional face. Click it.onnovanbraam.Onno van Braam . since it's totally useless. Here I selected one corner vertex and was in the middle of chamfering it: As you can see. But only if the two vertices are part of the same face. Chamfer: Chamfer is in this sub-object almost the same as extrude (try for instance an extrude with height = 0). you have target welded! \o/ It is extremely handy for cleaning up your mesh or correcting certain modeling operations (double chamfers for instance. not less) selected vertices. to another one and it will melt the first onto the other.com . notice the dashed line!) and drag it to another vertex: congratulations. You still with me? No? Good.Tutorial Collection 2007 vertex. not more. triangular shaped. then select a vertex of your model (click and drag. in your viewport. 17 . But anyways: chamfering. Chamfering is one of the essentials in polygon modeling. by making an edge that connects them.www. Connect: This connects two (and only two. but I'll come to that in Tutorial 5 about Modeling Techniques).

which resembles welding: select the verts you want to 'collapse' and press 'Collapse'. But.www. It cannot be what you want 18 . quoted from the manual: Certain modeling operations can leave unused (isolated) map vertices that show up in the Unwrap UVW editor. Detach: Don't ever use Detach in the VSO. Ever. It's just useless.Tutorial Collection 2007 Remove Isolated Vertices: It removes vertices that have decided to be alone.Onno van Braam . So there ya have it. Then all selected vertices will collapse into one single vertex at the position. which is the average of the original bunch. This is for hardcore modeling only. but cannot be used for mapping. :) You would have to seriously be doing something weird to create a single or more vertices that aren't attached to anything. using 'verts' instead of 'vertices' because else it wouldn't fit in the tab! PAH! :) Edit Geometry Create: Creates a vertex at the position where you click. I have never even gave it look.com . Something like this for instance (it would remove the one indicated by the arrow): Remove Unused Map Verts: I really wouldn't know.onnovanbraam. You can use this button to automatically delete these map vertices. up until today. Collapse: Mighty handy tool. PS: You see how Dicreet (the makers of Max) are toying with us here? Tsk.

Hide Selected / Hide All / Hide Unselected: I advise not to use this in any sub-object. 19 . Subdivision Surface and Subdivision Displacement) I don't use.onnovanbraam. The rest of this section will be covered in the Polygon Sub-Object tutorial. but I have lived without even giving them a single look. The last three roll-outs (Vertex Properties. Ever.www. since it's the same for all sub-objects and because there is some small differences concerning selection of a part of your model and then applying one of the operations available here and that difference is best explained in the PSO.Tutorial Collection 2007 to do.Onno van Braam . They may be handy. but only on complete models / meshes.com . Believe me.

www. just as in the VSO but now applying to edges. Under this you can see all the options you have in the ESO. I will try to explain all options available when modeling in the edge sub-object.Onno van Braam . To see what Ring does I selected one edge.Tutorial Collection 2007 Polygon Modeling 3: Edge Sub-Object Summary In this tutorial.com .onnovanbraam. Ring does it perpendicularly and Loop parallel to the edges' direction. Grow: Grows your selection. Ring and Loop: Ring and Loop are very similar. They make selections easy. just as in the VSO but now applying to edges. then pressed Ring: 20 . Selection Shrink: Shrinks your selection.

Works a little subteler than hard deleting it. Split: A sort of detaching. 21 .com .Tutorial Collection 2007 On the other hand if I would select a different edge and pressed Loop I would get this selection: This obviously also works with more complicated meshes and shapes and is therefore a very usefull tool when making complex selections in a fast easy way. Insert Vertex: Don't use that here. use 'Cut' in the PSO.Onno van Braam .www. in that it rebuilds the polygon from which you deleted it. utterly useless.onnovanbraam. Edit Edges Remove: Removes an edge you select.

Last one is preferable if you want a consistent model. Connect: Connects edges. This tool will be extensively used in all further tutorials. Also works on a larger selection. It doesn't do anything for me. It splits an edge into two and thereby creates a new polygon. 5-9. For an example between two edges see the image below: 22 . Extrude: Creates a sort of spike. Looks like nonsense to me.Tutorial Collection 2007 Weld: Welding Edges? Yeah right.Onno van Braam . Can be set either manually or 'by the numbers'.www. or when selecting a whole Loop it could be used the create an outward seam for instance. Target Weld: I think they forgot to turn this button off. Chamfer: THE tool for giving your model the right shape when you're modeling with the help of MeshSmooth. Do not use this.com . so very usefull if you want to make a spike.onnovanbraam. by creating new ones from the middle of one edge to the other.

Selection Shrink / Grow: Works exactly the same as in the vertex sub-object.Onno van Braam .Tutorial Collection 2007 Polygon Modeling 4: Polygon Sub-Object Summary In this tutorial. Edit Polygons 23 .onnovanbraam. I will try to explain all options available when modeling in the polygon subobject. only now it grows / shrinks by using polygons.www. Under this you can see all the options you have in the PSO.com .

Local Normal (as a group. Try not to use this. Extrude: Extrudes a polygon. Could be useful. or group of polygons. So when you click drag you extrude.onnovanbraam. Just click 'Insert Vertex' and click where you want it on your mesh. Bevel: Bevel is a combination of Extrude and Outline.Tutorial Collection 2007 Insert Vertex: Use this if you really want a vertex at a certain position on a polygon. Or do it 'by the numbers'. Outline: Scales the polygons you have selected (either by a certain amount. then let go and then when you move your cursor it outlines. 24 . Do notice the 3 or 4 edges it creates along with it! This is a good way to make your mesh ugly. so they won't form a whole). so that they still have the same normals. This is actually a quite nice feature and I use it quite often. but each polygon along it's own normal). or manually). since it scales each polygon.Onno van Braam .com . Better use 'Slice' and 'Cut'. By Polygon (each polygon along it's own normal and individually. since it's not 100% a scale. Click the do-it-yourself button after selecting the polygons you want to extrude and click-drag. they all have there purpose and I use them very often. Then you have three extrusion types: Group (all in one averaged direction). and then applied one of the three extrusion types: It's not like one type is the dominant one. either by it's own normal (perpendicular to the surface) or as a group.www. where I first have selected all the polygons in the middle of a cilinder. See the next image.

but also for technical modeling it could come in handy. Obviously drawing a spline with a certain shape is much easier then extruding all the time and trying to make it fit the line. very fancy feature. but for quick-and-dirty work.www.Onno van Braam . Taper (to make it smaller near the end). which is handy! So you'll be able to make polygons sit sort of inside others. 25 . so you'll create an attached prism.Tutorial Collection 2007 Inset: Inset is about the same at Outline. with the difference that it creates new polygons. Hinge From Edge: It does what it says: it hinges a polygon around an edge. which is handy when you try to model organic stuff. I hardly even look at it.onnovanbraam. Basically you draw a line. It's actually more usefull than I thought.. There you can also select the edge it needs to rotate over.com . See the image below to get an impression of what it does: Extrude Along Spline: This is a very. Quite a nice feature which came in in Max 5 (people asked for it). sort of. then click the line and it extrudes your initially selected polygons along that spline.. Insetting is the way to go. Taper Curve (to make the smaller-going go linear or curvilinear) and Twist (to give a sort of twirl / twisted look) all are very nice. Options such as Segments (the number of segments used to try and make it look like the line). You can set the number of segments and the angle it needs to rotate when you do it 'by the numbers'. This sort of operations can also be done with slicing. then click the button 'Extrude Along Spline'.

then then the left-top one. then 26 .com .Onno van Braam .Tutorial Collection 2007 Edit Geometry Repeat Last: Don't understand why they bothered making a button for this.onnovanbraam. So for example. You have to click a number (3 or 4) of vertices in the right order and then it will create a polygon for you. isn't there just a global undo button? Because doing the exact same thing again but on a different polygon doesn't make too much sense to me.www. So here I first click the right-top one. I clicked create and saw the first part of the image below (you will always see the vertices of your model when you click 'Create' in the polygon sub-object. but not by a single click. Create: With this you can create polygons. then the left-bottom one.

extremely useful! Quickslice: Quickslice let's you slice selected polygons. then it copies the selection to a new mesh and keeps the old one. click detach and select the option you want.com . Detach: The inverse of attach: make a selection of polygons. or 'As a Clone'. Attach: Attaches other meshes to your current one. so it will become a separate object. lo and behold for the result (4).onnovanbraam.Onno van Braam . you'll see a plane gizmo appearing (3). Same as in the vertex subobject. by drawing only one line. Slice Plane: This is one of the most important functions in the Polygon Sub-Object. click 'Slice Plane'. rotate and move it until it slices your selection in the way you want it and click 'Slice'. Then it creates a polygon and selects it for you. then you detach it. A complete Detach.Tutorial Collection 2007 the right-bottom one and then to complete the procedure. Slice: Performs the slicing as described above. It let's you 'draw' the plane that slices. Select the polygons you want to slice (2).www. the right-top one again. Reset Plane: Resets the Slice Plane gizmo to it's original position. 'to Element'. It's a bit of hardcore grouping. Collapse: Crashes your selected polygons into one point (vertex). but dirty. but it's still part of the same mesh. so this is usefull if you would have wanted to slice while 27 .

Tutorial Collection 2007 working from a orthogonal view. it's a very rough and very quick method. This tool is best used from already existing edges to other already existing edges. This is very handy for drawing shapes onto your model which you could extrude then for example. or you'll get the same problem as with insert vertex: it does what it's told to do.www. Works nice.onnovanbraam. Tessellate: Tessellate is kind of weird at the beginning and I have only found one purpose for it so far (which will be covered in Techniques 1). Would you press it again.com . So it's kind of a quickslice if you want to slice halfway twice. exactly in half. Do not use this for fine slicing. Cut: With Cut you can draw edges onto your polygons (they don't have to be selected).Onno van Braam . so you'll get four pieces where you started with one. then it would slice each and every one of the four newly created ones halfway. Cut is a vital tool when modeling. and what it's strong and weak points are. but along the way completely fucks up your mesh. Polygon Properties 28 . try to understand how it works. When you select a polygon and then 'Tessellate' it slices it two ways. twice etc. you just click from point to point where you want an edge to be and it will create the necessary edges and polygons to do as you tell him. but don't use it too quickly or actively.

right one with different smoothing groups): 29 .onnovanbraam. See for example here (left image with the center polygons with the same smoothing group. By giving adjacent polygons a different smoothing group they get a hard angle between them. Select by ID: Select the polygons that have a certain ID.com . but in short you can give polygons a Material ID which you can then match with a specfic material from a Multi-Sub Object material or use it when unwrapping. I am not going to cover texturing so I won't go into detail. Smoothing Groups: Mainly used to create creases or pseudo-discontinuities on low-polygon models.www.Onno van Braam .Tutorial Collection 2007 Material ID: Used for texturing purposes (or selecting purposes) mainly.

All the options are (almost) the same as the ones in the MeshSmooth modifier. Display: Iterations: Number of iterations (the higher.Onno van Braam . the denser and smoother your mesh becomes.www. Basically a built-in additional smooth modifier. It basically is a built-in MeshSmooth in your editable poly. This value can be different from the value used when rendering (see option below). be careful not to set it too high (>4) or else Max has a tendency to crash. the disadvantage is that you don't have a quick 'Show End Result' on/off toggle which you do have would you use the loose modifier. Smooth Result: This acts as an additional non-mesh changing smoother. basically an on/off switch. Usually you 30 . so you don't have to add the modifier.Tutorial Collection 2007 Subdivision Surface I never looked at this roll-out. Use NURMS Subdivision: Click it to make things happen. until today and came to the conclusion that it's mighty handy. The advantage is that you don't have to add it (which makes your files bigger and more instable).onnovanbraam.com .

31 . but you pay the price in the form of an ugly mesh. Render: Smoothness: See Display: Smoothness..Tutorial Collection 2007 set this lower.com . Tweak it and you'll get a lower polycount.onnovanbraam. I don't really see why you would want use this option.www. only at the moment you render. so as to make the viewport still workable but have good smoothing and a nice dense mesh when rendering. Render: Iterations: Same as the Display: Iterations. Display: Smoothness: This is one of those weird options.Onno van Braam . only at the moment you render..

we will not use them). and which is pretty obvious they all have exactly the same shape. the result is shown below each cube. now that we have covered most of the available tools in each sub-object. This interaction can be be delicate at times and at other times it works completely logical. so duh! But then I apply a meshsmooth (MS from now on) with one iteration.Tutorial Collection 2007 Polygon Modeling 5: Techniques I Summary Okay..Onno van Braam . The Essentials and 2 Examples When you're modeling and you apply meshsmooth to a model you will have noticed that not your entire mesh gets evenly smoothed (and not because of vertex weights. This is always because of your mesh density: your mesh density.. is the all important thing when polymodeling in combination with MeshSmooth. Why not? Because it's time to understand the interaction between your Editable Poly and MeshSmooth. but afterwards it could look totally different. Yet we will not apply them to a specific modeling problem just yet. as I call it.com . So what is the mesh density? Well your model could look exactly the same as mine before MeshSmooting. in the middle three and on the right it has ten.onnovanbraam. such as modeling a wheel rim. they're cubes. As anyone can see. it is time to apply them.www. Example 1: Suppose we have a cube (100x100x100 in size). 32 . on the left it has 1 segment in each dimension.

only in a slightly different way. Only this time we will want to create the same end result.onnovanbraam. As you will understand it is a lot more efficient if we could do that (MS'ing 33 .com . what will happen when I MS? Or even better. Every action you perform. this will not get smoothed since I made the mesh dense. That's the rule and that is what you will think of all the time when you're poly-modeling. because when I MS. The denser your mesh before MS'ing. with 3x3x3 segments). the less smoothed it becomes. the second cube is way less smoothed but then again. the cube with 10x10x10 segments is still very similar to it's original shape. Let's redo the example above.www. The result is very very clear: the cube with 1x1x1 segments is extremely smoothed (it has almost become a sphere). Example 2: We make the second cube again (100x100x100.Onno van Braam . and therefor you will think: I do this and this.Tutorial Collection 2007 THIS IS IT. so after MS'ing as on the cube with 10x10x10 segments. you think: hm. know beforehand. Try to understand what is happening here. this is what poly modeling is all about.

only with nice semi-smooth edges. So I move all the vertices towards the edges (literally) of the cube. convert it to an EP. I did it in three steps as you can see on the images.Onno van Braam .com . Yet it means that the vertices that you move away from where they were didn't define a shape you wanted. then go to the VSO and move the middle two rows of vertices closer to the edge (I selected and scaled them 275% from different viewports. but gained definition at other places. it doesn't matter how you do it.. It's a step in the right direction. otherwise you would loose the shape of your model. So create it. On the final right bottom image the result is shown: a very cube like shape. it's exactly the same as before.. I want a well defined cube only then with nice smoothed edges.www.Tutorial Collection 2007 quadruples your polycount on each iteration). as long as you get it done). which is exactly the whole idea behind polymodeling. 34 . The only thing we did was move some vertices around to densify our mesh at the places where we want them. since what I want is a cube with sharp edges. There must be other ways to get where we just got. Moving vertices around to densify your mesh in desired places is a valid way of getting what you want out of MS. I don't want a blobby cube. You can see clearly that the shape hasn't changed at all.onnovanbraam. below the 4 is the end result (with and without meshsmooth). a bit zoomed in.

We use more iterations because our mesh is so empty before MS'ing that it gets very little definition would we use 1 iteration (try and see what I mean). Congratulations. click 'Chamfer' (the little window next to it). set Chamfer Amount to 1.Onno van Braam . and work both as we expected: set the Chamfer Amount smaller and the end result are very sharp borders / edges. Do the same as before only set the Chamfering Amount to 5. Select all edges. 100x100x100 in size with 1x1x1 segments. and especially the one about the ESO. so our goal is accomplished.com . Okay we are going to get the same result as before. Both steps and results can be seen in the next image.Tutorial Collection 2007 Chamfering There is indeed: it's called chamfering.0 (default) and click Ok (not Apply). set the Chamfer Amount larger and the end result is smoother. but this time we create the smooth edges by chamfering.) Apply a MS with 2 iterations. so you get smooth edges and a denser mesh at the borders which will in return result in what you want when MS'ing. the sharper the end result. go to the edge sub-object.onnovanbraam. So the denser your mesh.www. Okay. convert it to an EP. you have chamfered and therefore your are! . I mentioned chamfering and how important it would become later on. Well here goes. Example 3: Create a new cube. 35 . but there is still some things to explain. As explained in the previous tutorials.

100x100x100 with 1x1x1 segments. but more an application. So create a new box.com .Onno van Braam . or serie of events to create nice round holes in an object. concerning the chamfering and densifying your mesh. Try to understand what I am getting at. since it's the core of poly/MeshSmooth modeling. Hereafter I will explain some of the techniques I have learned over the years. Select a side polygon (1). Then select the middle 4 polygons (3) and click collapse (4). 36 .onnovanbraam. click 'Tessellate' twice (2) (this as mentioned in Tutorial 4 slices your polies). Now you have a sort of star like polygon configuration where your original polygon used to be. Making holes This won't be an explanation of theory.Tutorial Collection 2007 This about wraps it up.www. go to the PSO. convert to EP. The end result isn't very tidy (in that you are left with some garbage vertices. but it gives a good idea of how to do something).

Then to make the whole cube not become very blobby and smooth when MS'ing. since I want them to be defined but not 37 . Go to the PSO.com .Onno van Braam . select the new center polygon (3) and extrude it inwards (4).www. in my case it didn't so I had to select them by hand. Then I chamfered the edges by an amount of 1. select the middle vertex of the 'star' (1) and chamfer it (to the size you want) so that you create a new centered circular shaped polygon (2). and then press 'Loop' (3).onnovanbraam. That's it.Tutorial Collection 2007 Go to the VSO. Hopefully it selects the two 'rings' of edges.0 (2). but we want it to look good when MS'ing! So go to the ESO.0 (4). I also chamfer the other edges (1) by an amount of 3. select on the edges (1) of your hole and another one on the inside (2).

Then I apply a MS with 2 iterations (3). then do the exact same procedure on the other side of the cube. clone to element and move it a bit away (2). 38 . Another way of doing it: select the whole side and hole (1). Select one of the polygons of the copied hole (1).Tutorial Collection 2007 as much as the hole edges.www. then shift-rotate it 180 degrees (hold shift and then rotate your selection which will in effect copy it. deselect it.com . Then rotate your view and delete the side polygon after selecting it (3 + 4) Then turn on snap (s) and set it (by right clicking it) that it snaps to vertices. start clicking grow like a madman until the whole hole is selected (2). then move it (by using snap) towards the place where you just deleted the polygon (3). If you want the hole go from one side to the other. press a beforehand to rotate with steps of 5 degrees).Onno van Braam . but delete the two center polygons and connect the two newly created cubes by welding the vertices.onnovanbraam. for instance by using grow after selecting the center polygon.

but it's just to explain certain handy procedures. select all. since the original side is still different from the original one.Tutorial Collection 2007 Deselect all. more in Tutorial 6: Techniques II. delete the whole other side and do the same as explained before (2).www. It probably doesn't work very well. and then press 'Weld' (the vertex count should be 4 less after the welding). apply the MS again and lo and behold the result. This about wraps it up for this tutorial.Onno van Braam . this is because the chamfering was done after the collapsing.com . The last part went a bit quickly and sloppy. More vertices should weld and the result should be better (3).So the best way would be to just copy the entire side. including edges (1).onnovanbraam. go to the VSO. 39 .

especially when car modeling they're essential for a nice result.0 (5).Onno van Braam . from a side viewport slice your box in half (2) using Slice Plane (3). Creases Everybody wants to know about creases.Edge: Chamfer Once again create a box.Tutorial Collection 2007 Polygon Modeling 6: Techniques II Summary More techniques and procedures will be explained in this tutorial.Poly: Extrude .onnovanbraam. In the next section I will try and explain way(s) of making them. Go to the PSO and select all polygons (1). And also problems you could encounter when applying the explained techniques.Edge: Chamfer . go to the ESO. The steps will be: . select the newly created edges (4) (or they should already be in fact) and chamfer them with an amount of 3.com .www. Very often you see those blobby creases which make a car look very undefined and ugly. 100x100x100 in size and 1x1x1 segments. convert to EP. 40 .

The important and essential steps are of course: chamfer edge. extrude inwards (2) (By Group.onnovanbraam. height -5.0).www.0. chamfer 41 . select the newly created polygons (1). Then if you want the cube to remain cubish (this is not necessary.0 (4). extrude inwards.Onno van Braam .Tutorial Collection 2007 You can see the crease approaching! .) Back to the PSO. chamfer them by an amount of 1. but we'll do it anyway) select (5) and chamfer (6) the other edges with an amount of 2.com . Then when you go back to the ESO. you should notice that the edges are still selected (3) (exactly the ones we want).

3. but this one is still different). At least is has for me in the last years. 2.Tutorial Collection 2007 edge. If you want you could also chamfer the edges on the inside of the extrusion part. apply a MS with iterations 2 and your result should match the next image: That is it. 42 . Remember that. Anyways.com .. And then it may well be that you (and me too) will run into problems.Onno van Braam . there is nothing more to it: chamfer. extrude. Creating crossing creases (the 1st one is almost the same. Problems Off course it's not always as straightforward and easy as with this cube. You could have created a crease one way and then want another crease and that crosses the original one. chamfer. as described beforehand.www.onnovanbraam. These problems could be (an explanation of how to deal with them follows below): 1. Creases / chamfered edges on bend surfaces: one of the mother of all problems when polymodeling. This problem is best to be avoided. In fact it hardly ever is.. apply it and it always works.

so I select the edges (1) (by using 'Loop').. extrude inwards (3). since that shouldn't be any problem. then deletion of existing polygons.Tutorial Collection 2007 Problem 1: Crossing creases Suppose you have made a couple of creases on your model (like I did on the image below) and want to make an additional crease along the red line. chamfer (2). the poly extrude will not work as expected. but it's very. It would encompass extruding parts. As follows: deselect the already creased part (2). And then select (3) the polies that need to be extruded inwards. I will have a go at it.com .Onno van Braam . very cumbersome and hard work.www. It looks trivial. There's a way to extrude anyways now..onnovanbraam. Here lies the problem. select polies that are in the way 43 . The second part of the creasing process. but unfortunately it's not. we can't just go and extrude! Since then the part where there already is a crease will be extruded inwards for the second time. creating new ones and hoping it all matches up.

chamfer (5) and MS with 2 iterations (6)) exactly the way I did in the previous example. It works. So there's a solution.com . looking at my images and reading what I do will be enough to see what's going on. chamfer (3). As you can see in my Porsche WIP progress from image 2 to 3 I created all creases in one big sweep. one extrude and one chamfer again. extrude. And believe me all this is very very tedious work. yes there is.) You don't have to do this yourself. chamfer trick. and create the crossing creases (select (2). I create a box.www.onnovanbraam. extrude (4). But I will show you it is! .Tutorial Collection 2007 (4). It's a trivial one: create all your creases that cross at the same time! This will save you so incredibly much time. delete them (5). Problem 2: Crossing Creases II It's very easy to think that this is not a problem. 44 . only now with some more edges to which I apply the chamfer. but is there others? Yes.Onno van Braam . 100x100x100 with 2x2x2 segments (1). It was one 'chamfer' command. because they were almost all linked together somehow it had to be done all at once. create new polies to fill up the gaps (6 + 7 + 8). but then you also have to make the chamfering of the edges match.

com . averaged them. In the next image I tried to explain by drawing some images. So if you would take the normals of two faces. and then inverse it (make it negative).Onno van Braam .Tutorial Collection 2007 As you can see. 45 . then you get the direction MS would work in. before we can solve it: why is this happening? It is happening because densifying you mesh when chamfering has a direction and MS has too. but it's a feeling you will get along the way of learning how to model. MS tends to smooth negatively perpendicular to the average of normals of the surfaces. Not what you could possibly want. how the direction would be. The question of course is. where the creases cross each other a big tearing / hole appears. Sounds a bit complicated.onnovanbraam.www.

Hooray! That'll teach 'em! We win. and chamfer them.onnovanbraam.www.com . we will always win. so that they create a sort of barrier for the MS. we can go and do something about it.Onno van Braam . :D Modelers: 1.Tutorial Collection 2007 Now that we know the cause of the problem. see image below. MeshSmooth: 0. 46 . Naturally our mesh densifying by chamfering comes to the rescue. Select the four standing edges.

extruded them inwards (2). converted to an EP and some extra segments. All expected behaviour: one side with nice edges. when MS doesn't do what you want. yet now the problem: what if I want a rectangular inset in the side? I'll do it and the problems will occur automagically. In short it's a problem that you want to densify your mesh somewhere. Problem 3: Creases / chamfered edges on bend surfaces This is a problem that is hard to avoid and also quite hard to defeat. densifying is always the solution. So I selected the polygons I wanted to extrude inwards (1).com . like it did just now.Onno van Braam . chamfer (4) and MS with 2 iterations (5). other side very blobby. I'll first chamfer the edges of the side by selecting two edges (2) and then Loop (3). and it does what you want. I will use a tube in this example. then densify your mesh in the places you think the cause of the problem lies and see whether it gives the desired result.onnovanbraam. 47 .Tutorial Collection 2007 Anyways. All is well.www. but as a side effect it has effect on your model when you MS which you don't want. which is curved and not flat as the cube was. If not then try other places to densify. Always.

48 .www. but believe me this is something that you see when you use reflective materials such as a car paint or chrome. chamfered them (5) and then applies MS with 2 iterations. From this angle it's hard to see the problem. Looks good.Onno van Braam . but let me rotate the camera for you. there's a bulge right now.Tutorial Collection 2007 selected the edges (3) and also the edges on the inside (4)(including the standing ones in the corner!). so it may look like it's going okay but the only thing that counts is after you have applied meshsmooth.com . but in fact it's fairly hopeless. Also realize that this problem will always occur when you have a curved surface and you start extruding inwards and chamfer some edges.onnovanbraam. There's almost no car where there's no things that go inside on the car body and those are the places where it goes wrong. See this side view: It's not circular anymore see the right part of the previous image. With NURBS this would be a piece of cake. but we're modeling indirectly. It seems minor. It's a problem you'll be facing non-stop if you're working with cars.

onnovanbraam. The only general plan of work is to make your mesh denser around the problem area and form it the way it would look after you had applies MS. and then reshape it so that is matches the shape you want again. So try to make your mesh as undense as possible and let MS do the work. This way you 'fool' MS: it's dense so MS doesn't have much influence. Let's have a go at it. So once more the densifying is the solution.Tutorial Collection 2007 And now for the solution: the solution isn't one way. there's very little that you cannot solve by making your mesh denser. As said. I sliced a couple of times and moved the vertices around (with a Circle as guidance to see whether it matched up with it) while using the 'Show end Result' button in the modifier roll-out to instantly see the result of moving the vertices and slicing. It takes a bit of feeling (which is hard to explain in this tutorial) but just slice a bit to dense it up. There's no default solution.com . And that is no surprise. since what you de facto do is play to be MS. you are actually smoothing things out. and it has the right shape so it will remain good. yet if that doesn't 49 .Onno van Braam .www.

onnovanbraam.www. If that gives wrong result again.Onno van Braam .Tutorial Collection 2007 give the wanted result.com . 50 . try to tweak it and fool MS. then you densify it at place where it fucks up.

it can be done in steps: first a rough simple (but rightly shaped!) basis and then the refinements. not the modeling itself. it's time to jump in. the entire 'cockpit'. Litereally because most of the time the front and rear bumpers. since almost the whole world seems to model it: the Audi TT. PS: When I would be modeling a car I would try to find as much reference photo's as possible. but it's essential if you want to end up with a good representation of the original. such as chamfering edges and making the creases. As I have stated before: I don't use the blueprints that much when I model my car. I am not talking about a couple of photo's. Only this time I chose a different car.Tutorial Collection 2007 Polygon Modeling 7: Car Body Summary The modeling of the body of a car can almost always be sliced up into different parts. photo's are way better reference since they show all details. literally and figuratively speaking. mirrors etc. 51 .com . since only the concept is important. Another reason to model this car. is because it's one of the easiest car to model. Blueprint Setup Setting up blueprints is a 5 minute job. usually I would try to find around 50-100 wallpaper sized (800x600 or larger) photo's.. I have explained the way I do it earlier in the tutorial about how to setup blueprints. After we have done that (1).onnovanbraam.www.Onno van Braam . are all loose parts. So get Google out and try to get your hands on wallpapers and personal photo's of the car you try to model. Sometimes it can be very hard to find any (for instance for the 993 GT2 and the Alfa Romeo SZ I modeled). Figuratively because when you model it.. In this tutorial I won't go into modeling all details. only for the rough / global shape of the car I use them.

is by creating a box from the side view (1) and then deleting 5 out of 6 polygons (2). So I'll start with a single plane.com .Onno van Braam . It just doesn't matter. 'Where do I start?'. but the way I create it. is a logical question.Tutorial Collection 2007 Finding a Place to Start I have the feeling that many people have a (healthy!) fear or starting to model a car. and model the hood. but only one half. So I am just going to start at the front. Anywhere would be the best I can think of. yet the way you approach the modeling process does. And there is no definate answer. 52 .www. so I am not going to model both sides. What I will think of from the first second I start is that the whole car is symmetric (apart from the tank cap). This way side of the polygon is exactly in the middle and I can use the symmetry modifier without any troubles (3).onnovanbraam.

so I can see the result immediately. slice once and move the vertices to match up with the blueprints (but only from the top view up until now!) to create the entire hood (1). I always model this with the symmetry modifier visible. because of the orthogonal top view) and so I model the front grill too (2). After doing that I realize that the most front part of the hood goes downward and that I need more polygons there (what you see is smaller than it really is. Now is as good as any time to not only make it match the top but also from the side (top and 53 . the hard work is up! I start from the top view and shiftdrag some edges.com .Tutorial Collection 2007 So now that we have made the basis.Onno van Braam .onnovanbraam.www.

.www. and there is nothing you can do about it. front and rear view I don't use very often). since the blueprints have a line there (the crease of the hood) in the top and side view. just live with it and correct your modeling so that it looks best according to your own feeling..Onno van Braam . The line of vertices in between should be placed by feeling.com . Both the most inner row and outer row of vertices are easy to place (3). I think. PS: Notice how the blueprints I used do not match up. This is a common flaw of almost any blueprint. 54 . This is also why I say that you shouldn't trust on blueprints alone. So we move the vertices so they match.onnovanbraam.Tutorial Collection 2007 side view are most important.

Realize that the lines on blueprints usually correspond to creases and / or sharp edges.com . you need edges there (to create the creases as explained in a previous tutorial). When you want to model them. you shold have something like (1).Tutorial Collection 2007 After making the two other rows match too.onnovanbraam.Onno van Braam . Looking good if you ask me.www. 55 .

First we select the edges (1). all is done there (well roughly). this I will set right by cutting an extra row and place the newly created vertices correctly (5).Tutorial Collection 2007 Going Sideways Well we can't go any more further to the front.www.). chamfer them (2). The edges on the hood are a good place to start. move one lower than the other (3) then chamfer the new edges again only now smaller so 56 . Since I won't be modeling the entire car (why would I? Then the tutorial would cover how to model an Audi TT . but I made a small mistake: in the last part I didn't realize I was looking from above again and so I didn't have enough vertices to match the shape of the body. I will now start with some detailing (which I would normally only do until I have finished the rough model of the entire body. so we should go towards the side. I selected the entire row of edges (2). shift-dragged them out (3) (once again) and editted the vertices I just created to match up again from top and side (4).onnovanbraam. Looks fairly good.Onno van Braam .com .

www. Add a MS modifier with 2 iteration to see whether the result is satisfactory. With a 2 iterations MS modifier (3).Tutorial Collection 2007 they will become more sharp (4). Since the headlights look to be perfectly smooth with the body I will just make creases around it (and not delete them and later on try to remodel them back in).onnovanbraam. I now will model the headlights and the crease of the hood.Onno van Braam . So I select the edges (1) I want to crease and apply the technique explained in an earlier tutorial (2).com . 57 . And with one sweep I will also create the crease of the hood.

then extrude inwards (2). making the creases continue onto the wheel arches is undoable (as explained). So realize that this is just for tutorial purposes that I start detailing already. Last thing I will do is make the grill. then I would be in deep trouble.www. delete the not need polygons (3) and finally chamfer some edges (4). I didn't take into account modeling it (I have no vertices there).Onno van Braam . 58 .com . so I will slice where needed (1).Tutorial Collection 2007 Would I continue from here.onnovanbraam.

www.Tutorial Collection 2007 So in the end it looks like this: 59 .com .Onno van Braam .onnovanbraam.

Onno van Braam .com .Tutorial Collection 2007 Modeling the rest of the body is just more of the same. Only you would first model the entire car.onnovanbraam. then make the creases and hard edges and then do all the final tweaking.www. 60 .

Whether it be point-. there is a five-fold symmetry here. since version 5.or suface-symmetry. The Rim and Symmetry Analysis Well before jumping in I think we should first pick a rim which we'll try and recreate. the Symmetry modifier which is very handy. always.com . line. Toora. there's always one or a combination. 5 Center nuts and 5 arms.www.Tutorial Collection 2007 Polygon Modeling 8: Car Rims Summary Modeling car rims is actually fairly easy and straightforward. Anyways: as you can see. This will reduce modeling difficulty and effort tremendously. maybe if I have some time at the end. This is because there always is some sort of symmetry. So 61 . I picked one out which is as good an example as any: Do realize we will probably not be making all those nuts and bolts.onnovanbraam.Onno van Braam . After browsing to one of my favorite rim makers. since Max has.

but even a 10-fold one (the blue part)! So all we have to do is model a part of 36 degrees (360 for a total circle. I see many modelers work in a different way and that is cool. But that is not the case and it hardly is. Okay I've drawn some of the symmetry options that are available in the next image: Immediately after I drew this. divided by 10) and symmetry it so that it makes up the entire rim. way more work.Tutorial Collection 2007 what we are going to do is modeling one arm.www. as said.Onno van Braam .. Start: Outline and Basic Shape I talk a lot about basic shapes with which I mean that I always model something that roughly looks the way I want it to look and then start detailing and refining. it's then when you start cursing Max and wished you used Rhino.onnovanbraam. way. one nut hole. Would this rim have 5 arms and 6 nut holes then it would be way.com .. Nothing more. We are going to let the Symmetry modifier do all the work for us. I have been very lucky choosing this one as you can see. but I feel that my method is especially good when you want 62 . No way that I am going model the whole thing. one bolt / nut and 1/5th of the outer rim and that's it. there is almost symmetry on every rim. I realized: there's not only a 5 fold symmetry (the red and green part).

Tutorial Collection 2007 to learn and also works well for finding errors or misformed parts of your model more easily. both at position 0. I said that we will only model one part of 36 degrees. In the front view I create Circle with a radius of 100 (1)(remember that in 3D modeling everything is about relative sizes. So first a rough outline which we will use as guidance. Slice from 90 to 54 (4) This may look like nonsense. So click the 'Slice On' radio button of the cilinder. height segments 1. 0. In math the 0 degrees line is at the middle right (1). 0 (2). So we shift the slicing 18 degrees.www. not absolute sizes. 63 . So we slice from 90 + 36/2 = 108 to 90-36/2 = 72 degrees and hooray. but it'll become clear very soon.Onno van Braam . but now that I think of it: having it at the center top isn't handy. sides 20. because what we will be modeling is only half an arm of the rim which I want at the center top at the end. In the Cilinder set the height to something like -30. Hm.com . We want a total of 36 degrees and I want it at the center top. but handy to work with) and a cilinder with radius 100. So for example slicing from 0 to 90 gives result (2). Now for a bit of math.onnovanbraam. so 100 is absolutely arbitrary. it works as expected (3).

so add another one. This is best done by clicking the 'Absolute Mode Transform Type In' which then becomes 'Offset Mode Transform Type In' button at the bottom center of your screen. Add another one (it will be at the same position and angle as the first one) and rotate it (in the sub-object of the modifier. As you can see we are not yet at 10 parts.Onno van Braam . which is what we want now.onnovanbraam.Tutorial Collection 2007 Let's have a test run at how the symmetry modifier will help us out. rotate this one 72 degrees (twice the 36 of last time) (4). When you set it to Offset. yes modifiers also have an SO.com . usually for editting their Gizmo's) 36 degrees. Add one (1). This way you save yourself calculation time. Now comes a part where you might think it'll go wrong: we are going to 64 . :) So fill in 36 in the Z-direction (rotate!!. and if everything is correct it should be at the right place and angle already. it adds it (the amount you want) to the current value.www. not move) (3). This button changes the amount you give the rotate / move / scale from absolute to relative.

This will result in 16 parts in total. while we only wanted 10. move it to make the guidance for the nut holes (2). So far for the boring part. Then copy it again.www. So add.Tutorial Collection 2007 add another Symmetry modifier. now it's time to take advantage of what we just created. Copy the original circle and give it a radius of about 35 (1). set the radius to 10. rotate 144 degrees (5). But the modifier has a Threshold. Now I drew a line (with Initial Type 'Smooth' and Drag Type 'Smooth') to help as guidance when modeling the arm (3). This will work as a guidance when we model the center part. 65 . They won't be seen. so it will symmetry it over the ones you created in the first couple modifiers and weld them away.Onno van Braam .onnovanbraam. In the last part of the next image I show how your modifier list should look right now (6) And also the Transform Type-In thingie.com .

click the 'Show End Result On/Off Toggle' so that you only see the single part (1). Back to the original cilinder. Into the Vertex Sub-Object we go now. they will give troubles when using the symmetry modifier.onnovanbraam. So now we have a total flat part of the original cilinder. Before we go into the VSO. and the rear part too (5). Cut. Then convert your cilinder to an EDITABLE MESH (!!) and then to an EP (somehow Max fucks up if you convert directly to an EP). it has a nice copy/paste function for modifiers. so we can now start modeling. that's tricky since we have all those modifiers and don't have the option 'Convert to Editable Poly' without collapsing the modifiers along with it. we want to shape it (6)! 66 .com . but we have a cilinder. So select all the symmetry modifiers by Ctrl clicking them and then right click.Tutorial Collection 2007 Modeling All outlines are set. You modifiers are now cut and placed in memory just as it would work with text.www. But Max is to the rescue. Now we want to have an EP (we want to model!!).Onno van Braam . go to the PSO and delete the sides of your sliced cilinder (3 + 4). Set the Sides to 3 and Cap Segments to 3 (2). right click it in the modifier panel (where you just clicked Cut) and click Paste.

I think we are! This is starting to look like something and all with very little effort. but first set the interpolation of all circles created to 'Adaptive'. Click the 'Toggle End Result' button to see whether we are getting somewhere (3).Onno van Braam . You could work with the TER button On all the time.onnovanbraam.Tutorial Collection 2007 So modeling now. this is a very good way to see the result of what you're doing immediately and all over the whole rim (especially with an MS modifier of course).com . this way they're perfectly smooth and better guidance.www. 67 . In the VSO start moving the vertices around so that match all your guidance lines (1) and delete what you don't need (2).

Select the polygons that make up the hole and extrude inwards (3).Onno van Braam . Go to the PSO and slice the shape so that it matches your guiding circle (1).onnovanbraam. editted some more vertices (2). From now on things will go faster: you have the knowledge know of how to setup the symmetry and then all you have to do is model one bit perfectly and you're set. once again because of the symmetry modifier. 68 . The next thing we will do is make the nut hole.www.com . you don't want that.Tutorial Collection 2007 So do a little editting of vertices and slicing to make it fit better (1 + 2) and we're done for the moment. I changed the shape of the outlines since I noticed the rim was getting too fat compared to the original. delete the polygon in the middle that you just created. Cut some additional lines to prevent errors later on (2) (keep your mesh tidy!). What we have now is an almost perfect 2D representation of what we want in the end.

onnovanbraam. to give it thickness.Onno van Braam . This is what I got after 5 minutes of editting and chamfering etc.Tutorial Collection 2007 Now in the ESO select some edges that make up the side of the arm (1). I am not going through all those steps it would be a repitition of previous tutorials and also a lead-by-the-hand type of tutorial which I don't like.com .: 69 .www. by shift-dragging them (2). Tutorials should be about concepts not step by step explanations. and the end result should look someting like this (3): All to do now is chamfering edges to define the shape better and 3D the whole lot to make it more look like the original.

Tutorial Collection 2007 Either you call it a day here. same slice as before (90. 54) or at least make it fit the rim (1) and then delete all polies except for the inner ones to be left with a small strip (2) then delete the last polygon (3). then select some edges and shift-drag them (4 + 5). This you could make separate from the part we just made or make it a whole. 70 .com .Onno van Braam . attach the rim to this tube part and weld some vertices to make it form a whole. I didn't change much at the top end of the arm and so you shouldn't have too much trouble folliwing the next steps.www. Create a tube with radius 100 and 103. or you make one final addition: the outer rim cilinder. We'll try the latter.onnovanbraam.

but you only have to change one single part.onnovanbraam.Onno van Braam ..www.Tutorial Collection 2007 Some more chamfering and shift-dragging where need and you should be all set.com . Then you should (or could :P) have something like this (1) and I can think you can do the rest yourself now! It may not resemble the original perfectly.. 71 .

Tutorial Collection 2007 72 .Onno van Braam .onnovanbraam.com .www.

Onno van Braam .www.onnovanbraam. with a semi-nice texture.com . 73 .Tutorial Collection 2007 And here an example of a little more worked out rim.

.Onno van Braam . this is all about the concept.www. 74 .. they're as their name suggests asymmetric). Once again. Reference and Interpretation So what tyre will we make...onnovanbraam. After having a quick look at the Pirelli site (through Google most you find is Pirelli Calendar images. any tyre would do. When you look at this tyre you can see the simplicity with which we are dealing: it's a repeating pattern! And this one is symmetric through the middle too so it's even more easy (on my Alfa Romeo SZ I have Pirelli PZero Asymmetrico's. ah what a shame! :) I chose the Pirelli PZero Direzionale tyre: More than this you don't need as reference.com .. but definately worth it if you want to make a realistic looking car: using bump maps for threads is a bit too obvious. Of course there's only one brand that comes to mind: Pirelli.Tutorial Collection 2007 Polygon Modeling 9: Car Tyres Summary Modeling car tyres is a polygon eating exercise (you end up with quite a few in the end)..

www. Starting It's quite obvious that a tyre resembles a tube and therefor it would be logical to start modeling from a sliced tube. After that I applied an MS modifier with 2 iterations (2). 70 height. 30 parts for 360 degrees is 12 degrees per part (remember!). Having a quick look at the reference image I can guess that there will be around 30 parts (in the Array Rotate) needed to complete the whole tyre. I just created a tube (1) (100 Radius 1. it's way too smooth and thin. So first the underlying tube. Yet we won't.Onno van Braam . So I chamfered some edges and sliced some stuff using Slice Plane (3) to make it more defined and retain its shape after MS (4). 90 Radius 2. 1 Height Segment) and posistioned it at (0. This is not good so far. 75 .Tutorial Collection 2007 So what part of this tyre are we going to model? Well only the part highlighted in the next image. 0. is make a tube as a basis (a sort of background / underlying model) and over it model the thread (only one part) which will be 'glued' on. Nothing fancy.onnovanbraam. The way I do it. no measuring or thinking but all by feeling. that will be all! This part we will then mirror (with the Symmetry modifier) and then Array Rotate it (this will be explained in a short while). 0) which will be the basis.com . All this is just rough modeling.

Onno van Braam - www.onnovanbraam.com - Tutorial Collection 2007

The Thread

So now that the basis is there, we will start modeling the thread. First some guidance modeling is need to create virtual boundaries and then the actual modeling can be done.

The reference will be a sliced cilinder. So create a new cilinder with a radius of 110 (the rest of the settings, other than the slicing, aren't important) and set the slice from 96 to 84 (12 degrees centered around the middle top, see the previous tutorial). So the part we will model is roughly the size of this cilinder (1 + 2).

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Onno van Braam - www.onnovanbraam.com - Tutorial Collection 2007

We will start out the thread by making a simple box, which will serve as a rough start, give it a height of 35 (half the height of the cilinder) and convert it to an EP. Now move it to the logical position from where we can start modeling (1 + 2).

Delete the innert part of the box (1) and add a Symmetry modifier (2). Now move and rotate the Symmetry gizmo (so in the Symmetry sub-object) so that it mirrors the box, (probably move -35 in the y-direction and rotate 90 degrees in the z-direction from the top view) (3).

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Onno van Braam - www.onnovanbraam.com - Tutorial Collection 2007

Very good. Now we're almost done with laying the basis. Only two more steps to go: adjusting the Pivot Point and the Array Rotating.

Go out of the Symmetry SO and to the side view (1) go to the Hierarchy tab (this is next to the Modifier Tab, at the right top of your screen). Then you should see the Adjust Pivot options. What we will do here is change the Pivot point of the box, so that it can rotate around a different center, namely the center of the tube. Click 'Affect Pivot Only' (2) and move the pivot to (0, 0, 0) (3). Click the 'Affect Pivot Only' button again to go out of the editting.

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Only thing left is the Array Rotating. So either click the Array button, use your short-cut to Array or go to 'Tools' > 'Array...'. Array can make copies of your selected object(s), either normal copies, reference copies or instance copies. We will use Instance copies. Instances are object that have a two way information stream between itself and the object from which it was created. So suppose I make one object, instance it and then edit the new one, then the old will change too and vice versa. Very useful.

So set the 1D Count to 30 (remember?), and the z rotation to 12 (360 degrees / 30 parts), Type of Object: Instance and click 'OK'. Excellent, most of the hard work is done now. We have 30 parts which are all identical and remain identical (they're Instanced!), so we once more only have to edit one part and the rest will come along.

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Tutorial Collection 2007 I think the rest of the tutorial isn't as important.www.onnovanbraam.Onno van Braam . since all you have to do now is just edit your original box to make it look like one part of the Pirelli tyre. I will go through it more quickly. 80 . Only screenshots of what I did to make my thread look the way it did will be shown.com .

www.onnovanbraam.com .Onno van Braam .Tutorial Collection 2007 81 .

It's one or the other. the Alfa Romeo ES30 / SZ) is made with the same technique. 82 . mainly smoothing it (by hand. Only now with some custom made textures added.Tutorial Collection 2007 Almost done with the modeling now. only the matching I do with three parts (the top center and the one left and right of it)) and test render it: More detail can be added if you want (I made it very sloppy now).Onno van Braam .onnovanbraam. I unhide all parts (I usually work at one part alone. I am quite proud of it and think it looks quite fancy. no MS) and making all the parts fit each other is to be done. the rim with the technique of the previous tutorial. :) The following tyre (of my latest model.com . After I have done that.www. chamfered edges do make it look better but you will get a high poly count.

Onno van Braam .Tutorial Collection 2007 I hope you liked these tutorials and learned something! Happy modeling! 83 .com .www.onnovanbraam.

www.Tutorial Collection 2007 Polygon Modeling A: The Process of Modeling a Car Summary In this tutorial I will try to describe and explain. So a car it is. that the end result is better and 84 . Do mind: the process. A question like: can I model a car could arise at first.. but learn from it or at least enjoy it. and as always there isn't really a definite answer to where. :) Where to begin? A good question. my personal view on it. and obviously the only question when you want to start modeling a car. There is a massive difference between modeling something because you want to (personal) and because you have to (work). I tend to believe that when you model a car and you have some sort of connection with it. or front bumper. You can always try and you have to try if you ever want to become a better modeler. not the details of how to model a rear spoiler. very good. Throughout the first bit of the tutorial I will assume you want to model a car and do not have to model a car. as far as possible. it's just a look in the kitchen for all you people out there modeling cars too.. laugh at what you think is stupid.com . yet what car? When modeling something for yourself you could think this is not really important either. Take from it what you like. So you want to model a car: good. I do not claim it to be how it should be done. or what I would suggest you to do.Onno van Braam . but it's not really important. the process of modeling a car. so an overview of the steps I would undertake.onnovanbraam. But I can tell you how I would do it. Be prepared for a lot of text and very little images! Once more I would to emphasize: this is how I see the process of modeling a car. but I think it is.

. I would give it EVERYTHING I got. the test renders. but I for one couldn't care less.. That's quite a lot.Tutorial Collection 2007 more easily reached too. I am not telling you this to scare you off. but every single last image you can find on the highest resolution possible. the final result. Suppose I would (for some reason. Not a couple. Maybe we're all mad making cars in 3D. But you see the problem here: you seriously have to be motivated to start working on a project like that..onnovanbraam. To me at least: everytime I see some of the renders that I consider my best work. I don't think many can model a high-poly car in a day. Modeling a car isn't a one day thing. If you know the car you're modeling exists somewhere in your area: try to get a digital camera 85 .www.5 full-time working weeks. but even so. unless you're some magician. looks so nice etc. or gets you going because it makes such a nice noise. I can tell you now that I won't finish it: how can I be motivated to model such a totally crap looking piece of ****? I couldn't. I love it. but only to make you face reality or know what you're getting into when you start modeling cars. the thing I always do is start looking for reference images. 60 hours is comparable to 1. I know I can't. The whole love for the car in real life (would you model a car that actually exists of course) is a great drive for anyone to make it as good as one can.com . of joy and that only gets stronger when you realize how much time is has cost me to learn 3D Max. but just suppose) start to model an Opel Kadett from 1985. depending on the level of detail and how fast you work. and I have been told to be an extremely fast modeler. put in the hours it takes to make it as good as I can make it. Reference Images After choosing what car to model. I wouldn't know why.. The flipside of the whole story is of course the immense satisfaction of the whole modeling process. PhotoShop and to actually build the whole thing. The modeling alone can take anywhere between 10 and 60 hours or so.Onno van Braam . maybe you can. when I would model a Ferrari F355 (happens to be the car of my dreams). One is more motivated when one models something that brings out a smile on your face. I get this feeling of pride.

If you can't find blueprints: that sucks. windscreenwipers. private owners (ask them first. tail lights. if it doesn't exists (which hasn't happened yet.Onnovanbraam. SMCars.www. etc. If you can find these for the car (or whatever you're modeling) you want to model. but it's obviously a couple of magnitudes more difficult than when you model from reference. The second part of the reference image quest: blueprints / 3-view drawings. like italian exotics. Supra's etc. some people are a bit freaky about taking pictures of their car)) and especially of the details such as head lights. It can be done absolutely.. I personally can't model very well without them. doorhandles...Tutorial Collection 2007 (if you have one: great. The details are what makes a great car and it's always difficult to see them on wallpaper images which tend to show the whole car. but then again I haven't modeled that many cars) then I wouldn't start. interior (if you're up for the modeling of that too). especially the special ones.Onno van Braam . but most 80's and 90's cars are represented. Newer cars (last year) and classic cars (70's and older) tend to be more rare. Skylines. I personally always check if a blueprint exists for the car I want to model. so if you're lucky enough they have the blueprint you're looking for. Blueprints.onnovanbraam.com) and together they have around 20000 blueprints in total. logo's / decals etc. There are a couple big sites on the web (Suurland. 86 . otherwise borrow one) and make as many pictures of the car as possible (car dealerships.com . then that helps immensely. M3's.

I am not normal. No lighting until the whole car is done. or making a website: when you focus on one particular aspect of a project you can go up into better. apart from things that are normal to me. I have that with everything I do. blurred reflections. no wheels. because it's not very normal I think. Keeping different aspects separated helps me in focussing better: I hate switching between different aspects of a project. Rims and Tyres 4. Another reason to do it the way I do. blend maps etc. a single thread of the whole wire.. Blueprint setup 2. plus you have to get you're mind switched to every time from polygons to raytraced materials.www. no exterior details. Exterior details 5. no rims. And with a reason. back to polygons. back to specular materials. etc. That's right no texturing at all until the whole car is done.Onno van Braam . But. WHY? That's what you're probably thinking. I model the entire car (EVERYTHING) without applying any texture to it. is because projects can come to a halt halfway more easily because it seems like you achieved quite a deal when you render a body with full textures and some nice lighting. Body 3. but if you have no windows. and I do have a reason to do it this way. what good does it do? I think one tends to get complascent with what one has 87 . Switching back and forth slows anyone down significantly. Then again.Tutorial Collection 2007 The modeling process The actual modeling process I usually see in a couple of stages: 1. but I don't think many people do: I split the modeling and the texturing/lighting part completely.. whether it be modeling. opacity. Texturing + Lighting This is fairly straightforward. edges.onnovanbraam. focus completely on a single process. Interior ---------------------------------6 + 7. It'll slow anyone down and will drain energy.com . apart from a grey clay material.

1. You just get the blueprint you found (if you have of course). Which is obviously not the case: there is loads of work to be done. the wheels. To me they are almost always one of the most enjoyable part of the whole process.Onno van Braam . Use the blueprints as a guidance to modeling it. 3.) ). Blueprint Setup The setting up of the blueprints is a 10 minute job at most. 2.onnovanbraam. side. But knowing this: spend time on them when you model them. See also this tutorial I made a while ago. they can be too small. they can be wrong and good in a dozen ways. isn't easy.www.com . 88 . because they're like little gems of their own. rear). try to make them accurate. Believe me. It is almost never so that the blueprints are very accurate let alone match up in all the views (top. crop the views in PhotoShop and put them on planes in 3D Max. in your spare time. especially when you do something for yourself. so use them as a rough outline but double check what you model using the reference photo's you found.Tutorial Collection 2007 achieved then. front. Yes they can be too big (anyone putting 19" rims under a BMW E36 M3 for instance is nuts! . I have seen a lot of cars in my life (seen seen. Especially check the position of characteristic features of the body: compare their relative sizes and positions compared to other parts of the body or other parts of the car. Motivating yourself into working that long and/or hard on something with no payment. GET BACK IN THERE SOLDIER! I know it it's easy to fold though. Wheels make or brake a car. Body The body of the car: obviously the most important part of the whole car. as in observed them) and the rims on a car are very important. but never rely on them completely. Rims and Tyres Ah yes. and it's more easy to quit when you have a feeling you're done. other than the satisfaction and pride when it's done.

5. the seats and others. Chinese wisdom? Maybe. like the dashboard. bolts.onnovanbraam. antennae. Details make you want to touch it. It can be tedious. Beauty lies within subtlety. little bolts.Tutorial Collection 2007 Also because they have a great variety of texture in all the separate parts (brake disc. make the illusion of it not being real. or the ones from whomever looks at the image will trace the image flowing from detail to detail and zoom out to see the whole picture. Model as much as you want. brake calliper. the rubber of the wheel itself. locks. If you can't be bothered anymore but there are still things to be modeled: think about the immense satisfaction of seeing all those details when you render out the entire car at 6000x4000. Of course to each his own. but I do have to admit that I never went full-out on it so far. or filler for the details. nuts etc. they are of course. but only as background. decals. Exterior details The details are what makes a modeled car look good. For the modeling of the rims see a technique here and for the modeling of the tyres see a technique here. I haven't modeled any interior as well as I could or 89 . I know I have done on numerous occasions and I was very happy with all the details I put in there. much much greater. in the subtleties.Onno van Braam . but what I do know is that well modeled cars.. badges. but looking as if it were real greater. but once more I will state it: the more. the merrier. very difficult. It's all in the details.www.. How detailed you want your interior to be depends on how tinted your windows are (and yes. 4. Not more than there are on the real thing. the grill mesh. Modeling it gives another big leap in realism. but as much as you want from those available: door handles. I can't judge taste. that's a non-subtle hint) or how little motivation you have left when you are at this stage. Many organic shapes usually.com . On large scales the large surfaces tend not to be as important. Interior Modeling the interior is difficult. it's what I believe in anyway. Your eyes. small hood clips.). and realize that the more the better. have well modeled rims and real modeled wheels (including a modeled profile!).

not mess about switching renderers and doing tedious material overhauls. but I think I know in which state of mind I am at this stage of the process: I want to get it done and as good as possible. And I can understand it is great fun. Obviously you learn a lot doing something like that. You can get very far with modeling the inside of the doors. with or without a studio environment with cards. all gauges in the dashboard (with needles and background textures. Maybe as an exercise (if you're up for it) you could texture and render the whole car in one renderer and then try to get the same or better result in another..). try to get a nice lighting setup going. not unimportant at all. seats. or are making a convertible/cabrio. Texturing + Lighting I don't have much to say about these two aspects of the process. Some notes though: decide beforehand which renderer you want to use.. Again these two steps are vital to a good end result (even though I can enjoy a clay render of a well modeled car as much as any). in any car). gear leaver.Onno van Braam . (fake) GI isn't everything. steering wheel. 90 . handbrake. the dash and the steering wheel at a medium level of likeness to it's original. yes. and make renders of the exterior that I haven't put as much effort in as I have on modeling car bodies. but I wouldn't do that for 'fun'. rather than modeling every single detail of the interior (and believe me.. there are more than you can think of. then you have to model it. the seats. but usually you already have done so much on the rest of the car that you either want to continue to the texturing / rendering part. switching back and forth between scanline / Brazil / Mental Ray / VRay is horrible half-way: you have to re-do most if not all of your textures.com . So depending on whether you are going to make renders of the interior. or even better a real environment such as a parking garage. floor. Don't trust the modern day renderers to do all the work for you. thank you very much .onnovanbraam.Tutorial Collection 2007 as well as I should have.www. Maybe also because I model the cars for their exterior mostly. you will learn the finer details of the differences in materials and lighting settings. Only the SZ I made has almost everything in the interior. 6. + 7. so to say. rear seats..

how I dream on of my next project.www. Happy modeling! 91 .. You usually know for yourself how much work something is.com . but it's always nice to be able to tick off that object which you were afraid of to model.. make lists of what you want to do (list of objects for instance).Tutorial Collection 2007 Oh.Onno van Braam . :) All in all: that's pretty much all I have to say on this topic.onnovanbraam.. to get an overview of yourself of what needs to be done.. Try to work methodically.

Interpolation. Click the Line button. by clicking where you want each point. which has it's pro's and con's. then Creation Method should be rolled out. that will come back all the time when you start using splines. but in the end the results will be much alike. but for me until now. So fire up 3D Max.www. The Basics I'll start right away with showing you the absolute basics.Tutorial Collection 2007 Introduction to Splines Welcome to this introductory tutorial about splines! Splines are a powerful modeling tool. Creation Method and Keyboard Entry.com . I have found mainly pro's. go to the Create Panel > Shapes > Splines > Line. Now go the front viewport and draw a hexagon (a six sided 'circle').onnovanbraam. and connect the last (the 6th with the first again) and when the pop-up with 'Close Spline' comes. If everything is ok. Set Inital and Drag type both to corner.Onno van Braam . Your result should look something like so. Modeling with splines is very different from box/polymodeling. it doesn't matter if yours isn't exactly the same as long as it resembles it and has six points: 92 . click Yes. You now get some options in the panel: Rendering.

. Click the second sub-object (Segment) and you see that your vertices changed from small crosses to different small crosses! . You'll see later on.com . Click the 'add sign' before Line and see that Splines have the following sub-objects: Vertex. nothing smaller. Edge. The last sub-object. this button is the exact same thing as the one you clicked just now. So this is the largest subobject. You also see that the vertices of your hexagon are shown.. why this can be handy. they have Vertex. You see it's called Line01 and that the object is of the type 'Line'. Face. the lines that go from vertex to vertex move along. and has a small 'add sign' before it. The segment sub-object and one step 'larger' than vertex. with one square one. Move some vertices around and you'll see that it behaves normally. edges/segments have dimension 1. Segment and Spline. this means that it has multiple sub-objects (just as with editable polies.Tutorial Collection 2007 Alrighty.www. you see a small button lights up in the modify panel (under Selection).) You can still recognize the initial vertex. you see that the entire hexagon is selected. so nothing spectacular. again the same diagonal crosses for vertices) and select something. the one where you started drawing the hexagon.onnovanbraam. entire splines can be selected. you see that again it behaves natural. these let you go in to specific sub-objects. Click Vertex to go into the vertex sub-object. 93 . Poly and Element sub-object. is has again a small square around it. now go to the modify panel. go in it (nothing changes in comparison to the Segment subobject (maybe your selection is gone). is Spline. For now go back to the vertex sub-object. Select a segment and move it around. When vertices have dimension 0.). It can be compared with the edge sub-object in editable polies. That's your initial vertex.Onno van Braam .

yes. Click Create Line (make sure you're in the vertex sub-object). Attach.com . use Insert. that's easy. draw a rectangle inside the hexagon.Onno van Braam . this time inside the rectangle. Now pan down the modifier panel to the 'Geometry' roll-out. The options here are all essential to spline modeling.onnovanbraam.www. Try to make one. But what if you don't want to close the spline all the time? What if you wanted to make a U-shaped line? Ah. So for instace. stuff like Create Line.Tutorial Collection 2007 PS: Tip: To go in and out of the sub-object of an object (Spline or Editable Mesh/Poly) use Ctrl + B. 94 . and now you can draw new lines. just right-click when you want to end drawing a (new) line. It may be that it doesn't become entirely square when you click 'Close Spline > Yes' again. but we won't worry about that until later. so you still have one object. Weld and Refine are used ALL the time. to cycle through the different sub-objects. but that are part of the original spline. We'll start with Create Line.

but we don't want that. click the Vertex radio button to turn it ON and click the Grid Points radio button.com . As default it snaps to grid points. Now remove the last two mentioned. but it is! If you already undertsand how it works.onnovanbraam. This is very handy for adding detail to an existing spline model and something you'll be useing intensely once grabbed by the power of spline modeling. one with an extra dot. I'll explain something new one. by selecting the rectangle and the U-shape and hitting delete. and select the hexagon. This may be handy when you want to draw/make something that certain measures. then the rectangle and then the U-shape.Tutorial Collection 2007 Right click to go out of the 'Create Line' mode. then you can skip this part: Snap. but they are part of the same object (Line01). or when you want something to line up with an existing object.Onno van Braam . go into Spline sub-object. click Refine and move over a segment of your hexagon. you see that the cursor changes from the original arrow to a cross with two lines above it.www. so right click the snap button to bring up the Grid and Snap Settings. to turn that one OFF. Refine adds vertices to existing segments! So try to break the top and bottom segment (in VERTEX sub-object!!) into two parts. Right click to go out of the Refinemode. Back in the vertex sub-object. by adding a vertex in each of them. you see how it works? You have created three new splines. Press 's' to turn snap on (you should see a button turn on and off somewhere in the UI (user interface) when you press it). that you may not have thought was important. Snap let's the cursor snap to something you want. Move your cursor over the vertices 95 . for instance vertices or grid points.

and draw a line between the two vertices you just created. remember?). now refine the newly created segment and draw a line from the most left vertex to the middle of the new segment (where you just made a new vertex) and on to the most right vertex.onnovanbraam. The curvature at a smooth vertex is determined by the spacing of adjacent vertices. snap is important. If snapped isn't turned on. but they need to be at the same place to form a whole. The new vertices that you draw will come at the EXACT same spot as the ones you are trying to snap them to. but a line that is in the vincinity of those two. you can still select them both. So naturally there's more. But this way only very square objects could be created. or otherwise it's impossible to draw a line from one vertex to another. with snap turned on.com . Believe me. Vertex Types Up until now. we have only used Corner vertices (we set that in the complete beginning.Onno van Braam ..Tutorial Collection 2007 and see how it 'snaps' to those points and a small cross turns up when you are around one.. there are three other types: Smooth: Non-adjustable vertices that create smooth continuous curves. We are taking this up another notch! :) As said. now click 'Create Line' again. This does not mean that you can't distinguish them anymore. Okay. And in three dimensions it is absolutely imperative to use snap. 96 . then you won't draw a line that goes from one vertex to another (which is required later on). Okay.www.

www. You can see how your spline has changed. Bezier Corner: Adjustable vertex with discontinuous tangent handles that create a sharp corner. click 'Smooth'. The curvature at the vertex is set by the direction and magnitude of the tangent handles. set Vertex Type to Bezier. select the upper left and upper right vertices. right click one of them. The curvature of the segment as it leaves the corner is set by the direction and magnitude of the tangent handles. One of the things that probably isn't clear when you read this are 'tangent handles'.onnovanbraam. as long as you're on one of them) then right click to bring up the Quad Menu.Tutorial Collection 2007 Corner: Non-adjustable vertices that create sharp corners. Go into the vertex sub-object. it's smooth around the two vertices you are selecting! Move them down a bit to smooth out the line some more. In the upper left corner you see the four different Vertex Types.com . by moving the squares and see how your splines reacts to it. Now select the lower left and lower right vertices. I'll explain some more. it doesn't matter. These are helpers that you can move around to set the angle of the corner around a vertex. so that it goes through the middle vertex without a discontinuity of the derivative. Now try to move the bezier handles (the orange lines with squares at the end). Bezier: Adjustable vertex with locked continuous tangent handles that create a smooth curve. it tries to keep it smooth no matter 97 . hover over one with your mouse until it becomes a cross (the one for moving or selecting. with the spline we have made until now.Onno van Braam .

you could even make it continuous if you wanted it. It takes effort to get exactly how you want it.onnovanbraam.www. sometimes you don't even need it. you are in control most with this type of vertex. it's not hard. then you could make it match (almost) any shape you want. This type of vertex I use the most: you can create smooth surfaces that end in a 'square' form. for instance when making very smooth objects. This is exactly what it said in the description: 'continuous tangent'. because they're snapped) and set the type to 'Bezier Corner'. but at the end this ones the most powerfull. but also square. Select the most right vertices (there are two. See if you can make something similar to the shape I made below.Tutorial Collection 2007 what you do: in the vertex the derivative is continuous.com . 98 . Yet still.Onno van Braam ... Once more exactly as in the description of this type of vertex: 'discontinuous tangents'. this one has it all. but if you can make it match this. but the shape hasn't changed and it's not continuous either. This time the bezier handles are there again. but you can only see one. Move each of the three handles around and see what it does with the shape of the spline.

then and only will you be in control to make whatever you can imagine! I haven't mentioned the surface modifier yet. make some trial spline cages. try different Patch Topology Steps. see how it reacts when you make all the vertices of the Smooth or Bezier type.Tutorial Collection 2007 Now that you know the basics and the vertex types.Onno van Braam . The surface modifier is your tool to make something out of you spline cage. maybe you should try to apply the newly acquired knowledge in the next tutorial: Spline Car Modeling. then apply the modifier and voila. this is all I have to say for the time being. maybe add an additional MeshSmooth. 99 .onnovanbraam. try to understand why it behaves the way it does. try to fool around. Once you have the cage.www. Trial and error is the way. Again. Vertices on splines that cross one another should be coincident'. fool around with different settings for the Surface Modifier. you'll find all the information you need there. That's it.. because if you do. to make the surface modifier work the way it should: 'Make sure that the Spline vertices form valid three-sided or four-sided polygons.com . Look in the help file that ships with 3D Max under 'surface modifier'. but I'll shortly go into what it does and how to use it. one surface! But there are rules that you have to attend to..

crop them in Photoshop and place them on planes (for a tutorial see: 100 .htm Then you can proceed with this tutorial :) First take the blueprints.www.cyberkreations.com . Then check these links: http://www.Onno van Braam . and not the tutorial about a head in Rhino3D! :) Or else this tutorial will go way too fast.comet-cartoons.com/3ddocs/facialmodeling/modeling.Tutorial Collection 2007 Spline Car Modeling PLEASE MAKE THE RHINO HEAD TUTORIAL THAT SHIPS WITH MAX BEFORE STARTING!! That is the tutorial about making a head of a rhinoceros (under F1).com/kreationsedge/tut/splines/cage.onnovanbraam.html http://www.

Next is placing all the vertices of your spline at the right place in the last and third dimension. try to play around with the segments number and see what happens. Make sure that you always form triangles or preferably squares. never make a 'face' with five vertices. smooth and corner).Tutorial Collection 2007 here) Now start drawing splines along the edges of the car in the front view (or side. An extra meshsmooth always helps too for a final 101 . roof. Do that by using the top view: align all the vertices at the right spot.Onno van Braam . When you did that. hood etc. bezier corner. add a surface modifier to your spline(s) and you have a perfect mesh. because it will not work then (the surface modifier that is). From here on it is pretty straight forward: do this for all the different parts (front / rear bumper.) Make use of the great tool called snap (see Help file for more info). If not then look in the Help file that ships with Max. just the view where you see the side of the car).onnovanbraam. I assume you know how to draw splines and how use the sub-object qua vertices (bezier.www.com .

Onno van Braam .Tutorial Collection 2007 touch. 102 . The rest of the images is the progress of the scene I used (one of my favorite cars: The Lancia Delta Integrale Evoluzione).www.onnovanbraam.com .

Tutorial Collection 2007 103 .onnovanbraam.Onno van Braam .com .www.

com .www.Onno van Braam .onnovanbraam.Tutorial Collection 2007 104 .

Onno van Braam .Tutorial Collection 2007 And here the final result: 105 .com .www.onnovanbraam.

www.onnovanbraam.com .Onno van Braam .Tutorial Collection 2007 TEXTURING 106 .

Radius2 = 80 and the Height = 60.www.Tutorial Collection 2007 Map Channels Step 1. . you should make the two textures needed to apply to the tire.onnovanbraam.Before you even begin to make this tire.Go to the Front View Step 3.. . but that does not matter either since one would usually make an alloy inner tire too.com . 107 . This is the basic shape that we'll use for this tutorial. since I already used them and they work very nice for the wanted effect: double texture on this tire. .Go to the Create Panel and make a tube. Make Radius1 = 100.JPG. It's supposed to be a tire: we'll make a tire (without the alloy) which has some profile AND some letters on the side like this (don't pay any attention to the low ammount of segments. Save these two pictures as tire-side.): Step 4..Reset 3D Studio Max Step 2. . And the inner side is also textured. I would suggest something like the following two. because that can be altered any time.JPG and tire-track.Onno van Braam .

Onno van Braam . When selected go to the material editor and make a new material.JPG. Set V-tiling to 25 (we need the track to be repeated a lot of times because it has to go all around the tire) and 108 .com . . select bitmap from the pop-up and select tire-track.Tutorial Collection 2007 Step 5. Click the maps roll-out and click the bump button. Go to the polygonal sub-object level and select the faces/polygons on which you want the tire-track to be applied.onnovanbraam.www.Select the tube and convert it to an editable mesh.

. BUT need letters on them. and I used to think so too.. But what happens when we make a test render? IT SUCKS (left image)! Ok. That should do the job nicely. i which means Select Invert (or make a shortcut like me: Ctrl + Shift + I). but what do we do then? A planar map! Yes! Again we make a test render.Go back to one of the viewports and press Alt. But here is where the map channels come in! 109 . Click Show map in Viewport Parent and then Go to . And to complete this material set the Diffuse and ambient color to (45.JPG. Step 6.onnovanbraam.. select bitmap and then tire-side. Click cilindrical. and now click the diffuse button.Close the material editor. So now go back to the material editor and again make a new material.com . Go back to normal mode of the tube (= out of the Polygonal Sub-Object level). 45) and specular level to 45. Set bump amount to -999.. IT SUCKS (right image)!!!! WHOAAAAAA! :) We need both but we can only have one at a time to work. you would say. Again click Go to Parent and set the specular level to 45. . e.Tutorial Collection 2007 the W-angle to 90 degrees (on the right).www.Onno van Braam . Apply an UVW map. So now we have all the polygons selected which do NOT need the tire-track on them. . 45. because they are the side of the tire. Now you should have two materials that should look like this in the Material Editor: Step 7. Again click Show map in Viewport. Again click the maps roll-out.

Tutorial Collection 2007 Step 8. Select the first material (the tire track 110 .www.How do they work? Go to the material editor. .onnovanbraam.Onno van Braam .com .

I explained how the idea behind Map Channels work by making a tire with two materials that needed different UVW maps.Now close the ME.com .Well that's about it. On the right in the coordinates roll-out you see Map Channel... Make the Length and th Width of the second UVW 225 (because the tire-side. YES! It's good: Wrap-up .onnovanbraam. An important thing to remember is that the Map Channel of ALL sub-materials have to be set to the right number: suppose you have a material that has a diffuse. Remove all UVW maps off the tube.Onno van Braam . Now apply a new UVW map. Make another test render. Set it to 1 (it should already be but make sure it is). Click the diffuse button and set the material channel of this bitmap to 2. Go to Parent and now go to the other material (the one for the side of the tire). .www. I hope that you understand that this is only a simple example of how Map Channels work and that you can apply it in a more complicated 111 . bump and opacity map then all map channels within each map have to be set to the right value..JPG is a bit too wide and high). Step 9.Tutorial Collection 2007 one) and click the bump map again so that you are in the bitmap screen. set Mapping to planar and set the Map Channel to 2. Apply a new one: set Mapping to cilindrical and make sure the Map Channel of the UVW map is 1.

www. by using Multi/Sub Object materials. you would have to set the right Material ID's of the selected polygons. You can assign new map channels with new mapping coordinates by applying a UVW Map modifier to the object. Applying this technique is also possible without eating up all your material slots (I know that you can have more than 24 that are available.com . 112 .Tutorial Collection 2007 way with more UVW maps and more materials.Onno van Braam .Here's a piece of text from the Help file that ships with Max. Map channel values can range from 1 to 99. but still). they use map channel 1. It does make it a lot more easy to comprehend. When you turn on Generate Mapping Coordinates for an object. especially with a lot of different materials on one object.. It's explains the definition of a Map Channel: A map channel associates a map with an object's mapping coordinates.onnovanbraam.. This is very simple: everything works the same only now. Help .

If you apply a map that uses a certain map channel to an object that has no mapping coordinates for that channel. a Missing Map Coordinates dialog appears to warn you of the problem.www. In the UVW Map modifier. you can assign a map channel without applying UVW Map. Different map channels allow maps for the same object to use different coordinates.onnovanbraam.Tutorial Collection 2007 For NURBS surface sub-objects. For example. Different map channels can have different U and V tiling values. a compositor map. The dialog lists the map channel and the object name. A map's map channel value identifies which of an object's mapping coordinates to use.Onno van Braam . 113 . The surface sub-object has a different set of mapping coordinates for each map channel you use. you can also set different map channels to have different mapping types (planar. you might use one channel for diffuse mapping and a different one for bump mapping.com . and so on). spherical. the map doesn't appear on the object. cylindrical. When you render. or a multi/sub-object material. and so on. Map channels also let different maps use different coordinates within a compound material. different U and V offsets.

Now go to the Modify Panel again and apply an Edit Mesh modifier to the cilinder. .com .onnovanbraam.Go to the Front View Step 3.Tutorial Collection 2007 Multi/Sub-Object Step 1. Choose Sub-Object => Face (or Selection => face). . Scroll to the bottom of the Edit Mesh modifier panel and set Material ID to 1. whatever your like. It does not matter what and set the height segments to 3.Reset 3D Studio Max Step 2. Go to the Modify Panel Now that you have done that you should have something that looks like this: Step 4. . dimensions.www. and for the top third to 3. 114 .Go to the Create Panel and make a cilinder. . Now deselect the bottom section and select the middle third and set Material ID to 2.Onno van Braam . Now select the bottom one third of the cilinder.

An UVW-map simply solves that problem.The final thing to do is apply an UVW-map to the cilinder: because you have applied an Edit Mesh to the cilinder. .Deselect the Sub-Object mode and open the Material Editor (m). . Max doesn't understand in which way he has to apply the material.onnovanbraam. Now every Material ID has it's own material. Step 8.Tutorial Collection 2007 Step 5.Set number of materials to 3. . Step 9.www. At the pop-up choose 'discard old material' because we are going to make new ones. . you can render it by pressing Shift + Q and you should have an image resembling to this: 115 and apply UVW-map. Step 6.Onno van Braam .Do not exit the Material Editor yet. . a Brick and a Planet material. Instead of Standard choose Multi/Sub Object. So click on the cilinder without closing the ME and apply the material: the 'sphere-to-cube' button. Go to Modify Click cilindrical as Mapping and at alignment click Fit.After this tidying up. . You can make the three materials any way you like: I made a Dent. Now that you have three little sphere's in front of you with the 3 Material ID's next to them.com . because it still has to be applied to the cilinder. Step 7.

but still: this way of adding more than one material to a single object can be very handy and useful.www.com . So no time wasted! :-p 116 .onnovanbraam.Tutorial Collection 2007 This of course is a very simple tutorial.Onno van Braam .

go to the Material Editor and in the diffuse slot add a new map: a Composite Map. 117 . Composite maps are a different way of putting decals/logo's on your object.Onno van Braam . With the plane selected.onnovanbraam. First step is to create the object on which we'll put the composite map.com . and for simplicity I made a single plane of 200 by 200 units (square).Tutorial Collection 2007 Composite Maps This tutorial will describe how to use composite maps in 3D Studio Max. other than having to unwrap it and make large bitmaps in PhotoShop.www.

It'll become clear in a sec.onnovanbraam. To do this we need two different maps for each logo: one for the color and one mask. if you don't exactly understand what I am saying. because we want to put two logo's (the Pirelli and the Brembo logo) on the plane.Onno van Braam . The mask image will 'blend' the base material color with the diffuse color of your color image.com .www. Blend/Mask and Diffuse map for the Pirelli Logo. you see something like the next image: you can set the number of maps by clicking the 'Set Number' button. but for the time being we'll just use two maps. 118 .Tutorial Collection 2007 When you have done that.

com .www.onnovanbraam. I don't want to think about what measurements/dimensions/relative x / y size it should have.Tutorial Collection 2007 Blend and diffuse map for the Brembo Logo. 119 . Combined diffuse and blend maps: I made the maps perfectly square so that they're easier to work with later on.Onno van Braam . so I make it square and that way it's easy to set the x and y size of the UVW Map since they're the same. they have a ratio of 1:1. When we'll apply UVW Map modifiers to our object.

www. The Mask map blends (as said) between the base color and the Map. The Mask Map has again two slots: one Map (we'll use the Pirelli color bitmap for this) and one Mask map.Tutorial Collection 2007 Map 1: Pirelli Logo. Click the 'None' of Map 1.Onno van Braam .com .onnovanbraam. it'll bring up a pop-up with different type of maps and select Mask. 120 . So on with Map 1 of the Composite Material.

select Bitmap from the list. not the square one. Note that in the screenshot it's still the small logo.onnovanbraam.com . and select the Pirelli diffuse/color map wherever you have stored it.Onno van Braam .Tutorial Collection 2007 Click the Map slot.. not a 121 . I changed them only afterwards and forgot to remake a screenshot. Uncheck the U and V tiling radio buttons: we only want to put a single logo on our plane.www..

in stead of the Color bitmap. After you did all that. click the 'Go to Parent' button to go up one level in your material.Onno van Braam . Repeat the previous process for the Mask map. So the Composite Map now has a Mask Map in Map 1. only now select the mask bitmap.Tutorial Collection 2007 repeating pattern.onnovanbraam. and the Map map (pardon the jargon 122 .com .www.

com . and the Mask has the blend/mask bitmap in it. now comes the fun part: playing with the logo's on your object. Adding UVW Maps Add two UVW Map modifiers (Planar ones). by right clicking them in the list in the Modify panel.Onno van Braam . Change the name of the Mask maps to something like 'Brembo Logo' and 'Pirelli Logo' so that you can find them easily. Change the 123 .Tutorial Collection 2007 here.onnovanbraam. That pretty much wraps up the work in the Material Editor! The nasty part is over.www. but they decided to call the diffuse color map in the Mask map 'Map') has the color bitmap in it. Next up is to repeat the previous steps for Brembo logo which will go into Map 2 of the Composite map. 'Pirelli Logo'). rename them to match the material names ('Brembo Logo'. The only difference is to change the Map Channel to 2 for both the diffuse and the blend bitmap.

so as to match Map Channel you set just now in the Material Editor. it should show up in your viewport as below. . by going into the Composite Map then the Pirelli Logo Mask and the Map (diffuse) slot and click the 'Show Map in Viewport'.com ..onnovanbraam.. 124 .Tutorial Collection 2007 Map Channel of the Brembo UVW Map to 2. Go back once more to the Material Editor and set the Show diffuse Pirelli map in viewport.www... and if everything went okay.Onno van Braam .

125 .Onno van Braam .Tutorial Collection 2007 And now for the magic: go to sub-object of Pirelli UVW Map.www.onnovanbraam. by clicking on it in the Modify panel (so the Pirelli Logo UVW map) so that it becomes yellow to indicate you're in the subobject. Now you can move your UVW Map around and the beauty is: your logo moves along with it!.com .

Onno van Braam .www.onnovanbraam. 126 .com .Tutorial Collection 2007 I moved the UVW Map a bit downwards just for examplary purposes.

Tutorial Collection 2007 Go to sub-object of Brembo UVW Map and move it too.com .Onno van Braam . only a bit upwards. 127 .onnovanbraam.www.

128 . which are due to me making sloppy Masks which had some compression in them and therefore weren't perfectly white/black. without doing complicated unwrapping.Tutorial Collection 2007 This is basically the whole key to Composite Maps: you can move your logo's/decals. all around the object you are mapping. Also not the horizontal lines. So time for a test render! Below you can see it. or making large UVW Maps in PhotoShop which kills memory wise when rendering. and there are some notes about what is what.www.onnovanbraam.com .Onno van Braam .

129 . Well.Onno van Braam . Brembo in Map 2) and on the right is them reversed (Brembo in Map 1.onnovanbraam. You could for instance ask yourself what would happen if the two maps were put on top of each other by moving the UVW Maps both the center of the plane.www. Left is the original order of the maps in the Composite Map (Pirelli in Map 1.Tutorial Collection 2007 Hierarcy/Order of Maps in Composite Maps Now it's time to dig a little deeper into how Composite Maps work. why not do it.com . but first I changed the diffuse/color Map of the Pirelli Mask Map to a black version so that you can see the difference between the Brembo and Pirelli logo (they were both red). Pirelli in Map 2).

Onno van Braam - www.onnovanbraam.com - Tutorial Collection 2007

You can swap the materials by dragging one onto the other and selecting 'Swap' as the Copy method and click OK.

So this means: the higher the Map number in the Composite Map list, the more on top it is. So if you would want to make a complicated textured car with lolads of vynils for instance, you would work 'back-to'front': everything what is in the background goes in Map 1, then what is on top of that in Map 2 and what if above that in Map 3 etc. etc.

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Scaling of UVW Maps

So far we have only worked with the default size of the UVW Map (i.e. being as large as our object), but what if we want the logo to be smaller than what it is now? You could make it smaller on the bitmap, but that's a lot of work (you have to do the Diffuse and the Mask bitmap) and besides, it's a irreversible process, you're resaving your bitmaps. All in all, that's not the way: you can just scale your UVW Map. Go into the Sub-Object of the Pirelli Logo UVW Map and make it a bit smaller by scaling it, using the 'Select and Non-Uniform Scale'.

This is one of the beauties of Composite Maps: you can move and scale your logo's and decals at will all over your object without having to worry about unwrapping, changes to your mesh, the size of the logo etc.

Adding additional logo's

If you want to add more logo's, you have to add more Maps to the Composite Map, as follows: - Set number of Composite Maps, 1 higher than it is now. - Copy old map (of the logo you want to duplicate or if you want to make a new to save some

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time making the Mask etc.) to the new slot. - Change map channels of diffuse and blend bitmap. - Add a new UVW Map to the object and change the UVW Map map channel to the one you just set in the Material Editor.

I think it's good practice to match your Map Channels of your bitmaps and UVW Maps to the Map number of your Composite Map. That way you avoid consfusion and errors.

If one would use Composite maps compared to UVW Unwrapping, there are pros and cons: pros: - Fast placement of each decal/logo and you can instantly put it where you want it. - No huge bitmaps, that take a lot of memory while rendering. - No UVW Unwrapping, which can be a really big pain in the rear and which you have to redo every time you change your model.

cons - Your material can become quite extensive (having a lot of Maps) when you have loads of
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decals, like on a race car. - Your model would need a lot of UVW Maps when you have a lot of Maps, which in turn is memory intensive.

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It's very simple once you get it. repeat this step for all parts. really. I could have picked any car. As subject I'll use my latest car. Easy as that. You can find the two tutorials here: Map Channels and Multi/Sub Object. whatever. In this tutorial I'll try to give an impression of how I apply textures to my cars. create a multisub-object material and voila. you're done. the Citroen C3 'Custom'.com . What is all comes down to is this: Create your car. as long as the object you use has a couple of polygons.onnovanbraam.Tutorial Collection 2007 Car Mapping This tutorial is a combination of two tutorials I made earlier and applied to a real-life example. in fact I might as well have chosen a box.Onno van Braam . Here's a screenshot of the car we'll be working with: 134 . plane. select parts of your mesh and assign a unique material ID to that part.www. then apply an UVW map for every ID.

Onno van Braam . now you should think by yourself how you are going to break it apart. the side.com . they're all just planarly mapped since I only put one texture on those parts). 135 . and set the material ID to 1.www. the roof and the rear bumper (I detached the doors. I want the front bumper to be one part. So I select the front bumper. the roof: ID = 4 and the rear bumper: ID = 5. set that ID to 2. because I wanted them to be able to move separately. select one side.Tutorial Collection 2007 Okay. so what pieces you'll want. hood and rear door. the other side. the other side: ID = 3.onnovanbraam.

Tutorial Collection 2007 136 .Onno van Braam .www.onnovanbraam.com .

com . so use 'Select by ID'..www. So for the front bumper your UVW map would be like this (see the Gizmo?): And the sides (I use one UVW map for the sides. or fill in the size of the map manually.onnovanbraam.Tutorial Collection 2007 So far so good. apply a new UVW modifier and click 'Fit'.). isn't it? Now we'll add all the UVW maps. I am only going to use planar UVW maps. roof and rear bumper respectively: 137 ..Onno van Braam . so they need to be exactly the size of your selection. and very easy. works just as good.

so don't really pay attention to them.www. you could make it match the material ID (this would be very conveniant and will avoid problems) but it doesn't really matter as long as they are all unique! You will use this map channel when you make your materials for each part of the car. I may 138 . because I only modeled half the car. and the Editable Mesh to set some of the ID's). a MeshSmooth for good looks.Onno van Braam .Tutorial Collection 2007 Now give each UVW map a unique Map Channel.onnovanbraam. Your modifer tree should look something like the following image.com . Mine has some additional modifiers (a symmetry.

But keep the following in mind: Suppose my front bumper would have ID 1. Discard old material. If you would set the map channel to match a different UVW map then it wouldn't fit the fron bumper corectly. just click the first one from the list.. Set number to 4 (we have four different ID's!). it's the way it works that matters here.onnovanbraam. great.www. I use one of the MultiSub-Object type: here you can make a material for each ID and assign this overall material to the object and if you had your ID's and Map Channels right it would look as you wanted to.Tutorial Collection 2007 have more or less UVW map modifiers. click 'Standard' and select Multi/SubObject from the list. Now you can start making all your materials. since you want those textures to mapped correctly for the front bumper. and the UVW map that maps the front bumper has a map channel of 1.com . since I only have four parts I want to texture. the one for the front bumper and do what you like with it. you can see how I did it: my UVW map for the front bumper had a Map Channel of 4 (what you see here is the diffuse bitmap): 139 . then the map channel of textures in your material should ALSO have a map channel of 1. So go to an emtpy slot in the material editor. Okay.Onno van Braam . In the following screen shot. so now everything is set up. we can start making the material.. This doesn't matter at all.

onnovanbraam.www. since it immediately shows whether you Here is an example of how the side texture looks like (drawn with Illustrator on a screenshot of the wireframe of the side): 140 .. Well from here on it's more of the same for all the different parts and in the end you have something like this (I used the same material for the hood.): I recommend using 'Show Map in Viewport' have done it correctly or not.com . a lot.Onno van Braam . doors and rear door.Tutorial Collection 2007 Keep the previous at the back of your head at all times! So the material you with ID one is given to all the polygons that have ID 1 and is mapped by the UVW map that corresponds to the map channel in your textures..

141 . then with the UVW Map.com .Onno van Braam .onnovanbraam. and the final Shadow Mapped viewport with the 'Show Map in Viewport' button ticked. then the actual texture map that I made in Illustrator.Tutorial Collection 2007 In the next 4 images you can see the 4 stages of the process for the side view: first you see the side view (at the time I was modeling this car I just took a screenshot in stead of using Texporter to do the unwrapping).www.

www.Onno van Braam .onnovanbraam.com .Tutorial Collection 2007 142 .

com .www.onnovanbraam.Onno van Braam .Tutorial Collection 2007 And the final result: 143 .

Onno van Braam .onnovanbraam.com .www.Tutorial Collection 2007 144 .

www.Onno van Braam .com .onnovanbraam.Tutorial Collection 2007 OTHER 145 .

:).. and naturally picked the two different ones. 146 . I have made a small error with the mirrors (the Enzo has two differently sized ones. the ones for a Ferrari Enzo.Onno van Braam .Tutorial Collection 2007 Blueprint Setup Well pretty essential in this tutorial is naturally having actual blueprints..com . but I used one for the front and one for the rear.onnovanbraam. I picked the one that I just (re-)made an hour ago...www. Doesn't really matter. so the front and rear are not exactly as wide. just that you know. Now crop all the different views in PhotoShop so that they fit exactly in the image (see below).

Onno van Braam .jpg doesn't really say much.com .jpg. like bp-front. bp01.Tutorial Collection 2007 Alright: now save these images (or the ones from your blueprints) with some easy names.www.jpg etc. This will come in handy when we have to pick them later on.. 147 . bp-side.onnovanbraam..

www. meters don't really mean much when your 3D'ing. and 148 . as seen below.Onno van Braam .Tutorial Collection 2007 But before we go on do this: in the customize menu select 'Units Setup': And set it to 'Generic Units'. not absolute.com . Now in explorer (or with something like ACDsee) try to find out what resolution all the different parts have. it's all about relative sizes.onnovanbraam. if the blueprints are good then the top would have to be as wide as the side.

so in this case 791x195. set the length and width segments to 1. this is because of the mirror-issue. Fill in the following values in the absolute position at the bottom of the UI (User Interface). But the rest matches up very nicely. that the front and rear are not as wide. because the pivot point is at the middle of the plane. In this case you can see (image below).www. 149 . so the z position of the plane is half as high as the height of the plane: 195 / 2. Now create a plane with the size of the resolution that the side image has. if I may say so.Onno van Braam . I used 195/2.onnovanbraam.com .Tutorial Collection 2007 the front and rear should be as high as the side and finally the front and rear should be as wide as each other.

www. 150 .Onno van Braam .com .Tutorial Collection 2007 Et voila: the plane is positioned perfectly: Now clone this plane (Edit > Clone) and rotate it 90 degrees.onnovanbraam.

Onno van Braam . For instance when you work with planes and don't put 2-sided on. it doesn't show in certain viewports.onnovanbraam. 151 .'. very frustrating.www..com . so that it won't cause problems later on.Tutorial Collection 2007 Change the size of the plane to match the front view: Before we continue we first set some viewport options right.. So right click on 'Perspective' and click 'Configure.

www.onnovanbraam.Onno van Braam .Tutorial Collection 2007 Click the '2-sided' and 'Default lighting' radio buttons and set 'Apply to' to 'All viewports'.com . 152 .

Tutorial Collection 2007 Now your perspective view should look something like this (if not then it might be that you have to press 'F3'.Onno van Braam .com . Create the remaining two planes yourself.www.onnovanbraam. At the end of that you have something like this (I don't put the front and rear at the same x-position since they would interfere with each other): 153 . this toggles between Wire-frame and Smooth and Highlights mode. with the right sizes (= matching their image view sizes) and positions.

stuff like BP: Front always works easily. now we are going to apply the right materials to the right planes. I tend to just name them after the view they represent. Side. so Front.com . Rear.www. Top. That was the setup of the planes.onnovanbraam.. So open the Material Editor and in the first slot click the small square for the diffuse material.Onno van Braam .Tutorial Collection 2007 Rename all your planes to something so that you can find them easily. 154 ..

.com .www..onnovanbraam..from the pop-up click 'Bitmap'. in my case bp-setup-02-side (from this tutorial): 155 ..and select the side view from the blueprint..Onno van Braam .Tutorial Collection 2007 .. .

com . Now right-click perspective again and select 'Texture Correction'.www. also click the checkered square to 'Show map in Viewport': Repeat this step for all planes and all their corresponding bitmaps. the texture correction solves this.Onno van Braam . 156 . this makes sure they are shown rightly in the viewport. sometimes they don't really do what they're supposed to.Tutorial Collection 2007 Select the plane called 'Side' and apply the material.onnovanbraam.

onnovanbraam.com .Tutorial Collection 2007 What you should have is this (almost finished now! :): 157 .Onno van Braam .www.

onnovanbraam.. > Viewports > Configure Driver The only things you should change are the 'Apperance Preferences'.Tutorial Collection 2007 The final step is to change the setting to optimize the quality of the texture in your viewports.com .Onno van Braam ...www.. I have them like this. so go to Customize > Preferences. this may differ for other video cards (I have a NVidia GeForce 4 Ti4200 64Mb. [AT THE TIME 158 .

You may want to rotate the planes if they don't match with your viewport names (as I have here.onnovanbraam. but that doesn't really change much. That's it.. 159 .www.Onno van Braam . the side is in the Front viewports). we're done. they're all orthogonal.Tutorial Collection 2007 OF WRITING]).com ..

com .Onno van Braam .onnovanbraam.www.Tutorial Collection 2007 160 .

com . which was an artists impression of the center console of the Bugatti Veyron 16/4 (the car). I will describe in short how to make this pass and then what to do with it. 161 .Onno van Braam . In my case I chose my latest project.www.onnovanbraam.Tutorial Collection 2007 Depth of Field Using a ZDepth pass This tutorial will describe how to use the Lens Blur filter in PhotoShop on your renders. A ZDepth pass is a black and white image which gives the depth in the z-direction (viewing vector. using a ZDepth pass. On the next two screens you can see my camera (you need a camera to do all this! always use camera's to fix certain views on your model) from the top view and the view through the camera. First of all: you need an actual scene where you want to apply the Depth of Field on. z component).

162 .. Basically you want as much contrast as possible throughout your whole image. and in the Modify panel go to the parameters and then to the environment ranges.Onno van Braam .com .www.Tutorial Collection 2007 Select the Camera. Click the checkbox 'Show' and change the Near and Far ranges to what you want as a 'start' and 'end' point of your focal area.onnovanbraam. and thus try to tweak the Near and Far ranges so that they ..

Tutorial Collection 2007 My settings for this scene were 3000 and 4500 roughly. Remember those values.Onno van Braam . we will be using them later! Go to the Material Editor.. 163 . make a new Standard material..com .www.onnovanbraam. click the diffuse slot. set the self-illumination to 100.

...Tutorial Collection 2007 . set the renderer to Scanline and press shift + q or F9 (quick render).. you should have something like the following: 164 .. Apply this material to all your visible objects in your scene.onnovanbraam..www. .select Falloff. If everything is correct.and the Near and Far ranges so they match your ranges in your Camera. .set the Type to Distance Blend... delete all your lights.Onno van Braam ..com ..

and press ctrl + j to duplicate it once more: 165 . Open up PhotoShop.com .Tutorial Collection 2007 Save it to a new file (something like Dash 015 Z Cam04.Onno van Braam .www. Here's my original render onto which we will apply the DoF trick. copy it to a new file (never use the original render when you edit it). and load your original render.jpg for instance).onnovanbraam.

Onno van Braam - www.onnovanbraam.com - Tutorial Collection 2007

Add a new Layer Mask by going to Layer > Layer Mask > Reveal All

In the Layers Panel of PhotoShop (the one below your Navigator Panel usually) you now see the new layer mask.

Click the mask in the Panel so that it gets those little brackets around it and then click the Channels Tab.

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Open your ZDepth pass image, copy it (select all, ctrl + c), close it, and paste it into the empty channel (so not into the R, G, B ones!) but in the one we just added.

Go back to the Layer Tab and you can see your mask there...

...and you see it in action too; our image has a reddish hue to it! Oh no!

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Not to worry though. Now for the magic: go to Filters > Blur > Lens Blur...

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set the Depth Map to Layer Mask, if it isn't already. Make sure Preview is ticked too.

Play with the settings until the result looks how you want it.

The most important settings are: Blur focal distance: this determines where your focal point it, so where it is sharp

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When you're done. it makes all the white areas in the ZDepth pass more opaque than the black area's.Tutorial Collection 2007 Iris > Radius: the amount of bluriness All the other ones are not as important.com . What the hell? It doesn't look at all like what we just saw in the preview! CURSES! It's the Layer Mask that does the damage here.Onno van Braam . click OK.onnovanbraam. but are great for more tweaking and optimizing.www. It acts as an opacity map! 170 .

www. this is like what we saw in the Lens Blur preview window. DELETE! GO AWAY! Now we're talking.Tutorial Collection 2007 So get rid of it.onnovanbraam. since we already used it for the Lens Blurring. 171 .com .Onno van Braam .

com . Set the feather tip to something appropriate and fix what needs to be fixed without messing up the nice effect created by Lens Blur. In this case the CD player was properly modeled and thus was empty inside.Tutorial Collection 2007 It looks pretty good.Onno van Braam . The blurring isn't very smart and thus overlapping area's don't really smooth out. 172 .www. such as the one I circled here. using the Blur Tool (press R in PhotoShop). but there are some problem area's.onnovanbraam. The solution? Manual blurring. the ZDepth was larger there (scroll up to see it in the ZDepth pass).

com . Some other renders of the same scene. with different camera's and varying amounts of DoF: 173 .Tutorial Collection 2007 Voila! And the original render (straight from 3D Max. for completeness.www. don't tackle me on the aliasing please. :)).Onno van Braam . low VRay settings.onnovanbraam.

com .onnovanbraam.Onno van Braam .Tutorial Collection 2007 174 .www.

Onno van Braam .Tutorial Collection 2007 175 .com .onnovanbraam.www.

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Making of... the Shelby Mustang GT500 Wheel
Summary I was browsing Dieselstation.com the other day to look for some reference photo's of silver cars (I am working on a project for a car manufacturer at the moment), when I came upon the following photo of a wheel of a Shelby Mustang GT500, the 2005 GT500 that is, not the '67 one. I liked this photo a lot, thought it was beautiful and thus a couple of days later decided to model it for myself. I didn't start out with the idea of making an exact copy, but more my own interpretation of it: it would obviously look a lot like it, but I didn't intend it to be exactly the same. So in the end my wheel and tyre don't look like the one on the photo lighting and texture wise (my rims are more metal-like, whereas the one on the photo is more silver paintlike), but it's still a nice picture I think.

What follows is a sort of step by step description of what I have done, without going into all the details of the texturing and lighting bit, because it would become too much if I did that. And besides: I don't like describing every single setting in a material. There's no point to it, especially since this is not specifically about making a silver paint texture for instance.

All the screenshots tend to be rather large at full-size, but that's because I work at a 1650x1080 screen.

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Modeling I started out with making some reference splines: first a 10 pointed star...

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... then some additional circles for each fase of the rim: the center bolts, the center cap, the center part which goes inwards and the flat bit outside of that.

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com .www. 180 .onnovanbraam. they're not rally accurate.Tutorial Collection 2007 Then I drew some reference lines for the 'forks'. but I already knew I wouldn't be making an exact copy of the reference photo anyway.Onno van Braam .

Added a couple of Symmetry modifiers.com . Car Rims. Just a flat bunch of polygons shaped as a piece of pie.onnovanbraam. gave it an additional segment and deleted all the thickness out of it.Tutorial Collection 2007 The real modeling bit started here: I created a cilinder which had the exact size of the entire center bit. so that all I had was what you see in the screenshot.Onno van Braam . a technique explained in an earlier tutorial: Polygon Modeling 8.www. 181 .

and that will be the outer part of the rim. which had the same slice as the first part I created.Onno van Braam .Tutorial Collection 2007 Made a tube.www.com . 182 .onnovanbraam.

Connected the center part to the outer part. And extruded some more to make a start of the 'fork'.com .Tutorial Collection 2007 Added a couple of Connects in the edge sub-object.Onno van Braam .onnovanbraam.www. with the fork. 183 .

onnovanbraam.Onno van Braam . 184 .Tutorial Collection 2007 More refinements to the single part using Connect.com . This whole bit is still completely flat. so I still need to edit it in the third (the depth) dimension. the screenshot shows it with all the symmetry modifiers on.www.

or actually tried to make it look like the original.Tutorial Collection 2007 And that I started doing here. So some extruding of edges and moving of vertices later.com .Onno van Braam . it's just a rough equivalent. It's all by feeling: I didn't really measure anything.www.. 185 ..onnovanbraam.

..onnovanbraam.Tutorial Collection 2007 .www.Onno van Braam .com . 186 . and with all symmetry modifiers.

Onno van Braam . 187 .Tutorial Collection 2007 I liked the shape so far.www. and thus I started chamfering all the edges that needed to be sharp after they had a MeshSmooth modifier applied to it.onnovanbraam.com .

Onno van Braam . I think! Created a tube that will function as a base for the tyre.com .www. 188 .Tutorial Collection 2007 Applied the MeshSmooth modifier.onnovanbraam. This is starting to look the way it should.

Tutorial Collection 2007 Added all the text (always Text with a Bevel modifier and then a Bend modifier too) on the wheel. 189 .Onno van Braam .www. I didn't want to use a bitmap. Since one would see it in so much detail.onnovanbraam. but actually model everything.com .

onnovanbraam. 190 .Tutorial Collection 2007 Here's the tyre base with all the text on it and the 'GoodYear' and 'Eagle F1' texts (which I made in Illustrator and imported).www.com .Onno van Braam .

onnovanbraam.Tutorial Collection 2007 Now with everything unhidden and a camera angle that matches the photo reference better.Onno van Braam .www. 191 .com . Close-up of the wheel with added thread.

I use Brazil R/S for almost everything I do.com .Tutorial Collection 2007 Lighting. Just for giggles sake.The 'E' of GoodYear has some double faces (that causes this type of rendering artifacts) . they should be stretced. . cilinder thingies. . they bend along with the shape. I made a clay test render. but obviously it has a lot of flaws: . but not with the 'bulginess'.www.The Eagle F1 and GoodYear don't bend with the base of the tyre. 192 . then start lighting and texturing). Looks pretty good.onnovanbraam. we can start rendering. texturing and rendering So now that all the modeling is done (I always model everything first.Onno van Braam . the ones that are always on brand new tyres.The Eagle F1 and GoodYear are too small. so in this case I had access to the Render Pass Control.There are no rubber pointy. and selected Off-White Plaster (80% grey) to be able to spot any modeling errors and general surface properties.

no idea why): A couple of Rubber tests: first one was a tyre material I had.Onno van Braam ..Some of the texts are too 'high'.. 193 .www. All these things were fixed (but I somehow screwed up the camera angle on this one.onnovanbraam. .No valve to add air.Tutorial Collection 2007 .com .

Onno van Braam .Tutorial Collection 2007 .. 194 ..onnovanbraam.com ..www..second one was a test with more reflectiveness..

www...Onno van Braam ..Tutorial Collection 2007 . 195 .com .third one with some additional lights..onnovanbraam.

.com .Tutorial Collection 2007 .www.onnovanbraam..Onno van Braam ...and a combination of two and three. 196 .

.Onno van Braam . 197 .www.and how it would look on the text and on the thread..onnovanbraam.Tutorial Collection 2007 .com .

Onno van Braam .www. 198 .com .Tutorial Collection 2007 Test of the materials for the valve.onnovanbraam.

Onno van Braam .com .onnovanbraam.Tutorial Collection 2007 First test of the rim material and a center Shelby logo. 199 .www.

onnovanbraam. with bump map.Tutorial Collection 2007 Second test of the rim material. and more contrast in the metal. different center Shelby logo.Onno van Braam . different inner black paint material. 200 .www.com .

Tutorial Collection 2007 It took me a while to realize that I had made the 5 holes for the nuts in the wrong spot.Onno van Braam .com .www. 201 . Also again a different black paint material for the inner bits.onnovanbraam. So I rotated them 36 degrees into place.

the outer rim has some weird (and I mean very weird) UVW mapping. The metal is too flaky. 202 .com .Onno van Braam . Too little contrast in the rubber too.onnovanbraam.Tutorial Collection 2007 And with everything unhidden.www.

Onno van Braam .www.onnovanbraam. 203 . both illumination wise as reflection wise. as in the reference photo.com . And thus I added a lot more light.Tutorial Collection 2007 I want more contrast in the image.

com . 204 . with two reflection cards.Onno van Braam .Tutorial Collection 2007 See this setup.www.onnovanbraam.

and this result is already a lot more like it.onnovanbraam. And with everything unhidden. 205 .Onno van Braam . I wanted more contrast from the front of the image to the back.com .www.Tutorial Collection 2007 Test render of this setup for the rubber alone.

www.Tutorial Collection 2007 More tweaking.com .onnovanbraam.Onno van Braam . 206 .

207 .com .www.onnovanbraam.Tutorial Collection 2007 Added some more detail on the tyre (the ovals at the right top) and made all the text more smooth.Onno van Braam .

www.Onno van Braam .com .onnovanbraam.Tutorial Collection 2007 After editting the last render in PhotoShop: 208 .

com .Onno van Braam .onnovanbraam.Tutorial Collection 2007 209 .www.