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Computability and Logic Maravilhoso

# Computability and Logic Maravilhoso

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11/17/2013

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Let n ∈ N be a natural number and X be a set. An n-tuple of elements of

X is a ﬁnite sequence

x = (x1,x2,...,xn)

where x1,x2,...,xn ∈ X. The set of all n-tuples of elements of X is denoted

by Xn

. More generally, if X1,X2,...,Xn are sets then the cartesian prod-

uct X1×X2×...×Xn is the set of all n-tuples (x1,x2,...,xn with x1 ∈ X1,

x2 ∈ X2, ..., xn ∈ Xn:

X1×X2×...×Xn = {(x1,x2,...,xn) : xi ∈ Xi for i = 1,2,...,n}.

Thus

Xn

= X ×X ×...×X

n

The Cartesian product is also called the direct product by some authors.

Let X be a set. A subset R ⊂ Xn

is called an n-ary relation 21

unary

means 1-ary, binary means 2-ary, ternary means 3-ary. (The word “rela-

tion” unmodiﬁed usually means “binary relation”.) In some contexts it is

customary to write R(x1,x2,...,xn) rather than (x1,x2,...,xn) ∈ R.

Similarly, a function f : Xn

−→ Y is sometimes called an n-ary function.
When X = Y the word operation is often used in place of the word function;

thus a unary operation on a set X is a function with domain and codomain

X, a binary operation on X is a function with domain X2

and codomain

X, a ternary operation on X is a function with domain X3

and codomain

X, etc..

Given a function f : X1 × X2 × ... × Xn −→ Y it is customary to

denote the value of f for argument (x1, x2,...,xn) by f(x1, x2,...,xn) rather

than f((x1, x2,...,xn)). More generally, one often tacitly omits or inserts

parantheses to promote legibility.

Sometimes the value of a function or relation for given arguments is de-

noted in other ways. For example, we write x + y rather than +(x,y) (+

is really a binary function) and x < y rather than < (x,y) (< is really a

binary relation). Here, parentheses play the crucial role of indicating the

order in which the operations are performed (x−(y +z) = (x−y)+z) and

21

Logicians would say that a predicate denotes a relation in the same way that a numeral

denotes a number.

158

when parentheses are omitted this order is determined according to some em

convention (e.g. x−y + z means (x−y) + z and not x−(y + z)).

The notation where the name of a binary function is placed between

(rather than in front of) the arguments is called inﬁx notation. Occassion-

ally, the name of the function is placed after the operation – one writes (x,y)f

rather than f(x,y) – this is called postﬁx notation. The notation f(x,y)

is thus called preﬁx notation. It is possible to omit parantheses unambigu-

ously when using postﬁx (or preﬁx notation) and some calculators (e.g. those

made by Hewlett-Packard) and programming languages (e.g. APL) do this.

(Thus x−y + z is denoted xy−z+ in postﬁx notation.) 22

Given a subset A ⊂ X the function

χA : X −→ {0,1}

deﬁned by

χA(x) =

1 if x ∈ A
0 if x /∈ A

is called the characteristic function of A in X. (Some authors call it the

indicator function.)

Given a function f : X −→ Y the graph of f is the set of all pairs

(x,f(x)) with x ∈ X:

graph(f) = {(x,y) ∈ X ×Y : y = f(x)}.

Remark 5.4.1 Let G ⊂ X×Y. Then there is a function f : X −→ Y such

that G = graph(f) if and only for every x ∈ X there exists a unique y ∈ Y

with (x,y) ∈ G. Moreover, given f1,f2 : X −→ Y we have that f1 = f2 if

and only if graph(f1) = graph(f2).

The remark is obvious. When G = graph(f) the unique y ∈ Y such that

(x,y) ∈ G is f(x) and conversely given G and x ∈ X we may deﬁne f(x) to

be the unique y ∈ Y such that x ∈ X. Because of this remark, some authors

identify functions with their graphs, thereby reducing the number of kinds

of mathematical objects from three (individuals, sets, and functions) to two

(individuals and sets).

22

The observation that parantheses are not needed with preﬁx (or postﬁx) notation is
due to a Pole named Lukasiewicz so parentheses-free notation is sometimes called Polish
(or reverse Polish) notation.

159

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