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Axial Flow Compressors
Axial Flow Compressors
• Elementary theory
Axial Flow Compressors
Axial Flow Compressors
Comparison of typical forms of turbine and
compressor rotor blades
Axial Flow Compressors
Axial Flow Compressors
Stage= S+R
S: stator (stationary blade)
R: rotor (rotating blade)
First row of the stationary blades is called guide vanes
** Basic operation
*Axial flow compressors:
1) series of stages
2) each stage has a row of rotor blades followed
by a row of stator blades.
3) fluid is accelerated by rotor blades.
Axial Flow Compressors
In stator, fluid is then decelerated causing change in the
kinetic energy to static pressure.
Due to adverse pressure gradient, the pressure rise for
each stage is small. Therefore, it is known that a single
turbine stage can drive a large number of compressor
stages.
Inlet guide vanes are used to guide the flow into the first
stage.
Elementary Theory:
Assume mid plane is constant r1=r2, u1=u2
assume Ca=const, in the direction of u.
1 2
w w w
C C C ÷ = A
, in the direction of u.
1 2
w w w
C C C ÷ = A
Axial Flow Compressors
Inside the rotor, all power is consumed.
Stator only changes AK.E.÷AP static, To2=To3
Increase in stagnation pressure is done in the rotor.
Stagnation pressure drops due to friction loss in the stator:
C1: velocity of air approaching the rotor.
1
o
: angle of approach of rotor.
u: blade speed.
V1: the velocity relative t the rotor at inlet at an
angle 1 from the axial direction.
V2: relative velocity at exit rotor at angle 2
determined from the rotor blade outlet angle.
2: angle of exit of rotor.
Ca: axial velocity.
Axial Flow Compressors
Two dimensional analysis:
Only axial ( Ca) and tangential (Cw). no radial component
1 3
1 3
2 2
2 2 2
a
2
1 1
C also
stage similar a to go air to prepare to
C get u triangle & V
cos V ontained be V
C assuming
exit. at blade tangnt to
2
2 1
C
normally
then
C can this
C C
V
V u C
a
a a
=
=
¬
=
= =
÷ +
o o

) (
1 2
.
o o p
T T c m W ÷ =
Axial Flow Compressors
Axial Flow Compressors
) tan  (tan ) tan  (tan
2 1 1 2
  o o =
2 1
a a a
C C C = =
(a) tan tan / , tan tan u/Ca
2 2 1 1
 o  o + = + =
a
C u
from velocity triangles
assuming
the power input to stage
) ( m W
1 2
'
w w
C C u ÷ =
rotors. the of exit and inlet at components l tangentia are
2 1
w w
andC C
where
or in terms of the axial velocity
From equation (a)
) tan  (tan muC W
1 2 a
o o =
Axial Flow Compressors
Energy balance
p a o
a o o o o p o p
c uC T
uC T T c T T c T c
/ ) tan (tan
) tan (tan ) ( ) (
2 1
2 1
5
1 2 1 3 5
  ì
 
÷ = A
÷ = ÷ = = = A
pressure ratio at a stage
3 5
1 1
1
1
s
1
2
1 where, isentropic efficiency
Ex.
u 180 m/s, 43.9 , 0.85, 0.8,
150 / , 13.5, 288, 1.183 ,
higher due to centrifugal action
o s o
s
o o
o
s
a o s centrifugal
p T
p stage
p T
C m s T R R
¸
¸
q
q
 q ì

÷
(
A
= = + =
(
(
¸ ¸
= = = =
= = = = <
Axial Flow Compressors
A
Degree of reaction
enthalpy rise in rotor
enthalpy rise in the stage
r
s
h static
static h
A
A = =
A
is the ratio of static enthalpy in rotor to static enthalpy
rise in stage
For incompressible isentropic flow Tds=dhvdp
dh=vdp=dp/µ Tds=0
Ah=Ap/µ ( constant µ)
Thus enthalpy rise could be replaced by static pressure rise
( in the definition of A)
1 s . s o
but generally choose A=0.5 at midplane of
the stage.
Axial Flow Compressors
A=0: all pressure rise only in stator
A=1: all pressure rise in only in rotor
A=0.5: half of pressure rise only in rotor and half is in
stator. ( recommend design)
3 1 a
Assume C , and C . ( for simplicity) C const = =
5
1 2
1 (tan tan ) / 2
o stagnation stage s
a
T T T T
C u o o
=
A = ÷ = A
. = ÷ +
u C
a
/ , tan 1 = ÷ =  o 
o
1 2
tan (tan tan ) / 2
o
   = +
Axial Flow Compressors
special condition
A=0 ( impulse type rotor)
from equation 3
1 2
(tan tan ) / 2
a
C u   A = +
1=2 , velocities skewed left, h1=h2, T1=T2
A=1.0 (impulse type stator from equation 1)
A=1Ca(tano1+tano2)/2u, o2=o1
velocities skewed right, C1=C2, h2=h3÷T2=T3
1 2
1
(tan tan )
2 2

o  A = ÷ ÷
2 1
2 1
2 1 1 2
3 1
; symmetric angles
V , ;
P P
c V c
P P
 o =
÷
= = . =
÷
A=0.5
from 2
Axial Flow Compressors
Three dimensional flow
2D÷
1. the effects due to radial movement of the fluid are ignored.
2. It is justified for hubtrip ratio>0.8
3. This occurs at later stages of compressor.
3D÷ are valid due to
1. due to difference in hubtrip ratio from inlet stages to
laterstages, the annulus will have a substantial taper.
Thus radial velocity occurs.
2. due to whirl component, pressure increase with
radius.
Axial Flow Compressors
) 1 /(
1 1
3
s
2 1
1 2 1 3
1 2
1 2
1 1
2 2 1 1
] 1 [ R
stage per rise pressure
) tan (tan
) tan (tan
) tan (tan
) (
tan tan tan tan
÷
A
+ = =
÷ =
÷ = ÷ = A
÷ =
÷ =
÷ =
+ = + =
¸ ¸
q
 
 
o o
 o  o
o
s s
o
o
p
a
o o o o os
a
a
w w
a
T
T
p
p
c
UC
T T T T T
UC m
UC m
C C U m W
C
U
Axial Flow Compressors
Design Process of an axial compressor
• (1) Choice of rotational speed at design point and annulus
dimensions
• (2) Determination of number of stages, using an assumed
efficiency at design point
• (3) Calculation of the air angles for each stage at the mean
line
• (4) Determination of the variation of the air angles from root
to tip
• (5) Selection of compressor blades using experimentally
obtained cascade data
• (6) Check on efficiency previously assumed using the
cascade data
• (7) Estimation on offdesign performance
• (8) Rig testing
Axial Flow Compressors
Design process:
• Requirements:
• A suitable design point under sealevel static conditions
(with =1.01 bar and , 12000 N as take off thrust, may
emerge as follows:
• Compressor pressure ratio 4.15
• Airmass flow 20 kg/s
• Turbine inlet temperature 1100 K
• With these data specified, it is now necessary to
investigate the aerodynamic design of the compressor,
turbine and other components of the engine. It will be
assumed that the compressor has no inlet guide vanes,
to keep weight and noise down. The design of the
turbine will be considered in Chapter 7.
Axial Flow Compressors
Requirements:
• choice of rotational speed and annulus dimensions;
• determination of number of stages, using an assumed
efficiency;
• calculation of the air angles for each stage at mean radius;
• determination of the variation of the air angles from root to
tip;
• investigation of compressibility effects
Axial Flow Compressors
Determination of rotational speed and annulus
dimensions:
• Assumptions
• Guidelines:
• Tip speed ut=350 m/s
• Axial velocity Ca=150200 m/s
• Hubtip ratio at entry 0.40.6
• Calculation of tip and hub radii at inlet
• Assumptions Ca=150 m/s
• Ut=350 m/s to be corrected to
250 rev/s
•
Axial Flow Compressors
Equations
• continuity
thus
•
rps t t
N t U * * * 2 t =
a
t
r
t a
C
r
r
r A C m
(
(
¸
(
¸


.

\

÷ = =
2
2
1 1
1
1
t µ µ
) (
1
2
2
1 1
2
a
r
r
C
m
r
t
r
a
t
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
(
(
¸
(
¸
÷
=
tµ
t r
t
r r
r
N / & r get to solve ,
2
350
t
t
= ÷
a
t
r
t
C
r
r
r
(
(
¸
(
¸


.

\

÷
2
2
1
1 t µ
Axial Flow Compressors
procedure
3 1
1
1
1
1 1
2
1
1
1
1
/ 106 . 1
8 . 276
2
150 C
bar 01 . 1 , 288
1 1
2
1
1
1
m kg
RT
P
P
T
T
P
P
c
C
T T
C
P P K T T
o o
p
o
a
a o a o
= =
÷


.

\

=
= ÷ =
= =
= = = =
÷
µ
¸
¸
Axial Flow Compressors
• From equation (a)
0.6 0.4 / r
2 / 350
1
03837 . 0
r
2
2
÷
=
(
(
¸
(
¸


.

\

÷
=
f rom r assume
rt N
r
r
r
t
t
r
t
t
t r
r r
/ N
260.6 0.2137 0.4
246.3 0.2262 0.5
227.5 0.2449 0.6
t
r
Axial Flow Compressors
• Consider rps250
• Thus rr/rt=0.5, rt=0.2262, ut=2trt*rps=355.3 m/s
7 . 385 V
2
1
2
1 1t
= + =
a
t
C u Get
1
RT a ¸ =
165 . 1
1
1
= =
a
v
M
t
Is ok. Discussed later. Results rt=0.2262,
rr=0.1131, rm=0.1697 m
Axial Flow Compressors
At exit of compressor
m m Outlet m m inlet
m r C
h
r r
m
h
r thus h r h but
C A m
RT
P
P
T
T
c
C
T T
K T
P
P
T
T
bar given
P
P
m a
m r
m m
a
o p
a
o
o
n
n
o
o
o
o
o
o
1491 . 0 r ; 1903 . 0 r : ; 1131 . 0 r ; 2262 . 0 r :
1697 . 0 ; 150 ; 3 . 355 u rps; 250 N
results
m 1491 . 0
2
; 19303 . 0
2
r ; 0413 . 0 ) 2 ( A
; 044 . 0 A , ; kg/m 03 . 3 bar; 84 . 3
P
P
K; 3 . 441
2
; 5 . 452 ; 9 . 0 assume , 317
4 . 1
4 . 0 1
n
1  n
where
]; 19 . 4 P [ 15 . 4
r t r t
t
t 2
2 2 2
3
2
2
2 2
1
2
o
2
2
2
2
1
o
2 2
2
1
2
1
2
2
1
2
= = = =
= = = =
= ÷ =
= + = = ÷ =
= = ¬ = = ÷


.

\

= = ÷ =
= = = = =


.

\

= = =
÷
·
·
÷
t
µ µ
q
q
¸
¸
Axial Flow Compressors
No. of stages
• ATo =overall = 452.5288=164.5K
• rise over a stage 1030 K for subsonic
• ¬4.5 for transonic
• for rise over as stage=25
• thus no. of stages =164.5/25¬
stages 7 ~
 normally ATo5 is small at first stage
de haller criterion V2/V1 >
0.72
work factor can be taken as 0.98, 0.93, 0.88 for 1
st
,
2
nd
, 3 rd stage and 0.83 for rest of the stages.
Axial Flow Compressors
Stage by stage
design;
• Consider middle plane
• stage 1
• for no vane at inlet
w o
C u T A = A ì cp
0 , / 9 . 76
1
= = A ÷ o s m C
w
s m C C
w w
/ 9 . 76 , 0
2 1
= =
m/s 266 u thus, r 2 u
m m
= = t
Axial Flow Compressors
• Angles
o
a
w
a
w
a
thus
C
C
C
C u
C
u
98 . 8
blades rotor in deflection the
14 . 27 tan
67 . 51 tan
64 . 60 tan
2 1
2
2
2
2
2
2
1 1
= ÷
= ÷ =
÷
÷
=
= ÷ =
 
o o
 
 
check de Haller
0.72 than less is which 79 . 0
cos
cos
cos
cos /
2
1
1 /
2
1
2
= = =




a
a
C
C
v
v
Axial Flow Compressors
856 . 0
2
1
) tan (tan
2u
C
 1
308
249 . 1 1 assume
es efficienci c poly tropi pressures
1 2
2 1
a
5 1
3
3
1
1
5
1
3
s
=
+
÷ = .
+ = .
= A + =
= ÷
(
¸
(
¸
A
+ = =
÷
÷
u
C C
equation
K T T T
p
T
T
p
p
w
o o o
o
o
o
o
o
e
¸
¸
o o
q
q
Axial Flow Compressors
• Second stage
05 . 41 ; 06 . 11
tan tan ; tan tan
7 . 42 & 7 . 57 (b) and (a)
) ( 488 . 2 tan tan
7 . 0 take ); tan (tan
2
) 2 (
) ( 6756 . 0 tan tan
) tan (tan c ) 1 (
93 . 0 , 25
2 1
2 2
2
1
0
2 1
2 1
2 1
2 1
2 1 5 p
5
= = ÷
+ = + =
= = ÷
= +
= . + = .
= ÷ ÷
= A
= = A
o o
 o  o
 
 
 
 
  ì
ì
a a
a
a o
o
C
u
C
u
solve
b
u
C
a
uC T
K T
Axial Flow Compressors
0 . 28 ; 24 . 51
) tan (tan
2
); tan (tan
5 . 0 , 25 T 0.88,
3
907 . 0
06 . 11 cos
15 . 27 cos
cos
cos
721 . 0
cos
cos
V
V
; stage second for
bar 599 . 1
308
25
1
333 25 308
2 1
2 1 2 1 5
03
1
2
2
3
2
1
1
2
3
5 . 3
3
1
3
= =
+ = . ÷ = A
= . = A =
= = =
= = ÷
= ÷
(
¸
(
¸
+ =
= + =
 
    ì
ì
o
o


q
solving
u
C
uC T c
K
stage
C
C
Haller de
p
P
P
T
a
a o p
o
s
o
o
o
Axial Flow Compressors
( ) K p
e perf ormanc
giving thus
take
o
357 24 333 T bar; 992 . 1 246 . 1 599 . 1 ) (
246 . 1
333
24 9 . 0
1
p
p
stage rd 3 of *
0.718 of number Haller de ; 65 . 28 , 92 . 50
685 . 0 tan tan 24 T
709 . 0
28 cos
24 . 51 cos
cos
cos
is no. Haller de
3
o3 3
5 . 3
3
o1
o
2 1
2 1 o5
2
1
3
= + = = × =
=

.

\

×
+ =


.

\

= =
= ÷ ÷ = A
= =
 
 


Axial Flow Compressors
: below summerized be can stages three the of e performanc
). ( 71 . 27 38 . 51
7773 . 1
150
6 . 266
2 5 . 0 ) tan (tan
7267 . 0
150 6 . 266 83 . 0
10 005 . 1 24
tan tan ; 1
) tan (tan
2
) tan (tan c
5,6 and 4 stages
/ 7 . 184 92 . 50 tan 150 ; / 9 . 81 63 . 28 tan 150 C
by given are s velocitie whirl the . 92 . 50
63 . 28 diagram velocity the of symmetry From
1 2
0
1
2 1
3
2 1
2 1 2 1 5 p
2 1
0
1 2
2 1
1
5
1
3
the
and yielding
T
T
p
p
u
C
uC T
s m C s m
and
o
o
o
o
a
a o
o  
 
 
    ì
 o
 o
e e
= = =
= × × = +
× ×
× ×
= ÷


.

\
 A
+ =
+ = ÷ = A
= = = =
= =
= =
Axial Flow Compressors
1 o
T
1
3
o
o
p
p
1 3 o o
p p ÷
3 o
T
3 o
p
1 o
P
6 5 4 Stage
2.968 2.447 1.992
405 381 357
1.199 1.213 1.228
3.560 2.968 2.447
429 405 381
0.592 0.521 0.455
Axial Flow Compressors
• Stage 7
• At entry to the final stage the pressure and
temperature are 3.56 bar and 429 K. the required
compressor delivery pressure is 4.15*1.01=4.192 bar.
The pressure ratio of the seventh stage is thus given
by
K T giving
th
p
p
os
o
o
8 . 22
177 . 1
429
T 0.90
1
from detrmined be can ratio pressure the
give to required rise re temperatu e
177 . 1
56 . 3
192 . 4
5 . 3
os
7
1
3
= A
=

.

\

A
+
= =


.

\

Axial Flow Compressors
• the corresponding air angles, assuming 50 per cent
reaction, are then 1=50.98,
0.717. of number Haller de
ry satisfacto a ) ( 52 . 28
1
0
2
with o  = =
Design calculations using EES
– "Determination of the rotational speed and annulus dimensions"
– "Known Information"
– To_1=288 [K]; Po_1=101 [kPa]; m_dot=20[kg/s]; U_t=350 [m/s]
– $ifnot ParametricTable
– Ca_1=150[m/s];r_r/r_t=0.5;cp=1005;R=0.287;Gamma=1.4
– $endif
– Gamr=Gamma/(Gamma1)
– m_dot=Rho_1*Ca_1*A_1 "mass balance"
– A_1=pi*(r_t^2r_r^2) "relation between Area and eye dimensions"
– U_t=2*pi*r_t*N_rps
– C_1=Ca_1
– T_1=To_1C_1^2/(2*cp)
– P_1/Po_1=(T_1/To_1)^Gamr
– Rho_1=P_1/(R*T_1)
– $TabStops 0.5 2 in
Design calculations using EES
Determination of the rotational speed and annulus dimensions
Known Information
To
1
= 288 [K] Po
1
= 101 [kPa] m = 20 [kg/s] U
t
= 350 [m/s]
Ca
1
= 150 [m/s] r
r
r
t
= 0.5
cp = 1005 R = 0.287 = 1.4
Gamr =
– 1
m =
1
· Ca
1
· A
1 mass balance
A
1
= · ( r
t
2
– r
r
2
) relation between Area and eye dimensions
U
t
= 2 · · r
t
· N
rps
C
1
= Ca
1
T
1
= To
1
–
C
1
2
2 · cp
P
1
Po
1
=
T
1
To
1
Gamr
1
=
P
1
R · T
1
Design calculations using EES
Calculate radii at exit section
Choose (round) rotational speed as 250 rps
N
rps
= 250
Thus calc new value for tip speed
rt
1
= 0.2262
U
t
= 2 · · rt
1
· N
rps
r
m
= 0.1697
Known Information
To
1
= 288 [K]
P
ratio
= 4.15
Assumptions
Etta
inf
= 0.9
Ca
2
= Ca
1
Ca
1
= 150 [m/s]
Gamr =
– 1
Design calculations using EES
nratio =
1
Etta
inf
· Gamr
nratio=(n1)/n=(1/etta
inf )
/gamr
P
ratio
=
Po
2
Po
1
To
2
To
1
=
Po
2
Po
1
nratio
m =
2
· Ca
2
· A
2
A
2
= 2 · · h · r
m
C
2
= Ca
2
T
2
= To
2
–
C
2
2
2 · cp
P
2
Po
2
=
T
2
To
2
Gamr
2
=
P
2
R · T
2
r
t
= r
m
+
h
2
r
r
= r
m
–
h
2
Design calculations using EES
A
2
= 0.04398 Ca
1
= 150 [m/s] Ca
2
= 150 [m/s] cp = 1005 [J/kgK] C
2
= 150 [m/s] Etta
inf
= 0.9
= 1.4 Gamr = 3.5 h = 0.041 [m] m = 20 [kg/s] nratio = 0.3175 N
rps
= 250 [rev per sec]
Po
1
= 101 [kPa] Po
2
= 419.2 P
2
= 384 [kPa] P
ratio
= 4.15 R = 0.287 [kJ/kgK]
2
= 3.032
rt
1
= 0.2262 [m] r
m
= 0.1697 [m] r
r
= 0.1491 [m] r
t
= 0.1903 [m] To
1
= 288 [K] To
2
= 452.5 [K]
T
2
= 441.3 [C] U
t
= 355.3 [m/s]
Design calculations using EES
Calculate number of stages
Known Information
To
1
= 288 [K] Po
1
= 101 [kPa] m = 20 [kg/s]
P
ratio
= 4.15 To
outlet
= 452.5
Assumptions
delT
stage
= 25
Ca
1
= 150 [m/s] cp = 1005 R = 0.287 = 1.4
Gamr =
– 1
delT
ov
= To
outlet
– To
1
N
stages
=
delT
ov
delT
stage
Design calculations using EES
Ca
1
= 150 [m/s] cp = 1005 [J/kgK] delT
ov
= 164.5 delT
stage
= 25 = 1.4 Gamr = 3.5 m = 20 [kg/s] N
stages
= 6.58
Po
1
= 101 [kPa] P
ratio
= 4.15 R = 0.287 [kJ/kgK] To
1
= 288 [K] To
outlet
= 452.5
Axial Flow Compressors
• Elementary theory
Axial Flow Compressors
Axial Flow Compressors
Comparison of typical forms of turbine and compressor rotor blades
3) fluid is accelerated by rotor blades. .Axial Flow Compressors Axial Flow Compressors Stage= S+R S: stator (stationary blade) R: rotor (rotating blade) First row of the stationary blades is called guide vanes ** Basic operation *Axial flow compressors: 1) series of stages 2) each stage has a row of rotor blades followed by a row of stator blades.
Axial Flow Compressors In stator. w w2 w1 C w C w2 C w1 . u1=u2 assume Ca=const. . the pressure rise for each stage is small. Due to adverse pressure gradient. fluid is then decelerated causing change in the kinetic energy to static pressure. in the direction of u. Elementary Theory: Assume mid plane is constant r1=r2. it is known that a single turbine stage can drive a large number of compressor stages. in the direction of u. Therefore. C Inlet guide vanes C C used to guide the flow into the first are stage.
V1: the velocity relative t the rotor at inlet at an angle 1 from the axial direction. Stator only changes K. u: blade speed. Ca: axial velocity.Axial Flow Compressors Inside the rotor.E.P static. Stagnation pressure drops due to friction loss in the stator: C1: velocity of air approaching the rotor. V2: relative velocity at exit rotor at angle 2 determined from the rotor blade outlet angle. . To2=To3 Increase in stagnation pressure is done in the rotor. all power is consumed. 2: angle of exit of rotor. 1 : angle of approach of rotor.
. assuming C a1 C a2 C a this V2 can be ontained V2 C a2 cos 2 then V2 & u triangle get C 2 normally 3 1 to prepare air to go to a similar stage also C 3 C1 W m c p (To2 To1 ) .Axial Flow Compressors Two dimensional analysis: Only axial ( Ca) and tangential (Cw). no radial component C1 u V1 V2 tangnt to blade at exit.
Axial Flow Compressors .
tan 2 ) .tan1 ) (tan 2 .Axial Flow Compressors from velocity triangles assuming Ca Ca1 Ca2 u/Ca tan1 tan 1 . or in terms of the axial velocity From equation (a) W muC a (tan 2 . u / Ca tan 2 tan 2 the power input to stage where ' (a) W mu(Cw2 Cw1 ) Cw1 andCw2 are tangential components at inlet and exit of the rotors.tan1 ) (tan1 .
1 43.85. Rs 1. 0. To1 288.9o . s 0. higher due to centrifugal action .183 Rcentrifugal .8. 2 13. Ca 150m / s. s stage isentropic efficiency po1 To1 Ex.Axial Flow Compressors Energy balance c p To5 c p (To3 To1 ) c (To2 To1 ) uCa (tan 1 tan 2 ) To5 uCa (tan 1 tan 2 ) / c p pressure ratio at a stage s To5 1 ps 1 where.5. po3 u 180 m/s.
.5 at midplane of the stage.Axial Flow Compressors Degree of reaction is the ratio of static enthalpy in rotor to static enthalpy rise in stage hr static enthalpy rise in rotor static enthalpy rise in the stage hs For incompressible isentropic flow Tds=dhvdp dh=vdp=dp/ Tds=0 h=p/ ( constant ) Thus enthalpy rise could be replaced by static pressure rise ( in the definition of ) o 1 but generally choose =0.
and Ca const. ( recommend design) Assume C3 C1 .Axial Flow Compressors =0: all pressure rise only in stator =1: all pressure rise in only in rotor =0. ( for simplicity) To5 Tstagnation Tstage Ts 1 Ca (tan 1 tan 2 ) / 2u 1 tan . C a / u tan (tan 1 tan 2 ) / 2 .5: half of pressure rise only in rotor and half is in stator.
V1 c2 . . C1=C2.5 from 2 1 (tan 1 tan 2 ) 2 2 2 1. h2=h3T2=T3 =0.Axial Flow Compressors special condition =0 ( impulse type rotor) from equation 3 Ca (tan 1 tan 2 ) / 2u 1=2 . 2=1 velocities skewed right. T1=T2 =1. h1=h2.0 (impulse type stator from equation 1) =1Ca(tan1+tan2)/2u. symmetric angles P2 P 1 P3 P 1 V2 c1 . velocities skewed left.
due to difference in hubtrip ratio from inlet stages to laterstages.Axial Flow Compressors Three dimensional flow 2D 1. Thus radial velocity occurs.8 3. due to whirl component. This occurs at later stages of compressor. pressure increase with radius. 3D are valid due to 1. 2. 2. It is justified for hubtrip ratio>0. . the effects due to radial movement of the fluid are ignored. the annulus will have a substantial taper.
Axial Flow Compressors U tan 1 tan 1 tan 2 tan 2 Ca W mU (C w1 C w1 ) mUCa (tan 2 tan 1 ) mUCa (tan 2 tan 1 ) Tos To 3 To1 To 2 To1 UCa (tan 1 tan 2 ) cp pressurerise per stage p Ts /( 1) R s o 3 [1 s ] po1 To1 .
Axial Flow Compressors Design Process of an axial compressor • (1) Choice of rotational speed at design point and annulus dimensions • (2) Determination of number of stages. using an assumed efficiency at design point • (3) Calculation of the air angles for each stage at the mean line • (4) Determination of the variation of the air angles from root to tip • (5) Selection of compressor blades using experimentally obtained cascade data • (6) Check on efficiency previously assumed using the cascade data • (7) Estimation on offdesign performance • (8) Rig testing .
. to keep weight and noise down. The design of the turbine will be considered in Chapter 7. turbine and other components of the engine. may emerge as follows: • Compressor pressure ratio 4.15 • Airmass flow 20 kg/s • Turbine inlet temperature 1100 K • With these data specified.01 bar and . 12000 N as take off thrust. it is now necessary to investigate the aerodynamic design of the compressor. It will be assumed that the compressor has no inlet guide vanes.Axial Flow Compressors Design process: • Requirements: • A suitable design point under sealevel static conditions (with =1.
using an assumed efficiency. • investigation of compressibility effects .Axial Flow Compressors Requirements: • choice of rotational speed and annulus dimensions. • calculation of the air angles for each stage at mean radius. • determination of the variation of the air angles from root to tip. • determination of number of stages.
Axial Flow Compressors Determination of rotational speed and annulus dimensions: • Assumptions • Guidelines: • Tip speed ut=350 m/s • Axial velocity Ca=150200 m/s • Hubtip ratio at entry 0.6 • Calculation of tip and hub radii at inlet • Assumptions Ca=150 m/s • Ut=350 m/s to be corrected to 250 rev/s • .40.
Axial Flow Compressors Equations • continuity thus r 2 m 1C a1 A 1rt 1 r rt 2 2 C a • r 2 1rt 1 r rt 2 C a m rt (a) 2 rr 1C a1 1 2 rt U t 2 * * t t * N rps 350 N . solve to get rt & rr / rt 2rt .
8 2c p 2 P1 T1 1 P1 Po1 To1 P1 1 1.106kg / m 3 RT 2 .Axial Flow Compressors procedure To 1 Ta 288K . Po1 Pa 1.01 bar C1 C a1 150 C1 T1 To1 276.
Axial Flow Compressors • From equation (a) rt 2 0.5 0.6 rr / rt 0.2262 0.4 0.2449 N 260.03837 r 2 1 r rt N 350 / 2rt assume rr / rt from 0.5 .2137 0.6 246.3 227.4 0.6 rt 0.
ut=2rt*rps=355. Results rt=0.165 a Is ok. rr=0.5. rt=0.3 m/s Get V1t u1t C a1 2 2 385 . Discussed later.1697 m .1131.2262.2262.Axial Flow Compressors • Consider rps250 • Thus rr/rt=0.7 a RT1 v1t M1 1. rm=0.
15 [ given Po 2 4.1697m Outlet : rt 0.1491m inlet : rt 0. Axial Flow Compressors To2 To1 Po2 Po 1 n 1 n w here n 1 1 0. m 2 A2 C a .03 kg/m3 .2262m.0413. assume 0.9.At exit of compressor Po2 Po1 4.84 bar.3 K.19303m.1131m. To 2 452.4 317. rr 0.19bar ]. n 1. C a 150. RT2 but A 2 h( 2rm ) h 0. rr 0. rm 0. A 2 0.5 K . u t 355.3. thus rt rm rr rm results N 250 rps. 2 2 3.1903m. 2 .044. h 0.4 2 T2 1 Ca P2 T2 To2 441.1491 m 2 h 0. To 2c p Po 2 2 P P2 3.
0.83 for rest of the stages.72 work factor can be taken as 0. of stages • • • • • To =overall = 452. 2nd.Axial Flow Compressors No.5 for transonic for rise over as stage=25 thus no. 3 rd stage and 0.93. of stages =164.5K rise over a stage 1030 K for subsonic 4. 0.5288=164.normally To5 is small at first stage de haller criterion V2/V1 > 0.88 for 1st.5/25 7 stages .98. .
Axial Flow Compressors Stage by stage design.9m / s . • Consider middle plane • stage 1 • for no vane at inlet u 2rm thus. 1 0 Cw1 0.9 m / s. u m 266 m/s cpTo uC w C w 76 . Cw 2 76 .
67 Ca C w2 tan 2 2 27.14 Ca thus the deflection in rotor blades 1 2 8.72 v1 C a / cos 1 cos 2 .79 which is less than 0.64 Ca u C w2 tan 2 2 51.Axial Flow Compressors • Angles u tan 1 1 60.98o check de Haller C / cos 2 v2 cos 1 a 0.
Axial Flow Compressors pressures poly tropic efficiencies p o 3 To 5 1 assume s 1 p o 3 1.249 p o1 To1 To 3 To1 To 5 308K Ca equation 1 (tan 1 tan 2 ) 2u C w 2 C1 1 0.856 2u .
2 41.93 (1) c p To 5 uC a (tan 1 tan 2 ) tan 1 tan 2 0. take 0.7 0 u u tan 1 tan .05 .7 2u tan 1 tan 2 2. 0.7 & 2 42.6756 (a) Ca (2) (tan 1 tan 2 ).488 (b) solve (a) and (b) 1 57.Axial Flow Compressors • Second stage To 5 25K .06. tan 2 tan 2 Ca Ca 2 1 11.
721 V1 cos 2 C3 cos 2 cos 27.0 . 2 28. (tan 1 tan 2 ) 2u solving 1 51.5 Ca c p To 5 uC a (tan 1 tan 2 ). T03 25K .06 stage 3 0. 0.907 C2 cos 1 cos11.599 bar V2 cos 1 de Haller for secondstage .15 0.5 p o 3 1. 0.Axial Flow Compressors To 3 308 25 333 Po3 Po1 1 308 s 25 3.24.88.
is cos1 cos51.246 p 333 o1 3 ( p o 3 ) 1. 2 28.Axial Flow Compressors de Haller no.246 1.599 1.718 * performance of 3 rd stage p o3 0.65.709 cos 2 cos 28 take To5 24 tan 1 tan 2 0.24 0. To3 3 333 24 357K 3.685 thus 1 50.9 24 1 1.92. giving de Haller number of 0.5 .992 bar.
the performanc of the three stages can be summerized below : e .7 m / s stages 4 and 5. C 2 150 tan 50.71( 1 ).7773 150 yielding 1 51.9m / s.005 10 3 .83 266.92 0.6 Ca c p To 5 uC a (tan 1 tan 2 ) (tan 1 tan 2 ) 2u p o3 To5 24 1.the whirl velocities are given by C 1 150 tan 28.92 184.Axial Flow Compressors From symmetryof the velocity diagram 1 2 28.7267 p o1 To1 0.5 2 1.380 and 2 27.6 (tan 1 tan 2 ) 0.6 150 266.63 and 2 1 50. tan 1 tan 2 1 0.63 81.
Axial Flow Compressors Stage 4 1.228 Po1 To1 po3 p o1 5 2.968 405 1.992 357 1.968 405 0.455 .560 429 0.199 po3 2.213 6 2.592 To 3 p o 3 p o1 0.447 381 2.447 381 1.521 3.
192 1.177 p 3.15*1.Axial Flow Compressors • Stage 7 • At entry to the final stage the pressure and temperature are 3.90Tos 1 1. the required compressor delivery pressure is 4.177 429 givingTos 22.56 o1 7 the temperatu rise required to give re the pressure ratio can be detrmined from 0.5 .56 bar and 429 K.8 K 3.01=4.192 bar. The pressure ratio of the seventh stage is thus given by po3 4.
717.52 ( 1 ) with a satisfactory 0 de Haller number of 0. 2 28 . .Axial Flow Compressors • the corresponding air angles. are then 1=50.98. assuming 50 per cent reaction.
U_t=350 [m/s] $ifnot ParametricTable Ca_1=150[m/s]. Po_1=101 [kPa].5.4 $endif Gamr=Gamma/(Gamma1) m_dot=Rho_1*Ca_1*A_1 "mass balance" A_1=pi*(r_t^2r_r^2) "relation between Area and eye dimensions" U_t=2*pi*r_t*N_rps C_1=Ca_1 T_1=To_1C_1^2/(2*cp) P_1/Po_1=(T_1/To_1)^Gamr Rho_1=P_1/(R*T_1) $TabStops 0.R=0.5 2 in .cp=1005.Design calculations using EES – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – "Determination of the rotational speed and annulus dimensions" "Known Information" To_1=288 [K].287. m_dot=20[kg/s].Gamma=1.r_r/r_t=0.
4 = 0.Design calculations using EES Determination of the rotational speed and annulus dimensions Known Information To 1 = 288 Ca 1 = 150 [K] [m/s] Po 1 = 101 rr rt Gamr = m = A1 = Ut = C1 = T1 = P1 Po 1 1 [kPa] cp = m = 20 1005 [kg/s] R = U t = 350 0.5 – 1 · Ca 1 · A1 · ( rt 2 1 mass balance 2 – rr ) relation between Area and eye dimensions 2 · Ca 1 To 1 – T1 · r t · N rps C1 2 2 · cp Gamr = To 1 P1 = R · T1 .287 = [m/s] 1.
2262 2 · 0.Design calculations using EES Calculate radii at exit section Choose (round) rotational speed as 250 rps N rps = 250 Thus calc new value for tip speed rt 1 = Ut = rm = 0.9 Ca 1 [m/s] Ca 1 = 150 Gamr = – 1 .15 [K] Assumptions Etta inf = Ca 2 = 0.1697 · rt 1 · N rps Known Information To 1 = 288 P ratio = 4.
Design calculations using EES nratio = 1 Etta inf · Gamr Po 2 Po 1 Po 2 Po 1 2 nratio nratio=(n1)/n=(1/etta inf )/ga P ratio To 2 To 1 m A2 C2 T2 P2 Po 2 2 = = = = = · Ca 2 · A2 · h · rm 2 · Ca 2 To 2 – T2 = C2 2 2 · cp Gamr = To 2 P2 = R · T2 rm + h 2 h 2 rt = rr = rm – .
041 [m] P2 = 384 [kPa] rr = 0.3 [m/s] Ca2 = 150 [m/s] h = 0.1697 [m] Ut = 355.Design calculations using EES A2 = 0.3175 R = 0.4 Po1 = 101 [kPa] rt1 = 0.5 Po2 = 419.2262 [m] T2 = 441.287 [kJ/kgK] To1 = 288 [K] Ettainf = 0.15 rt = 0.1491 [m] cp = 1005 [J/kgK] m = 20 [kg/s] Pratio = 4.032 Nrps = 250 [rev per sec] To2 = 452.5 [K] .04398 = 1.3 [C] Ca1 = 150 [m/s] Gamr = 3.9 2 = 3.1903 [m] C2 = 150 [m/s] nratio = 0.2 rm = 0.
15 [K] Po 1 = 101 To outlet = [kPa] m = 20 [kg/s] 452.5 Assumptions delT stage = 25 [m/s] cp = 1005 R = 0.4 Ca 1 = 150 Gamr = – 1 To outlet – To 1 delT ov delT stage delT ov = N stages = .287 = 1.Design calculations using EES Calculate number of stages Known Information To 1 = 288 P ratio = 4.
287 [kJ/kgK] To1 = 288 [K] .5 delTstage = 25 = 1.5 Gamr = 3.15 delTov = 164.4 Tooutlet = 452.5 m = 20 [kg/s] Nstages = 6.Design calculations using EES Ca1 = 150 [m/s] Po1 = 101 [kPa] cp = 1005 [J/kgK] Pratio = 4.58 R = 0.