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Microwave Engineering

• Microwave Networks
– What are Microwaves?
– S-parameters
– Power Dividers
– Couplers
– Filters
– Amplifiers
Microwave engineering: Engineering and design of
frequency range.
Microwave Engineering
Applications: Microwave oven, Radar, Satellite communi-
cation, direct broadcast satellite (DBS) television, personal
communication systems (PCSs) etc.
What are Microwaves? (Pozar Sec. 1.1)
ì = 30 cm: f = 3 x 10
8
/ 30 x 10
-2
= 1 GHz
ì = 1 cm: f = 3 x 10
8
/ 1x 10
-2
= 30 GHz
Microwaves: 30 cm – 1 cm
Millimeter waves: 10 mm – 1 mm
(centimeter waves)
ì = 10 mm: f = 3 x 10
8
/ 10 x 10
-3
= 30 GHz
ì = 1 mm: f = 3 x 10
8
/ 1x 10
-3
= 300 GHz
( )
( )
( ) m
s m
Hz

/ 10 3
wavelength
c light of velocity
f frequency
8
ì ì
×
= =
Note: 1 Giga = 10
9
What are Microwaves?
1 cm
f =10 kHz, ì = c/f = 3 x 10
8
/ 10 x 10
3
= 3000 m
Phase delay = (2t or 360°) x Physical length/Wavelength
f =10 GHz, ì = 3 x 10
8
/ 10 x 10
9
= 3 cm
Electrical length =1 cm/3000 m = 3.3 x 10
-6
ì, Phase delay = 0.0012°
RF
Microwave
Electrical length = 0.33 ì, Phase delay = 118.8° !!!
1ì ÷ 360 °
Electrically long - The phase of a voltage or current changes
significantly over the physical extent of the device
Electrical length = Physical length/Wavelength (expressed in ì)
How to account for the phase delay?
A
B
A B
A B
Low Frequency
Microwave
A B A B
Propagation
delay negligible
Transmission
line section!
l
Printed Circuit Trace
Z
o
: characteristic impedance
¸ (=o+j|): Propagation constant
Z
o
, ¸
Propagation delay
considered
Scattering Parameters (S-Parameters)
Consider a circuit or device inserted into a
T-Line as shown in the Figure. We can
refer to this circuit or device as a two-port
network.
The behavior of the network can be
completely characterized by its scattering
parameters (S-parameters), or its
scattering matrix, [S].
Scattering matrices are frequently used to
characterize multiport networks, especially
at high frequencies. They are used to
represent microwave devices, such as
amplifiers and circulators, and are easily
related to concepts of gain, loss and
reflection.
| |
11 12
21 22
S S
S
S S
(
=
(
¸ ¸
Scattering matrix
Scattering Parameters (S-Parameters)
The scattering parameters represent ratios of
voltage waves entering and leaving the ports
(If the same characteristic impedance, Zo, at
all ports in the network are the same).
1 11 1 12 2
. V S V S V
÷ + +
= +
2 21 1 22 2
. V S V S V
÷ + +
= +
11 12 1 1
21 22 2 2
,
S S V V
S S V V
÷ +
÷ +
=
( ( (
( ( (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
In matrix form this is written
| | | || | . V S V
÷ +
=
2
1
11
1
0 V
V
S
V
+
÷
+
=
=
1
1
12
2
0 V
V
S
V
+
÷
+
=
=
1
2
22
2
0 V
V
S
V
+
÷
+
=
=
2
2
21
1
0 V
V
S
V
+
÷
+
=
=
Scattering Parameters (S-Parameters)
Properties:
The two-port network is reciprocal if the
transmission characteristics are the same in
both directions (i.e. S
21
= S
12
).
It is a property of passive circuits (circuits with
no active devices or ferrites) that they form
reciprocal networks.
A network is reciprocal if it is equal to its
transpose. Stated mathematically, for a
reciprocal network
| | | | ,
t
S S =
11 12 11 21
21 22 12 22
.
t
S S S S
S S S S
=
( (
( (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
12 21
S S =
Condition for Reciprocity:
1) Reciprocity
Scattering Parameters (S-Parameters)
Properties:
A lossless network does not contain any resistive
elements and there is no attenuation of the signal.
No real power is delivered to the network.
Consequently, for any passive lossless network,
what goes in must come out!
In terms of scattering parameters, a network is
lossless if
2) Lossless Networks
| | | | | |
*
,
t
S S U =
1 0
[ ] .
0 1
U =
(
(
¸ ¸
where [U] is the unitary matrix
For a 2-port network, the product of the transpose matrix and the complex conjugate
matrix yields
| | | |
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
2 2
* *
11 21 11 12 21 22
*
2 2
* *
12 11 22 21 12 22
1 0
0 1
t
S S S S S S
S S
S S S S S S
+ +
=
+ +
(
(
(
=
(
(
¸ ¸
¸ ¸
2 2
11 21
1 S S + =
If the network is reciprocal and lossless
* *
11 12 21 22
0 S S S S + =
Scattering Parameters (S-Parameters)
Return Loss and Insertion Loss
Two port networks are commonly described by their
return loss and insertion loss. The return loss, RL,
at the ith port of a network is defined as
20log 20log .
i
i i
i
V
RL
V
÷
+
= ÷ = ÷ I
The insertion loss, IL, defines how much of a signal
is lost as it goes from a jth port to an ith port. In
other words, it is a measure of the attenuation
resulting from insertion of a network between a
20log .
i
ij
j
V
IL
V
÷
+
= ÷
Scattering Parameters (S-Parameters)
Scattering Parameters (S-Parameters)
Microwave Integrated Circuits
Microwave Integrated Circuits (MIC):
Traces: transmission lines,
Passive components: resistors, capacitors, and inductors
Active devices: diodes and transistors.
Substrate Teflon fiber, alumina, quartz etc.
Metal Copper, Gold etc.
Process

Conventional printed circuit
(Photolithography and etching)
Components Soldering and wire bonding
Lossless T-junction Power Divider
T-juncti on (Lossl ess di vider)
PD 1.1
0 2 1
1 1 1
Z Z Z
jB Y
in
= + + =
Input Matchi ng Condi ti on
0 = B
0 2 1
1 1 1
Z Z Z
= +
o
o
in
Z
V
P
2
2
1
=
1
2
1
2
1
Z
V
P
o
=
2
2
2
2
1
Z
V
P
o
=
Input Power
Output Power
in
P P
3
1
1
=
in
P P
3
2
2
=
O = 50
o
Z
O = = 150 3
1 o
Z Z
O = = 75
2
3
2 o
Z Z
O = = 50 ||
2 1
Z Z Z
in
Power Di vider
EXAMPLE 7.1
2 : 1
Input Port is matched
Input Impedance
Ingori ng the juncti on
reactance
O = = 30 ||
2 1
Z Z Z
o in O = = 5 . 37 ||
1 2
Z Z Z
o in
0 =
+
÷
= I
o in
o in
Z Z
Z Z
Output Ports are not matched
Input Port
Output Port 1 Output Port 2
Reflecti on
Coeffici ent
333 . 0
2 2
2 2
2
÷ =
+
÷
= I
Z Z
Z Z
in
in
666 . 0
1 1
1 1
1
÷ =
+
÷
= I
Z Z
Z Z
in
in
Power Divider
A T-junction power divider consists of
one input port and two output ports.
Design Example
| |
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

÷
÷
=
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
o |
o |
| o
| o
S
| |
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
0
0
0
0
34 24 14
34 23 13
24 23 12
14 13 12
S S S
S S S
S S S
S S S
S
| |
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
o |
o |
| o
| o
j
j
j
j
S
Symmetric Coupl er
Antisymmetric Coupl er
1
2 2
= + | o
A reci procal, l ossl ess, matched four-port network
behaves as a directi onal coupl er
Couplers
COUPLERS
A coupler will transmit half or more of its
power from its input (port 1) to its through
port (port 2).
A portion of the power will be drawn off to
the coupled port (port 3), and ideally none
will go to the isolated port (port 4).
If the isolated port is internally terminated
in a matched load, the coupler is most
often referred to as a directional coupler.
For a lossless network:
Coupling coefficient: ( )
31
20log . C S = ÷
( )
21
20log . IL S = ÷
Insertion Loss:
( )
41
20log , I S = ÷
Isolation:
31
41
20log ,
S
D
S
=
| |
|
\ .
Directivity:
(dB) D I C = ÷
COUPLERS
Design Example
Example 10.10: Suppose an antisymmetrical coupler has the following characteristics:
C = 10.0 dB
D = 15.0 dB
IL = 2.00 dB
VSWR = 1.30
Coupling coefficient: ( )
31
20log . C S = ÷
( )
21
20log . IL S = ÷
Insertion Loss:
10 / 20
31
10 0.316. S
÷
= =
2 / 20
21
10 0.794. S
÷
= =
11
1
0.130.
1
VSWR
S
VSWR
÷
= =
+
25 , I D C dB = + =
25/ 20
41
10 0.056. S
÷
= =
VSWR = 1.30
| |
0.130 0.794 0.316 0.056
0.794 0.130 0.056 0.316
0.316 0.056 0.130 0.794
0.056 0.316 0.794 0.130
S
÷
=
÷
(
(
(
(
(
¸ ¸
Given
COUPLERS
| |
0 1 1 0
1 0 0 1
.
1 0 0 1
2
0 1 1 0
j
S
÷
÷
=
÷
(
(
(
(
(
¸ ¸
| |
0 1 0
0 0 1
1
1 0 0
2
0 1 0
,
j
j
S
j
j
÷
=
(
(
(
(
(
¸ ¸
The quadrature hybrid (or branch-line hybrid) is
a 3 dB coupler. The quadrature term comes
from the 90 deg phase difference between the
outputs at ports 2 and 3.
The coupling and insertion loss are both equal
to 3 dB.
Ring hybrid (or rat-race) coupler
A microwave signal fed at port 1 will split evenly
in both directions, giving identical signals out of
ports 2 and 3. But the split signals are 180 deg
out of phase at port 4, the isolated port, so they
cancel and no power exits port 4.
The insertion loss and coupling are both equal to
3 dB. Not only can the ring hybrid split power to
two ports, but it can add and subtract a pair of
signals.
Filters
Filters are two-port networks used to attenuate undesirable frequencies.
Microwave filters are commonly used in transceiver circuits.
The four basic filter types are low-pass, high-pass, bandpass and bandstop.
Low-pass High-pass
Bandstop Bandpass
A low-pass filter is characterized by the insertion loss
versus frequency plot in Figure. Notice that there may
be ripple in the passband (the frequency range
desired to pass through the filter), and a roll off in
transmission above the cutoff or corner frequency, fc.
Simple filters (like series inductors or shunt capacitors)
feature 20 dB/decade roll off. Sharper roll off is
available using active filters or multisection filters.
Active filters employ operational amplifiers that are
limited by performance to the lower RF frequencies.
Multisection filters use passive components (inductors
and capacitors), to achieve filtering.
The two primary types are the Butterworth and the
Chebyshev. A Butterworth filter has no ripple in the
passband, while the Chebyshev filter features sharper
roll off.
Filters
Low-pass Filters
Low-pass Filters
High-pass Filters Band-pass Filters
Lumped Element Filters
Some simple lumped element filter circuits are shown below.
Low-pass Filter Example
Lumped Element Filters
2
,
l
L
o
v
P
R
=
.
2
o
l s
o
R
v v
R j L e
=
+
20log 1 .
2
o
j L
IL
R
e
= +
| |
|
\ .
The 3 dB cutoff frequency, also termed the corner frequency, occurs where
insertion loss reaches 3 dB.
1,
2
o
L
R
e
=
20log 1
2
3
o
j L
R
e
+
| |
=
|
\ .
3
20
1 10 2
2
o
j L
R
e
+ = =
.
o
c
R
f
L t
=
( )
2
2 2
2
.
4
s
l s
A
o o o
v
v v
P
R R R
= = =
10log
L
A
IL
P
P
=
| |
|
\ .
Insertion Loss
Maximum available Power:
Low-pass Filter Example
Example 10.12: Let us design a low-pass filter for a 50.0 O system using a
series inductor. The 3 dB cutoff frequency is specified as 1.00 GHz.
Lumped Element Filters
.
o
c
R
f
L t
=
The 3 dB cutoff frequency is given by
( )
9
50
15.9 .
1 10 1
o
R H
L nH
f s x s t t
O
= = =
O
| |
|
\ .
Therefore, the required inductance value is
Filters
The insertion loss for a bandpass filter is shown in
Figure. Here the passband ripple is desired small.
The sharpness of the filter response is given by the
shape factor, SF, related to the filter bandwidth at 3dB
and 60dB by
60
3
.
dB
dB
BW
SF
BW
=
A filter’s insertion loss relates the power delivered to
the load without the filter in place (PL) to the power
delivered with the filter in place (PLf):
10log .
L
Lf
P
IL
P
=
| |
|
\ .
Band-pass Filters
Amplifier Design
Microwave amplifiers are a common and crucial component of wireless transceivers.
They are constructed around a microwave transistor from the field effect transistor
(FET) or bipolar junction transistor (BJT) families.
A general microwave amplifier can be represented by the 2-port S-matrix network
between a pair of impedance-matching networks as shown in the Figure below. The
matching networks are necessary to minimize reflections seen by the source and to
maximize power to the output.
Example 11.3: Output Matching Network
Step 1: Plot the reflection coefficient
Step 3:Intersection points on 1+jb Circle
Step 4:Open-Circuited Stub Length
Step 2: Find the Admittance y
L
Shunt Stub Problem:
° Z = I 61 876 . 0
L
L
I
1
2
3
4
3’
4’
2 3 4
Example 11.3: Input Matching Network
Step 1: Plot the reflection coefficient
Step 3:Intersection points on 1+jb Circle
Step 4:Open-Circuited Stub Length
Step 2: Find the Admittance y
s
1
2
3
4
Shunt Stub Problem:
ì 120 . 0
1
= d
5 . 3 1
1
j y + =
ì 206 . 0
1
= 
° Z = I 123 872 . 0
s
S
I
X
Ignore
2 3 4

Microwave Engineering
Microwave engineering: Engineering and design of communication/navigation systems in the microwave frequency range. Applications: Microwave oven, Radar, Satellite communication, direct broadcast satellite (DBS) television, personal communication systems (PCSs) etc.

What are Microwaves? (Pozar Sec. 1.1) velocity of light c 3 108 m / s  frequencyf Hz    wavelength   m Microwaves: 30 cm – 1 cm (centimeter waves)  = 30 cm: f = 3 x 108/ 30 x 10-2 = 1 GHz  = 1 cm: f = 3 x 108/ 1x 10-2 = 30 GHz Millimeter waves: 10 mm – 1 mm  = 10 mm: f = 3 x 108/ 10 x 10-3 = 30 GHz  = 1 mm: f = 3 x 108/ 1x 10-3 = 300 GHz Note: 1 Giga = 109 .

0012 Microwave f =10 GHz. Phase delay = 0.What are Microwaves? 1  360  1 cm Electrical length = Physical length/Wavelength (expressed in ) Phase delay = (2 or 360) x Physical length/Wavelength RF f =10 kHz.  = c/f = 3 x 108/ 10 x 103 = 3000 m Electrical length =1 cm/3000 m = 3.The phase of a voltage or current changes significantly over the physical extent of the device . Phase delay = 118.  = 3 x 108/ 10 x 109 = 3 cm Electrical length = 0.3 x 10-6 .33 .8 !!! Electrically long .

How to account for the phase delay? Low Frequency Printed Circuit Trace Propagation delay negligible A B A Microwave B A B Transmission line section! Propagation delay considered l Zo.  A B A B Zo: characteristic impedance  (=+j): Propagation constant .

[S]. We can refer to this circuit or device as a two-port network. or its scattering matrix. The behavior of the network can be completely characterized by its scattering parameters (S-parameters). especially at high frequencies. Scattering matrix  S11 S     S21 S22   S12  . Scattering matrices are frequently used to characterize multiport networks. and are easily related to concepts of gain. loss and reflection. such as amplifiers and circulators. They are used to represent microwave devices.Scattering Parameters (S-Parameters) Consider a circuit or device inserted into a T-Line as shown in the Figure.

Zo. S12  V1 V2 V1  0  S 21  V2 V1  V2 0 S 22  V2 V2 V1  0  . at all ports in the network are the same). V2  S 21V1  S 22V2 . In matrix form this is written V1   S11     S V2   21 S11  V1 V1  V2  0   .Scattering Parameters (S-Parameters) The scattering parameters represent ratios of voltage waves entering and leaving the ports (If the same characteristic impedance. V1  S11V1  S12V2 . S22  V2   S12  V1  V   S V  .

e.  S11 S  21  S11  S22   S12  S12  t . for a reciprocal network S   S t . S22  S21  Condition for Reciprocity: S12  S 21 .Scattering Parameters (S-Parameters) Properties: 1) Reciprocity The two-port network is reciprocal if the transmission characteristics are the same in both directions (i. S21 = S12). Stated mathematically. It is a property of passive circuits (circuits with no active devices or ferrites) that they form reciprocal networks. A network is reciprocal if it is equal to its transpose.

0 1   For a 2-port network. the product of the transpose matrix and the complex conjugate matrix yields  S11 2  S 21 2  S t  S *    S S *  S S *   12 11 22 21   S S S 12 * 11 12 2 *  S 21 S 22   S 22 2   1 0    0 1    If the network is reciprocal and lossless S11  S21  1 2 2 * * S11 S12  S 21 S 22  0 . Consequently. a network is lossless if S t S *  U . for any passive lossless network. what goes in must come out! In terms of scattering parameters. No real power is delivered to the network.Scattering Parameters (S-Parameters) Properties: 2) Lossless Networks A lossless network does not contain any resistive elements and there is no attenuation of the signal. where [U] is the unitary matrix 1 0  [U ]   .

. it is a measure of the attenuation resulting from insertion of a network between a source and a load. The return loss. The insertion loss. RL. IL. defines how much of a signal is lost as it goes from a jth port to an ith port. ILij  20log Vi  V  j . at the ith port of a network is defined as RLi  20 log Vi  Vi   20 log  i .Scattering Parameters (S-Parameters) Return Loss and Insertion Loss Two port networks are commonly described by their return loss and insertion loss. In other words.

Scattering Parameters (S-Parameters) .

Scattering Parameters (S-Parameters) .

Microwave Integrated Circuits Microwave Integrated Circuits (MIC): Traces: transmission lines. and inductors Active devices: diodes and transistors. Substrate Metal Process Teflon fiber. Conventional printed circuit (Photolithography and etching) Components Soldering and wire bonding . Passive components: resistors. alumina. quartz etc. Copper. capacitors. Gold etc.

333 Z in 2  Z 2  Z in  Z o 0 Z in  Z o Input Port is matched Ou tput Ports are no t matche d .Power Divider PD 1.5  2  Z in 2  Z 2  0.1 T-jun cti on (Lossl ess di vider) Lossless T-junction Power Divider A T-junction power divideronconsists of Ingori ng the ju ncti Input Matchi ng Condi ti on reactance 1 1 1 one input port and two output 1  1 ports. 1 B 0 Y  jB     in Z1 Z2 Z0 Z1 Z2 Z0 Input Power Ou tput Power Pin  1 Vo 2 Zo 2 1 Vo P1  2 Z1 2 1 Vo P2  2 Z2 2 EXAMPLE 7.1 Design Example 1 : 2 Power Di vider Z o  50  1 P 3 in 2 P2  Pin 3 P1  Input Impedan ce Ou tput Port 1 Z1  3Z o  150  Z2  3 Z o  75  2 Ou tput Port 2 Input Port Z in  Z1 || Z 2  50  Refle cti on Coeffici ent Z in1  Z o || Z 2  30  1  Z in1  Z1  0.666 Z in1  Z1 Z in2  Z o || Z 1  37.

Couplers COUPLERS S12 0 S 23 S 24 S13 S 23 0 S 34 S14   S 24  S 34   0  Antisymmetric Coupl er A reci procal. matched four-po rt network behaves as a directi onal coupl er 0  S S    12  S13   S14 Symme tric Coupl er 0  S     j  0  0 0 j j 0 0  0 j      0 0  S      0  0 0   0 0  0        0  2 2 For a lossless network:     1 Insertion Loss: IL  20log  S21  . and ideally none will go to the isolated port (port 4). S  Directivity: D  20 log  31  . A coupler will transmit half or more of its power from its input (port 1) to its through port (port 2). Coupling coefficient: C  20log  S31  . l ossl ess. the coupler is most often referred to as a directional coupler. If the isolated port is internally terminated in a matched load. A portion of the power will be drawn off to the coupled port (port 3). Isolation: I  20log  S41  .  S41  D  I  C (dB) .

316 0.794  0.056 0.130. S 21  10 2 / 20  0.0 dB IL = 2.056  0.794  0.316  0.COUPLERS Design Example Example 10.056  0.316 0.056 0.130 S     0.130 0. I  D  C  25dB.794. Coupling coefficient: C  20log  S31  .056.10: Suppose an antisymmetrical coupler has the following characteristics: Given C = 10. S11  VSWR  1 VSWR  1  0.794 0.30 Insertion Loss: IL  20log  S21  .130 0. S 41  10 25 / 20  0.30 VSWR = 1.316.00 dB VSWR = 1. S31  10 10 / 20  0.  0.0 dB D = 15.316  0.794 0.130    .

But the split signals are 180 deg out of phase at port 4. Not only can the ring hybrid split power to two ports. but it can add and subtract a pair of signals. The insertion loss and coupling are both equal to 3 dB. 1  0 The quadrature hybrid (or branch-line hybrid) is a 3 dB coupler. The quadrature term comes from the 90 deg phase difference between the outputs at ports 2 and 3. S    2 1 0 0 j  0 1 j 0   0 1  j 1 0 S    2 1 0 0 1  1 0 0 1 1 0 . so they cancel and no power exits port 4. A microwave signal fed at port 1 will split evenly in both directions.COUPLERS Quadrature hybrid Coupler Ring hybrid (or rat-race) coupler 0 j 1 0   1 j 0 0 1 . . the isolated port. The coupling and insertion loss are both equal to 3 dB. giving identical signals out of ports 2 and 3.

Microwave filters are commonly used in transceiver circuits.Filters Filters are two-port networks used to attenuate undesirable frequencies. bandpass and bandstop. Low-pass High-pass Bandpass Bandstop . The four basic filter types are low-pass. high-pass.

Active filters employ operational amplifiers that are limited by performance to the lower RF frequencies. and a roll off in transmission above the cutoff or corner frequency. Multisection filters use passive components (inductors and capacitors). The two primary types are the Butterworth and the Chebyshev. . while the Chebyshev filter features sharper roll off.Filters Low-pass Filters A low-pass filter is characterized by the insertion loss versus frequency plot in Figure. Sharper roll off is available using active filters or multisection filters. fc. Notice that there may be ripple in the passband (the frequency range desired to pass through the filter). to achieve filtering. Simple filters (like series inductors or shunt capacitors) feature 20 dB/decade roll off. A Butterworth filter has no ripple in the passband.

Lumped Element Filters Some simple lumped element filter circuits are shown below. Low-pass Filters High-pass Filters Band-pass Filters .

. vl  2 Ro 2 Ro  j L vs2 4 Ro vs . IL  10 log   PL    PA   j L  IL  20log  1  .    . fc  Ro L . occurs where insertion loss reaches 3 dB.  j L  20 log  1  3 2 Ro   3 j L 1  10 20  2 2 Ro L 2 Ro  1. 2 Ro   The 3 dB cutoff frequency. also termed the corner frequency.Lumped Element Filters Low-pass Filter Example Power delivered to the load Ro Maximum available Power: vs 2 2 v PA  l  Ro Ro Insertion Loss PL  vl2 .

12: Let us design a low-pass filter for a 50. The 3 dB cutoff frequency is given by fc  Ro L . the required inductance value is L Ro f   H   15.    1x109 1 s   s  50 . The 3 dB cutoff frequency is specified as 1.00 GHz.9 nH .0  system using a series inductor.Lumped Element Filters Low-pass Filter Example Example 10. Therefore.

PLf   . The sharpness of the filter response is given by the shape factor. related to the filter bandwidth at 3dB and 60dB by SF  BW60 dB BW3dB . Here the passband ripple is desired small. A filter’s insertion loss relates the power delivered to the load without the filter in place (PL) to the power delivered with the filter in place (PLf):  PL  IL  10 log  .Filters Band-pass Filters The insertion loss for a bandpass filter is shown in Figure. SF.

A general microwave amplifier can be represented by the 2-port S-matrix network between a pair of impedance-matching networks as shown in the Figure below.Amplifier Design Microwave amplifiers are a common and crucial component of wireless transceivers. The matching networks are necessary to minimize reflections seen by the source and to maximize power to the output. . They are constructed around a microwave transistor from the field effect transistor (FET) or bipolar junction transistor (BJT) families.

3: Output Matching Network 1 L 2 3 4 3 Step 1: Plot the reflection coefficient L  0.Example 11.876 61  Shunt Stub Problem: Admittance Calculation Step 2: Find the Admittance yL Step 3:Intersection points on 1+jb Circle 4’ 4 3’ 2 Step 4:Open-Circuited Stub Length .

Example 11.872 123  1 3 Shunt Stub Problem: Admittance Calculation Step 2: Find the Admittance ys Step 3:Intersection points on 1+jb Circle y1  1  j3.3: Input Matching Network 4 3 2 X Ignore Treat as a load S Step 1: Plot the reflection coefficient s  0.5 d1  0.120  4 2 Step 4:Open-Circuited Stub Length  1  0.206  .

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