Median Net Worth by Race, 20 I 0 $110,729

Net Worth is ASSETS minus DEBTS
(What You OW~ minus What You OWE)


African Ameri.can




us Census

Bureau. (Dollar figures for Whites and African Americans exclude Latinos.)




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Many families areforced to live on the edge.



White Families

African .. American Families

Latino Families

Oliver, Melvin and Shapiro, Thomas M., Black Wealth, White Wealth (1995), p. 87.



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The story of Inequity in the US! The giveways below paved the way for the present situation around Equity in the US! 1. Paid white Revolutionary War veterans nine million acres of Indian land. 2. Made it legal in 1841 to take over Indian land by squatting on it. 3. Sent the army out west to beat back Native Americans from land coveted by white settlers, those supposedly, 'rugged individualist ( pioneers. 4. Conquered half of Mexico, and then took Latino landowners' land from them for missing paperwork or back taxes, selling it cheap to Anglo settlers. 5. Gave a million and half white families free or cheap land through the Homestead Act of 1862. 6. Promised, '40 acres and a mule', to freed slaves, but then went back on that promise and gave southern land to white Union Veterans instead. 7. During the New Deal, gave industrial workers (almost all white) minimum wages, union rights and social security, but denied them to agricultural and domestic occupations held by most people of color. 8. Gave farm aid to struggling white farmers, denying it to most black farmers, from the 1930's right through the 1980s. 9. Gave two million white WWII vets free coJIege education, five million vocational training, and five million cheap mortgages, while blocking most vets of color from getting the same benefits. 10. Invested in infrastructure to expand suburbs where only white people were welcome, and subsidized mortgages in the suburbs while redlining the inner city. 11. The Supreme Court shot down some state and local affirmative action plans from the 1970's through the 1990's. 12. Cut taxes on investment income, such as dividends, capital gains and inheritances, owned disproportionately by white people, much more than taxes on work were cut.

When the government decides to invest in building a middle class, it works! What policies do we need to implement today to close the wealtn gap and build an America that works for everyone? How does America ensure an Inclusive Economy in the 21st Century?

* Growing Insecurity
.Layoffs & job instability Stagnant wages Insecure pensions Roller-coaster stock market

* Greater Burdens
Longer work hours

Loss of family time Rising costs of housing, heal th care, child care, education, utilities

* Stress, Isolation and Scapegoating
Fear of crime Families hunkering down Gated communities; growing prison population Anger at immigrants and welfare recipients



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GI Bill of

Social Security



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• Naturalization Restrictions

• Discriminatory Immigration Laws:
- Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 - Immigration Act of 1917


Alien Land Law Acts Internment of Japanese during WWII


U.. tLb'I"'_~


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• Slavery
Denied enslaved Mricans the right to accumulate wealth Denied intergenerational transfer of wealth

• Jim Crow Laws Be Policies • Residential Segregation • Redlining, Predatory Lending, Be Gentrification • Mass Incarceration


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.. Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo Be Mexican-American Land Loss


taxation policy

• Violence against Latinas/os • Education barriers • Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986



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Barriers to Building Wealth for Native Americans
• Invasion: bullets and disease • Disregard for law - lack of enforcement of the Indian Trade Be Intercourse Act of .1802 • Chocktaw Nation Land loss • Cherokee Nation Land loss • Dawes Act of 1887

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