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# Constant Acceleration |Freefall| Constant Velocity |Projectile

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## Motion with Constant Acceleration

A feather is dropped on the moon from a height of 1.40 meters. The feather accelerates to the ground at 1.67m/s2. Determine the time for the feather to fall to the surface of the moon.

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## Motion with Constant Acceleration

A stone is dropped from the top of the building that is 100m tall. The stone accelerates to the ground at 10m/s2. Determine the time for the stone to fall to the ground.

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## t1= 10m/s t2= 20m/s

Time (s) 0 1 2 3 4

Velocity (m/s) 0 10 20 30 40

Distance (m) 0 5 20 45 80

t3= 30m/s

t4= 40m/s

50

125

t5= 50m/s
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1 2 d at 2

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## t1= 10m/s t2= 20m/s

t3= 30m/s

When an object is falling under the influence of gravity alone, it is undergoing a freefall.

t4= 40m/s

t5= 50m/s
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## t1= 10m/s t2= 20m/s

t3= 30m/s

When an object is falling under the influence of gravity alone, it is undergoing a freefall.
2 100 m 2d t 4.47s a m 10 2 s
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t4= 40m/s

t5= 50m/s
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## Freefall & NOT Freefall

Tell whether each situation is undergoing freefall or not

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Freefall & NOT Freefall Which will hit the ground first?

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Freefall

An object undergoing a freefall undergoes an acceleration due to gravity, g, 2 that is 9.8 m/s
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Freefall

If a freely falling rock were equipped with speedometer, by how much would its speed reading increase with each second of fall?

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Freefall

When a ball is thrown straight up, by how much does the speed increase or decrease each second? (Neglect air
resistance)

## Will its velocity reach zero while it is up in the air?

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Freefall

Elephant

Snail

Feather

The elephant, snail and the bird planned to jump off from a plane high above the ground. Because the bird was trapped in the cage, only its feather has escaped. Neglecting air resistance, which will hit the ground first?
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Freefall

If all jumped (feather dropped) from the plane, what it their initial velocity? If air resistance is ignored, which one has the greatest acceleration?
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Freefall

If they started from the same height, leaves with the same initial velocity, and subjected to the same acceleration, then, which will take longer time in air before hitting the ground?
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Freefall
What is the difference between these two problems?

A stone is dropped from the top of the building that is 100m tall.

A stone is thrown downward from the top of the building that is 100m tall.

vi = 0
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vi > 0
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Freefall
What is the difference between these two problems?

A stone is dropped from the top of the building that is 100m tall.

A stone is thrown downward from the top of the building that is 100m tall.
Acceleration due to gravity

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Freefall

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Freefall
Identify the given, unknown and the equation of the unknown. Further, solve the equation.

A coin is dropped in a vacuum tube, find its displacement after 0.30 seconds.
t vi g d = 0.30s =0 = 9.8m/s2 =?

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Freefall
Identify the given, unknown and the equation of the unknown. Further, solve the equation.

An egg was thrown straight down from top of a building at a speed of 15m/s. It hit the ground 2.75s later. At what speed did it hit the ground? t = 2.75s vi = 15m/s g = 9.8m/s2 vf =?

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Freefall
Identify the given, unknown and the equation of the unknown. Further, solve the equation.

An egg was thrown straight down from top of a building at a speed of 15m/s. It hit the ground 2.75s later. How high from the ground was the egg before it was thrown?
t vi g d = 2.75s = 15m/s = 9.8m/s2 =?

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Freefall
Identify the given, unknown and the equation of the unknown. Further, solve the equation.

A cannon ball is fired straight up from the ground and returned 12.0s later. What is the velocity of the cannon ball when it was fired?
t vi g vf = 12.0s =? = -9.8m/s2 =0

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Freefall
Identify the given, unknown and the equation of the unknown. Further, solve the equation.

A kangaroo is capable of jumping to a height of 2.62 m. Determine the takeoff speed of the kangaroo.

2.62m

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Freefall
Identify the given, unknown and the equation of the unknown. Further, solve the equation.
t=0 t=1

## t=4.5? t=8? t=15?

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If a rock from rest, equipped with speedometer, is freely falling what would the speedometer reading be 4.5s after it is dropped? How about 8 seconds after it is dropped? 15 seconds?
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Terminal Velocity
When something is undergoing freefall its velocity increases by 9.8m/s in every second of its descent. However, there comes a time that velocity no longer increase, thus no longer accelerates. In this case, the falling something reaches its terminal velocity.
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Terminal Velocity

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Terminal Velocity

Does a raindrop reach terminal velocity? What if the raindrops do not reach terminal velocity? What is the acceleration of a falling object that reaches terminal velocity?

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Terminal Velocity
If rain drops do not reach terminal velocity.

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Reaction Time

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Reaction Time

Reaction time is the interval time between the presentation of a stimulus and the initiation of the muscular response to that stimulus.
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Reaction Time
Trial 1 2 3 Average *Convert all units in meters Initial reading Final reading Differen ce

2d t g

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Reaction Time

## What does a longer reaction time imply?

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Projectile Motion

Mr. Suave had his rifle shooting session. He noticed that when he fired the rifle horizontally, the shell of the bullet drops from the rifle directly to the ground. Which will hit the ground first, the head or the shell of the bullet? Explain.

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Projectile Motion

Without the influence of the gravity, a canon ball that is fired horizontally will travel at constant velocity. Thus, equal distance covered in every equal time interval.

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Projectile Motion

Without being fired horizontally, a canon ball will drop undergoing a free fall. Thus, as it is falling, it accelerates at 9.8m/s2.

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Projectile Motion

Under real condition, a canon that is fired horizontally will have constant horizontal velocity. However, it is also acted upon by the gravity thus, as it is travelling horizontally, in also travelling vertically at the acceleration due to gravity, 9.8m/s2.

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Projectile Motion

## Horizontal motion = non accelerating Vertical motion = freefall

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Projectile Motion

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Projectile Motion

Mr. Suave had his rifle shooting session. He noticed that when he fired the rifle horizontally, the shell of the bullet drops from the rifle directly to the ground. Which will hit the ground first, the head or the shell of the bullet? Explain.
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Projectile Motion
A heavy crate accidentally falls from a high-flying airplane just as it is directly above a shiny red BMW smartly parked in a car lot. Relative to the BMW, where will the crate crash?

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When the stealth bomber moves at a certain velocity, all that are inside it are moving with the same velocity.

When a bomb is released by the stealth bomber, the bomb will undergo freefall. Even if the bomb is falling, it continues of moving horizontally with the same velocity as the stealth bomber.
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Projectile Motion
A projectile is launched at an angle into the air. Neglecting air resistance, what is its vertical acceleration? Its horizontal acceleration?

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Projectile Motion

Without the influence of the gravity, a canon ball that is fired horizontally will travel at constant velocity. Thus, equal distance covered in every equal time interval.

d vt
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Projectile Motion

Without being fired horizontally, a canon ball will drop undergoing a free fall. Thus, as it is falling, it accelerates at 9.8m/s2.

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Projectile Motion
The boy on a tower that is 5m high throws a ball to a distance of 20m. At what speed is the ball thrown?

5m

20m

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Projectile Motion
The boy on a tower that is 10m high throws a ball to a distance of 20m. At what speed is the ball thrown?

10m

20m

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Projectile Motion
A battleship (disguising pirate) simultaneously fires two shells at pirates aboard stolen ships. If the shells follow the trajectories shown below, which ship gets hit first?

A
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B
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Projectile Motion
Which shell stays in the air for longer time?

A
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B
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Hang Time

The hang time of an object is the length of time that it is aloft after leaving the ground.

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Hang Time

## Hang time = time going up + time going down

The hang time of Michael Jordan is the length of time that he stays in the air, still, under the influence of the gravity.

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Hang Time

The hang time of the dolphin is the length of time that it stays in the air, still, under the influence of the gravity.
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Hang Time

The hang time of the dog is the length of time that it stays in the air, still, under the influence of the gravity.

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Hang Time
When you jump upward, your hang time is the time your feet are off the ground. Which has a longer hang time, the one who jumps 0.2 meters upward or the one who jumps the same height but an angle with the ground?

0.2m

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Hang Time
Identify the given, unknown and the equation of the unknown.

## If a kangaroo is capable of jumping to a height of 2.62 m. Determine its hang time.

Given: d=2.62m; g=9.8m/s2; t=2t=? Solution:
2d t= g 2(2.62) t'=2t 2 2 0.73 1.46 s 9.8
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2.62m

Hang Time
Identify the given, unknown and the equation of the unknown.

If Michael Jordan has a vertical leap of 1.29 m, then what his hang time?
Given: d=2.62m; g=9.8m/s2; t=2t=? Solution:
2d t= g 2(1.29) t'=2t 2 2 0.263 0.53s 9.8 3 August 2012 REDG 2011
1.29m

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Problems on Projectile
Two golfers each hit the ball at the same speed but one at 60o with the horizontal and the other is at 30o. Which ball goes farther? Which hits the ground first?

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Problems on Projectile
Identify the given, unknown and the equation of the unknown. Finally, solve the problem.

Since the Moon is gravitationally attracted to the Earth, why doesnt it simply crash into the Earth?

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Problems on Projectile
Identify the given, unknown and the equation of the unknown. Finally, solve the problem.
Given: dy=1.3m dx=? g=9.8m/s2 vx= 4.0m/s

Solution:

t=

2d y

## d=v x t = 4.0 0.52 = 2.1m

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Problems on Projectile
Identify the given, unknown and the equation of the unknown. Finally, solve the problem.
Given: dy=100m dx=20 g=9.8m/s2 vx= ?

t= vx =

2d y g

## 2(100) 4.52 s 9.8

dx 20 m = = 4.42 t 4.52 s

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Problems on Projectile
Identify the given, unknown and the equation of the unknown. Finally, solve the problem.
Given: dy=19.3m dx=26.3m g=9.8m/s2 vx= ?

t=

2d y

## d x 26.3 m vx = = = 13.28 t 1.98 s

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Problems on Projectile
vi y = accelerated (-9.8m/s )
vi

## vix = constant speed

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Problems on Projectile

vi y =visin

vi

## vix =vi cos

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Problems on Projectile
g= t= t= t= v fy -viy t v fy -viy g 0-viy g viy g
t up = t down

vi y = visin

vfy 0
tup tdown
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## visin t= g 2visin t' = g

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viy 0
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Problems on Projectile

## R or d x =vix t' R or d x =vi cos t'

vix = vi cos

vfy 0

viy 0
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Problems on Projectile
Identify the given, unknown and the equation of the unknown. Finally, solve the problem.
R or d x =vi cos t' 2visin t' = g 2visin R=vi cos g
Given: = 30o vi= 6m/s R=?
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## 2vi2cossin g 2(6) 2cos30 sin30 9.8 3.18m

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Problems on Projectile
At which point in its trajectory does a batted baseball have its minimum speed?

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Problems on Projectile
Identify the given, unknown and the equation of the unknown. Finally, solve the problem.

A projectile is fired upward at the speed of 141m/s, 45o to the horizontal. What is its velocity when it reached the top of its trajectory?

When the projectile reach the topmost of its trajectory, the velocity along y or vfy=0 but vx is not equal to zero.
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Problems on Projectile
Identify the given, unknown and the equation of the unknown. Finally, solve the problem. A cannonball shot with an initial velocity of 141m/s at an angle 45o follows a parabolic path and hits the balloon at the top of its trajectory. Neglecting air resistance, how fast is the cannon ball going when it hits the balloon?
Given: = 45o vi= 141m/s g= 9.8m/s2 vx=?
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## v x = vi cos 141 cos45 99.7 m s

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Problems on Projectile
Identify the given, unknown and the equation of the unknown. Finally, solve the problem.

Determine the range of a ball launched with a speed of 40m/s at angles (a) 40o (b) 45o (c) 50o from the ground level

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## Problems on Projectile (Challenge)

Identify the given, unknown and the equation of the unknown. Finally, solve the problem.

Daring Phoebe wishes to cross the Grand Canyon of the Snake River from being shot from a cannon. She wishes to be launched at 60o with the horizontal so that she can spend more time waving to the crowd. With what speed must she be launched to cross the 520m canyon?
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