) (
1 2
.
o o p
T T c m W =
Axial Flow Compressors
Axial Flow Compressors
) tan  (tan ) tan  (tan
2 1 1 2
  o o =
2 1
a a a
C C C = =
(a) tan tan / , tan tan u/Ca
2 2 1 1
 o  o + = + =
a
C u
from velocity triangles
assuming
the power input to stage
) ( m W
1 2
'
w w
C C u =
rotors. the of exit and inlet at components l tangentia are
2 1
w w
andC C
where
or in terms of the axial velocity
From equation (a)
) tan  (tan muC W
1 2 a
o o =
Axial Flow Compressors
Energy balance
p a o
a o o o o p o p
c uC T
uC T T c T T c T c
/ ) tan (tan
) tan (tan ) ( ) (
2 1
2 1
5
1 2 1 3 5
 
 
= A
= = = = A
pressure ratio at a stage
3 5
1 1
1
1
s
1
2
1 where, isentropic efficiency
Ex.
u 180 m/s, 43.9 , 0.85, 0.8,
150 / , 13.5, 288, 1.183 ,
higher due to centrifugal action
o s o
s
o o
o
s
a o s centrifugal
p T
p stage
p T
C m s T R R
q
q
 q

(
A
= = + =
(
(
= = = =
= = = = <
Axial Flow Compressors
A
Degree of reaction
enthalpy rise in rotor
enthalpy rise in the stage
r
s
h static
static h
A
A = =
A
is the ratio of static enthalpy in rotor to static enthalpy
rise in stage
For incompressible isentropic flow Tds=dhvdp
dh=vdp=dp/ Tds=0
Ah=Ap/ ( constant )
Thus enthalpy rise could be replaced by static pressure rise
( in the definition of A)
1 s . s o
but generally choose A=0.5 at midplane of
the stage.
Axial Flow Compressors
A=0: all pressure rise only in stator
A=1: all pressure rise in only in rotor
A=0.5: half of pressure rise only in rotor and half is in
stator. ( recommend design)
3 1 a
Assume C , and C . ( for simplicity) C const = =
5
1 2
1 (tan tan ) / 2
o stagnation stage s
a
T T T T
C u o o
=
A = = A
. = +
u C
a
/ , tan 1 = =  o 
o
1 2
tan (tan tan ) / 2
o
   = +
Axial Flow Compressors
special condition
A=0 ( impulse type rotor)
from equation 3
1 2
(tan tan ) / 2
a
C u   A = +
1=2 , velocities skewed left, h1=h2, T1=T2
A=1.0 (impulse type stator from equation 1)
A=1Ca(tano1+tano2)/2u, o2=o1
velocities skewed right, C1=C2, h2=h3T2=T3
1 2
1
(tan tan )
2 2

o  A =
2 1
2 1
2 1 1 2
3 1
; symmetric angles
V , ;
P P
c V c
P P
 o =
= = . =
A=0.5
from 2
Axial Flow Compressors
Three dimensional flow
2D
1. the effects due to radial movement of the fluid are ignored.
2. It is justified for hubtrip ratio>0.8
3. This occurs at later stages of compressor.
3D are valid due to
1. due to difference in hubtrip ratio from inlet stages to
laterstages, the annulus will have a substantial taper.
Thus radial velocity occurs.
2. due to whirl component, pressure increase with
radius.
Axial Flow Compressors
) 1 /(
1 1
3
s
2 1
1 2 1 3
1 2
1 2
1 1
2 2 1 1
] 1 [ R
stage per rise pressure
) tan (tan
) tan (tan
) tan (tan
) (
tan tan tan tan
A
+ = =
=
= = A
=
=
=
+ = + =
q
 
 
o o
 o  o
o
s s
o
o
p
a
o o o o os
a
a
w w
a
T
T
p
p
c
UC
T T T T T
UC m
UC m
C C U m W
C
U


.

\

= =
2
2
1 1
1
1
t
) (
1
2
2
1 1
2
a
r
r
C
m
r
t
r
a
t
(
(
=
t
t r
t
r r
r
N / & r get to solve ,
2
350
t
t
=
a
t
r
t
C
r
r
r
(
(


.

\

2
2
1
1 t
Axial Flow Compressors
procedure
3 1
1
1
1
1 1
2
1
1
1
1
/ 106 . 1
8 . 276
2
150 C
bar 01 . 1 , 288
1 1
2
1
1
1
m kg
RT
P
P
T
T
P
P
c
C
T T
C
P P K T T
o o
p
o
a
a o a o
= =


.

\

=
= =
= =
= = = =
=
(
(


.

\

=
f rom r assume
rt N
r
r
r
t
t
r
t
t
t r
r r
/ N
260.6 0.2137 0.4
246.3 0.2262 0.5
227.5 0.2449 0.6
t
r
Axial Flow Compressors
Consider rps250
Thus rr/rt=0.5, rt=0.2262, ut=2trt*rps=355.3 m/s
7 . 385 V
2
1
2
1 1t
= + =
a
t
C u Get
1
RT a =
165 . 1
1
1
= =
a
v
M
t
Is ok. Discussed later. Results rt=0.2262,
rr=0.1131, rm=0.1697 m
Axial Flow Compressors
At exit of compressor
m m Outlet m m inlet
m r C
h
r r
m
h
r thus h r h but
C A m
RT
P
P
T
T
c
C
T T
K T
P
P
T
T
bar given
P
P
m a
m r
m m
a
o p
a
o
o
n
n
o
o
o
o
o
o
1491 . 0 r ; 1903 . 0 r : ; 1131 . 0 r ; 2262 . 0 r :
1697 . 0 ; 150 ; 3 . 355 u rps; 250 N
results
m 1491 . 0
2
; 19303 . 0
2
r ; 0413 . 0 ) 2 ( A
; 044 . 0 A , ; kg/m 03 . 3 bar; 84 . 3
P
P
K; 3 . 441
2
; 5 . 452 ; 9 . 0 assume , 317
4 . 1
4 . 0 1
n
1  n
where
]; 19 . 4 P [ 15 . 4
r t r t
t
t 2
2 2 2
3
2
2
2 2
1
2
o
2
2
2
2
1
o
2 2
2
1
2
1
2
2
1
2
= = = =
= = = =
= =
= + = = =
= = = =


.

\

= = =
= = = = =


.

\

= = =
t
q
q
=
= =
 
o o
 
 
check de Haller
0.72 than less is which 79 . 0
cos
cos
cos
cos /
2
1
1 /
2
1
2
= = =




a
a
C
C
v
v
Axial Flow Compressors
856 . 0
2
1
) tan (tan
2u
C
 1
308
249 . 1 1 assume
es efficienci c poly tropi pressures
1 2
2 1
a
5 1
3
3
1
1
5
1
3
s
=
+
= .
+ = .
= A + =
=
(
A
+ = =
u
C C
equation
K T T T
p
T
T
p
p
w
o o o
o
o
o
o
o
e
o o
q
q
Axial Flow Compressors
Second stage
05 . 41 ; 06 . 11
tan tan ; tan tan
7 . 42 & 7 . 57 (b) and (a)
) ( 488 . 2 tan tan
7 . 0 take ); tan (tan
2
) 2 (
) ( 6756 . 0 tan tan
) tan (tan c ) 1 (
93 . 0 , 25
2 1
2 2
2
1
0
2 1
2 1
2 1
2 1
2 1 5 p
5
= =
+ = + =
= =
= +
= . + = .
=
= A
= = A
o o
 o  o
 
 
 
 
 
a a
a
a o
o
C
u
C
u
solve
b
u
C
a
uC T
K T
Axial Flow Compressors
0 . 28 ; 24 . 51
) tan (tan
2
); tan (tan
5 . 0 , 25 T 0.88,
3
907 . 0
06 . 11 cos
15 . 27 cos
cos
cos
721 . 0
cos
cos
V
V
; stage second for
bar 599 . 1
308
25
1
333 25 308
2 1
2 1 2 1 5
03
1
2
2
3
2
1
1
2
3
5 . 3
3
1
3
= =
+ = . = A
= . = A =
= = =
= =
=
(
+ =
= + =
 
   
o
o


q
solving
u
C
uC T c
K
stage
C
C
Haller de
p
P
P
T
a
a o p
o
s
o
o
o
Axial Flow Compressors
( ) K p
e perf ormanc
giving thus
take
o
357 24 333 T bar; 992 . 1 246 . 1 599 . 1 ) (
246 . 1
333
24 9 . 0
1
p
p
stage rd 3 of *
0.718 of number Haller de ; 65 . 28 , 92 . 50
685 . 0 tan tan 24 T
709 . 0
28 cos
24 . 51 cos
cos
cos
is no. Haller de
3
o3 3
5 . 3
3
o1
o
2 1
2 1 o5
2
1
3
= + = = =
=

.

\

+ =


.

\

= =
= = A
= =
 
 


Axial Flow Compressors
: below summerized be can stages three the of e performanc
). ( 71 . 27 38 . 51
7773 . 1
150
6 . 266
2 5 . 0 ) tan (tan
7267 . 0
150 6 . 266 83 . 0
10 005 . 1 24
tan tan ; 1
) tan (tan
2
) tan (tan c
5,6 and 4 stages
/ 7 . 184 92 . 50 tan 150 ; / 9 . 81 63 . 28 tan 150 C
by given are s velocitie whirl the . 92 . 50
63 . 28 diagram velocity the of symmetry From
1 2
0
1
2 1
3
2 1
2 1 2 1 5 p
2 1
0
1 2
2 1
1
5
1
3
the
and yielding
T
T
p
p
u
C
uC T
s m C s m
and
o
o
o
o
a
a o
o  
 
 
   
 o
 o
e e
= = =
= = +
=


.

\
 A
+ =
+ = = A
= = = =
= =
= =
Axial Flow Compressors
1 o
T
1
3
o
o
p
p
1 3 o o
p p
3 o
T
3 o
p
1 o
P
6 5 4 Stage
2.968 2.447 1.992
405 381 357
1.199 1.213 1.228
3.560 2.968 2.447
429 405 381
0.592 0.521 0.455
Axial Flow Compressors
Stage 7
At entry to the final stage the pressure and
temperature are 3.56 bar and 429 K. the required
compressor delivery pressure is 4.15*1.01=4.192 bar.
The pressure ratio of the seventh stage is thus given
by
K T giving
th
p
p
os
o
o
8 . 22
177 . 1
429
T 0.90
1
from detrmined be can ratio pressure the
give to required rise re temperatu e
177 . 1
56 . 3
192 . 4
5 . 3
os
7
1
3
= A
=

.

\

A
+
= =


.

\

Axial Flow Compressors
the corresponding air angles, assuming 50 per cent
reaction, are then 1=50.98,
0.717. of number Haller de
ry satisfacto a ) ( 52 . 28
1
0
2
with o  = =
Design calculations using EES
"Determination of the rotational speed and annulus dimensions"
"Known Information"
To_1=288 [K]; Po_1=101 [kPa]; m_dot=20[kg/s]; U_t=350 [m/s]
$ifnot ParametricTable
Ca_1=150[m/s];r_r/r_t=0.5;cp=1005;R=0.287;Gamma=1.4
$endif
Gamr=Gamma/(Gamma1)
m_dot=Rho_1*Ca_1*A_1 "mass balance"
A_1=pi*(r_t^2r_r^2) "relation between Area and eye dimensions"
U_t=2*pi*r_t*N_rps
C_1=Ca_1
T_1=To_1C_1^2/(2*cp)
P_1/Po_1=(T_1/To_1)^Gamr
Rho_1=P_1/(R*T_1)
$TabStops 0.5 2 in
Design calculations using EES
Determination of the rotational speed and annulus dimensions
Known Information
To
1
= 288 [K] Po
1
= 101 [kPa] m = 20 [kg/s] U
t
= 350 [m/s]
Ca
1
= 150 [m/s] r
r
r
t
= 0.5
cp = 1005 R = 0.287 = 1.4
Gamr =
1
m =
1
Ca
1
A
1 mass balance
A
1
= ( r
t
2
r
r
2
) relation between Area and eye dimensions
U
t
= 2 r
t
N
rps
C
1
= Ca
1
T
1
= To
1
C
1
2
2 cp
P
1
Po
1
=
T
1
To
1
Gamr
1
=
P
1
R T
1
Design calculations using EES
Calculate radii at exit section
Choose (round) rotational speed as 250 rps
N
rps
= 250
Thus calc new value for tip speed
rt
1
= 0.2262
U
t
= 2 rt
1
N
rps
r
m
= 0.1697
Known Information
To
1
= 288 [K]
P
ratio
= 4.15
Assumptions
Etta
inf
= 0.9
Ca
2
= Ca
1
Ca
1
= 150 [m/s]
Gamr =
1
Design calculations using EES
nratio =
1
Etta
inf
Gamr
nratio=(n1)/n=(1/etta
inf )
/gamr
P
ratio
=
Po
2
Po
1
To
2
To
1
=
Po
2
Po
1
nratio
m =
2
Ca
2
A
2
A
2
= 2 h r
m
C
2
= Ca
2
T
2
= To
2
C
2
2
2 cp
P
2
Po
2
=
T
2
To
2
Gamr
2
=
P
2
R T
2
r
t
= r
m
+
h
2
r
r
= r
m
h
2
Design calculations using EES
A
2
= 0.04398 Ca
1
= 150 [m/s] Ca
2
= 150 [m/s] cp = 1005 [J/kgK] C
2
= 150 [m/s] Etta
inf
= 0.9
= 1.4 Gamr = 3.5 h = 0.041 [m] m = 20 [kg/s] nratio = 0.3175 N
rps
= 250 [rev per sec]
Po
1
= 101 [kPa] Po
2
= 419.2 P
2
= 384 [kPa] P
ratio
= 4.15 R = 0.287 [kJ/kgK]
2
= 3.032
rt
1
= 0.2262 [m] r
m
= 0.1697 [m] r
r
= 0.1491 [m] r
t
= 0.1903 [m] To
1
= 288 [K] To
2
= 452.5 [K]
T
2
= 441.3 [C] U
t
= 355.3 [m/s]
Design calculations using EES
Calculate number of stages
Known Information
To
1
= 288 [K] Po
1
= 101 [kPa] m = 20 [kg/s]
P
ratio
= 4.15 To
outlet
= 452.5
Assumptions
delT
stage
= 25
Ca
1
= 150 [m/s] cp = 1005 R = 0.287 = 1.4
Gamr =
1
delT
ov
= To
outlet
To
1
N
stages
=
delT
ov
delT
stage
Design calculations using EES
Ca
1
= 150 [m/s] cp = 1005 [J/kgK] delT
ov
= 164.5 delT
stage
= 25 = 1.4 Gamr = 3.5 m = 20 [kg/s] N
stages
= 6.58
Po
1
= 101 [kPa] P
ratio
= 4.15 R = 0.287 [kJ/kgK] To
1
= 288 [K] To
outlet
= 452.5