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# Axial Flow Compressors

## Axial Flow Compressors

Elementary theory
Axial Flow Compressors
Axial Flow Compressors
Comparison of typical forms of turbine and
compressor rotor blades
Axial Flow Compressors
Axial Flow Compressors
Stage= S+R
S: stator (stationary blade)
R: rotor (rotating blade)
First row of the stationary blades is called guide vanes
** Basic operation

*Axial flow compressors:

1) series of stages
2) each stage has a row of rotor blades followed
by a row of stator blades.
3) fluid is accelerated by rotor blades.

Axial Flow Compressors
In stator, fluid is then decelerated causing change in the
kinetic energy to static pressure.

Due to adverse pressure gradient, the pressure rise for
each stage is small. Therefore, it is known that a single
turbine stage can drive a large number of compressor
stages.

Inlet guide vanes are used to guide the flow into the first
stage.

Elementary Theory:
Assume mid plane is constant r1=r2, u1=u2
assume Ca=const, in the direction of u.

1 2
w w w
C C C = A
, in the direction of u.
1 2
w w w
C C C = A
Axial Flow Compressors
Inside the rotor, all power is consumed.
Stator only changes AK.E.AP static, To2=To3
Increase in stagnation pressure is done in the rotor.
Stagnation pressure drops due to friction loss in the stator:
C1: velocity of air approaching the rotor.
1
o
: angle of approach of rotor.
u: blade speed.
V1: the velocity relative t the rotor at inlet at an
angle |1 from the axial direction.
V2: relative velocity at exit rotor at angle |2
determined from the rotor blade outlet angle.
|2: angle of exit of rotor.
Ca: axial velocity.
Axial Flow Compressors
Two dimensional analysis:
Only axial ( Ca) and tangential (Cw). no radial component
1 3
1 3
2 2
2 2 2
a
2
1 1
C also
stage similar a to go air to prepare to
C get u triangle & V
cos V ontained be V
C assuming
exit. at blade tangnt to
2
2 1
C
normally
then
C can this
C C
V
V u C
a
a a
=
=

=
= =
+
o o
|

) (
1 2
.
o o p
T T c m W =
Axial Flow Compressors
Axial Flow Compressors
) tan - (tan ) tan - (tan
2 1 1 2
| | o o =
2 1
a a a
C C C = =
(a) tan tan / , tan tan u/Ca
2 2 1 1
| o | o + = + =
a
C u
from velocity triangles
assuming
the power input to stage
) ( m W
1 2
'
w w
C C u =
rotors. the of exit and inlet at components l tangentia are
2 1
w w
andC C
where
or in terms of the axial velocity

From equation (a)
) tan - (tan muC W
1 2 a
o o =
Axial Flow Compressors
Energy balance
p a o
a o o o o p o p
c uC T
uC T T c T T c T c
/ ) tan (tan
) tan (tan ) ( ) (
2 1
2 1
5
1 2 1 3 5
| |
| |
= A
= = = = A
pressure ratio at a stage
3 5
1 1
1
1
s
1
2
1 where, isentropic efficiency
Ex.
u 180 m/s, 43.9 , 0.85, 0.8,
150 / , 13.5, 288, 1.183 ,
higher due to centrifugal action
o s o
s
o o
o
s
a o s centrifugal
p T
p stage
p T
C m s T R R

q
q
| q
|

(
A
= = + =
(
(

= = = =
= = = = <
Axial Flow Compressors
A
Degree of reaction
enthalpy rise in rotor
enthalpy rise in the stage
r
s
h static
static h
A
A = =
A
is the ratio of static enthalpy in rotor to static enthalpy
rise in stage
For incompressible isentropic flow Tds=dh-vdp
dh=vdp=dp/ Tds=0
Ah=Ap/ ( constant )
Thus enthalpy rise could be replaced by static pressure rise
( in the definition of A)
1 s . s o
but generally choose A=0.5 at mid-plane of
the stage.
Axial Flow Compressors
A=0: all pressure rise only in stator
A=1: all pressure rise in only in rotor
A=0.5: half of pressure rise only in rotor and half is in
stator. ( recommend design)
3 1 a
Assume C , and C . ( for simplicity) C const = =
5
1 2
1 (tan tan ) / 2
o stagnation stage s
a
T T T T
C u o o
=
A = = A
. = +
u C
a
/ , tan 1 = = | o |
o
1 2
tan (tan tan ) / 2
o
| | | = +
Axial Flow Compressors
special condition
A=0 ( impulse type rotor)
from equation 3
1 2
(tan tan ) / 2
a
C u | | A = +
|1=-|2 , velocities skewed left, h1=h2, T1=T2
A=1.0 (impulse type stator from equation 1)
A=1-Ca(tano1+tano2)/2u, o2=o1
velocities skewed right, C1=C2, h2=h3T2=T3
1 2
1
(tan tan )
2 2
|
o | A =
2 1
2 1
2 1 1 2
3 1
; symmetric angles
V , ;
P P
c V c
P P
| o =

= = . =

A=0.5
from 2
Axial Flow Compressors
Three dimensional flow
2-D
1. the effects due to radial movement of the fluid are ignored.
2. It is justified for hub-trip ratio>0.8
3. This occurs at later stages of compressor.
3-D are valid due to
1. due to difference in hub-trip ratio from inlet stages to
later-stages, the annulus will have a substantial taper.
Thus radial velocity occurs.
2. due to whirl component, pressure increase with
radius.
Axial Flow Compressors
) 1 /(
1 1
3
s
2 1
1 2 1 3
1 2
1 2
1 1
2 2 1 1
] 1 [ R
stage per rise pressure
) tan (tan
) tan (tan
) tan (tan
) (
tan tan tan tan

A
+ = =
=
= = A
=
=
=
+ = + =

q
| |
| |
o o
| o | o
o
s s
o
o
p
a
o o o o os
a
a
w w
a
T
T
p
p
c
UC
T T T T T
UC m
UC m
C C U m W
C
U

## Axial Flow Compressors

Design Process of an axial compressor

(1) Choice of rotational speed at design point and annulus
dimensions
(2) Determination of number of stages, using an assumed
efficiency at design point
(3) Calculation of the air angles for each stage at the mean
line
(4) Determination of the variation of the air angles from root
to tip
(5) Selection of compressor blades using experimentally
obtained cascade data
(6) Check on efficiency previously assumed using the
cascade data
(7) Estimation on off-design performance
(8) Rig testing

Axial Flow Compressors
Design process:
Requirements:
A suitable design point under sea-level static conditions
(with =1.01 bar and , 12000 N as take off thrust, may
emerge as follows:
Compressor pressure ratio 4.15
Air-mass flow 20 kg/s
Turbine inlet temperature 1100 K
With these data specified, it is now necessary to
investigate the aerodynamic design of the compressor,
turbine and other components of the engine. It will be
assumed that the compressor has no inlet guide vanes,
to keep weight and noise down. The design of the
turbine will be considered in Chapter 7.
Axial Flow Compressors
Requirements:
choice of rotational speed and annulus dimensions;

determination of number of stages, using an assumed
efficiency;

calculation of the air angles for each stage at mean radius;

determination of the variation of the air angles from root to
tip;

investigation of compressibility effects

Axial Flow Compressors
Determination of rotational speed and annulus
dimensions:
Assumptions
Guidelines:
Tip speed ut=350 m/s
Axial velocity Ca=150-200 m/s
Hub-tip ratio at entry 0.4-0.6
Calculation of tip and hub radii at inlet
Assumptions Ca=150 m/s
Ut=350 m/s to be corrected to
250 rev/s

Axial Flow Compressors
Equations
continuity

thus

rps t t
N t U * * * 2 t =
a
t
r
t a
C
r
r
r A C m
(
(

|
|
.
|

\
|
= =
2
2
1 1
1
1
t
) (
1
2
2
1 1
2
a
r
r
C
m
r
t
r
a
t

(
(

=
t

t r
t
r r
r
N / & r get to solve ,
2
350
t
t
=
a
t
r
t
C
r
r
r
(
(

|
|
.
|

\
|

2
2
1
1 t
Axial Flow Compressors
procedure
3 1
1
1
1
1 1
2
1
1
1
1
/ 106 . 1
8 . 276
2
150 C
bar 01 . 1 , 288
1 1
2
1
1
1
m kg
RT
P
P
T
T
P
P
c
C
T T
C
P P K T T
o o
p
o
a
a o a o
= =

|
|
.
|

\
|
=
= =
= =
= = = =

## Axial Flow Compressors

From equation (a)
0.6 0.4 / r
2 / 350
1
03837 . 0
r
2
2

=
(
(

|
|
.
|

\
|

=
f rom r assume
rt N
r
r
r
t
t
r
t
t
t r
r r
/ N
260.6 0.2137 0.4
246.3 0.2262 0.5
227.5 0.2449 0.6
t
r
Axial Flow Compressors
Consider rps250
Thus rr/rt=0.5, rt=0.2262, ut=2trt*rps=355.3 m/s
7 . 385 V
2
1
2
1 1t
= + =
a
t
C u Get
1
RT a =
165 . 1
1
1
= =
a
v
M
t
Is ok. Discussed later. Results r-t=0.2262,
r-r=0.1131, r-m=0.1697 m
Axial Flow Compressors
At exit of compressor

m m Outlet m m inlet
m r C
h
r r
m
h
r thus h r h but
C A m
RT
P
P
T
T
c
C
T T
K T
P
P
T
T
bar given
P
P
m a
m r
m m
a
o p
a
o
o
n
n
o
o
o
o
o
o
1491 . 0 r ; 1903 . 0 r : ; 1131 . 0 r ; 2262 . 0 r :
1697 . 0 ; 150 ; 3 . 355 u rps; 250 N
results
m 1491 . 0
2

; 19303 . 0
2
r ; 0413 . 0 ) 2 ( A
; 044 . 0 A , ; kg/m 03 . 3 bar; 84 . 3
P
P
K; 3 . 441
2

; 5 . 452 ; 9 . 0 assume , 317
4 . 1
4 . 0 1
n
1 - n
where
]; 19 . 4 P [ 15 . 4
r t r t
t
t 2
2 2 2
3
2
2
2 2
1
2
o
2
2
2
2
1
o
2 2
2
1
2
1
2
2
1
2
= = = =
= = = =
= =
= + = = =
= = = =
|
|
.
|

\
|
= = =
= = = = =
|
|
.
|

\
|
= = =

t

q
q

## Axial Flow Compressors

No. of stages
ATo =overall = 452.5-288=164.5K
rise over a stage 10-30 K for subsonic
4.5 for transonic
for rise over as stage=25
thus no. of stages =164.5/25
stages 7 ~
- normally ATo5 is small at first stage
de haller criterion V2/V1 >

0.72
-work factor can be taken as 0.98, 0.93, 0.88 for 1
st
,
2
nd
, 3 rd stage and 0.83 for rest of the stages.
Axial Flow Compressors
Stage by stage
design;
Consider middle plane

stage 1

for no vane at inlet

w o
C u T A = A cp
0 , / 9 . 76
1
= = A o s m C
w
s m C C
w w
/ 9 . 76 , 0
2 1
= =
m/s 266 u thus, r 2 u
m m
= = t
Axial Flow Compressors
Angles
o
a
w
a
w
a
thus
C
C
C
C u
C
u
98 . 8
blades rotor in deflection the
14 . 27 tan
67 . 51 tan
64 . 60 tan
2 1
2
2
2
2
2
2
1 1
=
= =

=
= =
| |
o o
| |
| |
check de Haller
0.72 than less is which 79 . 0
cos
cos
cos
cos /
2
1
1 /
2
1
2
= = =
|
|
|
|
a
a
C
C
v
v
Axial Flow Compressors
856 . 0
2
1
) tan (tan
2u
C
- 1
308
249 . 1 1 assume
es efficienci c poly tropi pressures
1 2
2 1
a
5 1
3
3
1
1
5
1
3
s
=
+
= .
+ = .
= A + =
=
(

A
+ = =

u
C C
equation
K T T T
p
T
T
p
p
w
o o o
o
o
o
o
o
e

o o
q
q
Axial Flow Compressors
Second stage
05 . 41 ; 06 . 11
tan tan ; tan tan
7 . 42 & 7 . 57 (b) and (a)
) ( 488 . 2 tan tan
7 . 0 take ); tan (tan
2
) 2 (
) ( 6756 . 0 tan tan
) tan (tan c ) 1 (
93 . 0 , 25
2 1
2 2
2
1
0
2 1
2 1
2 1
2 1
2 1 5 p
5
= =
+ = + =
= =
= +
= . + = .
=
= A
= = A
o o
| o | o
| |
| |
| |
| |
| |

a a
a
a o
o
C
u
C
u
solve
b
u
C
a
uC T
K T
Axial Flow Compressors
0 . 28 ; 24 . 51
) tan (tan
2
); tan (tan
5 . 0 , 25 T 0.88,
3
907 . 0
06 . 11 cos
15 . 27 cos
cos
cos
721 . 0
cos
cos
V
V
; stage second for
bar 599 . 1
308
25
1
333 25 308
2 1
2 1 2 1 5
03
1
2
2
3
2
1
1
2
3
5 . 3
3
1
3
= =
+ = . = A
= . = A =
= = =
= =
=
(

+ =
= + =
| |
| | | |

o
o
|
|
q
solving
u
C
uC T c
K
stage
C
C
Haller de
p
P
P
T
a
a o p
o
s
o
o
o
Axial Flow Compressors
( ) K p
e perf ormanc
giving thus
take
o
357 24 333 T bar; 992 . 1 246 . 1 599 . 1 ) (
246 . 1
333
24 9 . 0
1
p
p
stage rd 3 of *
0.718 of number Haller de ; 65 . 28 , 92 . 50
685 . 0 tan tan 24 T
709 . 0
28 cos
24 . 51 cos
cos
cos
is no. Haller de
3
o3 3
5 . 3
3
o1
o
2 1
2 1 o5
2
1
3
= + = = =
=
|
.
|

\
|

+ =
|
|
.
|

\
|
= =
= = A
= =
| |
| |
|
|
Axial Flow Compressors
: below summerized be can stages three the of e performanc
). ( 71 . 27 38 . 51
7773 . 1
150
6 . 266
2 5 . 0 ) tan (tan
7267 . 0
150 6 . 266 83 . 0
10 005 . 1 24
tan tan ; 1
) tan (tan
2
) tan (tan c
5,6 and 4 stages
/ 7 . 184 92 . 50 tan 150 ; / 9 . 81 63 . 28 tan 150 C
by given are s velocitie whirl the . 92 . 50
63 . 28 diagram velocity the of symmetry From
1 2
0
1
2 1
3
2 1
2 1 2 1 5 p
2 1
0
1 2
2 1
1
5
1
3
the
and yielding
T
T
p
p
u
C
uC T
s m C s m
and
o
o
o
o
a
a o
o | |
| |
| |
| | | |
| o
| o
e e
= = =
= = +

=
|
|
.
|

\
| A
+ =
+ = = A
= = = =
= =
= =
Axial Flow Compressors
1 o
T
1
3
o
o
p
p
1 3 o o
p p
3 o
T
3 o
p
1 o
P
6 5 4 Stage
2.968 2.447 1.992
405 381 357
1.199 1.213 1.228
3.560 2.968 2.447
429 405 381
0.592 0.521 0.455
Axial Flow Compressors
Stage 7
At entry to the final stage the pressure and
temperature are 3.56 bar and 429 K. the required
compressor delivery pressure is 4.15*1.01=4.192 bar.
The pressure ratio of the seventh stage is thus given
by

K T giving
th
p
p
os
o
o
8 . 22
177 . 1
429
T 0.90
1
from detrmined be can ratio pressure the
give to required rise re temperatu e
177 . 1
56 . 3
192 . 4
5 . 3
os
7
1
3
= A
=
|
.
|

\
|
A
+
= =
|
|
.
|

\
|
Axial Flow Compressors
the corresponding air angles, assuming 50 per cent
reaction, are then |1=50.98,
0.717. of number Haller de
ry satisfacto a ) ( 52 . 28
1
0
2
with o | = =
Design calculations using EES
"Determination of the rotational speed and annulus dimensions"
"Known Information"
To_1=288 [K]; Po_1=101 [kPa]; m_dot=20[kg/s]; U_t=350 [m/s]
\$ifnot ParametricTable
Ca_1=150[m/s];r_r/r_t=0.5;cp=1005;R=0.287;Gamma=1.4
\$endif
Gamr=Gamma/(Gamma-1)
m_dot=Rho_1*Ca_1*A_1 "mass balance"
A_1=pi*(r_t^2-r_r^2) "relation between Area and eye dimensions"
U_t=2*pi*r_t*N_rps
C_1=Ca_1
T_1=To_1-C_1^2/(2*cp)
P_1/Po_1=(T_1/To_1)^Gamr
Rho_1=P_1/(R*T_1)
\$TabStops 0.5 2 in

Design calculations using EES
Determination of the rotational speed and annulus dimensions
Known Information
To
1
= 288 [K] Po
1
= 101 [kPa] m = 20 [kg/s] U
t
= 350 [m/s]
Ca
1
= 150 [m/s] r
r
r
t
= 0.5
cp = 1005 R = 0.287 = 1.4
Gamr =
1
m =
1
Ca
1
A
1 mass balance
A
1
= ( r
t
2
r
r
2
) relation between Area and eye dimensions
U
t
= 2 r
t
N
rps
C
1
= Ca
1
T
1
= To
1

C
1
2
2 cp
P
1
Po
1
=
T
1
To
1
Gamr
1
=
P
1
R T
1
Design calculations using EES
Calculate radii at exit section
Choose (round) rotational speed as 250 rps
N
rps
= 250
Thus calc new value for tip speed
rt
1
= 0.2262
U
t
= 2 rt
1
N
rps
r
m
= 0.1697
Known Information
To
1
= 288 [K]
P
ratio
= 4.15
Assumptions
Etta
inf
= 0.9
Ca
2
= Ca
1
Ca
1
= 150 [m/s]
Gamr =
1
Design calculations using EES
nratio =
1
Etta
inf
Gamr
nratio=(n-1)/n=(1/etta
inf )
/gamr
P
ratio
=
Po
2
Po
1
To
2
To
1
=
Po
2
Po
1
nratio
m =
2
Ca
2
A
2
A
2
= 2 h r
m
C
2
= Ca
2
T
2
= To
2

C
2
2
2 cp
P
2
Po
2
=
T
2
To
2
Gamr
2
=
P
2
R T
2
r
t
= r
m
+
h
2
r
r
= r
m

h
2
Design calculations using EES
A
2
= 0.04398 Ca
1
= 150 [m/s] Ca
2
= 150 [m/s] cp = 1005 [J/kgK] C
2
= 150 [m/s] Etta
inf
= 0.9
= 1.4 Gamr = 3.5 h = 0.041 [m] m = 20 [kg/s] nratio = 0.3175 N
rps
= 250 [rev per sec]
Po
1
= 101 [kPa] Po
2
= 419.2 P
2
= 384 [kPa] P
ratio
= 4.15 R = 0.287 [kJ/kgK]
2
= 3.032
rt
1
= 0.2262 [m] r
m
= 0.1697 [m] r
r
= 0.1491 [m] r
t
= 0.1903 [m] To
1
= 288 [K] To
2
= 452.5 [K]
T
2
= 441.3 [C] U
t
= 355.3 [m/s]
Design calculations using EES
Calculate number of stages
Known Information
To
1
= 288 [K] Po
1
= 101 [kPa] m = 20 [kg/s]
P
ratio
= 4.15 To
outlet
= 452.5
Assumptions
delT
stage
= 25
Ca
1
= 150 [m/s] cp = 1005 R = 0.287 = 1.4
Gamr =
1
delT
ov
= To
outlet
To
1
N
stages
=
delT
ov
delT
stage
Design calculations using EES
Ca
1
= 150 [m/s] cp = 1005 [J/kgK] delT
ov
= 164.5 delT
stage
= 25 = 1.4 Gamr = 3.5 m = 20 [kg/s] N
stages
= 6.58
Po
1
= 101 [kPa] P
ratio
= 4.15 R = 0.287 [kJ/kgK] To
1
= 288 [K] To
outlet
= 452.5