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Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook

Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook

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STEEL FORMING AND

HEAT TREATING HANDBOOK




Antonio Augusto Gorni
São Vicente, Brazil
agorni@iron.com.br
www.gorni.eng.br




DISCLAIMER:
The formulas and information compiled in this text are provided without warranty of any kind.
Use them at your own risk!


A Non-Stop Work.
First Release: 04 April 2002
This Version: 18 March 2009
Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 1

- Austenite Formation Temperatures

. Grange

Ae Mn Si Cr Ni
1
1333 25 40 42 26 = − + + −

Notation:
Ae1: Equilibrium Temperature for Austenitization Start [°F]
Alloy Content: [weight %]


Ae C Mn Si Cr Ni
3
1570 323 25 80 3 32 = − − + − −

Notation:
Ae3: Equilibrium Temperature for End of Austenitization [°F]
Alloy Content: [weight %]

Source: GRANGE, R.A. Metal Progress, April 1961, 73.


. Andrews

As Cr Mn W Si Ni Ae 290 9 . 16 7 . 10 38 . 6 1 . 29 9 . 16 723
1
+ + − + + − =

Notation:
Ae1: Equilibrium Temperature of Austenitization Start [°C]
Alloy Content: [weight %]

Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 2

Ti
As Al P Cu Cr Mn W V Mo Ni Si C Ae
400
120 400 700 0 . 20 0 . 11 0 . 30 1 , 13 104 5 . 31 2 . 15 7 . 44 203 910
3

− − − − + + − + + + − + − =

Notation:
Ae3: Equilibrium Temperature for Austenitization End [°C]
Alloy Content: [weight %]

Notes:
- Both formulas are valid for low alloy steels with less than 0.6%C.

Source: ANDREWS, K.W. Empirical Formulae for the Calculation of Some Transformation Temperatures. Journal of the
Iron and Steel Institute, 203, Part 7, July 1965, 721-727.


. Roberts

Ae Mn Cr Cu Si P Al F
n 3
910 25 11 20 60 700 250 = − − − + + − −

Notation:
Ae3: Equilibrium Temperature for End of Austenitization [°C]
Alloy Content: [weight %]
Fn: value defined according to the table below:

C Fn
0.05 24
0.10 48
0.15 64
0.20 80
0.25 93
0.30 106
Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 3

0.35 117
0.40 128

Source: ROBERTS, W.L.: Flat Processing of Steel; Marcel Dekker Inc., New York, 1988.


. Eldis

Ae Mn Ni Si Cr Mo
1
712 17 8 19 1 20 1 11 9 9 8 = − − + + + , , , , ,

Notation:
Ae1: Equilibrium Temperature of Austenitization Start [°C]
Alloy Content: [weight %]


Ae C Ni Si
3
871 254 4 14 2 51 7 = − − + , , ,

Notation:
Ac3: Equilibrium Temperature for End of Austenitization [°C]
Alloy Content: [weight %]

Notes:
- Both formulas were proposed by ELDIS for low alloy steels with less than 0.6%C.

Source: BARRALIS, J. & MAEDER, G. Métallurgie Tome I: Métallurgie Physique. Collection Scientifique ENSAM, 1982,
270 p.


. Park

Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 4

Mo Cu Ni Cr Al Ti Nb Si Mn C Ac 67 16 33 11 68 100 106 51 25 350 955
3
+ − − − + + + + − − =

Notation:
Ac3: Austenitization Final Temperature in Heating [°C]
Alloy Content: [weight %]

Notes:
- Formula specifically developed for TRIP steels.

Source: PARK, S.H. et al. Development of Ductile Ultra-High Strength Hot Rolled Steels. Posco Technical Report, 1996,
50-128.


. Lee & Lee

Si Ni
Ni Cr Ni C Ni Mo Cr Mo Mn Cr Cr C Cr C C A
cm
7 . 16 8 . 0
7 . 2 7 . 3 9 . 6 8 . 6 0 . 10 6 . 7 1 . 6 0 . 19 7 . 46 1 . 465 4 . 992 4 . 224
2
2 2
+ +
+ − + − − + + − + + − + =


Notation:
Acm: Austenitization Start Temperature [°C]
Alloy Content: [weight %]

Notes:
- Equation valid for the following alloy range: 0.2% ≤ C ≤ 0.7; Mn ≤ 1.5%; Si ≤ 0.3%; Ni ≤ 2.8%; Cr ≤ 1.5%; Mo ≤
0.6%.

Source: LEE, S.J. & LEE, Y.K. Thermodynamic Formula for the Acm Temperature of Low Alloy Steels. ISIJ International,
47:5, May 2007, 769-774.

Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 5


. Kasatkin

2 2 2
2
1
28 46 . 0 46 . 3
84 . 0 8 . 30 4 . 27 80 . 0 77 . 6 0 . 6 28 . 5 5 . 15 9 . 57 10 . 3
0 . 14 5 . 11 830 297 18 . 3 7 . 21 1 . 50 95 . 8 2 . 44 1 . 18 7 . 37 08 . 7 723
V Ni Mo
Cr V Mo V C Ni Cr Ni Si Ni Mn Ni C Mo Mn Mo C Cr Si
Si Mn Si C N S W Al V Ni Mo Cr Si Mn Ac
− − −
− − + − − + − − − − −
− − − − + + + + + + + + − =


Notation:
Ac1: Austenitization Start Temperature in Heating [°C]
Alloy Content: [weight %]

Notes:
- Multiple Correlation Coefficient r = 0.96
- Residual Mean-Square Deviation √do = 10.8°C


2 2 2 2 2 2 2
3
2 . 60 24 . 1 90 . 9 322 . 0 86 . 6 46 . 2 174
5 . 40 80 . 4 6 . 18 3 . 17 32 . 4 0 . 48 4 . 15 3 . 32 2 . 16 900
485 276 332 57 . 5 5 . 64 0 . 72 190 2 . 95 7 . 32 35 . 6 3 . 27 4 . 27 370 912
V Ni Mo Cr Si Mn C
V Mo Ni Mn Ni Si Mo Si Cr Si Ni C Cr C Si C Mn C B
N P S W Nb Al Ti V Ni Cr Si Mn C Ac
− + + + − + +
+ + + − − + + + + + −
− + + + + + + + + − − + − − =


Notation:
Ac3: Equilibrium Temperature of Austenitization End in Heating [°C]
Alloy Content: [weight %]

Notes:
- Multiple Correlation Coefficient r = 0.98
- Residual Mean-Square Deviation √do = 14.5°C


Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 6

2 2 2 2
8 . 37 91 . 1 83 . 8 33 . 1 8 . 10 2 . 55 2 . 64 26 . 6 7 . 20
0 . 53 266 82 . 3 4 . 87 8 . 47 194 5 . 52 5 . 23 0 . 33 8 . 26 93 . 7 370 188
V Ni Mo Cr Ni Mn Ni C Mo C Cr Si Cr C
Si C P W Nb Al Ti V Ni Mo Cr Mn C T
− + + + + + + + +
+ + + + + + + + − − − − − = ∆


Notation:
∆T: Intercritical Temperature Range [°C]
Alloy Content: [weight %]

Notes:
- Multiple Correlation Coefficient r = 0.97
- Residual Mean-Square Deviation √do = 16.8°C
- These equations are valid within these composition limits: C ≤ 0.83%, Mn ≤ 2.0%, Si ≤ 1.0%, Cr ≤ 2.0%, Mo ≤
1.0%, Ni ≤ 3.0%, V ≤ 0.5%, W ≤ 1.0%, Ti ≤ 0.15%, Al ≤ 0.2%, Cu ≤ 1.0%, Nb ≤ 0.20%, P ≤ 0.040%, S ≤ 0.040%,
N ≤ 0.025%, B ≤ 0.010%.

Source: KASATKIN, O.G. et al. Calculation Models for Determining the Critical Points of Steel. Metal Science and Heat
Treatment, 26:1-2, January-February 1984, 27-31.



Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 7

- Austenite No-Recrystallization Temperature

. Boratto et al.

T C Nb Nb V V Ti Al Si
nr
= + + − + − + + − 887 464 6445 644 732 230 890 363 357 ( ) ( )

Notation:
Tnr: Temperature of No-Recrystallization [°C]
Alloy Content: [weight %]

Notes:
- Equation valid under the following alloy range: 0.04% ≤ C ≤ 0.17%; 0.41% ≤ Mn ≤ 1.90; 0.15% ≤ Si ≤ 0.50%;
0.002% ≤ Al ≤ 0.650; Nb ≤ 0.060%; V ≤ 0.120%; Ti ≤ 0.110%; Cr ≤ 0.67%; Ni ≤ 0.45.

Source: BORATTO, F. et al.: Effect of Chemical Composition on Critical Temperatures of Microalloyed Steels. In:
THERMEC ‘88. Proceedings. Iron and Steel Institute of Japan, Tokyo, 1988, p. 383-390.



Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 8

- Austenite Solubility Products

. General

B
T
A C
RT
Q
MX
X M
a
a a
k
n m
X M
n
X
m
M
s
n m
+ − = +
|
|
¹
|

\
|
− = = =
303 . 2 303 . 2 ] [
] [ ] [
log
) ( ) (
log log
10 10 10


Notation:
MmXn: Precipitate Considered for Calculation
Ai: Activity
M, X: Alloy Contents [weight %]
T: Temperature [K]
C: Constant
A, B: Constants of the Solubility Product, given in the table below:

Precipitate A B Source


AlN
7060 1.55 Narita
6770 1.03 Irvine
7750 1.80 Ashby
BN 13970 5.24 Fountain
Cr23C6 7375 5.36 Ashby
Mo2C 7375 5.00 Ashby
NbC
7900 3.42 Narita
7290 3.04 Meyer
NbCN 5860 1.54 Meyer
Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 9

NbCN 6770 2.26 Ashby
NbC0.87
7520 3.11 Ashby
7700 3.18 Mori

NbN
8500 2.80 Narita
10230 4.04 Smith
10800 3.70 Ashby
TiC 7000 2.75 Irvine
TiN
15020 3.82 Narita
8000 0.32 Ashby
VC 9500 6.72 Narita
V4C3 8000 5.36 Ashby
VN
8330 3.46 Irvine
7070 2.27 Irvine

Notes:
- aAmBn is equal to one if the precipitate is pure.
- aAmBn ≤ ≤≤ ≤ 1 if there is co-precipitation with another element.
- The product [M]
m
[X]
n
(that is, ks) defines the graphical boundary of solubilization in a graph [M] x [X].


Sources:
- ASHBY, M.F. & EASTERLING, K.E. A First Report on Diagrams for Grain Growth in Welds. Acta Metallurgica,
30, 1982, 1969-1978.

Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 10

- FOUNTAIN, R. & CHIPMAN, J. Solubility and Precipitation of Vanadium Nitride in Alpha and Gamma Iron.
Transactions of the AIME, Dec. 1958, 737-739

- GLADMAN, T. The Physical Metallurgy of Microalloyed Steels. The Institute of Materials, London, 1997, 363 p.

- IRVINE, K.J. et al. Grain-Refined C-Mn Steels. Journal of the Iron and Steel Institute, 205:2, Feb. 1967,
161-182.

- NARITA, K.et al. Physical Chemistry of Ti/Zr, V/Nb/Ta and Rare Elements in Steel. Transactions of the ISIJ,
15:5, May 1975, 145-151.

- SMITH, R.P. Transactions of the AIME, 224, 1962, 190.

- Values compiled by Rajindra Clement Ratnapuli or Fúlvio Siciliano from assorted references when not
specified above.


. Irvine

log[ ] . Nb C N
T
+

¸

(
¸
(
= −
12
14
2 26
6770


Notation:
T: Temperature [K]
Alloy Content: [weight %]

Source: IRVINE, K.J. et al. Grain-Refined C-Mn Steels. Journal of the Iron and Steel Institute, 205:2, Feb. 1967,
161-182.


Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 11

. Mori

T
C N Nb
10400
09 . 4 ] [ ] [ ] [ log
24 . 0 65 . 0
− =

Notation:
T: Temperature [K]
Alloy Content: [weight %]

Source: Equation compiled by Fúlvio Siciliano.


. Siciliano

log[ ] .
[ ] [ ]
. .
Nb C N
Mn Si
T
+

¸

(
¸
(
= +
− − 12
14
2 26
838 1730 6440
0 246 0 594


Notation:
T: Temperature [K]
Alloy Content: [weight %]

Source: SICILIANO JR., F..: Mathematical Modeling of the Hot Strip Rolling of Nb Microalloyed Steels. Ph.D. Thesis,
McGill University, February 1999, 165 p.


. Dong

T
Si Mn
Mn Si N C Nb
8049 ] [ 923 ] [ 1371
] [ 91 . 0 ] [ 35 . 0 14 . 3
14
12
] [ log
− −
+ − + =
(
¸
(

¸

+

Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 12

Notation:
T: Temperature [K]
Alloy Content: [weight %]

Source: DONG, J.X. et al.: Effect of Silicon on the Kinetics of Nb(C,N) Precipitation during the Hot Working of Nb-bearing
Steels. ISIJ International, 40:6, June 2000, 613-618.


. Irvine

[ ]
T
Mn N V
8330
12 . 0 46 . 3 ] [ log − + =

Notation:
T: Temperature [K]
Alloy Content: [weight %]

Source: ASHBY, M.F. & EASTERLING, K.E. A First Report on Diagrams for Grain Growth in Welds. Acta Metallurgica,
30, 1982, 1969-1978.





Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 13

- Austenite Solubilization Temperature


Notation:
AmBn: Precipitate considered for calculation
Td: Solubilization temperature [°C]
ax: Alloy content [weight %]
A, B: Constants of the solubility product, given in the table at the topic Austenite Solubilization Products.



273
) ( ) ( log
) (
10
0


=
n
B
m
A
d
a a B
A
C T
Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 14

- Austenite Transformation Temperatures: Ar3 and Ar1

. Blás

v Nb Mn C Ar 909 . 0 116 102 328 903
3
− + − − =

Notation:
Ar3: Start Temperature of the Transformation Austenite → Ferrite [°C]
Alloy Amount: [weight %]
v: Cooling Rate [°C/s]

Notes:
- This formula was determined using temperature data got from samples cooled directly from hot rolling
experiments. Thus it includes the effects of hot forming over austenite decomposition.
- Useful range: 0.024-0.068% C, 0.27-0.39% Mn, 0.004-0.054% Al, 0.000-0.094% Nb, 0.0019-0.0072% N, 1.0-
35°C/s
- r = 0.934; Standard Error of Deviation = 5°C

Source: BLÁS, J.G. et al.: Influência da Composição Química e da Velocidade de Resfriamento sobre o Ponto Ar3 em Aços
de Baixo C Microligados ao Nb. In: Congresso Anual da Associação Brasileira de Metais, ABM, São Paulo,
Out. 1989, vol. 1, p 11-29.


. Choquet

Ar C Mn Si
3
902 527 62 60 = − − +

Notation:
Ar3: Start Temperature of the Transformation Austenite → Ferrite [°C]
Alloy Amount: [weight %]
Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 15


Notes:
- This formula was determined using data got from samples cooled directly from hot rolling experiments. Thus it
includes the effects of hot forming over austenite decomposition.

Source: CHOQUET, P. et al.: Mathematical Model for Predictions of Austenite and Ferrite Microstructures in Hot Rolling
Processes. IRSID Report, St. Germain-en-Laye, 1985. 7 p.


. Ouchi

Ar C Mn Cu Cr Ni Mo h
3
910 310 80 20 15 55 80 0 35 8 = − − − − − − + − , ( )

Notation:
Ar3: Start Temperature of the Transformation Austenite → Ferrite [°C]
Alloy Content: [weight %]
h: Plate Thickness [mm]

Notes:
- This formula was determined using temperature data got from samples of Nb microalloyed steels cooled directly
from hot rolling experiments. Thus it includes the effects of hot forming over austenite decomposition.

Source: OUCHI, C. et al. The Effect of Hot Rolling Condition and Chemical Composition on the Onset Temperature of
Gamma-Alpha Transformation After Hot Rolling. Transactions of the ISIJ, March 1982, 214-222.


. Sekine

Cu Cr Ni Si Mn C Ar 7 . 20 8 . 24 1 . 36 6 . 24 1 . 68 396 868
3
− − − + − − =

Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 16

Notation:
Ar3: Start Temperature of the Transformation Austenite → Ferrite [°C]
Alloy Content: [weight %]

Notes:
- This formula was determined using temperature data got from samples cooled directly from hot rolling
experiments. Thus it includes the effects of hot forming over austenite decomposition.

Source: TAMURA, I. et al.: Thermomechanical Processing of High-Strength Low-Alloy Steels. Butterworths,
London, 1988, 248 p.


. Shiga

Cu Mo Cr Ni Mn C Ar 5 9 16 56 74 273 910
3
− − − − − − =

Notation:
Ar3: Start Temperature of the Transformation Austenite → Ferrite [°C]
Alloy Content: [weight %]

Notes:
- This formula was determined using temperature data got from samples cooled directly from hot rolling
experiments. Thus it includes the effects of hot forming over austenite decomposition.

Source: SHIGA, C. et al.: Development of Large Diameter High Strength Line Pipes for Low Temperature Use. Kawasaki
Steel Technical Report, Dec. 1981, 97-109.


. Pickering

Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 17

V W Si Mo Ni Mn C Ar 104 13 45 32 15 21 230 910
3
+ + + + − − − =

Notation:
Ar3: Start Temperature of the Transformation Austenite → Ferrite [°C]
Alloy Content: [weight %]

Notes:
- Applicable to Plain C Steels.

Source: PICKERING, F.B.: Steels: Metallurgical Principles. In: Encyclopedia of Materials Science and Engineering,
vol. 6, The MIT Press, Cambridge, 1986.


. Unknown #1

P Si Mn C Ar 7 . 274 0 . 38 7 . 65 1 . 516 4 . 879
3
+ + − − =

Notation:
Ar3: Start Temperature of the Transformation Austenite → Ferrite [°C]
Alloy Content: [weight %]


. Unknown #2

Cr Al P Si Mn C Ar 20 40 287 33 92 325 901
3
− + + + − − =

Notation:
Ar3: Start Temperature of the Transformation Austenite → Ferrite [°C]
Alloy Content: [weight %]
Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 18


Notes:
- It is unknown the previous conditioning of the steel samples that supplied data for the deduction of this
formula.

Source: Unknown.


. Unknown #1

Mn C Ar 2 . 118 4 . 350 4 . 706
1
− − =

Notation:
Ar1: Final Temperature of the Transformation Austenite → Ferrite [°C]
Alloy Content: [weight %]

Notes:
- It is unknown the previous conditioning of the steel samples that supplied data for the deduction of this
formula.
- Samples cooled at 20°C/s.

Source: Unknown.

Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 19

- Austenite Transformation Temperatures: Bs and Bf

. Bodnar

Cr Ni Mn C B
s
78 16 63 597 844 − − − − =

Notation:
Bs: Start Temperature of the Bainitic Transformation [°F]
Alloy Amount: [weight %]

Source: ZHAO, Z. et al. A New Empirical Formula for the Bainite Upper Temperature Limit of Steel. Journal Materials
Science, 36, 2001, 5045-5056.


. Kirkaldy

Mo Cr Ni Si Mn C B
s
41 34 15 75 35 58 656 − − − − − − =

Notation:
Bs: Start Temperature of the Bainitic Transformation [°F]
Alloy Amount: [weight %]

Source: KIRKALDY, J.S. et al. Prediction of Microstructure and Hardenability in Low Alloy Steels. In: Phase
Transformations in Ferrous Alloys, AIME, Warrendale, 1983, 125-148.


. Lee

Si Mn C C B
s
7 . 43 3 . 28 9 . 261 9 . 361 4 . 984
2
+ − + − =

Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 20

Notation:
Bs: Start Temperature of the Bainitic Transformation [K]
Alloy Amount: [weight %]

Notes:
- Formula specifically developed for TRIP steels.

Source: LEE, J.K. et al. Prediction of Tensile Deformation Behaviour of Formable Hot Rolled Steels. Posco Technical
Research Laboratories Report, Pohang, 1999.


. Suehiro

B C Mn
s
= − − 718 425 42 5 .

Notation:
Bs: Start Temperature of the Bainitic Transformation [°F]
Alloy Amount: [weight %]

Source: SUEHIRO, M. et al. Kinetic Model for Phase Transformation of Low C Steel during Continuous Cooling. Tetsu-to-
Hagané, 73, 1987, 1026-1033.


. Steven & Haynes

Mo Cr Ni Mn C B
s
83 70 37 90 270 830 − − − − − =

50
50
− =
s
B B

Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 21

120
100
− =
s
B B

Notation:
Bs: Start Temperature of the Bainitic Transformation [°C]
Alloy Amount: [% em peso]
Bx: Temperature Required for the Formation of x% of Bainite [°C]

Source: STEVEN, W. & HAYNES, A.G. The Temperature of Formation of Martensite and Bainite in Low Alloy Steels.
Journal of the Iron and Steel Institute, 183, 1956, 349-359.


. Zhao

Ru Cu Co Co Co Mo
Cr Cr Ni Ni Ni Mn Mn Mn C C B
s
15 . 46 02 . 36 ³ 000284 . 0 ² 1255 . 0 16 . 9 37 . 42
² 17 . 2 66 . 31 ³ 232 . 0 ² 06 . 6 34 . 66 ³ 3378 . 0 ² 82 . 7 68 . 91 60 . 126 63 . 585 720
2
− − + − + −
− + − − + − − + − + − =


Notes:
- 1992 Version.


W Ni Mo Cr Si V Mn B
s
15 20 25 30 35 40 45 630 − − − − − − − =

Notes:
- 2002 Version.

Notation:
Bs: Start Temperature of the Bainitic Transformation [°C]
Alloy Amount: [% em peso]

Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 22

Source: ZHAO, Z. et al. A New Empirical Formula for the Bainite Upper Temperature Limit of Steel. Journal Materials
Science, 36, 2001, 5045-5056.

Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 23

- Austenite Transformation Temperatures: MS and Mf

. Andrews

Mo Si Cr Ni Mn C M
s
0 . 7 0 . 11 1 . 12 7 . 17 4 . 30 423 539 − − − − − − =

Cr C Cr Mn C C Mo Ni C M
s
6 . 67 15 5 . 71 217 5 . 9 9 . 16 453 512
2
− + − + − − − =

Notation:
Ms: Start Temperature of the Martensitic Transformation [°C]
Alloy Content: [weight %]

Notes:
- Formula valid for low alloy steels with less than 0.6%C, 4.9% Mn, 5.0% Cr, 5.0% Ni and 5.4% Mo.

Source: ANDREWS, K.W. Empirical Formulae for the Calculation of Some Transformation Temperatures. Journal of the
Iron and Steel Institute, 203, Part 7, July 1965, 721-727.


. Carapella

) 012 . 0 1 ( ) 018 . 0 1 ( ) 029 . 0 1 ( ) 07 . 0 1 ( ) 045 . 0 1 ( ) 033 . 0 1 ( ) 092 . 0 1 ( ) 62 . 0 1 ( 496 Co W Mo Cr Ni Si Mn C M
s
− − − − − − − − =

Notation:
Ms: Start Temperature of the Martensitic Transformation [°C]
Alloy Amount: [weight %]

Source: CARAPELLA, L.A. Metal Progress, 46, 1944, 108.

Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 24


. Eldis

Cr Ni Mn C M
s
2 . 16 8 . 21 3 . 43 2 . 391 531 − − − − =

Notation:
Ms: Start Temperature of the Martensitic Transformation [°C]
Alloy Content: [weight %]

Notes:
- Equation valid for steels with chemical composition between the following limits: 0.1~0.8% C; 0.35~1.80% Mn;
<1.50% Si; <0.90% Mo; <1.50% Cr; <4.50% Ni .

Source: BARRALIS, J. & MAEDER, G. Métallurgie Tome I: Métallurgie Physique. Collection Scientifique ENSAM, 1982,
270 p.


. Grange & Stewart

Mo Ni Cr Mn C M
s
27 9 . 18 7 . 37 7 . 37 350 538 − − − − − =

Notation:
Ms: Start Temperature of the Martensitic Transformation [°C]
Alloy Amount: [weight %]

Source: GRANGE, R.A. & STEWART, H.M. Transactions of the AIME, 167, 1946, 467.


. Krauss

Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 25

M C Mn Cr Ni Mo
s
= − − − − − 561 474 33 17 17 21

Notation:
Ms: Start Temperature of the Martensitic Transformation [°C]
Alloy Amount: [weight %]

Source: KRAUSS, G. Principles of Heat Treatment and Processing of Steels, ASM International, 1990, p. 43-87.


. Nehrenberg

Mo Si Ni Cr Mn C M
s
8 . 10 8 . 10 2 . 16 22 4 . 32 292 499 − − − − − − =

Notation:
Ms: Start Temperature of the Martensitic Transformation [°C]
Alloy Amount: [weight %]

Source: NEHRENBERG, A.E. Transactions of the AIME, 167, 1946, 494.


. Payson & Savage

W Mo Si Ni Cr Mn C M
s
8 . 10 8 . 10 8 . 10 2 . 16 27 4 . 32 308 499 − − − − − − − =

Notation:
Ms: Start Temperature of the Martensitic Transformation [°C]
Alloy Amount: [weight %]

Source: PAYSON, P. & SAVAGE, C.H. Transactions A.S.M., 33, 1944, 261.
Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 26



. Rowland & Lyle

W Mo Si Ni Cr Mn C M
s
8 . 10 8 . 10 8 . 10 2 . 16 27 4 . 32 324 499 − − − − − − − =

Notation:
Ms: Start Temperature of the Martensitic Transformation [°C]
Alloy Amount: [% em peso]

Source: ROWLAND, E.S. et al. Transactions ASM, 37, 1946, 27.


. Steven & Haynes

Mo Ni Cr Mn C M
s
1 2 17 17 33 474 561 − − − − − =

M Ms
10
18 = −

M Ms
50
85 = −

M Ms
90
185 = −

M Ms
100
387 = −

Notation:
Mx: Temperature Required for the Formation of x% of Martensite [°F]

Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 27

Source: STEVEN, W. & HAYNES, A.G. The Temperature of Formation of Martensite and Bainite in Low Alloy Steels.
Journal of the Iron and Steel Institute, 183, 1956, 349-359.


. Sverdlin-Ness

) ( 5 ) ( 20 30 50 320 520 Si Cu Mo Ni Cr Mn C M
s
+ − + − − − − =

Notation:
Ms: Start Temperature of the Martensitic Transformation [°C]
Alloy Amount: [weight %]

Source: SVERDLIN, A.V. & NESS, A.R. The Effects of Alloying Elements on the Heat Treatment of Steel. In: Steel Heat
Treatment Handbook, Marcel Dekker, New York, 1997, p. 45-91.







Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 28

- Critical Diameter - Austenite Hardenability

. Dearden & O’Neill

(
¸
(

¸

|
¹
|

\
|
+ + + + + × × =
15 18 28 . 6 13 . 3 87 . 5
1 . 7 exp 6
Ni Si Cr Mo Mn
C D
i


Notation:
Di: Critical Diameter [mm]
Alloy Content: [weight %]

Source: DEARDEN, J & O’NEIL, H.: A Guide to the Selection and Welding of Low Alloy Structural Steels. Transactions
of the Institute of Welding, 3, Oct. 1940, 203-214.
Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 29

- Density of Bulk Steel

. Austenitic Steels

6
10 . ) 032 . 2 186 . 2 111 . 1 890 . 1 137 . 1 018 . 1 205 . 1 431 . 1 436 . 2 307 . 1 178 . 3 231 . 1 (
1

+ + + + + + + + + + +
=
TiC N Co Ti Ni Mo Cu Cr Si Mn C Fe
sol
γ
ρ

Notation:
ρ ρρ ρ
γ γγ γ
: Austenite Density [kg/m³]
Alloy/TiC Content: [weight %]

Notes:
- Csol is the content of this element not bound in TiC.
- Density calculated at 20°C.

Source: BOHNENKAMP, U. et al.: Evaluation of the Density of Steels. Steel Research, 71:3, March 2000, 88-93.


. Ferritic Steels

6
10 . ) 046 . 4 012 . 2 370 . 1 076 . 1 8477 . 0 384 . 1 381 . 2 524 . 1 380 . 1 270 . 1 (
1

+ + + + + + + + +
=
S V Ni Mo Cu Cr Si Mn C Fe
α
ρ

Notation:
ρ ρρ ρ
α αα α
: Steel Density [kg/m³]
Alloy Content: [weight %]

Notes:
- C is considered insoluble in ferrite (that is, all C has gone to cementite).
- The solubilities of the other alloy elements in cementite are zero.
Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 30

- Density calculated at 20°C.

Source: BOHNENKAMP, U. et al.: Evaluation of the Density of Steels. Steel Research, 71:3, March 2000, 88-93.


. Liquid Iron

7 . 0
9340
1
22457 . 0 9946 . 1
|
¹
|

\
|
− −
× =
T
Iron Liquid
ρ


Notation:
ρ ρρ ρLiquid Iron: Liquid Iron Density [g/ml]
T: Absolute Temperature, [K]

Source: YAWS, C.L.: Liquid Density of the Elements. Chemical Engineering, November 2007, 44-46.


. Temperature Effect

T
C T
33 . 0
20
− =
°
α α
ρ ρ

T
C T
47 . 0
20
− =
°
γ γ
ρ ρ

Notation:
ρ ρρ ρ
α αα α
T
: Ferrite Density at Temperature T [kg/m³]
ρ ρρ ρ
α αα α
20°C
: Ferrite Density at 20°C [kg/m³]
ρ ρρ ρ
γ γγ γ
T
: Austenite Density at Temperature T [kg/m³]
ρ ρρ ρ
γ γγ γ
20°C
: Austenite Density at 20°C [kg/m³]
T: Temperature[°C]
Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 31


Source: FINK, K. et al.: Physikalische Eigenschaften von Stählen, insbesondere von warmfesten Stählen.
Thyssenforschung, 2:2, 1970, 65-80.
Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 32

- Density of Microstructural Constituents

. Common Phases and Constituents

Phase/Constituent C
[weight %]
Specific Volume
[cm³/g] at 20°C
Austenite 0.00 ~ 2.00 0.1212+0.0033 C
Martensite 0.00 ~ 2.00 0.1271+0.0025 C
Ferrite 0.00 ~ 0.02 0.1271
Cementite (Fe3C) 6.7 ± 0.2 0.130 ± 0.001
ε Carbide 8.5 ± 0.7 0.140 ± 0.002
Graphite 100 0.451
Ferrite + Cementite 0.00 ~ 2.00 0.1271 + 0.0005 C
Low C Martensite + ε Carbide 0.25 ~ 2.00 0.1277 + 0.0015 (C – 0.25)
Ferrite + ε Carbide 0.00 ~ 2.00 0.1271 + 0.0015 C

Notation:
C: Carbon Content [weight %]

Source: THELNING, K.E.: Steel and its Heat Treatment – Bofors Handbook. Butterworths, London, 1981, 570 p.


. Density and Molar Volume of Microalloy Carbides and Nitrides

Compound Structure Molecular
Mass
Lattice
Parameter
[nm]
Molecules per
Unit Cell
Density
[g/cm³]
Molar Volume
[cm³/mol]
NbC FCC 105 0.4462 4 7.84 13.39
NbN FCC 107 0.4387 4 8.41 12.72
VC FCC 63 0.4154 4 5.83 10.81
Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 33

VN FCC 65 0.4118 4 6.18 10.52
TiC FCC 60 0.4313 4 4.89 12.27
TiN FCC 62 0.4233 4 5.42 11.44
AlN CPH 41
c = 0.4965
a = 0.311
6 3.27 12.54
γ-Fe FCC 56 0.357 4 8.15 6.85
α-Fe BCC 56 0.286 2 7.85 7.11

Notes:
- Data based on room temperature lattice parameters.

Source:
- GLADMAN, T. The Physical Metallurgy of Microalloyed Steels. The Institute of Materials, London, 1997, 363 p.


. Density and Molar Volume of Precipitates and Metals

Compound Density
[kg/m³]
Molar Volume
[cm³/mol]
NbCN 9291 12,80
ZrC 6,572 -
ZrN 7,30 -
Mn 7470 7,35
Si 2330 12,06
Cr 7140 7,23
Cu 8920 7,11
C 2267 5,29
N - 13,54
Steel 7850 7,00

Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 34

Notes:
- Data based on room temperature lattice parameters.

Sources:
- SAN MARTIN, D. et al. Estudio y Modelización de la Influencia de las Partículas de Segunda Fase sobre el
Crecimiento de Grano Austenítico en um Acero Microaleado com Niobio. Revista de Metalurgia – Madrid, 42:2,
Marzo-Abril 2006, 128-137.

- Web Elements (www.webelements.com)

- NISHIZAWA, T. Thermodynamics of Microstructure Control by Particle Dispersion. ISIJ International, 40:12,
December 2000, 1269-1274.

- ADRIAN, H. Thermodynamical Model for Precipitation of Carbonitrides in HSLA Steels Containing Up to Three
Microalloying Elements with or without Additions of Aluminum. Materials Science and Tecnology, 8:5, May
1992, 406-420.


. Molar Volume of Austenite as Function of Temperature

( ) T V
M
5 6
10 3097 . 7 exp 10 688726 . 6
− −
× × =
γ


Notation:
VM
γ γγ γ
: Molar Volume of Austenite, [m³/mol]
T: Temperature [K]

Source:
- FERNÁNDEZ, D.M.S.M. Modelización de la Cinética de Austenización y Crecimiento de Grano Austenítico en
Aceros Ferrítico-Perlíticos. Tesis Doctoral, Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalúrgicas, Madrid, Julio
2003, 258 p.
Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 35

- Dimensional Changes during Austenite Transformation

. During Cooling

2 9 6 2 3 3 5 2
10 379 . 2 10 766 . 9 10 829 . 5 10 544 . 6 10 347 . 1 10 232 . 1 T T C C C T
L
L
− − − − − −

× + × + × − × − × − × =

γ γ γ
α γ


A
tr A
X
C X C
C
) 1 (
0

=
γ


Notation:
∆Lγ→α: Specimen Length Change During Austenite Transformation [µm];
L: Specimen Original Length [µm]
T: Temperature [°C]
Cγ: Carbon Content in Austenite [wt %]
C0: Initial Carbon Content [wt %]
Ctr: Carbon Content of Transformed Phases [wt %]
XA: Untransformed Austenite Volume Fraction

Source:
- PARK, S.H. Microstructural Evolution of Hot Rolled TRIP Steels During Cooling Control. In: 40th Mechanical
Working and Steel Processing Conference, ISS/AIME, Pittsburgh, October 1998, 283-291.


. After General Heat Treating

Transformation ∆ ∆∆ ∆V
[%]
∆ ∆∆ ∆l
[mm/mm]
Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 36

Spheroidized Pearlite → Austenite -4.64 + 2.21 C -0.0155 + 0.0074 C
Austenite → Martensite 4.64 – 0.53 C 0.0155 – 0.0018 C
Spheroidized Pearlite → Martensite 1.68 C 0.0056 C
Austenite → Lower Bainite 4.64 – 1.43 C 0.0155 – 0.0048 C
Spheroidized Pearlite → Lower Bainite 0.78 C 0.0026 C
Austenite → Upper Bainite 4.14 – 2.21 C 0.0155 – 0.0074 C
Spheroidized Pearlite → Upper Bainite 0 (Zero) 0

Notation:
- C: Carbon Content [weight %].

Sources:
- THELNING, K.E.: Steel and its Heat Treatment – Bofors Handbook. Butterworths, London, 1981, 570 p.

- KRAUSS, G. Steel: Processing, Structure and Performance. ASM International, Metals Park, 2005, 420 p.


. After Quenching

) 21 . 2 64 . 4 (
100
68 . 1
100
100
A
A
M
A C
C
V
C
V V
V
V
+ − + |
¹
|

\
| − −
=




Notation:
- ∆V/V: Volumetric Change after Quenching [%]
- VC: Non-solubilized Cementite Volumetric Fraction [%]
- VA: Austenite Volumetric Fraction [%]
- 100 – VC – VA: Martensite Volumetric Fraction [%]
- CM: Carbon Content Solubilized in Martensite [weight %]
- CA: Carbon Content Solubilized in Austenite [weight %]
Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 37


Source: THELNING, K.E.: Steel and its Heat Treatment – Bofors Handbook. Butterworths, London, 1981, 570 p.



Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 38

- Equivalent Carbon – H.A.Z. Hardenability

. Dearden & O’Neill

2 15 13 5 4 6
_
P Ni Cu V Cr Mo Mn
C C
Dearden EQ
+ + +
+
+ + + =

Notation:
CEQ_Dearden: Equivalent Carbon (Dearden) [%]
Alloy Content: [weight %]

Source: DEARDEN, J & O’NEIL, H.: A Guide to the Selection and Welding of Low Alloy Structural Steels. Transactions
of the Institute of Welding, 3, Oct. 1940, 203-214.


. IIW - International Institute of Welding

15 5 6
_
Ni Cu V Mo Cr Mn
C C
IIW EQ
+
+
+ +
+ + =

Notation:
CEQ_IIW: Equivalent Carbon (IIW) [%]
Alloy Content: [weight %]

Source: HEISTERKAMP, F. et al.: Metallurgical Concept And Full-Scale Testing of High Toughness, H2S Resistant 0.03%C
- 0.10%Nb Steel. C.B.M.M. Report, São Paulo, February 1993.


. Bastien

Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 39

3 , 10 4 , 15 7 , 7 4 , 4
_
Ni Cr Mo Mn
C C
Bastien EQ
+ + + + =

Bastien EQ m
C CR
_
6 , 10 9 , 13 ) ln( − =

Notation:
CEQ_Bastien: Equivalent Carbon (Bastien) [%]
Alloy Content: [weight %]
CRm: Critical Cooling Rate at 700°C [°C/s], that is, minimum cooling rate that produces a fully martensitic
structure)

Source: BASTIEN, P.G.: Met. Constr. British Weld. J., 49, 1970, 9.


. Yurioka et al.

15 24 12 8 4 6
_
Cu Si Ni Cr Mo Mn
C C
Yurioka EQ
+ + + + + + =

8 , 4 6 , 10 ) log(
_
− =
Yurioka EQ m
C t

Notation:
CEQ_Yurioka: Equivalent Carbon (Yurioka) [%]
Alloy Content: [weight %]
tm: Critical Cooling Time from 800 to 500°C [s] (that is, maximum cooling time that produces a fully martensitic
structure)

Source: YURIOKA, N. et al.: Met. Constr., 19, 1987, 217R.

Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 40


. Kihara et al.

24 40 14 5 4 6
_
Si Ni V Cr Mo Mn
C C
Kihara EQ
+ + + + + + =

Notation:
CEQ_Kihara: Equivalent Carbon (Kihara) [%]
Alloy Content: [weight %]

Source: KIHARA, H. et al. Technical Report of JRIM, 1, 1959, 93.


. Shinozaki et al.

) 1 11 ( 29
2
) 6 1 (
) 5 1 ( 3 . 1
3
) 1 50 (
) 10 1 ( 7
9 15 5
_
− +

+ − +

+ − + + + + = C B
C Mo
C Ti
C V
C Nb
Cr Si Mn
C C
FBW EQ


Notation:
CEQ_FBW: Equivalent Carbon Designed Specifically for Flash Butt Welding [%]
Alloy Content: [weight %]

Source: SHINOZAKI, M. et al.: Effects of Chemical Composition and Structure of Hot Rolled High Strength Steel Sheets on
the Formability of Flash Butt Welded Joints. Kawasaki Steel Technical Report, 6, Sept. 1982, 21-30.


. Stout et al.

|
¹
|

\
|
+ +
+
+ =
40 20 10 6
1000
_
Cu Ni Mo Cr Mn
C C
Stout EQ

Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 41


Notation:
CEQ_Stout: Equivalent Carbon (Kihara) [%]
Alloy Content: [weight %]

Source: STOUT, R.D. et al. Welding Journal Research Supplement, 55, 1976, 89s-94s.




Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 42

- Equivalent Carbon – Hydrogen Assisted Cold Cracking

. DNV

4 10 5 40 24 10
_
Mo V Cr Cu Ni Si Mn
C C
DNV EQ
+ + +
+
+ + + =

Notation:
CEQ_DNV: Equivalent Carbon (DNV) [%]
Alloy Content: [weight %]

Source: HANNERZ, N.E.: The Influence of Si on the Weldability of Mild and High Tensile Structural Steels. IIW
Document IX-1169-80, 1980.


. Uwer & Hohne

10 20 40 20 10
_
Mo Cr Ni Cu Mn
C C
Uwer EQ
+ + + + + =

Notation:
CEQ_Uwer: Equivalent Carbon (Uwer & Hohne) [%]
Alloy Content: [weight %]

Source: UWER, D. & HOHNE, H.: Determination of Suitable Minimum Preheating Temperature for the Cold-Crack-Free
Welding of Steels. IIW Document IX-1631-91, 1991.


. Mannesmann

Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 43

15 40 60 20 16 25
_
V Mo Ni Cr Cu Mn Si
C C
PLS EQ
+ + + +
+
+ + =

Notation:
CEQ_PLS: Equivalent Carbon for Pipeline Steels [%]
Alloy Content: [weight %]

Notes:
- Formula deduced for pipeline steels
- A version of this formula divides V by 10

Sources:
- DUREN, C. & NIEDEROFF, K.: In: Proc. on Welding and Performance of Pipeline, TWI, London, 1986.
- HEISTERKAMP, F. et al.: Metallurgical Concept And Full-Scale Testing of High Toughness, H2S Resistant
0.03%C - 0.10%Nb Steel. C.B.M.M. Report, São Paulo, February 1993.


. Graville

9 5 7 23 50 16
_
V Nb Mo Cr Ni Mn
C C
HSLA EQ
+ + + + − + =

Notation:
CEQ_HSLA: Equivalent Carbon (Uwer & Graville) [%]
Alloy Content: [weight %]

Notes:
- Formula deduced for pipeline steels

Source: GRAVILLE, B.A.: In: Proc. Conf. on Welding of HSLA Structural Steels, ASM, Materials Park, 1976.
Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 44



. Bersch & Koch (Hoesch)

20
_
Ni Cu V Mo Cr Si Mn
C C
Bersch EQ
+ + + + + +
+ =

Notation:
CEQ_Bersch: Equivalent Carbon for Pipeline Steels [%]
Alloy Content: [weight %]

Notes:
- Formula deduced for pipeline steels

Source:
- BERSCH, B. et al. Weldability of Pipe Steels for Low Operating Temperatures. 3R International, 1, 1977.

- PATCHETT, B.M. et al.: Casti Metals Blue Book: Welding Filler Metals. Casti Publishing Corp., Edmonton,
February 1993, 608 p. (CD Edition).


. Ito & Bessyo (I)

P C
Si Mn Cu Cr Ni Mo V
B
cm
= + +
+ +
+ + + +
30 20 60 15 10
5

Notation:
Pcm: Cracking Parameter [%]
Alloy Content: [weight %]

Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 45

Notes:
- Formula deduced for pipeline steels with C < 0.15%
- This is the most popular formula for this kind of material.
- Equation valid under the following conditions: 0.07% ≤ C ≤ 0.22%; 0.40% ≤ Mn ≤ 1.40%; Si ≤ 0.60%; V ≤
0.12%; Cr ≤ 1.20%; Ni ≤ 1.20%; Cu ≤ 0.50%, Mo ≤ 0.7%, B ≤ 0,005%.

Source:
- ITO, Y. et al.: Journal of the Japan Welding Society., 37, 1968, 983.

- ITO, Y. & BESSYO, K. Weldability Formula of High Strength Steels Related to Heat-Affected-Zone Cracking. The
Sumitomo Search, 1, 1969, 59-70.


. Ito & Bessyo (II)

P C
Si Mn Cu Cr Mo V d H
c
= + +
+ +
+ + + +
30 20 15 10 600 60


Notation:
Pc: Cracking Parameter [%]
Alloy Content: [weight %], except
H: Hydrogen amount in the weld metal, [cm³/100 g]
d: Plate Thickness, [mm]

Source: ITO, Y. & BESSYO, K.: Weldability Formula of High Strength Steels. I.I.W. Document IX-576-68.


. Yurioka

Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 46

|
¹
|

\
|
+ + + +
+ +
+ + + = B
Nb Ni Cu V Mo Cr Si Mn
C A C C
Yurioka EQ
5
5 20 15 5 24 6
) (
_


[ ] ) 12 . 0 ( 20 tanh 25 . 0 75 . 0 ) ( − + = C C A

Notation:
CEQ_Yurioka: Equivalent Carbon for Pipeline Steels [%]
Alloy Content: [weight %]

Notes:
- Formula for C-Mn and microalloyed pipeline steels
- This formula combines Carbon Equivalent equations from IIW and Pcm

Sources:
- YURIOKA, N.: Physical Metallurgy of Steel Weldability. ISIJ International, 41:6, June 2001, 566-570.
- PATCHETT, B.M. et al.: Casti Metals Blue Book: Welding Filler Metals. Casti Publishing Corp., Edmonton,
February 1993, 608 p. (CD Edition).



Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 47

- Fe-C Diagram


Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 48


Source: ASM’s Heat Treating One-Minute Mentor,
http://www.asminternational.org/pdf/HTSRefCharts/Vol4p4Fig1.pdf.
Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 49

- Ferrite Solubility Products

. General

B
T
A
a
a a
n m
B A
n
B
m
A
+ − =
) ( ) (
log
10


Notation:
AmBn: Precipitate Considered for Calculation
ax: Alloy Content [weight %]
T: Temperature [K]
A, B: Constants of the Solubility Product, given in the table below:

Precipitate A B Source
AlN 9595 2.65 Kunze & Reichert
BN 13560 4.53 Fountain & Chipman
MnS 8400 2.77 Ivanov
NbC 10990 4.62 Kunze
NbN 10650 3.87 Kunze
TiN 17640 6.17 Kunze
VC 12265 8.05 Taylor
VN 7830 2.45 Froberg
VN 8120 2.48 Roberts & Sandbert
ZrN 18160 5.24 Kunze
Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 50


Notes:
- aAmBn is equal to one if the precipitate is pure.
- aAmBn ≤ 1 if there is co-precipitation with another element.

Sources:
- TAYLOR, K.A. et al. Scripta Metallurgica, 32, 1995, 7.

- FROBERG, M.G. & GRAF, H. Stahl und Eisen, 80, 1960, 539.

- KUNZE, J. Nitrogen and Carbon in Iron and Steels – Thermodynamics. Akademie Verlag, Berlin, 1991, p.
192.

- FOUNTAIN, R.W. & CHIPMAN, J. In: Transactions of the Metallurgical Society of AIME, 224, 1964, 599.

- KUNZE, J. & REICHERT, J. Neue Hütte, 26, 1981, 23.

- ROBERTS, W. & SANDBERG, A. Report IM 1489. Institute for Metallurgical Research, Stockholm, 1990.

- IVANOV, B.S. et al. Stahl, 8, 1996, 52.


Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 51

- Hardness After Cooling

. Lorenz et al.

) log 8 . 0 1 ( 66
3 6 17 5 9 8 11
3 . 0 ) log 5 . 0 1 ( 2019
5 / 8 5 / 8
t
V Mo Ni Cr Cu Mn Si
t C HV − +
(
¸
(

¸

|
¹
|

\
|
+ + + + + + + − =

Source: LORENZ, K. et al.: Evaluation of Large Diameter Pipe Steel Weldability by Means of the Carbon Equivalent. In:
International Conference on Steels for Linepipe and Fittings, Metals Society, London, Oct. 1981, 322-332.

Notation:
HV: Maximum Hardness for a Martensitic-Bainitic HAZ Microstructure [Vickers, 10 kg Load]
Alloy Content: [weight %]
t8/5: Cooling Time Between 800°C and 500°C [s]


Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 52

- Hardness After Tempering

. Spies

66 . 435 55 . 0 0 . 54 22 . 128 77 . 14 24 . 14 78 . 0 75 84 . 2 + − − + + + − + = T V Mo Cr Mn Si C HRC HB

Notation:
HB: Brinell Hardness After Hardening and Tempering
HRC: Rockwell Hardness (C Scale) After Hardening
Alloy Content: [weight %]
T: Tempering Temperature [°C]

Notes:
- This equation is valid within the following ranges: HRC: 20~65; C: 0.20~0.54%; Mn: 0.50~1,90%; Si:
0.17~1.40%; Cr: 0.03~1.20%; T: 500~650°C.

Source: SPIES, H.J. et al.: Möglichkeiten der Optimierung der Auswahl vergütbarer Baustähle durch
Berechnung der Härt-und-vergütbarkeit. Neue Hütte, 8:22, 1977, 443-445.
Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 53

- Hardness After Welding

. Dearden & O’Neill

200 1200
_ max
− =
Dearden EQ
C HV

2 15 13 5 4 6
_
P Ni Cu V Cr Mo Mn
C C
Dearden EQ
+ + +
+
+ + + =

Notation:
CEQ_Dearden: Equivalent Carbon (Dearden) [%]
Alloy Content: [weight %]
HVmax = Maximum Hardness [Vickers]

Notes:
- This equation calculates maximum hardness after welding.

Source: DEARDEN, J & O’NEIL, H.: Trans. Int. Weld., 3, 1940, 203.


. Shinozaki et al.

FBW EQ
C HV
_
331 78 + =

) 1 11 ( 29
2
) 6 1 (
) 5 1 ( 3 . 1
3
) 1 50 (
) 10 1 ( 7
9 15 5
_
− +

+ − +

+ − + + + + = C B
C Mo
C Ti
C V
C Nb
Cr Si Mn
C C
FBW EQ


Notation:
CEQ_FBW: Equivalent Carbon Designed Specifically for Flash Butt Welding [%]
Alloy Content: [weight %]
Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 54

HV: Hardness at the Welding Interface [Vickers]

Source: SHINOZAKI, M. et al.: Effects of Chemical Composition and Structure of Hot Rolled High Strength Steel Sheets on
the Formability of Flash Butt Welded Joints. Kawasaki Steel Technical Report, 6, Sept. 1982, 21-30.




Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 55

- Hardness-Tensile Properties Equivalence



Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 56

Source: ASM Handbook – Mechanical Testing and Evaluation. ASM International, vol. 8, Metals Park, 2000, 275.

Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 57

- Hot Strength of Steel

. Tselikov

2 2
01379 , 0 6 , 225 174000 12000 5289 20525 144000 42924 308250 T T S P Mn Si C C E + − + − − + − + =

Notation:
E: Young Modulus [kgf/cm²]
C: C content [weight %]
Mn: Mn content [weight %]
Si: Si content [weight %]
P: P content [weight %]
S: S content [weight %]
T: Temperature [°C]

Note:
- Valid for carbon, alloy and stainless steels between 20 and 900°C.

Source: ROYZMAN, S.E. Thermal Stresses in Slab Solidification. Asia Steel, 1996, 158-162.


. Misaka

( )
13 , 0
21 , 0
2
2
1120 2968 2851
594 . 0 75 . 1 126 . 0 exp |
¹
|

\
|
(
¸
(

¸
− +
+ + − =
dt
d
T
C C
C C
ε
ε σ

Notation:
σ σσ σ: Steel Hot Strength [kgf/mm²]
C: C content [weight %]
Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 58

T: Absolute Temperature [K]
ε εε ε: True Strain
t: Time [s]

Source: MISAKA, Y. et al. Formulatization of Mean Resistance to Deformation of Plain C Steels at Elevated Temperature.
Journal of the Japan Society for the Technology of Plasticity, 8, 79, 1967-1968, 414-422.


. Shida

Calculation algorithm expressed in Visual Basic:

Function Shida(C, T, Def, VelDef)

Dim nShida, Td, g, Tx, mShida, SigF As Single

nShida = 0.41 – 0.07 * C
Td = 0.95 * (C + 0.41) / (C + 0.32)
T = (T + 273) / 1000
If T >= Td Then
g = 1
Tx = T
mShida = (-0.019 * C + 0.126) * T + (0.075 * C – 0.05)
Else
g = 30 * (C + 0.9) * (T – 0.95 * (C + 0.49) / (C + 0.42)) ^ 2 + (C + 0.06) / (C + 0.09)
Tx = Td
mShida = (0.081 * C – 0.154) * T + (-0.019 * C + 0.207) + 0.027 / (C + 0.32)
End If
SigF = 0.28 * g * Exp(5 / Tx – 0.01 / (C + 0.05))
Shida = 2 / Sqr(3) * SigF * (1.3 * (Def / 0.2) ^ nShida – 0.3 * (Def / 0.2)) * _
Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 59

(VelDef / 10) ^ mShida

End Function

Notation:
σ σσ σ: Steel Hot Strength [kgf/mm²]
C: C content [weight %]
T: Temperature [°C]
Def: True Strain
VelDef: Strain Rate [s
-1
]

Source: SHIDA, S. Empirical Formula of Flow Stress of C Steels - Resistance to Deformation of C Steels at Elevated
Temperature. Journal of the Japan Society for Technology of Plasticity, 10:103, 1969, 610-7.

Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 60

- Lattice Parameters

. Ferrite

)] 800 ( 10 5 . 17 1 [ 8863 . 2
6
− × + =

T a
α


Notation:
aα: Ferrite Lattice Parameter [Ǻ]
T: Temperature [K]

Notes:
- 800 K < T < 1200 K


. Austenite

V Mo Cr Ni Mn C a 0018 . 0 0031 . 0 0006 . 0 0002 . 0 00095 . 0 033 . 0 573 . 3
0
+ + + − + + =
γ


Notation:
aγ: Austenite Lattice Parameter [Ǻ]
T: Temperature [K]
ξ: C [Atomic Fraction]

Notes:
- 1000 K < T < 1250 K
- 0.0005 < ξ < 0.0365


)] 1000 ( 10 ) 50 9 . 24 ( 1 [ ) 78 . 0 6306 . 3 (
6
− × − + + =

T a ξ ξ
γ


Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 61

Notation:
aγ: Austenite Lattice Parameter [Ǻ]
Alloy Content: [Weight Percent]

Notes:
- Formula valid for ambient temperature.


. Cementite

)] 293 ( ) 10 655 . 9 10 942 . 1 10 311 . 5 ( 1 [ 5234 . 4
2 12 9 6
− × + × − × + =
− − −
T T T a
θ


)] 293 ( ) 10 655 . 9 10 942 . 1 10 311 . 5 ( 1 [ 0883 . 5
2 12 9 6
− × + × − × + =
− − −
T T T b
θ


)] 293 ( ) 10 655 . 9 10 942 . 1 10 311 . 5 ( 1 [ 7426 . 6
2 12 9 6
− × + × − × + =
− − −
T T T c
θ


Notation:
aθ, bθ, cθ: Cementite Lattice Parameter [Ǻ]
T: Temperature [K]

Notes:
- 300 K < T < 1000 K

Source: CABALLERO, F.G. et al. Modelling of Kinetics and Dilatometric Behaviour of Austenite Formation in a Low-carbon
Steel with a Ferrite Plus Pearlite Inicial Microstructure. Journal of Materials Science, 37, 2002, 3533-3540.

Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 62

- Liquid Steel Solubility Products

. General

B
T
A
a
a a
n m
B A
n
B
m
A
+ − =
) ( ) (
log

Notation:
AmBn: Precipitate Considered for Calculation
ax: Alloy Content [weight %]
T: Temperature [K]
A, B: Constants of the Solubility Product, given in the table below:

Precipitate A B
MnS 8236 5.03
TiN 16586 5.90
TiS 8000 4.00
ZrN 17000 6.38

Notes:
- aAmBn is equal to one if the precipitate is pure.
- aAmBn ≤ 1 if there is co-precipitation with another element.

Sources:
- Values compiled by Rajindra Clement Ratnapuli from assorted references.


Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 63

- Liquidus Temperature of Steels


[ ]
T C Si Mn P S Cu Ni Cr Al Mo V Ti
Liq
= − + + + + + + + + + + + 1536 78 7 6 4 9 34 30 5 31 13 3 6 2 2 18 , , , , ,

Notation:
TLíq: Steel Melting Temperature [°C]
Alloy Content: [weight %]

Source: GUTHMANN, K. Günstige Giesstemperatur im Vergleich zum Erstarrungspunkt von Eisen- und Stahlschmelzen.
Stahl und Eisen, 71(1951), 8, 399-402.



Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 64

- Poisson Ratio

) 1 ( 2 υ + = G E

Notation:
E: Young Modulus
G: Shear Modulus
υ υυ υ: Poisson Ratio
. Elastic Range: 0.3
. Plastic Range: 0.5

Sources:
- WILSON, A.D. Guidelines for Fabricating and Processing Plate Steel. Bethlehem-Lukens Plate Report, Burns
Harbor, 2000, 97 p.
Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 65

- Precipitate Isothermal Solubilization Kinetics

D c
r
t
2
2
0
=

Notation:
AmBn: Spheric precipitate considered for calculation
t: Time for solubilization of the precipitate [s]
r0: Radius of the precipitate [m], [cm] or [mm]

p
i
i p
m i
C
C
C C
C C
c ≅


=

Cm: Solute concentration in the bulk metal [%]
Ci: Solute concentration in the precipitate/matrix interface [%]

B
B
T
A
i
a
C
|
¹
|

\
|
+

=
10


T: Temperature [K]
A, B: Constants of the Solubility Product, given in the table at the topic Austenite Solubilization Products.
aB: Alloy content [weight percent]
Cp: Solute content in the precipitate [%]

B A
A
p
M n M m
M m
C
+
=

Mx : Atomic mass of the element [g]
Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 66

Cm: Solute content in a position far away from the precipitate [%]
D: Solute Diffusion Coefficient [m²/s, cm²/s or mm²/s], calculated according to the general equation below:

|
¹
|

\
| −
=
RT
Q
D D exp
0


D0: Constant
Q: Activation Energy for Diffusion [J] or [cal]
R: Universal Gas Constant, 8.314 J/mol.K (R’) or 1.981 cal/mol.K (R)

Element Phase Equation Source

Al
Ferrite D [m
2
/s] = 0.30 * 10
-2
* Exp(-234500/R’ T) Pickering
Austenite D [m
2
/s] = 0.49 * 10
-4
* Exp(-284100/R’ T)
Austenite D [m
2
/s] = 2.10 * 10
-3
* Exp(-286000/R’ T) Borggren
B Austenite D [m
2
/s] = 2 * 10
-4
* Exp(-87864/R’ T)

C

Ferrite D [cm
2
/s] = 0.02 * Exp(-20100/RT)
Ferrite D [m
2
/s] = 0.62 * 10
-6
* Exp(-80400/R’ T) Pickering
Austenite D [m
2
/s] = 0.10 *10
-4
* Exp(-135700/R’ T)
Cr
Ferrite D [cm
2
/s] = 8.52 * Exp(-59900/RT)
Austenite D [cm
2
/s] = 10.80 * Exp(-69700/RT)
Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 67


Fe

Ferrite D [m
2
/s] = 1.67 * 10
-4
* Exp(-256700/R’ T) Pickering
Austenite D [m
2
/s] = 0.49 * 10
-4
* Exp(-284100/R’ T) Pickering
Austenite D [m
2
/s] = 7.00 * 10
-5
* Exp(-28600/R’ T) Borggren

Mn

Austenite D [mm
2
/s] = 140 * Exp(-286000/R’ T)
Austenite D [cm
2
/s] = 0.65 * Exp(-276000/R’ T)
Austenite D [m
2
/s] = 1.78 * 10
-5
* Exp(-264000/R’ T) Borggren

N

Ferrite D [cm
2
/s] = 6.6 * 10
-3
* Exp(-18600/RT)
Ferrite D [m
2
/s] = 0.50 * 10
-6
* Exp(-77000/R’ T) Pickering
Austenite D [m
2
/s] = 0.91 * 10
-4
* Exp(-168600/R’ T) Pickering

Nb

Austenite D [mm
2
/s] = 5.90 * 10
-4
* Exp(-343000/R’ T) Andersen
Austenite D [m
2
/s] = 5.30 * 10
-2
* Exp(-344600/R’ T) Pickering
Austenite D [m
2
/s] = 5.60 * 10
-4
* Exp(-286000/R’ T) Borggren
P
Austenite D [mm
2
/s] = 51 * Exp(-230120/R’ T)
Austenite D [cm
2
/s] = 2.90 * Exp(-55000/RT)
Si Austenite D [m
2
/s] = 7.00 * 10
-4
* Exp(-286000/R’ T) Borggren
Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 68

Ti Austenite D [m
2
/s] =1.50 * 10
-5
* Exp(-251000/R’ T) Borggren

V
Ferrite D [cm
2
/s] = 3.92 * Exp(-57600/RT)
Ferrite D [m
2
/s] = 0.61 * 10
-4
* Exp(-267100/R’ T) Pickering
Austenite D [cm
2
/s] = 0.25 * Exp(-63100/RT)
Austenite D [m
2
/s] = 0.25 * 10
-4
* Exp(-264200/R’ T) Pickering

Sources:
- ANDERSEN, I. & GRONG, O. Analytical Modelling of Grain Growth in Metals and Alloys in the Presence of
Growing and Dissolving Precipitates – I. Normal Grain Growth. Acta Metallurgica and Materialia, 43:7, 1995,
2673-2688.

- GLADMAN, T. The Physical Metallurgy of Microalloyed Steels. The Institute of Materials, London, 1997, 363 p.

- BORGGREN, U. e al. A Model for Particle Dissolution and Precipitation in HSLA Steels. Advanced Materials
Research, 15-17, 2007, 714-719.

- Information compiled by Rajindra Clement Ratnapuli from assorted references.



Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 69

- Solidus Temperature of Steels

[ ] Al Cr Ni S P Mn Si C T
Sol
1 , 4 4 , 1 3 , 4 9 , 183 5 , 124 8 , 6 3 , 12 5 , 415 1536 + + + + + + + − =

Notation:
TSol: Steel Solidus Temperature [°C]
Alloy Content: [weight %]

Source: TAKEUCHI, E. & BRIMACOMBE, J.K. Effect of Oscillation-Mark Formation on the Surface Quality of
Continuously Cast Steel Slabs. Metallurgical Transactions B, 16B, 9, 1985, 605-25.



Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 70

- Relationships Between Chemical Composition x Process x Microstructure x Properties

. C-Mn Mild Steels

d
N Si Mn YS
sol
4 . 17
2 . 354 2 . 83 3 . 32 9 . 53 + + + + =

d
Pearl Si Mn TS
7 . 7
85 . 2 2 . 83 7 . 27 1 . 294 + + + + =

d
N Sn P Si Mn C
d
d
sol
4 . 15
1509 143 554 116 1 . 23 120 370 + + + + + + + =
ε
σ


sol unif
N Sn Si Mn C 2 . 1 039 . 0 044 . 0 25 . 0 20 . 0 28 . 0 − − − − − = ε

d
Sn P S Si Mn C
tot
017 . 0
25 . 0 9 . 3 2 . 2 16 . 0 20 . 0 90 . 2 40 . 1 + + − − + + − = ε

d
Pearl N Si ITT
sol
5 . 11
2 . 2 700 44 19 % 50 − + + + − =

O Mn N Y
sol
462 162 19250 32 . 12 + + − = ∆

Notation:
YS: Yield Strength at 0.2% Real Strain [MPa]
TS: Tensile Strength [MPa]
dσ σσ σ/dε εε ε: Strain Hardening Coefficient at 0.2% Real Strain [1/MPa]
ε εε εunif: Uniform Elongation, Expressed as Real (Logarithmic) Strain
Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 71

ε εε εtot: Total Elongation, Expressed as Real (Logarithmic) Strain
Pearl: Pearlite Fraction in Microstructure [%]
50% ITT: Impact Transition Temperature for 50% Tough Fracture [°C]
∆ ∆∆ ∆Y: Strain Ageing After 10 Days at Room Temperature [MPa]
Alloy Content: [weight %]
d: Grain Size [mm]

Source: PICKERING, F.B.: Physical Metallurgy and the Design of Steels. Allied Science Publishers, London, 1978,
275 p.


. C-Mn Steels Processed at a Hot Strip Mill

) 100 002 . 0 01 . 0 ) 723 ( 01 . 0 23 35 30 6 ( 2 . 2 5 . 11
sol fin tot coil
N T e T Al S P Mn C d − − + − + + + + + − =

100
78 . 0
06 . 0 −
=
eq
C
Pearl α

coil
T
S

=
723
1 . 0
0


) 02 . 0
6 . 12
31 45 114 43 5 . 5
016 . 0
2 . 38 ( 08 . 99
0
fin sol
T
d
N S P Si Mn
S
Pearl
YS − + + − + + + + =

)
5 . 11
262 69 7 . 57 4 . 41 03 . 8
004 . 0
8 . 19 ( 47 . 130
0
d
N S P Si Mn
S
Pearl
TS
sol
+ + − + + + + =

Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 72

) 0006 . 0
12 . 0
16 . 1 37 . 2 36 . 4 23 . 4 05 . 0 000096 . 0 ( 100
0 fin sol
T
d
N Sn S P Mn S Pearl + + − + − − − = ε

Notation:
YS: Yield Strength at 0.2% Real Strain [MPa]
TS: Tensile Strength [MPa]
ε εε ε: Total Elongation [%]
d: Ferrite Grain Size [µm]
Alloy Content: [weight %]
Tcoil: Coiling Temperature [°C]
etot: Total Hot Rolling Conventional Strain [%]
Tfin: Finishing Temperature [°C]
Nsol: Solubilized (Free) Nitrogen [%]
Pearl: Pearlite Fraction Present in Microstructure [%]
S0: Pearlite Lamelar Spacing [mm]

S
Si Mn
C C
eq
− + + =
24 6


fin
coil fin
T
T T −
= α

Notes:
- These equations are valid under the following conditions: Slab Reheating Temperature: 1250°C; Tfin:
850~880°C; Tcoil: 615~650°C; Final Thickness: 1.8~4.0 mm; C: 0.08~0.18%; Mn: 0.40~1.00%; P < 0.020%; S
< 0.020%; Si < 0.030%; Al: 0.020~0.050%; N: 0.0030~0.0090%.

Source: ARTIGAS, A. et al.: Prediction de Propiedades Mecánicas y Microestructurales em Aceros Laminados em Caliente.
Revista Metalurgica CENIM, 38, 2002, 339-347.
Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 73



. Hot/Cold Rolled and Annealed Mild Steel

) % 60 ( 28 . 0 013 . 0 annealing and rolling cold after d d
HR CR
+ =

) % 70 ( 29 . 0 011 . 0 annealing and rolling cold after d d
HR CR
+ =

CR
d
YS
72 . 2
37 . 3 + =
HR
d YS 154 16 . 28 − =

CR yield
d 5 . 78 27 . 6 − = ε

CR
d
n
01 . 0
33 . 0 − =

Notation:
dCR: Grain Size of Cold Rolled Strip [mm]
dHR: Grain Size of Hot Rolled Strip [mm]
YS: Yield Strength at 0.2% Real Strain [MPa]
ε εε εyield: Yield Elongation [%]
n: Strain Hardening Coefficient Measured during Tension Test

Notes:
- These equations are valid under the following conditions: C: 0.005~0,10%; Mn: 0.40%; P < 0.016%; S <
0.026%; Si < 0.010%; Al: < 0.040%; N: 0.0020~0.0040%.
- Cold rolled steel was box annealed at 700°C; the time of treatment, including heating of the samples, was
equal to 32 hours, being followed by furnace cooling.

Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 74

Source: LANGENSCHEID, G. et al.: Untersuchungen über den Einfluβ der Korngröβe des Warmbandes auf die
Kaltbandeigenschaften. Hoesch Berichte aus Forschung und Entwicklung unserer Werke, 2, 1971, 64-70.


. Mild Steel, Full Annealed

d
n
1
10
5
+
=

Notation:
n: Strain Hardening Coefficient Measured during Tension Test
d: Grain Size [mm]

Source: MORRISON, W.: The Effect of Grain Size on the Stress-Strain-Relationship in Low-Carbon Steel. Transactions of
the ASM, 59, 1966, 824-845.


. C-Mn Steels with Ferrite-Pearlite Structure (including HSLA Steels)

d
N Sn P Si Mn Pearl YS
sol
9 . 14
3754 169 923 138 6 . 44 15 . 4 246 + + + + + + + =

d
N Cr P S Si Mn Pearl TS
sol
6 . 44
6616 246 723 2616 277 246 38 . 3 492 + + + + − + + − =

d
N Sn P Si Pearl
d
d
sol
4 . 15
1369 152 462 111 39 . 1 385 + + + + + + =
ε
σ


Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 75

sol unif
N Sn Si Mn Pearl 0 . 1 043 . 0 040 . 0 015 . 0 016 . 0 27 . 0 − − − − − = ε

d
Sn P S Si Mn Pearl
tot
015 . 0
29 . 0 4 . 4 4 . 3 20 . 0 30 . 0 020 . 0 30 , 1 + + − − + + − = ε

d
Mn Pearl T
trans
2 . 6
37 5 . 1 43 − − + =

Notation:
YS: Yield Strength at 0.2% Real Strain [MPa]
TS: Tensile Strength [MPa]
dσ σσ σ/dε εε ε: Strain Hardening Coefficient at 0.2% Real Strain [1/MPa]
ε εε εunif: Uniform Elongation, Expressed as Real (Logarithmic) Strain
ε εε εtot: Total Elongation, Expressed as Real (Logarithmic) Strain
Pearl: Pearlite Fraction in Microstructure [%]
Ttrans: Fracture Appearance Transition Temperature [°C]
Alloy Content: [weight %]
d: Grain Size [mm]

Source: PICKERING, F.B.: The Effect of Composition and Microstructure on Ductility and Toughness; in: Towards
Improved Ductility and Toughness, Climax Molybdenum Company, Tokyo, 1971, p. 9-32


. Microalloyed Steels (Pickering)

ppt sol
d
N Si Mn YS σ σ ∆ + + + + + =
1 . 15
2918 83 37
0


Notation:
Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 76

YS: Yield Strength at 0.2% Real Strain [MPa]
σ σσ σ0: Friction Stress [MPa]
Alloy Content: [weight %]
d: Grain Size [mm]
∆ ∆∆ ∆σ σσ σppt: Precipitation Strengthening [MPa], for steels with Nb, Ti and/or V, defined by the formula below [MPa].

Notes:
- The Friction Stress σ σσ σ0 value depends on the previous treatment of the material and can be found in the table
below:


Condition σ σσ σ0
[MPa]
Mean 70
Air Cooled 88
Overaged 62

- The effect of solid solution strengthening from another alloy elements solubilized in ferrite can be included in
this equation, using the following linear coefficients:

Element MPa/weight %
Ni 33
Cr -30
P 680
Cu 38
Mo 11
Sn 120
C 5000
N 5000

Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 77

- The precipitation strengthening contribution is calculated according to the Ashby-Orowan model.

|
|
¹
|

\
|
×
= ∆
−4
10 5 . 2
ln
9 . 5 x
x
f
ppt
σ

Notation:
∆ ∆∆ ∆σ σσ σppt: Precipitation Strengthening According to the Ashby-Orowan Model [MPa]
f: Volume Fraction of the Precipitate
x: Mean Planar Intercept Diameter of the Precipitate [µm]

Notes:
- Relationship adequate for the calculation of the precipitation strengthening of quench-aged carbides and
precipitate carbonitrides in Nb, V and Ti steels.
- ∆σppt can be calculated using a more simplified approach, multiplying the total content of the precipitating
alloy by the factor B shown in the table below:

Alloy and
Precipitate
Bmax
[MPa/weight %]
Bmin
[MPa/weight %]
Alloy Range
[weight %]
V as V4C3 1000 500 0,00 ~ 0,15
V as VN 3000 1500 0,00 ~ 0,06
Nb as Nb(CN) 3000 1500 0,00 ~ 0,05
Ti as TiC 3000 1500 0,03 ~ 0,18

Source: PICKERING, F.B. Some Aspects of the Relationships between the Mechanical Properties of Steels and their
Microstructures. TISCO. Silver Jubilee Volume, Jan-Oct 1980, 105-132.


. Microalloyed Steels (Hodgson)

Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 78

ppt sol
d
N Cu P Si Mn YS σ ∆ + + + + + + + =
7 . 19
0 . 3286 9 . 212 0 . 759 2 . 60 1 . 26 6 . 62

ppt sol
d
N Ni P Si Mn C TS σ ∆ + + + + + + + + =
0 . 11
4 . 3339 6 . 472 9 . 651 7 . 99 6 . 53 7 . 634 9 . 164

19 7800 700 log 57 + + + = ∆
sol ppt
N V CR σ

Notation:
YS: Yield Strength at 0.2% Real Strain [MPa]
TS: Tensile Strength [MPa]
Alloy Content: [weight %]
d: Grain Size [mm]
∆ ∆∆ ∆σ σσ σppt: Precipitation Strengthening [MPa], only for steels with V [MPa]
CR: Cooling Rate [°C/s]

Source: HODGSON, P.D. & GIBBS, R.K. A Mathematical Model to Predict the Mechanical Properties of Hot Rolled C-Mn
and Microalloyed Steels. ISIJ International, 32:12, December 1992, 1329-1338.


. V-Ti-N Steels Processed by Recrystallization Controlled Rolling

f
ef eq
h
V N C YS
5 . 419
) 2 27401 ( 20 . 575 4 , 41 + − + + =

f
ef eq
h
V N C TS
5 . 181
) 39 31125 ( 1 . 985 1 . 74 + − + + =

Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 79

Notation:
YS: Yield Strength at 0.2% Real Strain [MPa]
TS: Tensile Strength [MPa]
Alloy Content: [weight %]
hf: Plate Thickness [mm]

C C
Mn Cr Mo Ni Cu
eq
= + +
+
+
+
6 5 15


42 . 3
Ti
N N
tot ef
− =

Notes:
- Formula Derived for Steels with Al Content over 0.010% and Si Content between 0.25 and 0.35%.
- Precision of the Formulas: ± 40 MPa.

Source: MITCHELL, P.S. et al.: Effect of Vanadium on Mechanical Properties and Weldability of Structural Steels. In: Low
Carbon Steels for the 90’s. Proceedings. American Society for Metals/The Metallurgical Society, Pittsburgh,
Oct. 1993.


. Dual Phase Steels

αα
L
YS
1
855 203 + =

β
β
αα
d
f
L
TS 1741
1
548 266 + + =
Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 80


d
d L
f
d
σ
ε
αα
β
β
= + + 266 548
1
1741

αα
ε
L
unif
1
64 32 − =

Notation:
LE: Yield Strength [MPa]
LR: Tensile Strength [MPa]
dσ σσ σ/dε εε ε: Strain Hardening Coefficient at Uniform Elongation [1/MPa]
aunif: Uniform Elongation [%]
L
α αα αα αα α
: Mean Ferritic Free Path [µm]
d
β ββ β
: Mean Diameter of Martensite Islands [µm]

Sources:
- GORNI, A.A. & BRANCHINI, O.L.G. Análise da Evolução do Encruamento de um Aço Bifásico. In: 4° Simpósio
de Conformação Mecânica, EPUSP/UNICAMP/ABAL, São Paulo, Nov. 1990, 23-42.

- GORNI, A.A. & BRANCHINI, O.L.G. Relações Microestrutura-Propriedades Mecânicas em um Aço Bifásico
Laminado a Quente. In: 1º Seminário sobre Chapas Metálicas para a Indústria Automobilística, ABM/AEA,
São Paulo, Set. 1992, 127-145.


. Acicular Ferrite/Low Carbon Bainite Steels

ppt disc
L
sol
d
N Si Mn YS σ σ + + + + + + =
1 . 15
2900 83 37 88
Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 81


) ( 385 65 125 90 185 ) ( 230 1900 246 Ti V Cu Ni W Mo Cr Mn C TS + + + + + + + + + =

d
N Si ITT
ppt disc sol
5 . 11
) ( 26 . 0 700 44 19 − + + + + − = σ σ

Notation:
YS: Yield Strength at 0.2% Real Strain [MPa]
TS: Tensile Strength [MPa]
ITT: Impact Transition Temperature for 50% Tough Fracture [°C]
Alloy Content: [weight %]
Nsol: Solubilized (Free) Nitrogen [%]
dL: BainiteFerrite Lath Size [mm]
σ σσ σdisc: Strength Due to Dislocations [MPa]
σ σσ σppt: Precipitation Strengthening According to the Ashby-Orowan Model [MPa]
Nsol: Solubilized (Free) Nitrogen [%]
d: Mean Spacing between High Angle Boundaries (“Packet” or Prior Austenite Grain Boundaries)

) ( 10 8 ) ( 10 2 . 1
4 3
KEH or PICKERING b
disc
ρ ρ ρ µ α σ
− −
× × = = ∆

|
|
¹
|

\
|
×
= ∆
−4
10 5 . 2
ln
9 . 5 x
x
f
ppt
σ

Notation:
α αα α: Empirical Constant
µ µµ µ: Shear Modulus [MPa]
b: Burger’s Vector [cm]
ρ ρρ ρ: Dislocation Density [lines/cm²]
Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 82

f: Volume Fraction of the Precipitate
x: Mean Planar Intercept Diameter of the Precipitate [µm]

Sources:
- PICKERING, F.B. Some Aspects of the Relationships between the Mechanical Properties of Steels and their
Microstructures. TISCO. Silver Jubilee Volume, Jan-Oct 1980, 105-132.

- KEH, A.S., Work Hardening and Deformation Sub-Structure in Iron Single Crystals in Tension at 298K,
Philosophical Magazine, 12:115, 1965, 9-30.


. Medium C Steels

( )
sol
N Si
S
f
d
Mn f YS 42 63
8 . 3
178 1
4 . 17
58 35
0
3 3
+ +
|
|
¹
|

\
|
+ − +
|
|
¹
|

\
|
+ + =
α α


( ) Si
S
f
d
N f TS
sol
97
5 . 3
720 1
2 . 18
1140 246
0
3 3
+
|
|
¹
|

\
|
+ − +
|
|
¹
|

\
|
+ + =
α α


( )
sol
N Si t
p S
f
d
f ITT 762 7 . 48 10 48 . 3
3 . 13 6 . 5
335 1
5 . 11
46
6
0
+ +
(
(
¸
(

¸

× + − + − − +
|
|
¹
|

\
|
− − =
α α


Notation:
YS: Yield Strength at 0.2% Real Strain [MPa]
TS: Tensile Strength [MPa]
ITT: Impact Transition Temperature for 50% Tough Fracture [°C]
f: Volume Fraction of Ferrite
Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 83

d: Ferrite Grain Size [mm]
Alloy Content: [weight %]
Nsol: Solubilized (Free) Nitrogen [%]
S0: Pearlite Lamelar Spacing [mm]
p: Pearlite Colony Size [mm]
t: Pearlitic Carbide Lamellar Thickness [mm]

Sources:
- GLADMAN, T. e outros. Some Aspects of the Structure-Property Relationships in High Carbon Ferrite-Pearlite
Steels. Journal of the Iron and Steel Institute, 210, Dec. 1972, 916-930.
- PICKERING, F.B. Some Aspects of the Relationships between the Mechanical Properties of Steels and their
Microstructures. TISCO. Silver Jubilee Volume, Jan-Oct 1980, 105-132.


. Si Non-Oriented Electrical Steels

Si Mn P
d
YS 8 . 52 2 . 34 258
0 . 22
3 . 34 + + + + =

B Al Si Mn P
d
TS 2450 8 . 48 109 7 . 48 506
2 . 11
183 + + + + + + =

Al Si
d
YR 170 . 0 078 . 0
0412 . 0
424 . 0 − − + =

Notation:
YS: Lower Yield Strength [MPa]
TS: Tensile Strength [MPa]
YR: Yield Ratio
Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 84

d: Ferrite Grain Size [mm]
Alloy Content: [weight %]

Notes:
- These equations are valid under the following conditions: ULC Steel; Mn: 0.075~0.578%; P < 0.109%; S:
0.003~0.004%; Si < 0.34%; Al: < 0.432%; N: 0.0014~0.0020%; B < 0.0030%.
- Cold rolled steel was box annealed at 700°C; the time of treatment, including heating of the samples, was
equal to 32 hours, being followed by furnace cooling.

Source: PINOY, L et al. Influence of Composition and Hot Rolling Parameters on the Magnetic and Mechanical Properties
of Fully Processed Non-Oriented Low-Si Electrical Steels. J. Phys. IV France, 8, 1998, Pr2-487/Pr2-490.


h N S S C O Al Si P
init T
266 . 5 5 . 137 2 . 130 7 . 123 51 . 12 99 . 25 311 . 2 474 . 0 658 . 0 + − ∆ + + + − − − =

Notation:
PT: Core Loss [W/kg]
Alloy Content: [weight %]
h: Thickness [mm]

Notes:
- This equation ise valid under the following conditions: C: 0.002~0.040%; S: 0.004~0.015%; N:
0.003~0.007%.
- Negative effects of O and N are in direct contradiction with specific experimental results.
- Adjusted Squared Multiple Correlation: 0.823; Residual Mean Square: 0.082 W²/kg²



r
h
GBI C P
T
ρ
2
2 . 16 0282 . 0 4 . 66 29 . 4 + + + =
Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 85


Notation:
PT: Total Core Loss at 15 KG [W/kg]
Alloy Content: [weight %]
GBI: Number of Grain Boundary Intercepts per mm
h: Thickness [mm]
ρ ρρ ρ: Density [g/mm³]
r: Resistivity [µΩ.mm]

Source: LYUDKOVSKY, G. et al. Non-Oriented Electrical Steels. Journal of Metals, January 1986, 18-26.

Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 86

- Schaeffler Diagram


Source: Air Products Web Site
(http://www.airproducts.com/maxx/software/UK/WeldingFaultFinder/wff22413.html).



Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 87

- Shear Modulus of Steel and its Phases

. Ferrite

(
¸
(

¸

− =
2235
) 300 (
1 64000
T
µ (-273°C < T < 300°C)

2
) 573 ( 032 . 0
2235
) 300 (
1 64000 − −
(
¸
(

¸

− = T
T
µ (300°C ≤ T < 700°C)

2 2
) 923 ( 024 . 0 ) 573 ( 032 . 0
2235
) 300 (
1 64000 − − − −
(
¸
(

¸

− = T T
T
µ (700°C ≤ T < 770°C)

(
¸
(

¸

− =
1382
) 300 (
1 69200
T
µ (770°C ≤ T < 911°C)


. Austenite

(
¸
(

¸

− =
1989
) 300 (
1 81000
T
µ (911°C ≤ T < 1392°C)


. Delta Ferrite

(
¸
(

¸

− =
2514
) 300 (
1 39000
T
µ (1392°C ≤ T < 1537°C)


Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 88

Notation:
µ µµ µ: Shear Modulus [MPa]
T: Temperature [K]

Source: FROST, H.J. & ASHBY, M.F.: Pure Iron and Ferrous Alloys. In: Deformation-Mechanism Maps, The Plasticity
and Creep of Metals and Ceramics. Pergamon Press, Cambridge, 1982.
Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 89

- Sheet and Plate Cutting Force and Work

. Mesquita

TS K
c
88 . 0 =

c c
K P t F =

Notation:
Kc: Cutting Specific Pressure or Shear Stress [MPa]
TS: Tensile Strength [MPa]
Fc: Cutting Force [N]
t: Thickness [mm]
P: Cutting Perimeter [mm]

Source:
- MESQUITA, E.L.A. Conformação dos Aços Inoxidáveis. Manual da Acesita. Dezembro 1997, 39 p.


. Tschaetsch

B
t W F τ =

1000
t F a
W =

η
v F
P =

Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 90

Notation:
F: Cutting Force [N]
W: Width [mm]
t: Thickness [mm]
W: Cutting Work [N.mm]
a: Mean Force/Maximum Force Ratio (≈ 0.6 for shearing)
P: Cutting Power [W]
v: Shear Speed [m/s]
η: Machine Efficiency (≈ 0.7)
τB: Shear Stress [MPa], as defined by the table or formulas below:

Notes:
- The value of τB can be calculated from the following equations, where C is the carbon weight content of steel:

. Hot rolled or annealed steel (soft):

C
B
550 223 + = τ

. Cold rolled steel (hard):

C
B
786 249 + = τ

- These equations were fitted using the τB data available below, expressed in N/mm²:

Steel C Mn Si Soft Hard
St 12 0.10 max 0.50 max - 240 300
St 13 0.10 max 0.50 max - 240 300
St 14 0.08 max 0.40 max - 250 320
St 37 0.20 max 1.25 max 0.25 max 310 -
St 42 0.25 max 1.25 max 0.25 max 400 -
Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 91

C10 0.08-0.13 0.30-0.60 0.30 max 280 340
C20 0.18-0.23 0.30-0.70 0.30 max 320 380
C30 0.27-0.34 0.50-0.80 0.10-0.40 400 500
C60 0.57-0.65 0.60-0.90 0.15-0.35 550 720

Source:
- TSCHAETSCH, H. Shearing. Metal Forming Practice - Processes, Machines, Tools; Springer-Verlag, Berlin,
2006, 218-40.

Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 92

- Thermal Properties of Steel

. Seredynski

5 . 72 10 6 . 58
3
+ × − =

T k (T < 810°C)

8 . 16 10 75 . 10
3
+ × =

T k (T > 810°C)

Notation:
k: Conductivity [J/m.°C.s]
T: Temperature [°C]


4 7
10 07825 . 0 10 15 . 0
− −
× − × = T D (700°C < T < 875°C)

4 7
10 02966 . 0 10 02667 . 0
− −
× − × = T D (T > 875°C)

Notation:
D: Diffusivity [m²/s]
T: Temperature [°C]


0948 . 1 38012 . 0
1000
12491 . 0
1000
+ |
¹
|

\
|
− =
T T
ε

Notation:
ε εε ε: Emissivity
T: Temperature [°C]

Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 93

Note:
- Formulas specific for BS En 3 or SAE 1021 steel: 0.17-0.23% C; 0.60-0.90% Mn

Source: SEREDYNSKI, F.: Performance Analysis and Optimization of the Plate-Rolling Process. In: Mathematical
Process Models in Iron and Steelmaking. Proceedings. Iron and Steel Institute, Amsterdam, 1973.


. Touloukian

] ) 02682 , 0 68 . 42 exp( 1 [
85 , 0
0115 , 0
sup
T − +
= ε

Notation:
ε εε ε: Emissivity
Tsup: Superficial Temperature [K]

Source: HARDIN, R.A. et al.: A Transient Simulation and Dynamic Spray Cooling Control Model for Continuous Steel
Casting. Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B, 34B:6, June 2003, 297-306.



Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 94

- Thermomechanical Processing of Steel


Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 95


Source: Requirements Concerning Materials and Welding. IACS – International Association of Classification
Societies Requirement 1975, Revision 2, 2004, 228 p.

Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 96

- Time-Temperature Equivalency Parameters for Heat Treating

. Anisothermal Austenitizing

In this case the Austenitization Time-Temperature Equivalence Parameter in Terms of Grain Size, Pa, is the period of
heating/cooling time between Tmax and Tmin, where

Tmax: Maximum Temperature during the Austenitizing Treatment [°C];

Tmin: Temperature Calculated According to the Following Equation [°C]:

T T
R T
H
min max
max
a
= −
2



Notation:
R: Molar Gas Constant, 8.314 JK
-1
mol
-1

∆ ∆∆ ∆Ha: Activation Energy of Austenitic Grain Coarsening, 460 kJmol
-1
for low alloy steels

Source: BARRALIS, J. & MAEDER, G. Métallurgie Tome I: Métallurgie Physique. Collection Scientifique ENSAM, 1982,
270 p.


. Isothermal Austenitizing

P
T
R
H
t
a
a a
a
=

¸

(
¸
(
1
1 2 3 ,
log



Notation:
Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 97

Pa: Austenitization Time-Temperature Equivalence Parameter in Terms of Grain Size [K]
Ta: Austenitization Temperature [K]
R: Molar Gas Constant, 8.314 JK
-1
mol
-1

ta: Soaking time under Ta
∆ ∆∆ ∆Ha: Activation Energy of Austenitic Grain Coarsening, 460 kJmol
-1
for low alloy steels

Source: BARRALIS, J. & MAEDER, G. Métallurgie Tome I: Métallurgie Physique. Collection Scientifique ENSAM, 1982,
270 p.


. Microstructural Banding Homogeneization

RT
Q
e D
l
t

=
0
2
05 . 0
3 . 0


Notation:
t0.05: Treatment Time Necessary to Achieve 5% Microstructure Banding [min]
l: Mean Spacing between Bands [mm]
Do: Diffusion Constant for the Alloy Element being Considered [cm²/s]:
- P: 0.01 cm²/s
- Mn: 0.16 cm²/s
Q: Activation Energy for the Alloy Element Being Considered [cal/mol]:
- P: 43700 cal/mol
- Mn: 62500 cal/mol
R: Molar Gas Constant, 1.987 JK
-1
mol
-1

T: Austenitization Temperature [K]

Source: YIMING, X. et al.: A Metallographic Investigation of Banding and Diffusion of Phosphorus in Steels.
Microstructural Science, 20, 1993, 457-470.
Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 98



. Tempering (Hollomon-Jaffe)

) log ( t c T P + =

C c 8 . 5 53 . 21 − =

Notation:
P: Hollomon-Jaffe Parameter [K]
T: Tempering Temperature [K]
c: Constant Characteristic of the Steel Being Tempered
t: Soaking time under T [h]
C: Carbon Content [wt%]

Notes:
- Other values for the constant c were proposed by several authors for carbon, microalloyed and low alloy
steels:
. 18 (Grange & Baughman)
. 20 (Larson & Miller, Irvine et al., Thelning)

- This expression was also deduced by Larson & Miller, which applied it to the study of metal creep. In that case
c is equal to 20 and P is divided by 1000. Such relationship was also used for the study of hydrogen
resistance and HAZ hardness of steels.

Sources:
- HOLLOMON, J.H. & JAFFE, L.D. Time-Temperature Relations in Tempering Steel. Transactions of the AIME,
162, 1945, 223-249.

Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 99

- LARSON, F.R. & MILLER, J. A Time-Temperature Relationship for Rupture and Creep Stresses. Transactions of
the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 74, 1952, 765-775.

- GRANGE, R.A. & BAUGHMAN, R.W. Hardness of Tempered Martensite in Carbon and Low Alloy Steels.
Transactions of the American Society for Metals, 68, 1956, 165-197.

- THELNING, K.E.: Steel and its Heat Treatment – Bofors Handbook. Butterworths, London, 1981, 570 p.

- IRVINE, K.J. et al. Grain-Refined C-Mn Steels. Journal of the Iron and Steel Institute, Feb. 1967, 161-182.




Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 100

- Welding Effects

. Weld Interface Cracking Susceptibility during Flash Butt Welding

(
(
¸
(

¸

|
¹
|

\
|
+ + |
¹
|

\
|
+ − =
2
2
2
2
2
3
) 4 (
10
) 03 . 0 (
Cr
Al
Mn
Si C F
eq


Notation:
Feq: Weld Interface Cracking Susceptibility during Flash Butt Welding (No Crack = Zero)
Alloy Content: [weight %]

Source: MIZUI, M. et al.: Application of High-Strength Steel Sheets to Automotive Wheels. Nippon Steel Technical
Report, 23, June 1984, 19-30.


. Tensile Strength after Flash Butt Welding

30
2 9 7 5
52 + |
¹
|

\
|
+ + + + =
V Cr Si Mn
C TS
eq


Notation:
TSeq: Tensile Strength After Flash Butt Welding [kgf/mm²]
Alloy Content: [weight %]

Source: MIZUI, M. et al.: Application of High-Strength Steel Sheets to Automotive Wheels. Nippon Steel Technical
Report, 23, June 1984, 19-30.


Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 101

APENDIXES

USEFUL DATA AND CONSTANTS


Fuels and Combustion Gases:

- Density (Gas)
. Natural Gas: 0.81 kg/Nm³
. Butane: 2.44 kg/Nm³
. Propane: 1.85 kg/Nm³
. Liquified Petroleum Gas (LPG): 2.29 kg/Nm³
. Air: 1.27 kg/Nm³

- Density (Liquid)
. Butane: 0.58 kg/l
. Propane: 0.51 kg/l
. Liquified Petroleum Gas (LPG): 0.54 kg/Nm³
. Water: 1.00 kg/Nm³

- Heat Capacity in Function of Temperature
. Heat Capacity [kcal/°C m³] = a + bT [°C]. Values of a and b for some gases are seen below:

Gas a b
C2H6 0.600 0.000540
C3H8 0.871 0.001226
CH4 0.380 0.000210
CO 0.302 0.000022
CO2 0.406 0.000090
Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 102

H2 0.301 0.000200
N2 0.302 0.000022
O2 0.320 0.000059

- Net Heating Value
. Acetylene (C2H2): 13412 Kcal/Nm³
. Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Off-Gas (OG Gas): 770 kcal/Nm³
. Blast Furnace Gas: 770 Kcal/Nm³
. Benzene (C6H6): 33,823 Kcal/Nm³
. Butane (C4H10): 29,560 Kcal/Nm³
. Butene/Buthylene (C4H8): 27,900 Kcal/Nm³
. Charcoal: 6,800 kcal/kg
. Carbon Monoxide (CO): 3,019 Kcal/Nm³
. Coke Oven Gas: 4,400 Kcal/Nm³
. Diesel Oil: 10.200 kcal/kg
. Electricity: 860 kcal/kW
. Ethane (C2H6): 15,236 Kcal/Nm³
. Ethene/Ethylene (C2H4): 14,116 Kcal/Nm³
. Fuel Oil: 8,640~9,000 kcal/l or 9,600 ~ 10,000 kcal/kg
. Hexane (C6H14): 41,132 Kcal/Nm³
. Hydrogen (H): 2,582 Kcal/Nm³
. Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S): 5,527 Kcal/Nm³
. i-Butane (C4H10): 28,317 Kcal/Nm³
. i-Pentane (C5H12): 34,794 Kcal/Nm³
. Liquified Petroleum Gas (LPG): 25,300 ~ 27,300 kcal/Nm³
. Methane (CH4): 8,557 Kcal/Nm³
. Natural Gas: 9,000 ~ 9,400 Kcal/Nm³
. Pentane (C5H12): 34,943 Kcal/Nm³
. Propane (C3H8): 21,809 Kcal/Nm³
. Propene/Propylene (C3H6): 20,550 Kcal/Nm³
Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 103

. Toluene (C7H8): 40,182 Kcal/Nm³
. Xylene (C8H10): 46,733 Kcal/Nm³
. Wood: 2,500 kcal/kg

- Typical Chemical Compositions

[% vol] N2 H2 CH4 C2H6 C3H8 CO CO2 O2
Coke Oven Gas 3.09 61.55 24.54 0.42 0.06 8.04 0.00 0.26
Natural Gas 1.83 ---- 87.91 7.08 1.91 ---- 0.59 0.00


Mathematical Constants

- e: 2.718281828
- Pi: 3.141592654


Physical Constants

- Acceleration of gravity: g = 9.805 m/s²
- Avogrado constant: NA = 6.022 x 10
23
/mol
- Boltzmann constant: k = 1.381 x 10
-23
J/K
- Gas constant R:
. 1.98717 cal K
-1
mol
-1

. 82.056 cm³ atm K mol
-1

. 0.082056 atm K
-1
mol
-1

. 8.31433 x 10
7
erg K
-1
mol
-1

. 8.31433 J K
-1
mol
-1



Physical Properties of Scale (Iron Oxide)
Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 104


- Density: 4.86 g/cm³ (Source: Combustol)
- Hardness:
. Hematite (Fe2O3): 1000 HV
. Magnetite (Fe3O4): 320 ~ 500 HV
. Wustite (FeO): 270 ~ 350 HV
- Iron Content in Scale: 74.6% (Stoichiometric)
- Linear Coefficient of Thermal Contraction:
. Fe: 19 x 10
-6
m/°C
. Wustite: 14 x 10
-6
m/°C
- Melting Point:
. Fayalite (2FeO.SiO2): 1177°C


Physical Properties of Steel and its Microstructural Constituents

- Densities:
. Bulk Steel: 7850 kg/m³
. Ferrite (Fe α): 7687 kg/m³
. Cementite (Fe3C): 7882 kg/m³
. NbC: 7790 kg/m³
. VC: 5700 kg/m³
- Electrical Resistivity at 15.6°C: 17 x 10
-8
ohm.m
- Emissivity of Polished Metal Surface:
. 0.07 @ 38°C
. 0.10 @ 260°C
. 0.14 @ 540°C
- Emissivity of Oxidized Steel Plate at 15.6°C: 0.80
- Lattice Parameters (Ambient Temperature):
. Ferrite (pure Fe): 2.866 Ǻ
Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 105

. Cementite: a = 4.5246 Ǻ, b = 5.0885 Ǻ, c = 6.7423 Ǻ
- Linear Coefficient of Thermal Expansion:
. Bulk: 11.7 x 10
-6
1/°C
. Ferrite: 1.244 x 10
-5
1/°C
. Austenite: 2.065 x 10
-5
l/°C
- Melting Point: 1300 ~ 1450°C
- Modulus:
. Bulk: 159,000 MPa
. Shear: 83,000 MPa
. Young: 207,000 MPa
- Poisson’s Ratio:
. Elastic Range: 0.3
. Plastic Range: 0.5
- Specific Heat: 0.12 cal/g.°C
- Speed of Sound through Steel: 5490 m/s
- Thermal Conductivity at 15.6°C: 58.9 W/m.K
- Volumetric Coefficient of Thermal Expansion: 35.1 x 10
-6
1/°C


Sources:
- ANON.: Practical Data for Metallurgists. The Timken Company, Canton, September 2006, 130 p.

- CABALLERO, F.G. et al. Modelling of Kinetics and Dilatometric Behaviour of Austenite Formation in a Low-carbon
Steel with a Ferrite Plus Pearlite Inicial Microstructure. Journal of Materials Science, 37, 2002, 3533-3540.

- HEIDEMANN, M. Fours Pits - Établissement de Bilans Thermiques Globaux et Étages dans les Temps. Rapport
IRSID 77-02, Saint-Germain-en-Laye, Juillet 1976, 15 p.

- METNUS, G.E. et al. Comparing CO2 Emissions and Energy Demands for Alternative Ironmaking Routes.
Steel Times International, March 2006, 32-36.
Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 106


- WILSON, A.D. Guidelines for Fabricating and Processing Plate Steel. Bethlehem-Lukens Plate Report, Burns
Harbor, 2000, 97 p.
Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 107

UNIT CONVERSIONS

From Multiply by To
A 10
-10
m
bar 1.019716 kg/cm²
BTU 1058.201058 J
cal 4.184 J
F 5/9 (°F-32) °C
ft 12 inch
ft 0.30485126 m
ft.lb 1.356 J ou N.m
ft.lb 0.324 cal
ft.lb 1.355748373 J
ft.lb/s 1.355380862 W
ft.lbf 1.355818 J ou N.m
ft.lbf 0.1382 kg
ft² 92.90 x 10
-3

ft³ 0.02831685 m³
Gallon 3.78541178 liters
HP 0.7456999 kW
HP 745,7121551 W
in 25.4 mm
in² 645.2 mm²
in³ 16387.064 mm³
inch 25.4 mm
J 9.45 x 10
-4
BTU
J 0.2390 cal
J 0.7376 ft.lb
kg 2.205 lb
From Multiply by To
kgf 9.80665 N
kgf.m 9.80665 J
kgf/mm² 9.80665 MPa
kN 224.8 lbf
kN/mm 5.71 x 10
3
lbf/ft
ksi 6.894757 MPa
ksi 1000 psi
Ksi.√in 1.098901099 MPa.√m
kW 1.341022 HP
lb 0.4535924 kg
lb.in 0.1129815 J ou N.m
lb/ft³ 0.016020506 g/cm³
lb/in³ 27.67783006 g/cm³
lbf 4.448222 N
lbf/in² 1 psi
long ton 1016.047 kg
M 10
10
A
m 3.281 ft
m² 10.76 ft²
mm 0.0394 in
mm² 1.550 x 10³ in²
MPa 1 N/mm²
MPa 0.145 ksi
MPa 145 lbf/in²
MPa √m 910.06 Psi √in
MPa√m 0,920 ksi√in
Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 108

From Multiply by To
N.m 1 J
nm 10
-9
m
oz 0.028352707 kg
Pa 1 N/m²
Pa 1,449 x 10
-4
Psi
Pa 1,020 x 10
-7
Kg/mm²
pct (%) 10000 ppm
ppm 0.0001 %
From Multiply by To
psi 0.001 Ksi
psi 0.0068947573 MPa
psi 0.0007030697 kgf/mm²
Psi √in 0.001098829 MPa √m
Rad 57.2958 °
Short Ton 907.1847 Kg
W 1 J/s
W 0.001341 HP


Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 109

GENERAL STATISTICAL FORMULAS


- Correlation Coefficient


r
Y Y
Y Y
est
= ±


Σ
Σ
(
_
)
(
_
)
2
2


Notation:
r: Correlation Coefficient
Y: Raw Data
Yest: Estimated Data Calculated by the Fitted Equation
Y
_
: Mean of the Raw Data

Source: SPIEGEL, M.R. Estatística, Editora McGraw-Hill do Brasil Ltda., São Paulo, 1976, 580 p.


- Standard Error of Estimation


σ =
− Σ (
_
) Y Y
n
est
2


Notation:
σ σσ σ: Standard Error of Estimation
Yest: Estimated Data Calculated by the Fitted Equation
Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 110

Y
_
: Mean of the Raw Data
n: Number of Points of Data

Source: SPIEGEL, M.R. Estatística, Editora McGraw-Hill do Brasil Ltda., São Paulo, 1976, 580 p.

Gorni - Austenite Formation Temperatures . Grange
Ae1 = 1333 − 25 Mn + 40 Si + 42 Cr − 26 Ni

Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook

1

Notation: Ae1: Equilibrium Temperature for Austenitization Start [°F] Alloy Content: [weight %]

Ae3 = 1570 − 323 C − 25 Mn + 80 Si − 3 Cr − 32 Ni

Notation: Ae3: Equilibrium Temperature for End of Austenitization [°F] Alloy Content: [weight %] Source: GRANGE, R.A. Metal Progress, April 1961, 73.

. Andrews

Ae1 = 723 − 16.9 Ni + 29.1 Si + 6.38 W − 10.7 Mn + 16.9 Cr + 290 As
Notation: Ae1: Equilibrium Temperature of Austenitization Start [°C] Alloy Content: [weight %]

Gorni

Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook

2

Ae3 = 910 − 203 C + 44.7 Si − 15.2 Ni + 31.5 Mo + 104 V + 13,1 W − 30.0 Mn + 11.0 Cr + 20.0 Cu − 700 P − 400 Al −120 As − − 400 Ti
Notation: Ae3: Equilibrium Temperature for Austenitization End [°C] Alloy Content: [weight %] Notes: - Both formulas are valid for low alloy steels with less than 0.6%C. Source: ANDREWS, K.W. Empirical Formulae for the Calculation of Some Transformation Temperatures. Journal of the Iron and Steel Institute, 203, Part 7, July 1965, 721-727.

. Roberts
Ae3 = 910 − 25 Mn − 11 Cr − 20 Cu + 60 Si + 700 P − 250 Al − Fn

Notation: Ae3: Equilibrium Temperature for End of Austenitization [°C] Alloy Content: [weight %] Fn: value defined according to the table below: C Fn 0.05 24 0.10 48 0.15 64 0.20 80 0.25 93 0.30 106

.4 C − 14. 270 p. 1988.. 1982.: Flat Processing of Steel. J. .1 Ni + 20.35 117 0.2 Ni + 51. G. & MAEDER. W.L. Collection Scientifique ENSAM.8 Mn − 19. Métallurgie Tome I: Métallurgie Physique.7 Si Notation: Ac3: Equilibrium Temperature for End of Austenitization [°C] Alloy Content: [weight %] Notes: . New York. Park .1 Si + 11. Marcel Dekker Inc.Gorni 0. Eldis Ae1 = 712 − 17.Both formulas were proposed by ELDIS for low alloy steels with less than 0.9 Cr + 9.6%C. Source: BARRALIS.8 Mo Notation: Ae1: Equilibrium Temperature of Austenitization Start [°C] Alloy Content: [weight %] Ae3 = 871 − 254.40 128 Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 3 Source: ROBERTS.

H. Mo ≤ 0.6%.7 Si Notation: Acm: Austenitization Start Temperature [°C] Alloy Content: [weight %] Notes: . . 47:5. ISIJ International. . 1996.7 Cr + 19.8 Ni 2 + 16.7.3%. Development of Ductile Ultra-High Strength Hot Rolled Steels.8%.Equation valid for the following alloy range: 0.J.4 + 992. Source: LEE.K. S.1 C 2 + 46. Si ≤ 0.Formula specifically developed for TRIP steels.8 Cr Mo − 6. Thermodynamic Formula for the Acm Temperature of Low Alloy Steels. et al. 50-128.Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 4 Ac3 = 955 − 350 C − 25 Mn + 51 Si + 106 Nb + 100 Ti + 68 Al − 11 Cr − 33 Ni − 16 Cu + 67 Mo Notation: Ac3: Austenitization Final Temperature in Heating [°C] Alloy Content: [weight %] Notes: . Posco Technical Report.2% ≤ C ≤ 0.0 C Cr − 6. Source: PARK.5%.6 Mn + 10.1 Cr 2 + 7. Cr ≤ 1. Mn ≤ 1.0 Mo − 6. May 2007. 769-774. Ni ≤ 2. S.7 Cr Ni + + 0. Lee & Lee Acm = 224.7 C Ni − 2. & LEE. Y.9 Ni + 3.5%.4 C − 465.

5 Mn Mo − 5.3 Si − 6.Multiple Correlation Coefficient r = 0.86 Si 2 + 0.32 Si Cr − 17.84 Cr 2 − − 3.0 Mn Ni + 6. Kasatkin Ac1 = 723 − 7.Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 5 .18 W + 297 S − 830 N − 11.98 .7 Al + 3.4 C V + 30.4 Mn + 27.0 Al + 64.3 C Si + 15.35 Cr − 32.80 Mn Ni + 40.7 Ni + 95.6 Si Ni + 4.5 Nb + 5.322 Cr 2 + 9.46 Mo 2 − 0.Residual Mean-Square Deviation √do = 14.2 Mo + 8.2 V 2 Notation: Ac3: Equilibrium Temperature of Austenitization End in Heating [°C] Alloy Content: [weight %] Notes: .5 Mo V + + 174 C 2 + 2.2 V + 190 Ti + 72.1 V + 21.5°C .Multiple Correlation Coefficient r = 0.9 C Mo − 15.2 C Mn + 32.24 Ni 2 − 60.8°C Ac3 = 912 − 370 C − 27.10 Si Cr − 57.28 C Ni − 6.8 Mo V − 0.90 Mo 2 + 1.5 C Si − 14.7 Si + 18.46 Ni 2 − 28 V 2 Notation: Ac1: Austenitization Start Temperature in Heating [°C] Alloy Content: [weight %] Notes: .96 .4 C Cr + 48.1 Cr + 44.3 Si Mo − 18.Residual Mean-Square Deviation √do = 10.0 Mn Si − − 3.57 W + 332 S + 276 P + 485 N − − 900 B + 16.0 C Ni + 4.77 Si Ni − 0.95 Ni + 50.46 Mn 2 − 6.08 Mn + 37.80 Cr Ni − 27.

Cu ≤ 1.5 Ni + 52.5%.Multiple Correlation Coefficient r = 0.91 Ni 2 − 37.33 Cr 2 + 8. Mo ≤ 1.0 C Si + + 20. Cr ≤ 2.040%.2%.025%. . V ≤ 0.83%.82 W + 266 P + 53.2 C Mo + 55.2 C Ni + 10.8 Mn Ni + 1.4 Nb + 3.20%. Nb ≤ 0. Ni ≤ 3.83 Mo 2 + 1. Calculation Models for Determining the Critical Points of Steel. O.97 .Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 6 ∆T = 188 − 370 C − 7.8 Al + 87.Residual Mean-Square Deviation √do = 16. B ≤ 0. Ti ≤ 0.5 V + 194 Ti + 47.8°C .0%.0 Mo − 23.0%.7 C Cr + 6.010%.These equations are valid within these composition limits: C ≤ 0.93 Mn − 26. January-February 1984.0%. 26:1-2. et al.0%. Source: KASATKIN. P ≤ 0. 27-31. W ≤ 1.0%. Si ≤ 1. N ≤ 0.8 V 2 Notation: ∆T: Intercritical Temperature Range [°C] Alloy Content: [weight %] Notes: .15%.0%. Metal Science and Heat Treatment.G. Al ≤ 0.8 Cr − 33. Mn ≤ 2.26 Si Cr + 64.040%.0%. S ≤ 0.

Tnr = 887 + 464 C + (6445 Nb − 644 Nb ) + (732 V − 230 V ) + 890 Ti + 363 Al − 357 Si Notation: Tnr: Temperature of No-Recrystallization [°C] Alloy Content: [weight %] Notes: .110%. F. .15% ≤ Si ≤ 0. Ti ≤ 0. 1988. V ≤ 0.: Effect of Chemical Composition on Critical Temperatures of Microalloyed Steels.Austenite No-Recrystallization Temperature .67%.120%.04% ≤ C ≤ 0.41% ≤ Mn ≤ 1. Nb ≤ 0. Tokyo. 0. Ni ≤ 0.002% ≤ Al ≤ 0. Source: BORATTO.Equation valid under the following alloy range: 0. et al. Iron and Steel Institute of Japan.90. Proceedings.17%. Boratto et al. 383-390. Cr ≤ 0.650. 0.060%. In: THERMEC ‘88. p.Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 7 .45. 0.50%.

54 Source Narita Irvine Ashby Fountain Ashby Ashby Narita Meyer Meyer .Austenite Solubility Products .303 = − T + B  aM m X n [ MX ]   Notation: MmXn: Precipitate Considered for Calculation Ai: Activity M. B: Constants of the Solubility Product.303 RT  + 2.24 5.42 3.03 1.04 1. given in the table below: Precipitate A 7060 6770 AlN BN Cr23C6 Mo2C NbC NbCN 7750 13970 7375 7375 7900 7290 5860 B 1.36 5.55 1.80 5.Gorni . X: Alloy Contents [weight %] T: Temperature [K] C: Constant A. General log10 k s = log10 Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 8   (a M ) m (a X ) n [ M ]m [ X ]n Q C A = log10 = −  2.00 3.

.11 3. 1982. The product [M]m[X]n (that is.26 3. Sources: .80 4.Gorni NbCN NbC0.E. M. 1969-1978.82 0.72 5.27 Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook Ashby Ashby Mori Narita Smith Ashby Irvine Narita Ashby Narita Ashby Irvine Irvine 9 Notes: - aAmBn is equal to one if the precipitate is pure.32 6. K.46 2.04 3.F. 30. aAmBn ≤ 1 if there is co-precipitation with another element. A First Report on Diagrams for Grain Growth in Welds.70 2. ks) defines the graphical boundary of solubilization in a graph [M] x [X].18 2.ASHBY. & EASTERLING.87 6770 7520 7700 8500 NbN 10230 10800 TiC TiN VC V4C3 VN 7000 15020 8000 9500 8000 8330 7070 2.75 3.36 3. Acta Metallurgica.

et al.GLADMAN. 1997. K. 1967. J.SMITH. . R. 1958. & CHIPMAN. et al. . T. 224. Grain-Refined C-Mn Steels. London. 205:2.FOUNTAIN. Transactions of the AIME. 190. Solubility and Precipitation of Vanadium Nitride in Alpha and Gamma Iron. et al. Physical Chemistry of Ti/Zr.26 − 14  T  Notation: T: Temperature [K] Alloy Content: [weight %] Source: IRVINE. K.Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 10 . Grain-Refined C-Mn Steels. May 1975.IRVINE. K. 15:5.P. V/Nb/Ta and Rare Elements in Steel. Dec. 205:2. Irvine 12  6770  log[ Nb] C + N  = 2.Values compiled by Rajindra Clement Ratnapuli or Fúlvio Siciliano from assorted references when not specified above. . Transactions of the ISIJ.J. 1962. . 145-151. . The Physical Metallurgy of Microalloyed Steels. 1967.NARITA. The Institute of Materials. R. 161-182. Transactions of the AIME. 737-739 . Journal of the Iron and Steel Institute. Journal of the Iron and Steel Institute. 161-182. 363 p.J. Feb. . Feb.

: Mathematical Modeling of the Hot Strip Rolling of Nb Microalloyed Steels.91 [ Mn] + 14  T  . Dong 1371 [ Mn] − 923 [ Si ] − 8049 12   log [ Nb] C + N  = 3. F. February 1999.14 + 0.24 = 4. . Ph. 165 p.594 − 6440 12   log[ Nb] C + N  = 2. Thesis..35 [ Si ] − 0.D.Gorni . McGill University.65 [C ]0.. Siciliano 838 [ Mn]0.246 − 1730 [ Si ]0. Mori log [ Nb] [ N ]0.09 − 10400 T Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 11 Notation: T: Temperature [K] Alloy Content: [weight %] Source: Equation compiled by Fúlvio Siciliano.26 + 14  T  Notation: T: Temperature [K] Alloy Content: [weight %] Source: SICILIANO JR. .

& EASTERLING. June 2000.F. et al.46 + 0.E. . M.X. . 1982. 30. 613-618. J.12 Mn − 8330 T Notation: T: Temperature [K] Alloy Content: [weight %] Source: ASHBY.: Effect of Silicon on the Kinetics of Nb(C. 40:6. A First Report on Diagrams for Grain Growth in Welds.Gorni Notation: T: Temperature [K] Alloy Content: [weight %] Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 12 Source: DONG. K. 1969-1978.N) Precipitation during the Hot Working of Nb-bearing Steels. ISIJ International. Irvine log [V ] [ N ] = 3. Acta Metallurgica.

Gorni . given in the table at the topic Austenite Solubilization Products. B: Constants of the solubility product.Austenite Solubilization Temperature Td ( 0 C ) = A − 273 B − log10 (a A ) m (a B ) n Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 13 Notation: AmBn: Precipitate considered for calculation Td: Solubilization temperature [°C] ax: Alloy content [weight %] A. .

0. 0.Austenite Transformation Temperatures: Ar3 and Ar1 .035°C/s r = 0.: Influência da Composição Química e da Velocidade de Resfriamento sobre o Ponto Ar3 em Aços de Baixo C Microligados ao Nb.909 v Notation: Ar3: Start Temperature of the Transformation Austenite → Ferrite [°C] Alloy Amount: [weight %] v: Cooling Rate [°C/s] Notes: - This formula was determined using temperature data got from samples cooled directly from hot rolling experiments. J.000-0. p 11-29. 1.024-0. Blás Ar3 = 903 − 328 C − 102 Mn + 116 Nb − 0. 1989.934. Useful range: 0.Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 14 .068% C. 1. Thus it includes the effects of hot forming over austenite decomposition. et al.39% Mn.27-0.G. 0. Out. Choquet Ar3 = 902 − 527 C − 62 Mn + 60 Si Notation: Ar3: Start Temperature of the Transformation Austenite → Ferrite [°C] Alloy Amount: [weight %] .094% Nb.004-0. Standard Error of Deviation = 5°C Source: BLÁS. São Paulo. .054% Al. ABM. In: Congresso Anual da Associação Brasileira de Metais.0019-0.0072% N. 0. vol.

1 Ni − 24. Transactions of the ISIJ. Germain-en-Laye. March 1982. C.Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 15 Notes: .This formula was determined using data got from samples cooled directly from hot rolling experiments. St.8 Cr − 20. Sekine Ar3 = 868 − 396 C − 68. The Effect of Hot Rolling Condition and Chemical Composition on the Onset Temperature of Gamma-Alpha Transformation After Hot Rolling. et al. Ouchi Ar3 = 910 − 310 C − 80 Mn − 20 Cu − 15 Cr − 55 Ni − 80 Mo + 0. P. . Thus it includes the effects of hot forming over austenite decomposition. IRSID Report. Thus it includes the effects of hot forming over austenite decomposition. 1985. Source: OUCHI. Source: CHOQUET.This formula was determined using temperature data got from samples of Nb microalloyed steels cooled directly from hot rolling experiments. 214-222.: Mathematical Model for Predictions of Austenite and Ferrite Microstructures in Hot Rolling Processes. et al. .6 Si − 36.1 Mn + 24. 7 p.7 Cu .35 (h − 8) Notation: Ar3: Start Temperature of the Transformation Austenite → Ferrite [°C] Alloy Content: [weight %] h: Plate Thickness [mm] Notes: .

Thus it includes the effects of hot forming over austenite decomposition. C. Dec. Thus it includes the effects of hot forming over austenite decomposition. Butterworths. et al. . I.: Development of Large Diameter High Strength Line Pipes for Low Temperature Use. 97-109. London. Shiga Ar3 = 910 − 273 C − 74 Mn − 56 Ni − 16 Cr − 9 Mo − 5 Cu Notation: Ar3: Start Temperature of the Transformation Austenite → Ferrite [°C] Alloy Content: [weight %] Notes: . Kawasaki Steel Technical Report. 248 p. et al. 1981. Source: TAMURA.This formula was determined using temperature data got from samples cooled directly from hot rolling experiments.Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 16 Notation: Ar3: Start Temperature of the Transformation Austenite → Ferrite [°C] Alloy Content: [weight %] Notes: . 1988.This formula was determined using temperature data got from samples cooled directly from hot rolling experiments.: Thermomechanical Processing of High-Strength Low-Alloy Steels. Source: SHIGA. Pickering . .

B. 6. vol. Unknown #2 Ar3 = 901 − 325 C − 92 Mn + 33 Si + 287 P + 40 Al − 20 Cr Notation: Ar3: Start Temperature of the Transformation Austenite → Ferrite [°C] Alloy Content: [weight %] .: Steels: Metallurgical Principles.7 Mn + 38. Unknown #1 Ar3 = 879.Applicable to Plain C Steels.4 − 516.7 P Notation: Ar3: Start Temperature of the Transformation Austenite → Ferrite [°C] Alloy Content: [weight %] . F. . In: Encyclopedia of Materials Science and Engineering. Source: PICKERING. 1986.Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 17 Ar3 = 910 − 230 C − 21 Mn − 15 Ni + 32 Mo + 45 Si + 13 W + 104 V Notation: Ar3: Start Temperature of the Transformation Austenite → Ferrite [°C] Alloy Content: [weight %] Notes: .1 C − 65.0 Si + 274. The MIT Press. Cambridge.

4 C − 118.2 Mn Notation: Ar1: Final Temperature of the Transformation Austenite → Ferrite [°C] Alloy Content: [weight %] Notes: .Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 18 Notes: . .It is unknown the previous conditioning of the steel samples that supplied data for the deduction of this formula. . Source: Unknown.Samples cooled at 20°C/s. . Source: Unknown.4 − 350.It is unknown the previous conditioning of the steel samples that supplied data for the deduction of this formula. Unknown #1 Ar1 = 706.

Kirkaldy Bs = 656 − 58 C − 35 Mn − 75 Si − 15 Ni − 34 Cr − 41 Mo Notation: Bs: Start Temperature of the Bainitic Transformation [°F] Alloy Amount: [weight %] Source: KIRKALDY. In: Phase Transformations in Ferrous Alloys. et al. Journal Materials Science.9 C + 261. Prediction of Microstructure and Hardenability in Low Alloy Steels. 36. 2001.Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 19 .9 C 2 − 28. J. Z. A New Empirical Formula for the Bainite Upper Temperature Limit of Steel. AIME.S.4 − 361. 1983. Bodnar Bs = 844 − 597 C − 63 Mn − 16 Ni − 78 Cr Notation: Bs: Start Temperature of the Bainitic Transformation [°F] Alloy Amount: [weight %] Source: ZHAO. . 125-148.Austenite Transformation Temperatures: Bs and Bf . Lee Bs = 984.7 Si . et al. Warrendale. .3 Mn + 43. 5045-5056.

Prediction of Tensile Deformation Behaviour of Formable Hot Rolled Steels. Source: LEE. Suehiro Bs = 718 − 425 C − 42. M. 1999. 1026-1033. et al.Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 20 Notation: Bs: Start Temperature of the Bainitic Transformation [K] Alloy Amount: [weight %] Notes: . Pohang.Formula specifically developed for TRIP steels.K. 73. J. 1987. et al. . . Posco Technical Research Laboratories Report.5 Mn Notation: Bs: Start Temperature of the Bainitic Transformation [°F] Alloy Amount: [weight %] Source: SUEHIRO. Tetsu-toHagané. Steven & Haynes Bs = 830 − 270 C − 90 Mn − 37 Ni − 70 Cr − 83 Mo B50 = Bs − 50 . Kinetic Model for Phase Transformation of Low C Steel during Continuous Cooling.

Notation: Bs: Start Temperature of the Bainitic Transformation [°C] Alloy Amount: [% em peso] .3378 Mn³ − 66.37 Mo + 9.G.17 Cr ² − − 42.66 Cr + 2.2002 Version. Zhao Bs = 720 − 585. & HAYNES.1992 Version.34 Ni + 6.Gorni B100 = Bs − 120 Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 21 Notation: Bs: Start Temperature of the Bainitic Transformation [°C] Alloy Amount: [% em peso] Bx: Temperature Required for the Formation of x% of Bainite [°C] Source: STEVEN. .63 C + 126. 183.68 Mn + 7.1255 Co ² + 0. Bs = 630 − 45 Mn − 40 V − 35 Si − 30 Cr − 25 Mo − 20 Ni − 15 W Notes: .06 Ni ² − 0. 1956.82 Mn² − 0. A.02 Cu − 46. The Temperature of Formation of Martensite and Bainite in Low Alloy Steels.60 C 2 − 91.16 Co − 0.15 Ru Notes: . W.000284 Co³ − 36. Journal of the Iron and Steel Institute.232 Ni ³ − 31. 349-359.

Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 22 Source: ZHAO. . Journal Materials Science. A New Empirical Formula for the Bainite Upper Temperature Limit of Steel. 2001. et al. 36. Z. 5045-5056.

0% Ni and 5.012 Co) Notation: Ms: Start Temperature of the Martensitic Transformation [°C] Alloy Amount: [weight %] Source: CARAPELLA.62 C ) (1 − 0.5 C Mn + 15 Cr − 67.029 Mo) (1 − 0. Source: ANDREWS. 108. 4. Empirical Formulae for the Calculation of Some Transformation Temperatures.045 Ni ) (1 − 0. .6%C. July 1965. Carapella M s = 496 (1 − 0.5 Mo + 217 C 2 − 71.0% Cr. Journal of the Iron and Steel Institute. 203.1 Cr − 11.4% Mo.7 Ni − 12.Formula valid for low alloy steels with less than 0.Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 23 .0 Mo M s = 512 − 453 C − 16.4 Mn − 17. Part 7. 721-727. L.0 Si − 7. Metal Progress.W.A.018 W ) (1 − 0. . K. 1944.Austenite Transformation Temperatures: MS and Mf .6 C Cr Notation: Ms: Start Temperature of the Martensitic Transformation [°C] Alloy Content: [weight %] Notes: . 46. 5. Andrews M s = 539 − 423 C − 30.033 Si ) (1 − 0.9 Ni − 9.07 Cr ) (1 − 0.092 Mn) (1 − 0. 5.9% Mn.

Collection Scientifique ENSAM. & STEWART.3 Mn − 21. 1982. 270 p.80% Mn.8 Ni − 16. G.2 C − 43.50% Si. J.Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 24 . Source: BARRALIS. 167. Krauss . 467. Eldis M s = 531 − 391. <4. R.1~0.Equation valid for steels with chemical composition between the following limits: 0. <0. 0.7 Cr − 18. & MAEDER. Grange & Stewart M s = 538 − 350 C − 37.M.90% Mo.35~1.50% Ni . 1946.9 Ni − 27 Mo Notation: Ms: Start Temperature of the Martensitic Transformation [°C] Alloy Amount: [weight %] Source: GRANGE.A. <1. . .50% Cr. <1.7 Mn − 37. Métallurgie Tome I: Métallurgie Physique. H.8% C.2 Cr Notation: Ms: Start Temperature of the Martensitic Transformation [°C] Alloy Content: [weight %] Notes: . Transactions of the AIME.

p. 167. 494.8 W Notation: Ms: Start Temperature of the Martensitic Transformation [°C] Alloy Amount: [weight %] Source: PAYSON. 1990. Transactions of the AIME.8 Si − 10. 261.H. Principles of Heat Treatment and Processing of Steels.2 Ni − 10.. Payson & Savage M s = 499 − 308 C − 32. C. P.8 Mo − 10.M.4 Mn − 27 Cr − 16. G. 33. ASM International. 43-87.S.E. Nehrenberg M s = 499 − 292 C − 32. 1944. 1946. A. . & SAVAGE. Transactions A.4 Mn − 22 Cr − 16.Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 25 M s = 561 − 474 C − 33 Mn − 17 Cr − 17 Ni − 21 Mo Notation: Ms: Start Temperature of the Martensitic Transformation [°C] Alloy Amount: [weight %] Source: KRAUSS.8 Mo Notation: Ms: Start Temperature of the Martensitic Transformation [°C] Alloy Amount: [weight %] Source: NEHRENBERG.2 Ni − 10. .8 Si − 10. .

Steven & Haynes M s = 561 − 474 C − 33 Mn − 17 Cr − 17 Ni − 21 Mo M 10 = Ms − 18 M 50 = Ms − 85 M 90 = Ms − 185 M 100 = Ms − 387 Notation: Mx: Temperature Required for the Formation of x% of Martensite [°F] .4 Mn − 27 Cr − 16. E.Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 26 .2 Ni − 10. et al. Rowland & Lyle M s = 499 − 324 C − 32. 27.8 Si − 10.8 Mo − 10. .S. 1946.8 W Notation: Ms: Start Temperature of the Martensitic Transformation [°C] Alloy Amount: [% em peso] Source: ROWLAND. Transactions ASM. 37.

183. W. 1956. & NESS. Marcel Dekker. . 45-91. A.G. A. Sverdlin-Ness M s = 520 − 320 C − 50 Mn − 30 Cr − 20 ( Ni + Mo) − 5 (Cu + Si ) Notation: Ms: Start Temperature of the Martensitic Transformation [°C] Alloy Amount: [weight %] Source: SVERDLIN. p. A.R.Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 27 Source: STEVEN. New York. In: Steel Heat Treatment Handbook. & HAYNES.V. Journal of the Iron and Steel Institute. The Effects of Alloying Elements on the Heat Treatment of Steel. . The Temperature of Formation of Martensite and Bainite in Low Alloy Steels. 349-359. 1997.

Critical Diameter . Dearden & O’Neill  Cr Mn Mo Si Ni    Di = 6 × exp 7. 3.13 6. 1940. J & O’NEIL. H.Austenite Hardenability .Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 28 . Transactions of the Institute of Welding. 203-214.87 3.1 ×  C + + + + +  5. Oct. .28 18 15     Notation: Di: Critical Diameter [mm] Alloy Content: [weight %] Source: DEARDEN.: A Guide to the Selection and Welding of Low Alloy Structural Steels.

384 Cr + 0. Austenitic Steels ργ = Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 29 (1. . 71:3.381 Si + 1.Gorni .231 Fe + 3. . U.076 Mo + 1. et al.436 Si + 1. Source: BOHNENKAMP.370 Ni + 2.111 Co + 2. all C has gone to cementite). March 2000. Steel Research.205 Cu + 1.032 TiC ) .380 C + 1.431 Cr + 1.524 Mn + 2. Ferritic Steels ρα = 1 (1. Density calculated at 20°C.178 C sol 1 + 1.Density of Bulk Steel . 10 −6 Notation: ρα: Steel Density [kg/m³] Alloy Content: [weight %] Notes: - C is considered insoluble in ferrite (that is.018 Mo + 1.137 Ni + 1. The solubilities of the other alloy elements in cementite are zero. 88-93.8477 Cu + 1.186 N + 2.012 V + 4.890 Ti + 1.270 Fe + 1.046 S ) .307 Mn + 2.: Evaluation of the Density of Steels. 10 − 6 Notation: ργ: Austenite Density [kg/m³] Alloy/TiC Content: [weight %] Notes: - Csol is the content of this element not bound in TiC.

November 2007.Gorni Density calculated at 20°C. March 2000. U. Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 30 Source: BOHNENKAMP. 88-93.: Evaluation of the Density of Steels. .L.22457 Notation: ρLiquid Iron: Liquid Iron Density [g/ml] T: Absolute Temperature.9946 × 0. . Steel Research. Chemical Engineering. C.: Liquid Density of the Elements.47 T Notation: ραT: Ferrite Density at Temperature T [kg/m³] ρα20°C: Ferrite Density at 20°C [kg/m³] ργT: Austenite Density at Temperature T [kg/m³] ργ20°C: Austenite Density at 20°C [kg/m³] T: Temperature[°C] . 71:3. et al. Temperature Effect T 20 ρ α = ρ α °C − 0. Liquid Iron T  0.7  −1 −   9340 ρ Liquid Iron = 1. [K] Source: YAWS.33 T ρ γT = ρ γ20°C − 0. 44-46.

K. 1970.Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 31 Source: FINK. 2:2. et al. 65-80. von Stählen.: Physikalische Eigenschaften Thyssenforschung. . insbesondere von warmfesten Stählen.

00 ~ 2. 570 p.00 ~ 2.1271 0.7 100 0.2 8.0015 (C – 0.00 0.84 8.1271 + 0.0005 C 0.00 ~ 2.00 ~ 0.00 0.: Steel and its Heat Treatment – Bofors Handbook.00 ~ 2.140 ± 0.25 ~ 2.83 Molar Volume [cm³/mol] 13. K.00 0.00 0. Butterworths.72 10.0025 C 0. Density and Molar Volume of Microalloy Carbides and Nitrides Compound NbC NbN VC Structure FCC FCC FCC Molecular Mass 105 107 63 Lattice Parameter [nm] 0.E.1277 + 0.451 0. Common Phases and Constituents Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 32 Phase/Constituent Austenite Martensite Ferrite Cementite (Fe3C) ε Carbide Graphite Ferrite + Cementite Low C Martensite + ε Carbide Ferrite + ε Carbide Notation: C: Carbon Content [weight %] C [weight %] 0.00 Specific Volume [cm³/g] at 20°C 0.0033 C 0.81 .25) 0.4462 0.130 ± 0.Gorni .1212+0.7 ± 0.4387 0. London. 1981.4154 Molecules per Unit Cell 4 4 4 Density [g/cm³] 7.5 ± 0.Density of Microstructural Constituents . .39 12.002 0.41 5.001 0.02 6.0015 C Source: THELNING.1271 + 0.1271+0.

1997.52 12. Source: .30 7470 2330 7140 8920 2267 7850 Molar Volume [cm³/mol] 12. Density and Molar Volume of Precipitates and Metals Compound NbCN ZrC ZrN Mn Si Cr Cu C N Steel Density [kg/m³] 9291 6. The Physical Metallurgy of Microalloyed Steels.44 12.29 13.4965 a = 0.311 0.06 7.18 4. The Institute of Materials.35 12.89 5. T.GLADMAN.11 5.23 7. 363 p.4313 0.42 3.357 0.85 7.27 11.11 33 Data based on room temperature lattice parameters.54 6.4233 c = 0. . London.27 8.572 7.4118 0.80 7.85 10.15 7.286 4 4 4 6 4 2 6.Gorni VN TiC TiN AlN γ-Fe α-Fe Notes: FCC FCC FCC CPH FCC BCC 65 60 62 41 56 56 Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 0.00 .54 7.

D. Thermodynamical Model for Precipitation of Carbonitrides in HSLA Steels Containing Up to Three Microalloying Elements with or without Additions of Aluminum. Sources: . May 1992. 1269-1274. 128-137.com) NISHIZAWA. 42:2. 406-420.M. Julio 2003. Web Elements (www. Revista de Metalurgia – Madrid.FERNÁNDEZ. Modelización de la Cinética de Austenización y Crecimiento de Grano Austenítico en Aceros Ferrítico-Perlíticos. Materials Science and Tecnology. T.webelements. D. H. [m³/mol] T: Temperature [K] Source: . ADRIAN. et al. Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalúrgicas.S. Thermodynamics of Microstructure Control by Particle Dispersion. . Estudio y Modelización de la Influencia de las Partículas de Segunda Fase sobre el Crecimiento de Grano Austenítico en um Acero Microaleado com Niobio. 258 p. - . Marzo-Abril 2006.688726 × 10 −6 exp 7. Tesis Doctoral. Madrid.SAN MARTIN.3097 × 10 −5 T ( ) Notation: VMγ: Molar Volume of Austenite. 40:12.Data based on room temperature lattice parameters.M. Molar Volume of Austenite as Function of Temperature γ VM = 6. ISIJ International. 8:5. December 2000.Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 34 Notes: .

PARK. . L: Specimen Original Length [µm] T: Temperature [°C] Cγ: Carbon Content in Austenite [wt %] C0: Initial Carbon Content [wt %] Ctr: Carbon Content of Transformed Phases [wt %] XA: Untransformed Austenite Volume Fraction Source: .Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 35 . Pittsburgh.544 × 10 −3 C γ − 5. During Cooling ∆Lγ →α L = 1.Dimensional Changes during Austenite Transformation .232 × 10 − 2 − 1. 283-291.379 × 10 −9 T 2 Cγ = C 0 (1 − X A ) C tr XA Notation: ∆Lγ→α: Specimen Length Change During Austenite Transformation [µm].829 × 10 −3 C γ2 + 9. October 1998. S.347 × 10 −5 T − 6.766 × 10 −6 C γ T + 2. After General Heat Treating Transformation ∆V [%] ∆l [mm/mm] . In: 40th Mechanical Working and Steel Processing Conference. ISS/AIME.H. Microstructural Evolution of Hot Rolled TRIP Steels During Cooling Control.

14 – 2.0155 + 0.0048 C 0.∆V/V: Volumetric Change after Quenching [%] .0155 – 0.64 + 2. G.E.THELNING.21 C A ) V 100 100   Notation: . ASM International. 2005. 420 p.0074 C 0.0018 C 0.0056 C 0.0026 C 0. 570 p. 1981.68 C M + A (−4. Butterworths.0155 – 0.100 – VC – VA: Martensite Volumetric Fraction [%] .64 – 1.68 C 4. K.78 C 4.43 C 0.CA: Carbon Content Solubilized in Austenite [weight %] . Metals Park.64 – 0.VA: Austenite Volumetric Fraction [%] . Structure and Performance. After Quenching V ∆V  100 − VC − V A  =  1. .Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook Spheroidized Pearlite → Austenite Austenite → Martensite Spheroidized Pearlite → Martensite Austenite → Lower Bainite Spheroidized Pearlite → Lower Bainite Austenite → Upper Bainite Spheroidized Pearlite → Upper Bainite -4.C: Carbon Content [weight %].64 + 2. KRAUSS. London.53 C 1.CM: Carbon Content Solubilized in Martensite [weight %] .VC: Non-solubilized Cementite Volumetric Fraction [%] .: Steel and its Heat Treatment – Bofors Handbook.0074 C 0 36 Notation: .21 C 4. Steel: Processing. Sources: .0155 – 0.21 C 0 (Zero) -0.

. London.Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 37 Source: THELNING.: Steel and its Heat Treatment – Bofors Handbook. 570 p. K.E. Butterworths. 1981.

1940.0. São Paulo. 203-214. .M. Hardenability .: A Guide to the Selection and Welding of Low Alloy Structural Steels. J & O’NEIL.Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 38 . February 1993. et al. Dearden & O’Neill C EQ _ Dearden = C + Mn Mo Cr +V Cu Ni P + + + + + 6 4 5 13 15 2 Notation: CEQ_Dearden: Equivalent Carbon (Dearden) [%] Alloy Content: [weight %] Source: DEARDEN.: Metallurgical Concept And Full-Scale Testing of High Toughness. Oct.Z.10%Nb Steel.A. 3. C.03%C . H.Equivalent Carbon – H.M.International Institute of Welding C EQ _ IIW = C + Mn Cr + Mo+V Cu + Ni + + 6 5 15 Notation: CEQ_IIW: Equivalent Carbon (IIW) [%] Alloy Content: [weight %] Source: HEISTERKAMP. . Report. H2S Resistant 0. F.B. IIW . Transactions of the Institute of Welding. Bastien .

9. P.: Met.Gorni C EQ _ Bastien = C + Mn Mo Cr Ni + + + 4. C EQ _ Yurioka = C + Mn Mo Cr Ni Si Cu + + + + + 6 4 8 12 24 15 log(t m ) = 10.6 C EQ _ Yurioka − 4. 49. minimum cooling rate that produces a fully martensitic structure) Source: BASTIEN. 1987.3 Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 39 ln(CRm ) = 13.4 7. . 217R. Constr. et al. . Constr. that is. 19. N. Yurioka et al.8 Notation: CEQ_Yurioka: Equivalent Carbon (Yurioka) [%] Alloy Content: [weight %] tm: Critical Cooling Time from 800 to 500°C [s] (that is.G. British Weld.6 C EQ _ Bastien Notation: CEQ_Bastien: Equivalent Carbon (Bastien) [%] Alloy Content: [weight %] CRm: Critical Cooling Rate at 700°C [°C/s]. J.. 1970.7 15..9 − 10. maximum cooling time that produces a fully martensitic structure) Source: YURIOKA.4 10.: Met.

Shinozaki et al. Technical Report of JRIM. Stout et al. 93. M. 21-30. et al. 1982. 6. Kawasaki Steel Technical Report.Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 40 . C EQ _ FBW = C + V (50 C − 1) Mo (1 − 6 C ) Mn Si Cr + + + 7 Nb (1 − 10C ) + + 1.  Mn Cr + Mo Ni Cu  C EQ _ Stout = 1000 C  + + +  10 20 40   6 .3 Ti (1 − 5 C ) + + 29 B (11 C − 1) 5 15 9 3 2 Notation: CEQ_FBW: Equivalent Carbon Designed Specifically for Flash Butt Welding [%] Alloy Content: [weight %] Source: SHINOZAKI. C EQ _ Kihara = C + Mn Mo Cr V Ni Si + + + + + 6 4 5 14 40 24 Notation: CEQ_Kihara: Equivalent Carbon (Kihara) [%] Alloy Content: [weight %] Source: KIHARA. Sept. 1959. . . et al.: Effects of Chemical Composition and Structure of Hot Rolled High Strength Steel Sheets on the Formability of Flash Butt Welded Joints. Kihara et al. H. 1.

et al.Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 41 Notation: CEQ_Stout: Equivalent Carbon (Kihara) [%] Alloy Content: [weight %] Source: STOUT. 55. 1976. R. Welding Journal Research Supplement. .D. 89s-94s.

. 1980. IIW Document IX-1631-91.: Determination of Suitable Minimum Preheating Temperature for the Cold-Crack-Free Welding of Steels. Mannesmann .: The Influence of Si on the Weldability of Mild and High Tensile Structural Steels.E. 1991. N.Equivalent Carbon – Hydrogen Assisted Cold Cracking . Uwer & Hohne C EQ _ Uwer = C + Mn Cu Ni Cr Mo + + + + 10 20 40 20 10 Notation: CEQ_Uwer: Equivalent Carbon (Uwer & Hohne) [%] Alloy Content: [weight %] Source: UWER. .Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 42 . & HOHNE. DNV C EQ _ DNV = C + Mn Si Ni + Cu Cr V Mo + + + + + 10 24 40 5 10 4 Notation: CEQ_DNV: Equivalent Carbon (DNV) [%] Alloy Content: [weight %] Source: HANNERZ. IIW Document IX-1169-80. H. D.

: Metallurgical Concept And Full-Scale Testing of High Toughness. C. Report. 1976.Gorni C EQ _ PLS = C + Si Mn+Cu Cr Ni Mo V + + + + + 25 16 20 60 40 15 Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 43 Notation: CEQ_PLS: Equivalent Carbon for Pipeline Steels [%] Alloy Content: [weight %] Notes: - Formula deduced for pipeline steels A version of this formula divides V by 10 Sources: . February 1993. . K. Conf. on Welding and Performance of Pipeline. ASM. F. São Paulo. . .M.M. & NIEDEROFF. C.A.0. London. Materials Park. on Welding of HSLA Structural Steels.10%Nb Steel.B. Graville C EQ _ HSLA = C + Mn Ni Cr Mo Nb V − + + + + 16 50 23 7 5 9 Notation: CEQ_HSLA: Equivalent Carbon (Uwer & Graville) [%] Alloy Content: [weight %] Notes: - Formula deduced for pipeline steels Source: GRAVILLE. TWI. et al.: In: Proc.HEISTERKAMP. B. 1986.03%C .DUREN. H2S Resistant 0.: In: Proc.

. Casti Publishing Corp. Bersch & Koch (Hoesch) C EQ _ Bersch = C + Mn + Si + Cr + Mo + V + Cu + Ni 20 Notation: CEQ_Bersch: Equivalent Carbon for Pipeline Steels [%] Alloy Content: [weight %] Notes: . (CD Edition).BERSCH.: Casti Metals Blue Book: Welding Filler Metals. et al.. 608 p. Ito & Bessyo (I) Pcm = C + Si Mn + Cu + Cr Ni Mo V + + + + +5B 30 20 60 15 10 Notation: Pcm: Cracking Parameter [%] Alloy Content: [weight %] . et al. 1977. B. 3R International.Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 44 .PATCHETT. B. 1. Edmonton. .M. Weldability of Pipe Steels for Low Operating Temperatures.Formula deduced for pipeline steels Source: . February 1993.

40% ≤ Mn ≤ 1. 59-70. K.: Weldability Formula of High Strength Steels.20%.20%. Source: . . 0.60%. . Yurioka . 37. & BESSYO. B ≤ 0.50%. et al.Gorni Notes: - Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 45 Formula deduced for pipeline steels with C < 0. [cm³/100 g] d: Plate Thickness. K. & BESSYO. 983. 1969.12%. Y.15% This is the most popular formula for this kind of material. Y. The Sumitomo Search. Document IX-576-68. Cu ≤ 0. Equation valid under the following conditions: 0.005%. Ni ≤ 1..7%. Cr ≤ 1.22%. except H: Hydrogen amount in the weld metal.W.: Journal of the Japan Welding Society. 1968. I. Mo ≤ 0. . Y.40%. Weldability Formula of High Strength Steels Related to Heat-Affected-Zone Cracking. 1. [mm] Source: ITO.ITO. V ≤ 0. Si ≤ 0.ITO.I. Ito & Bessyo (II) Pc = C + Si Mn + Cu + Cr Mo V d H + + + + + 30 20 15 10 600 60 Notation: Pc: Cracking Parameter [%] Alloy Content: [weight %].07% ≤ C ≤ 0.

41:6.PATCHETT. 608 p.25 tanh [20 (C − 0. B. June 2001..75 + 0. .: Casti Metals Blue Book: Welding Filler Metals.Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 46  Mn Si Cr + Mo + V Cu Ni Nb  + + + + + + 5 B C EQ _ Yurioka = C + A(C )  5 15 20 5  6 24  A(C ) = 0. February 1993. et al.YURIOKA. Casti Publishing Corp. 566-570. ISIJ International.This formula combines Carbon Equivalent equations from IIW and Pcm Sources: .12)] Notation: CEQ_Yurioka: Equivalent Carbon for Pipeline Steels [%] Alloy Content: [weight %] Notes: . Edmonton.Formula for C-Mn and microalloyed pipeline steels .: Physical Metallurgy of Steel Weldability. (CD Edition). .M. N.

Gorni .Fe-C Diagram Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 47 .

http://www.pdf. .org/pdf/HTSRefCharts/Vol4p4Fig1.asminternational.Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 48 Source: ASM’s Heat Treating One-Minute Mentor.

77 4.87 6. given in the table below: Precipitate AlN BN MnS NbC NbN TiN VC VN VN ZrN A 9595 13560 8400 10990 10650 17640 12265 7830 8120 18160 B 2.62 3.Ferrite Solubility Products .65 4.45 2.Gorni .17 8. B: Constants of the Solubility Product.05 2. General Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 49 log10 (a A ) m (a B ) n A =− +B a Am Bn T Notation: AmBn: Precipitate Considered for Calculation ax: Alloy Content [weight %] T: Temperature [K] A.24 Source Kunze & Reichert Fountain & Chipman Ivanov Kunze Kunze Kunze Taylor Froberg Roberts & Sandbert Kunze .53 2.48 5.

Neue Hütte. 599. & CHIPMAN.S. . 1996. Stahl und Eisen. 224. 1964. In: Transactions of the Metallurgical Society of AIME.KUNZE.TAYLOR. 23. Stahl. . 192. 32. J. & SANDBERG. Stockholm. .FOUNTAIN. H.KUNZE. K. et al. 8.G. 1991. et al. J. . Scripta Metallurgica. .IVANOV. p. R.ROBERTS. . Berlin.Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 50 Notes: - aAmBn is equal to one if the precipitate is pure. Report IM 1489. aAmBn ≤ 1 if there is co-precipitation with another element. Institute for Metallurgical Research. 1981.W. 1960. 539.A.FROBERG. B. 1995. Nitrogen and Carbon in Iron and Steels – Thermodynamics. 7. J. Sources: . . & REICHERT. 52. 26. Akademie Verlag. A. W. 1990. & GRAF. J. 80. M.

3  + + + + + +  + 66 (1 − 0. 1981. 322-332.Gorni . In: International Conference on Steels for Linepipe and Fittings. Metals Society. et al. Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 51   Si Mn Cu Cr Ni Mo V  HV = 2019  C (1 − 0. Notation: HV: Maximum Hardness for a Martensitic-Bainitic HAZ Microstructure [Vickers. 10 kg Load] Alloy Content: [weight %] t8/5: Cooling Time Between 800°C and 500°C [s] .: Evaluation of Large Diameter Pipe Steel Weldability by Means of the Carbon Equivalent.8 log t 8 / 5 ) 8 9 5 17 6 3   11  Source: LORENZ. Oct.5 log t 8 / 5 ) + 0. K. Lorenz et al. London.Hardness After Cooling .

This equation is valid within the following ranges: HRC: 20~65.40%. Source: SPIES. Spies Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 52 HB = 2.20~0.Gorni . C: 0. 1977.55 T + 435. Neue Hütte. Cr: 0. T: 500~650°C.03~1.Hardness After Tempering .78 Si + 14.84 HRC + 75 C − 0.90%. Mn: 0. 8:22.66 Notation: HB: Brinell Hardness After Hardening and Tempering HRC: Rockwell Hardness (C Scale) After Hardening Alloy Content: [weight %] T: Tempering Temperature [°C] Notes: . 443-445.0 V − 0.54%.17~1.77 Cr + 128.J. Si: 0. H.24 Mn + 14.20%.: Möglichkeiten der Optimierung der Auswahl Berechnung der Härt-und-vergütbarkeit. et al. vergütbarer Baustähle durch .22 Mo − 54.50~1.

Weld. HV = 78 + 331 C EQ _ FBW C EQ _ FBW = C + V (50 C − 1) Mo (1 − 6 C ) Mn Si Cr + + + 7 Nb (1 − 10C ) + + 1.: Trans. Shinozaki et al. Int. 203.Gorni .. 1940. . Dearden & O’Neill HVmax = 1200 C EQ _ Dearden − 200 C EQ _ Dearden = C + Mn Mo Cr +V Cu Ni P + + + + + 6 4 5 13 15 2 Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 53 Notation: CEQ_Dearden: Equivalent Carbon (Dearden) [%] Alloy Content: [weight %] HVmax = Maximum Hardness [Vickers] Notes: . 3.This equation calculates maximum hardness after welding. Source: DEARDEN. H. J & O’NEIL.3 Ti (1 − 5 C ) + + 29 B (11 C − 1) 5 15 9 3 2 Notation: CEQ_FBW: Equivalent Carbon Designed Specifically for Flash Butt Welding [%] Alloy Content: [weight %] .Hardness After Welding .

1982. . Sept.: Effects of Chemical Composition and Structure of Hot Rolled High Strength Steel Sheets on the Formability of Flash Butt Welded Joints. 21-30. 6. Kawasaki Steel Technical Report.Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook HV: Hardness at the Welding Interface [Vickers] 54 Source: SHINOZAKI. et al. M.

Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 55 .Hardness-Tensile Properties Equivalence .

vol. . 275. Metals Park.Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 56 Source: ASM Handbook – Mechanical Testing and Evaluation. 8. ASM International. 2000.

S. Misaka  2851 + 2968 C − 1120 C 2  0. . 158-162.6 T + 0. 21  dε  2 σ = exp 0.Valid for carbon. Tselikov Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 57 E = 308250 + 42924 C − 144000 C 2 + 20525 Si − 5289 Mn − 12000 P + 174000 S − 225. Thermal Stresses in Slab Solidification. Source: ROYZMAN. alloy and stainless steels between 20 and 900°C.01379 T 2 Notation: E: Young Modulus [kgf/cm²] C: C content [weight %] Mn: Mn content [weight %] Si: Si content [weight %] P: P content [weight %] S: S content [weight %] T: Temperature [°C] Note: . 1996.Hot Strength of Steel .126 − 1.75 C + 0. Asia Steel.Gorni .13 Notation: σ: Steel Hot Strength [kgf/mm²] C: C content [weight %] .E.594 C +   ε T  dt    ( ) 0 .

41) / (C + 0.05) Else g = 30 * (C + 0.154) * T + (-0.075 * C – 0. T.06) / (C + 0. SigF As Single nShida = 0. Formulatization of Mean Resistance to Deformation of Plain C Steels at Elevated Temperature.41 – 0.32) T = (T + 273) / 1000 If T >= Td Then g=1 Tx = T mShida = (-0. . Def.019 * C + 0. Shida Calculation algorithm expressed in Visual Basic: Function Shida(C.2)) * _ .9) * (T – 0.05)) Shida = 2 / Sqr(3) * SigF * (1. et al. 414-422. VelDef) Dim nShida. Journal of the Japan Society for the Technology of Plasticity.3 * (Def / 0.019 * C + 0.07 * C Td = 0. Y.2) ^ nShida – 0. 1967-1968.081 * C – 0.Gorni T: Absolute Temperature [K] ε: True Strain t: Time [s] Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 58 Source: MISAKA.32) End If SigF = 0.207) + 0.95 * (C + 0.49) / (C + 0. 8. Td.3 * (Def / 0. mShida.01 / (C + 0. g.28 * g * Exp(5 / Tx – 0. 79.42)) ^ 2 + (C + 0.95 * (C + 0. Tx.126) * T + (0.09) Tx = Td mShida = (0.027 / (C + 0.

Empirical Formula of Flow Stress of C Steels .Gorni (VelDef / 10) ^ mShida End Function Notation: σ: Steel Hot Strength [kgf/mm²] C: C content [weight %] T: Temperature [°C] Def: True Strain VelDef: Strain Rate [s-1] Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 59 Source: SHIDA. S.Resistance to Deformation of C Steels at Elevated Temperature. Journal of the Japan Society for Technology of Plasticity. . 610-7. 10:103. 1969.

0006 Cr + 0.033 C + 0.6306 + 0.78 ξ ) [1 + (24. Austenite aγ 0 = 3.0031 Mo + 0.0005 < ξ < 0.573 + 0.Gorni .0365 aγ = (3.0002 Ni + 0.Lattice Parameters .0018 V Notation: aγ: Austenite Lattice Parameter [Ǻ] T: Temperature [K] ξ: C [Atomic Fraction] Notes: - 1000 K < T < 1250 K 0. Ferrite aα = 2.8863 [1 + 17.9 − 50 ξ ) × 10 −6 (T − 1000)] .00095 Mn − 0.5 × 10 −6 (T − 800)] Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 60 Notation: aα: Ferrite Lattice Parameter [Ǻ] T: Temperature [K] Notes: - 800 K < T < 1200 K .

bθ. . cθ: Cementite Lattice Parameter [Ǻ] T: Temperature [K] Notes: - 300 K < T < 1000 K Source: CABALLERO. Journal of Materials Science. Modelling of Kinetics and Dilatometric Behaviour of Austenite Formation in a Low-carbon Steel with a Ferrite Plus Pearlite Inicial Microstructure.942 × 10 −9 T + 9.655 × 10 −12 T 2 ) (T − 293)] cθ = 6. F. . Cementite aθ = 4.5234 [1 + (5.0883 [1 + (5.311 × 10 −6 − 1.Gorni Notation: aγ: Austenite Lattice Parameter [Ǻ] Alloy Content: [Weight Percent] Notes: - Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 61 Formula valid for ambient temperature.311 × 10 −6 − 1.7426 [1 + (5. 3533-3540.311 × 10 −6 − 1. 2002.942 × 10 −9 T + 9.655 × 10 −12 T 2 ) (T − 293)] bθ = 5. et al.655 × 10 −12 T 2 ) (T − 293)] Notation: aθ. 37.G.942 × 10 −9 T + 9.

38 aAmBn is equal to one if the precipitate is pure. Sources: .Liquid Steel Solubility Products .90 4.03 5.Gorni . given in the table below: Precipitate MnS TiN TiS ZrN Notes: A 8236 16586 8000 17000 B 5. General Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 62 log ( a A ) m (a B ) n A =− +B a Am Bn T Notation: AmBn: Precipitate Considered for Calculation ax: Alloy Content [weight %] T: Temperature [K] A.00 6. . aAmBn ≤ 1 if there is co-precipitation with another element. B: Constants of the Solubility Product.Values compiled by Rajindra Clement Ratnapuli from assorted references.

6 Al + 2 Mo + 2 V + 18 Ti ] Notation: TLíq: Steel Melting Temperature [°C] Alloy Content: [weight %] Source: GUTHMANN. Stahl und Eisen. 399-402. 71(1951).6 Si + 4.Gorni .1 Ni + 1. 8.und Stahlschmelzen.Liquidus Temperature of Steels Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 63 TLiq = 1536 − [78 C + 7. K.9 Mn + 34 P + 30 S + 5 Cu + 3. . Günstige Giesstemperatur im Vergleich zum Erstarrungspunkt von Eisen.3 Cr + 3.

Elastic Range: 0. .3 . A. Plastic Range: 0.D. Burns Harbor. 2000. 97 p.5 Sources: .WILSON.Poisson Ratio E = 2 G (1 + υ ) Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 64 Notation: E: Young Modulus G: Shear Modulus υ: Poisson Ratio . Bethlehem-Lukens Plate Report.Gorni . Guidelines for Fabricating and Processing Plate Steel.

Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 65 . [cm] or [mm] c= C i − C m Ci ≅ C p − Ci C p Cm: Solute concentration in the bulk metal [%] Ci: Solute concentration in the precipitate/matrix interface [%]  −A  + B   T  Ci = 10 aB T: Temperature [K] A. B: Constants of the Solubility Product.Precipitate Isothermal Solubilization Kinetics t= r02 2cD Notation: AmBn: Spheric precipitate considered for calculation t: Time for solubilization of the precipitate [s] r0: Radius of the precipitate [m]. aB: Alloy content [weight percent] Cp: Solute content in the precipitate [%] Cp = m MA m MA + n MB Mx : Atomic mass of the element [g] . given in the table at the topic Austenite Solubilization Products.

52 * Exp(-59900/RT) Pickering Borggren Source Pickering . 8.Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook Cm: Solute content in a position far away from the precipitate [%] D: Solute Diffusion Coefficient [m²/s.K (R) Element Phase Ferrite Al Austenite Austenite B Austenite Ferrite C Ferrite Austenite Ferrite Cr Austenite D [cm2/s] = 10.K (R’) or 1.49 * 10-4 * Exp(-284100/R’ T) D [m2/s] = 2. cm²/s or mm²/s].314 J/mol.02 * Exp(-20100/RT) D [m2/s] = 0.62 * 10-6 * Exp(-80400/R’ T) D [m2/s] = 0.80 * Exp(-69700/RT) Equation D [m2/s] = 0.10 *10-4 * Exp(-135700/R’ T) D [cm2/s] = 8. calculated according to the general equation below: 66 −Q D = D0 exp   RT  D0: Constant Q: Activation Energy for Diffusion [J] or [cal] R: Universal Gas Constant.10 * 10-3 * Exp(-286000/R’ T) D [m2/s] = 2 * 10-4 * Exp(-87864/R’ T) D [cm2/s] = 0.30 * 10-2 * Exp(-234500/R’ T) D [m2/s] = 0.981 cal/mol.

00 * 10-5 * Exp(-28600/R’ T) D [mm2/s] = 140 * Exp(-286000/R’ T) D [cm2/s] = 0.49 * 10-4 * Exp(-284100/R’ T) D [m2/s] = 7.50 * 10-6 * Exp(-77000/R’ T) D [m2/s] = 0.65 * Exp(-276000/R’ T) D [m2/s] = 1.Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 67 Ferrite Fe Austenite Austenite Austenite Mn Austenite Austenite Ferrite N Ferrite Austenite Austenite Nb Austenite Austenite Austenite P Austenite Si Austenite D [m2/s] = 1.00 * 10-4 * Exp(-286000/R’ T) Borggren Pickering Borggren .90 * Exp(-55000/RT) D [m2/s] = 7.90 * 10-4 * Exp(-343000/R’ T) Andersen D [m2/s] = 5.91 * 10-4 * Exp(-168600/R’ T) Pickering Pickering Borggren Borggren Pickering Pickering D [mm2/s] = 5.60 * 10-4 * Exp(-286000/R’ T) D [mm2/s] = 51 * Exp(-230120/R’ T) D [cm2/s] = 2.78 * 10-5 * Exp(-264000/R’ T) D [cm2/s] = 6.67 * 10-4 * Exp(-256700/R’ T) D [m2/s] = 0.30 * 10-2 * Exp(-344600/R’ T) D [m2/s] = 5.6 * 10-3 * Exp(-18600/RT) D [m2/s] = 0.

A Model for Particle Dissolution and Precipitation in HSLA Steels.GLADMAN.92 * Exp(-57600/RT) D [m2/s] = 0. I. 2007.Information compiled by Rajindra Clement Ratnapuli from assorted references. e al. & GRONG. The Institute of Materials. Normal Grain Growth. Acta Metallurgica and Materialia. BORGGREN. U. 15-17. 2673-2688. 714-719. 43:7. O. 363 p. T. . Analytical Modelling of Grain Growth in Metals and Alloys in the Presence of Growing and Dissolving Precipitates – I. London. Advanced Materials Research. 1995.ANDERSEN. 1997. The Physical Metallurgy of Microalloyed Steels.61 * 10-4 * Exp(-267100/R’ T) D [cm2/s] = 0.25 * Exp(-63100/RT) D [m2/s] = 0.25 * 10-4 * Exp(-264200/R’ T) Borggren V Ferrite Austenite Austenite Pickering Pickering Sources: . .Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 68 Ti Austenite Ferrite D [m2/s] =1. .50 * 10-5 * Exp(-251000/R’ T) D [cm2/s] = 3.

3 Ni + 1. 605-25.Solidus Temperature of Steels Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 69 TSol = 1536 − [415.K. J.9 S + 4. .Gorni . 16B. E. Effect of Oscillation-Mark Formation on the Surface Quality of Continuously Cast Steel Slabs.3 Si + 6. & BRIMACOMBE.4 Cr + 4. 1985. Metallurgical Transactions B.1 Al ] Notation: TSol: Steel Solidus Temperature [°C] Alloy Content: [weight %] Source: TAKEUCHI. 9.5 P + 183.8 Mn + 124.5 C + 12.

16 Si − 2.1 Mn + 116 Si + 554 P + 143 Sn + 1509 N sol + dε d ε unif = 0. C-Mn Mild Steels YS = 53.2 N sol + 17.4 = 370 + 120 C + 23.2 Si + 354.1 + 27.017 d 50% ITT = − 19 + 44 Si + 700 N sol + 2.2 Pearl − ∆Y = 12.039 Sn − 1.20 Mn + 0.4 d 7.2 N sol ε tot = 1.28 − 0.7 Mn + 83.5 d 0.044 Si − 0.Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 70 .85 Pearl + dσ 15.25 Mn − 0.9 + 32.20 C − 0. Expressed as Real (Logarithmic) Strain .2 S − 3.Relationships Between Chemical Composition x Process x Microstructure x Properties .2% Real Strain [MPa] TS: Tensile Strength [MPa] dσ/dε: Strain Hardening Coefficient at 0.90 C + 0.3 Mn + 83.2% Real Strain [1/MPa] σ ε εunif: Uniform Elongation.7 d TS = 294.2 Si + 2.40 − 2.32 − 19250 N sol + 162 Mn + 462 O Notation: YS: Yield Strength at 0.9 P + 0.25 Sn + 11.

02 T fin ) TS = 130.08 (38. 1978.01 etot − 0.004 Pearl S0 + 5.06 0. .002 T fin − 100 N sol ) Pearl = α C eq − 0.016 Pearl S0 0.: Physical Metallurgy and the Design of Steels. C-Mn Steels Processed at a Hot Strip Mill d = 11.6 d − 0.47 (19. Allied Science Publishers.03 Mn + 41.1 723 − Tcoil YS = 99.5 d ) .4 Si + 57.7 P − 69 S + 262 N sol + 11. Expressed as Real (Logarithmic) Strain Pearl: Pearlite Fraction in Microstructure [%] 50% ITT: Impact Transition Temperature for 50% Tough Fracture [°C] ∆Y: Strain Ageing After 10 Days at Room Temperature [MPa] Alloy Content: [weight %] d: Grain Size [mm] 71 Source: PICKERING.2 (6 C + Mn + 30 P + 35 S + 23 Al + 0.5 Mn + 43 Si + 114 P − 45 S + 31 N sol + 12.B.01 (723 − Tcoil ) + 0.Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook εtot: Total Elongation. London. F.78 100 S0 = 0 . 275 p.5 − 2.2 + 0.8 + + 8.

050%. Revista Metalurgica CENIM.40~1. A. Tfin: 850~880°C. Source: ARTIGAS. 2002.020%.: Prediction de Propiedades Mecánicas y Microestructurales em Aceros Laminados em Caliente.12 d + 0.23 P − 4.16 N sol + Notation: YS: Yield Strength at 0. N: 0.08~0. Si < 0. Mn: 0. 339-347.00%.0030~0.0006 T fin ) 72 ε = 100 (0. . C: 0. S < 0.Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 0.36 S + 2. P < 0.37 Sn − 1. 38.18%.0090%. Al: 0.020~0.000096 Pearl S 0 − 0.8~4.020%.05 Mn − 4. Final Thickness: 1.030%. Tcoil: 615~650°C.0 mm.2% Real Strain [MPa] TS: Tensile Strength [MPa] ε: Total Elongation [%] d: Ferrite Grain Size [µm] Alloy Content: [weight %] Tcoil: Coiling Temperature [°C] etot: Total Hot Rolling Conventional Strain [%] Tfin: Finishing Temperature [°C] Nsol: Solubilized (Free) Nitrogen [%] Pearl: Pearlite Fraction Present in Microstructure [%] S0: Pearlite Lamelar Spacing [mm] C eq = C + Mn Si + −S 6 24 α = T fin − Tcoil T fin Notes: - These equations are valid under the following conditions: Slab Reheating Temperature: 1250°C. et al.

0040%.29 d HR (after 70% cold rolling and annealing ) YS = 3.27 − 78. P < 0. Hot/Cold Rolled and Annealed Mild Steel d CR = 0.5 d CR n = 0.40%.2% Real Strain [MPa] εyield: Yield Elongation [%] n: Strain Hardening Coefficient Measured during Tension Test Notes: - These equations are valid under the following conditions: C: 0.01 d CR Notation: dCR: Grain Size of Cold Rolled Strip [mm] dHR: Grain Size of Hot Rolled Strip [mm] YS: Yield Strength at 0.16 − 154 d HR ε yield = 6. S < 0. the time of treatment.33 − 0.010%. Si < 0. Cold rolled steel was box annealed at 700°C.0020~0.28 d HR (after 60% cold rolling and annealing ) d CR = 0.10%.Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 73 . N: 0. Al: < 0. was equal to 32 hours.37 + 2.016%.040%.011 + 0. . being followed by furnace cooling.013 + 0.72 d CR YS = 28.005~0.026%. including heating of the samples. Mn: 0.

39 Pearl + 111 Si + 462 P + 152 Sn + 1369 N sol + dε d .6 Mn + 138 Si + 923 P + 169 Sn + 3754 N sol + 14.: The Effect of Grain Size on the Stress-Strain-Relationship in Low-Carbon Steel. Hoesch Berichte aus Forschung und Entwicklung unserer Werke. 1971. G. et al. 1966. 59.15 Pearl + 44. C-Mn Steels with Ferrite-Pearlite Structure (including HSLA Steels) YS = 246 + 4. W. . 64-70.4 = 385 + 1. . 2.6 d TS = 492 − 3. Transactions of the ASM. Full Annealed n= 5 10 + 1 d Notation: n: Strain Hardening Coefficient Measured during Tension Test d: Grain Size [mm] Source: MORRISON.38 Pearl + 246 Mn + 277 Si − 2616 S + 723 P + 246 Cr + 6616 N sol + dσ 15. 824-845. Mild Steel.: Untersuchungen über den Einfluβ der Korngröβe des Warmbandes auf die Kaltbandeigenschaften.9 d 44.Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 74 Source: LANGENSCHEID.

016 Pearl − 0.30 Mn + 0.B. Climax Molybdenum Company.: The Effect of Composition and Microstructure on Ductility and Toughness. Microalloyed Steels (Pickering) YS = σ 0 + 37 Mn + 83 Si + 2918 N sol + Notation: 15.4 S − 4.020 Pearl + 0.040 Si − 0. in: Towards Improved Ductility and Toughness.20 Si − 3.015 Mn − 0.29 Sn + 6.043 Sn − 1. 9-32 . F.Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 75 ε unif = 0.4 P + 0.27 − 0. Expressed as Real (Logarithmic) Strain Pearl: Pearlite Fraction in Microstructure [%] Ttrans: Fracture Appearance Transition Temperature [°C] Alloy Content: [weight %] d: Grain Size [mm] Source: PICKERING. 1971. Tokyo.015 d Ttrans = 43 + 1.30 − 0.2 d 0.2% Real Strain [MPa] TS: Tensile Strength [MPa] dσ/dε: Strain Hardening Coefficient at 0.1 d + ∆σ ppt . p.5 Pearl − 37 Mn − Notation: YS: Yield Strength at 0.2% Real Strain [1/MPa] σ ε εunif: Uniform Elongation. Expressed as Real (Logarithmic) Strain εtot: Total Elongation.0 N sol ε tot = 1.

Ti and/or V. Notes: - The Friction Stress σ0 value depends on the previous treatment of the material and can be found in the table below: Condition Mean Air Cooled Overaged - σ0 [MPa] 70 88 62 The effect of solid solution strengthening from another alloy elements solubilized in ferrite can be included in this equation.2% Real Strain [MPa] σ0: Friction Stress [MPa] Alloy Content: [weight %] d: Grain Size [mm] ∆σppt: Precipitation Strengthening [MPa].Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 76 YS: Yield Strength at 0. for steels with Nb. defined by the formula below [MPa]. using the following linear coefficients: Element Ni Cr P Cu Mo Sn C N MPa/weight % 33 -30 680 38 11 120 5000 5000 .

F. multiplying the total content of the precipitating alloy by the factor B shown in the table below: Alloy and Precipitate V as V4C3 V as VN Nb as Nb(CN) Ti as TiC Bmax [MPa/weight %] 1000 3000 3000 3000 Bmin [MPa/weight %] 500 1500 1500 1500 Alloy Range [weight %] 0. TISCO. Silver Jubilee Volume. 105-132.00 ~ 0. V and Ti steels.00 ~ 0.05 0. . Microalloyed Steels (Hodgson) .15 0.9 x f   x ln   2.5 × 10 −4     77 Notation: ∆σppt: Precipitation Strengthening According to the Ashby-Orowan Model [MPa] f: Volume Fraction of the Precipitate x: Mean Planar Intercept Diameter of the Precipitate [µm] Notes: - Relationship adequate for the calculation of the precipitation strengthening of quench-aged carbides and precipitate carbonitrides in Nb.18 Source: PICKERING. 5. ∆σppt can be calculated using a more simplified approach.00 ~ 0.06 0. Some Aspects of the Relationships between the Mechanical Properties of Steels and their Microstructures.B. Jan-Oct 1980.Gorni ∆σ ppt = Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook The precipitation strengthening contribution is calculated according to the Ashby-Orowan model.03 ~ 0.

7 C + 53.6 + 26. 1329-1338.4 + 575.4 N sol + ∆σ ppt = 57 log CR + 700 V + 7800 N sol + 19 + ∆σ ppt Notation: YS: Yield Strength at 0.2 Si + 759.D.2% Real Strain [MPa] TS: Tensile Strength [MPa] Alloy Content: [weight %] d: Grain Size [mm] ∆σppt: Precipitation Strengthening [MPa]. & GIBBS. 32:12.6 Mn + 99.1 Mn + 60. R.1 + 985.0 d 78 YS = 62.9 + 634. December 1992.5 hf TS = 74.1 C eq + (31125 N ef − 39) V + . . ISIJ International.K.9 Cu + 3286. only for steels with V [MPa] CR: Cooling Rate [°C/s] Source: HODGSON.5 hf 181.Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 19. P.9 P + 472.0 N sol + TS = 164.0 P + 212.6 Ni + 3339. V-Ti-N Steels Processed by Recrystallization Controlled Rolling YS = 41.7 Si + 651.20 C eq + (27401 N ef − 2) V + 419. A Mathematical Model to Predict the Mechanical Properties of Hot Rolled C-Mn and Microalloyed Steels.7 d + ∆σ ppt 11.

P. . Precision of the Formulas: ± 40 MPa. et al.35%. Pittsburgh. American Society for Metals/The Metallurgical Society.2% Real Strain [MPa] TS: Tensile Strength [MPa] Alloy Content: [weight %] hf: Plate Thickness [mm] Ceq = C + Mn Cr + Mo Ni + Cu + + 6 5 15 Ti 3. Dual Phase Steels YS = 203 + 855 1 Lαα TS = 266 + 548 fβ 1 + 1741 Lαα dβ . Source: MITCHELL.42 N ef = N tot − Notes: - Formula Derived for Steels with Al Content over 0. Oct.Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 79 Notation: YS: Yield Strength at 0.S.: Effect of Vanadium on Mechanical Properties and Weldability of Structural Steels. Proceedings. 1993.25 and 0. In: Low Carbon Steels for the 90’s.010% and Si Content between 0.

A. A. Set. .L.L. & BRANCHINI.G.GORNI. EPUSP/UNICAMP/ABAL. 1992.Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 80 dσ = 266 + 548 dε fβ 1 + 1741 Lαα dβ ε unif = 32 − 64 1 Lαα Notation: LE: Yield Strength [MPa] LR: Tensile Strength [MPa] dσ/dε: Strain Hardening Coefficient at Uniform Elongation [1/MPa] σ ε aunif: Uniform Elongation [%] Lαα: Mean Ferritic Free Path [µm] dβ : Mean Diameter of Martensite Islands [µm] Sources: . São Paulo. ABM/AEA.1 dL + σ disc + σ ppt .GORNI. Acicular Ferrite/Low Carbon Bainite Steels YS = 88 + 37 Mn + 83 Si + 2900 N sol + 15. In: 4° Simpósio de Conformação Mecânica. 1990.A. Nov. Relações Microestrutura-Propriedades Mecânicas em um Aço Bifásico Laminado a Quente.A. 23-42. In: 1º Seminário sobre Chapas Metálicas para a Indústria Automobilística. & BRANCHINI. . O. O. São Paulo.G. 127-145. Análise da Evolução do Encruamento de um Aço Bifásico.

5 × 10 −4     ρ ( PICKERING ) or 8 × 10 −4 ρ ( KEH ) Notation: α: Empirical Constant µ: Shear Modulus [MPa] b: Burger’s Vector [cm] ρ: Dislocation Density [lines/cm²] .9 x f   x ln   2.26 (σ disc + σ ppt ) − 11.5 d Notation: YS: Yield Strength at 0.2 × 10 −3 ∆σ ppt = 5.Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 81 TS = 246 + 1900 C + 230 ( Mn + Cr ) + 185 Mo + 90 W + 125 Ni + 65 Cu + 385 (V + Ti ) ITT = − 19 + 44 Si + 700 N sol + 0.2% Real Strain [MPa] TS: Tensile Strength [MPa] ITT: Impact Transition Temperature for 50% Tough Fracture [°C] Alloy Content: [weight %] Nsol: Solubilized (Free) Nitrogen [%] dL: BainiteFerrite Lath Size [mm] σdisc: Strength Due to Dislocations [MPa] σppt: Precipitation Strengthening According to the Ashby-Orowan Model [MPa] Nsol: Solubilized (Free) Nitrogen [%] d: Mean Spacing between High Angle Boundaries (“Packet” or Prior Austenite Grain Boundaries) ∆σ disc = α µ b ρ = 1.

Silver Jubilee Volume.PICKERING.2   + 1−  d  ( 3  3.5 f α  720 +  S0  )  11.5  ITT = f α  − 46 −  + (1 − f α )   d    5.8 f α 178 +  S0  )   + 63 Si + 42 N sol     + 97 Si    t  + 48.4  YS = 3 f α  35 + 58 Mn +  + 1−   d    TS = 3 f α  246 + 1140   ( 3  3. F.S. 105-132.48 × 10 6 − 335 + S0 p   Notation: YS: Yield Strength at 0.B. - KEH.3 − + 3. A.2% Real Strain [MPa] TS: Tensile Strength [MPa] ITT: Impact Transition Temperature for 50% Tough Fracture [°C] f: Volume Fraction of Ferrite ..Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook f: Volume Fraction of the Precipitate x: Mean Planar Intercept Diameter of the Precipitate [µm] 82 Sources: . TISCO. 9-30.7 Si + 762 N sol   N sol + 18. 12:115.6 13. Medium C Steels  17. 1965. . Work Hardening and Deformation Sub-Structure in Iron Single Crystals in Tension at 298K. Some Aspects of the Relationships between the Mechanical Properties of Steels and their Microstructures. Jan-Oct 1980. Philosophical Magazine.

PICKERING. Some Aspects of the Structure-Property Relationships in High Carbon Ferrite-Pearlite Steels.8 Al + 2450 B YR = 0. 916-930. Journal of the Iron and Steel Institute. Jan-Oct 1980. Si Non-Oriented Electrical Steels YS = 34. . T.0 d 11.2 Mn + 52.170 Al Notation: YS: Lower Yield Strength [MPa] TS: Tensile Strength [MPa] YR: Yield Ratio . F. Some Aspects of the Relationships between the Mechanical Properties of Steels and their Microstructures. 105-132. Silver Jubilee Volume. TISCO.0412 d − 0.Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook d: Ferrite Grain Size [mm] Alloy Content: [weight %] Nsol: Solubilized (Free) Nitrogen [%] S0: Pearlite Lamelar Spacing [mm] p: Pearlite Colony Size [mm] t: Pearlitic Carbide Lamellar Thickness [mm] 83 Sources: .8 Si TS = 183 + + 506 P + 48. e outros. Dec.GLADMAN. 1972.2 d + 258 P + 34.7 Mn + 109 Si + 48.078 Si − 0.3 + 22. 210.424 + 0. .B.

Negative effects of O and N are in direct contradiction with specific experimental results.5 N + 5.075~0.0020%. S: 0.34%.4 C + 0. Mn: 0.99 O + 12. Cold rolled steel was box annealed at 700°C. Pr2-487/Pr2-490.2 ∆S − 137. 1998.003~0.0030%.474 Si − 2. S: 0.007%.823. Source: PINOY. N: h2 PT = 4.Gorni d: Ferrite Grain Size [mm] Alloy Content: [weight %] Notes: - Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 84 These equations are valid under the following conditions: ULC Steel. Adjusted Squared Multiple Correlation: 0. Influence of Composition and Hot Rolling Parameters on the Magnetic and Mechanical Properties of Fully Processed Non-Oriented Low-Si Electrical Steels.0282 GBI + 16.7 S init + 130.29 + 66. L et al.658 − 0.002~0. 8. Residual Mean Square: 0.004%. the time of treatment. B < 0.015%. Si < 0. Phys.2 ρr . N: 0. PT = 0.040%.311 Al − 25.266 h Notation: PT: Core Loss [W/kg] Alloy Content: [weight %] h: Thickness [mm] Notes: - This equation ise valid under the following conditions: C: 0. P < 0. IV France. J.432%.51 C + 123. being followed by furnace cooling. was equal to 32 hours.082 W²/kg² 0. including heating of the samples.003~0.004~0. Al: < 0.578%.0014~0.109%.

. January 1986. 18-26. G. Non-Oriented Electrical Steels.Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 85 Notation: PT: Total Core Loss at 15 KG [W/kg] Alloy Content: [weight %] GBI: Number of Grain Boundary Intercepts per mm h: Thickness [mm] ρ: Density [g/mm³] r: Resistivity [µΩ.mm] Source: LYUDKOVSKY. et al. Journal of Metals.

Gorni .com/maxx/software/UK/WeldingFaultFinder/wff22413.airproducts.Schaeffler Diagram Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 86 Source: Air Products Web Site (http://www.html). .

Gorni - Shear Modulus of Steel and its Phases . Ferrite

Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook

87

µ = 64000 1 − µ = 64000 1 − µ = 64000 1 − µ = 69200 1 −
     

 

(T − 300)  2235   (T − 300)  2  − 0.032 (T − 573) 2235  (T − 300)  2 2  − 0.032 (T − 573) − 0.024 (T − 923) 2235  (T − 300)  1382  

(-273°C < T < 300°C)

(300°C ≤ T < 700°C)

(700°C ≤ T < 770°C)

(770°C ≤ T < 911°C)

. Austenite

µ = 81000 1 −

 

(T − 300)  1989  

(911°C ≤ T < 1392°C)

. Delta Ferrite

µ = 39000 1 −

 

(T − 300)  2514  

(1392°C ≤ T < 1537°C)

Gorni Notation: µ: Shear Modulus [MPa] T: Temperature [K]

Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook

88

Source: FROST, H.J. & ASHBY, M.F.: Pure Iron and Ferrous Alloys. In: Deformation-Mechanism Maps, The Plasticity and Creep of Metals and Ceramics. Pergamon Press, Cambridge, 1982.

Gorni - Sheet and Plate Cutting Force and Work . Mesquita K c = 0.88 TS Fc = t P K c

Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook

89

Notation: Kc: Cutting Specific Pressure or Shear Stress [MPa] TS: Tensile Strength [MPa] Fc: Cutting Force [N] t: Thickness [mm] P: Cutting Perimeter [mm] Source: - MESQUITA, E.L.A. Conformação dos Aços Inoxidáveis. Manual da Acesita. Dezembro 1997, 39 p.

. Tschaetsch

F =W tτB
W = aFt 1000

P=

Fv

η

Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 90 Notation: F: Cutting Force [N] W: Width [mm] t: Thickness [mm] W: Cutting Work [N.10 max 0.25 max 400 - .50 max 0. expressed in N/mm²: Steel St 12 St 13 St 14 St 37 St 42 C 0.50 max 0. Cold rolled steel (hard): τ B = 249 + 786 C These equations were fitted using the τB data available below.25 max Mn 0.25 max 310 0. as defined by the table or formulas below: Notes: - The value of τB can be calculated from the following equations.mm] a: Mean Force/Maximum Force Ratio (≈ 0.25 max 1. where C is the carbon weight content of steel: .20 max 0.6 for shearing) P: Cutting Power [W] v: Shear Speed [m/s] η: Machine Efficiency (≈ 0.7) τB: Shear Stress [MPa].25 max Si Soft Hard 240 300 240 300 250 320 0.10 max 0. Hot rolled or annealed steel (soft): τ B = 223 + 550 C .08 max 0.40 max 1.

. Berlin. Shearing.10-0.27-0.57-0.70 0.30-0.30-0.60-0.34 0.50-0.80 0. Tools. Machines.TSCHAETSCH. 218-40.60 0.15-0.Processes.40 0.08-0. Metal Forming Practice .35 280 320 400 550 340 380 500 720 91 Source: . 2006.23 0.18-0.Gorni C10 C20 C30 C60 Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 0.90 0.13 0. H. Springer-Verlag.30 max 0.30 max 0.65 0.

02667 × 10 −7 T − 0. Seredynski k = − 58.5 (T < 810°C) k = 10.15 × 10 −7 T − 0.38012  + 1.12491 1000   Notation: ε: Emissivity T: Temperature [°C] .s] T: Temperature [°C] Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 92 D = 0.75 × 10 −3 T + 16.6 × 10 −3 T + 72.8 (T > 810°C) Notation: k: Conductivity [J/m.02966 × 10 −4 (T > 875°C) Notation: D: Diffusivity [m²/s] T: Temperature [°C] ε= T 1000 T   − 0.07825 × 10 −4 (700°C < T < 875°C) D = 0.0948  0.°C.Thermal Properties of Steel .Gorni .

17-0. F. Amsterdam.60-0.90% Mn Source: SEREDYNSKI. 297-306.: Performance Analysis and Optimization of the Plate-Rolling Process. Iron and Steel Institute. . Proceedings.: A Transient Simulation and Dynamic Spray Cooling Control Model for Continuous Steel Casting. R.Gorni Note: - Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 93 Formulas specific for BS En 3 or SAE 1021 steel: 0. Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B. et al. 0. June 2003. 1973.23% C. Touloukian ε = 0.A. In: Mathematical Process Models in Iron and Steelmaking. 0115 ] Notation: ε: Emissivity Tsup: Superficial Temperature [K] Source: HARDIN. .68 − 0.02682 Tsup ) 0.85 [1 + exp(42. 34B:6.

Gorni .Thermomechanical Processing of Steel Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 94 .

228 p. Revision 2. IACS – International Association of Classification Societies Requirement 1975. . 2004.Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 95 Source: Requirements Concerning Materials and Welding.

3 R  log t a   − ∆H a  Ta  Notation: . Collection Scientifique ENSAM.314 JK-1mol-1 ∆Ha: Activation Energy of Austenitic Grain Coarsening. is the period of heating/cooling time between Tmax and Tmin.Time-Temperature Equivalency Parameters for Heat Treating . Pa. . Isothermal Austenitizing Pa = 1  1 2. & MAEDER. 270 p.Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 96 . 460 kJmol-1 for low alloy steels Source: BARRALIS. 1982. G. J. Anisothermal Austenitizing In this case the Austenitization Time-Temperature Equivalence Parameter in Terms of Grain Size. Tmin: Temperature Calculated According to the Following Equation [°C]: Tmin = Tmax − 2 R Tmax ∆H a Notation: R: Molar Gas Constant. 8. where Tmax: Maximum Temperature during the Austenitizing Treatment [°C]. Métallurgie Tome I: Métallurgie Physique.

G. 457-470.05 = 0. Collection Scientifique ENSAM. Microstructural Science. 1.Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook Pa: Austenitization Time-Temperature Equivalence Parameter in Terms of Grain Size [K] Ta: Austenitization Temperature [K] R: Molar Gas Constant. 270 p.314 JK-1mol-1 ta: Soaking time under Ta ∆Ha: Activation Energy of Austenitic Grain Coarsening.05: Treatment Time Necessary to Achieve 5% Microstructure Banding [min] l: Mean Spacing between Bands [mm] Do: Diffusion Constant for the Alloy Element being Considered [cm²/s]: . et al.987 JK-1mol-1 T: Austenitization Temperature [K] Source: YIMING. J. X. 1982.Mn: 62500 cal/mol R: Molar Gas Constant.: A Metallographic Investigation of Banding and Diffusion of Phosphorus in Steels. . Métallurgie Tome I: Métallurgie Physique.P: 0.Mn: 0. & MAEDER.16 cm²/s Q: Activation Energy for the Alloy Element Being Considered [cal/mol]: . Microstructural Banding Homogeneization t 0. 20. 460 kJmol-1 for low alloy steels 97 Source: BARRALIS. 1993.01 cm²/s .3 l 2 D0 e −Q RT Notation: t0.P: 43700 cal/mol . . 8.

Irvine et al.8 C Notation: P: Hollomon-Jaffe Parameter [K] T: Tempering Temperature [K] c: Constant Characteristic of the Steel Being Tempered t: Soaking time under T [h] C: Carbon Content [wt%] Notes: .D. 162. Time-Temperature Relations in Tempering Steel. Such relationship was also used for the study of hydrogen resistance and HAZ hardness of steels. microalloyed and low alloy steels: . 1945. & JAFFE. 18 (Grange & Baughman) . Tempering (Hollomon-Jaffe) P = T (c + log t ) c = 21..Other values for the constant c were proposed by several authors for carbon.Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 98 . L. which applied it to the study of metal creep. 223-249. Thelning) .53 − 5. .H.This expression was also deduced by Larson & Miller. Transactions of the AIME. In that case c is equal to 20 and P is divided by 1000. Sources: . J. 20 (Larson & Miller.HOLLOMON.

K. 68. 1952. Hardness of Tempered Martensite in Carbon and Low Alloy Steels. & MILLER.IRVINE. et al. Journal of the Iron and Steel Institute. Butterworths. F. 570 p. London. GRANGE.E.THELNING. 161-182. 74. Transactions of the American Society for Metals. J. R.A.W.R. . A Time-Temperature Relationship for Rupture and Creep Stresses. & BAUGHMAN. Grain-Refined C-Mn Steels.Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 99 . . . 1967.J. Transactions of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 1956.LARSON. 765-775.: Steel and its Heat Treatment – Bofors Handbook. K. 1981. 165-197. Feb. R.

Tensile Strength after Flash Butt Welding Mn Si Cr V   TS eq = 52  C + + + +  + 30 5 7 9 2  Notation: TSeq: Tensile Strength After Flash Butt Welding [kgf/mm²] Alloy Content: [weight %] Source: MIZUI. M. Nippon Steel Technical Report. 19-30.: Application of High-Strength Steel Sheets to Automotive Wheels. et al. . Nippon Steel Technical Report. . M.: Application of High-Strength Steel Sheets to Automotive Wheels. Weld Interface Cracking Susceptibility during Flash Butt Welding 2  2  Mn  2  3 Cr   2 Feq = (C − 0.03)  Si +     + (4 Al ) +   10   2      Notation: Feq: Weld Interface Cracking Susceptibility during Flash Butt Welding (No Crack = Zero) Alloy Content: [weight %] Source: MIZUI.Gorni . 23. June 1984. 23. 19-30.Welding Effects Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 100 . June 1984. et al.

Water: 1.81 kg/Nm³ .000022 0.000210 0.58 kg/l . Butane: 0. Propane: 0.44 kg/Nm³ .51 kg/l .600 0.001226 0.000540 0.85 kg/Nm³ .00 kg/Nm³ Heat Capacity in Function of Temperature . Natural Gas: 0.Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 101 APENDIXES USEFUL DATA AND CONSTANTS Fuels and Combustion Gases: Density (Gas) .380 0.29 kg/Nm³ .000090 - - . Propane: 1.871 0.406 b 0. Liquified Petroleum Gas (LPG): 2. Values of a and b for some gases are seen below: Gas C2H6 C3H8 CH4 CO CO2 a 0.27 kg/Nm³ Density (Liquid) . Butane: 2.302 0. Heat Capacity [kcal/°C m³] = a + bT [°C]. Air: 1.54 kg/Nm³ . Liquified Petroleum Gas (LPG): 0.

300 ~ 27.400 Kcal/Nm³ Pentane (C5H12): 34.132 Kcal/Nm³ Hydrogen (H): 2.400 Kcal/Nm³ Diesel Oil: 10. .000059 102 Heating Value Acetylene (C2H2): 13412 Kcal/Nm³ Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Off-Gas (OG Gas): 770 kcal/Nm³ Blast Furnace Gas: 770 Kcal/Nm³ Benzene (C6H6): 33.640~9. . . .000022 0.302 0.300 kcal/Nm³ Methane (CH4): 8.943 Kcal/Nm³ Propane (C3H8): 21.Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook H2 N2 O2 Net .800 kcal/kg Carbon Monoxide (CO): 3.320 0. . . . . . . . .317 Kcal/Nm³ i-Pentane (C5H12): 34. .809 Kcal/Nm³ Propene/Propylene (C3H6): 20.200 kcal/kg Electricity: 860 kcal/kW Ethane (C2H6): 15.000 ~ 9.000 kcal/l or 9.236 Kcal/Nm³ Ethene/Ethylene (C2H4): 14. .527 Kcal/Nm³ i-Butane (C4H10): 28. .000200 0.557 Kcal/Nm³ Natural Gas: 9. 0. . .116 Kcal/Nm³ Fuel Oil: 8.823 Kcal/Nm³ Butane (C4H10): 29. . . .600 ~ 10. . .794 Kcal/Nm³ Liquified Petroleum Gas (LPG): 25.582 Kcal/Nm³ Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S): 5.550 Kcal/Nm³ .301 0.900 Kcal/Nm³ Charcoal: 6.000 kcal/kg Hexane (C6H14): 41. . .560 Kcal/Nm³ Butene/Buthylene (C4H8): 27.019 Kcal/Nm³ Coke Oven Gas: 4.

1.022 x 1023 /mol Boltzmann constant: k = 1.082056 atm K-1 mol-1 . Toluene (C7H8): 40.06 8. 8.31433 J K-1 mol-1 Physical Properties of Scale (Iron Oxide) .718281828 Pi: 3.09 61.54 0.500 kcal/kg Typical Chemical Compositions [% vol] Coke Oven Gas Natural Gas N2 H2 CH4 C2H6 C3H8 CO CO2 O2 3.141592654 Physical Constants Acceleration of gravity: g = 9. 0.98717 cal K-1 mol-1 .31433 x 107 erg K-1 mol-1 . Xylene (C8H10): 46.056 cm³ atm K mol-1 .733 Kcal/Nm³ .26 1.00 103 Mathematical Constants e: 2. 82.805 m/s² Avogrado constant: NA = 6.91 ---. Wood: 2.Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook .59 0.91 7.04 0.87.0.83 ---.00 0.42 0.08 1.381 x 10-23 J/K Gas constant R: .182 Kcal/Nm³ .55 24. 8.

0. Fayalite (2FeO.07 @ 38°C .866 Ǻ - - . Bulk Steel: 7850 kg/m³ .86 g/cm³ (Source: Combustol) Hardness: .Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 104 - - - Density: 4.SiO2): 1177°C Physical Properties of Steel and its Microstructural Constituents Densities: . Fe: 19 x 10-6 m/°C . 0.80 Lattice Parameters (Ambient Temperature): . 0. Cementite (Fe3C): 7882 kg/m³ . VC: 5700 kg/m³ Electrical Resistivity at 15. Ferrite (pure Fe): 2.6% (Stoichiometric) Linear Coefficient of Thermal Contraction: .14 @ 540°C Emissivity of Oxidized Steel Plate at 15.m Emissivity of Polished Metal Surface: .6°C: 17 x 10-8 ohm.6°C: 0. Magnetite (Fe3O4): 320 ~ 500 HV .10 @ 260°C . Ferrite (Fe α): 7687 kg/m³ . Wustite: 14 x 10-6 m/°C Melting Point: . Wustite (FeO): 270 ~ 350 HV Iron Content in Scale: 74. Hematite (Fe2O3): 1000 HV . NbC: 7790 kg/m³ .

Cementite: a = 4. F. Canton. Bulk: 11. Comparing CO2 Emissions and Energy Demands for Alternative Ironmaking Routes. 37.0885 Ǻ. b = 5.7423 Ǻ Linear Coefficient of Thermal Expansion: . .1 x 10-6 1/°C 105 - - - - Sources: . 15 p. Elastic Range: 0. .244 x 10-5 1/°C .7 x 10-6 1/°C . The Timken Company. 2002. c = 6. Ferrite: 1.6°C: 58. M. G.12 cal/g.K Volumetric Coefficient of Thermal Expansion: 35.°C Speed of Sound through Steel: 5490 m/s Thermal Conductivity at 15. Fours Pits .: Practical Data for Metallurgists. Bulk: 159. Steel Times International.METNUS. Shear: 83. 130 p. Austenite: 2. Modelling of Kinetics and Dilatometric Behaviour of Austenite Formation in a Low-carbon Steel with a Ferrite Plus Pearlite Inicial Microstructure. Juillet 1976.5 Specific Heat: 0.065 x 10-5 l/°C Melting Point: 1300 ~ 1450°C Modulus: .HEIDEMANN. Young: 207. September 2006.ANON. Saint-Germain-en-Laye.E. Rapport IRSID 77-02. Journal of Materials Science.3 . .9 W/m.000 MPa .000 MPa . Plastic Range: 0.Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook .Établissement de Bilans Thermiques Globaux et Étages dans les Temps. 3533-3540.G. .CABALLERO. March 2006. 32-36. et al. et al.5246 Ǻ.000 MPa Poisson’s Ratio: .

2000. Burns Harbor.Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 106 . 97 p.WILSON. .D. A. Guidelines for Fabricating and Processing Plate Steel. Bethlehem-Lukens Plate Report.

30485126 1.m g/cm³ g/cm³ N psi kg A ft ft² in in² N/mm² ksi lbf/in² Psi √in ksi√in .448222 1 1016.lb/s ft.145 145 910.√in kW lb lb.7376 2.lbf ft² ft³ Gallon HP HP in in² in³ inch J J J kg Multiply by 10-10 1.324 1.355818 0.205 To m kg/cm² J J °C inch m J ou N.m cal J W J ou N.1129815 0.4 9.4535924 0.78541178 0.80665 9.80665 9.06 0.550 x 10³ 1 0.355380862 1.341022 0.1382 92.098901099 1.7121551 25.71 x 103 6.356 0.2 16387.0394 1.8 5.m kgf/mm² kN kN/mm ksi ksi Ksi.m kg m² m³ liters kW W mm mm² mm³ mm BTU cal ft.67783006 4.lb lb From kgf kgf.4 645.80665 224.184 5/9 (°F-32) 12 0.lbf ft.355748373 1.in lb/ft³ lb/in³ lbf lbf/in² long ton M m m² mm mm² MPa MPa MPa MPa √m MPa√m Multiply by 9.281 10.064 25.016020506 27.047 1010 3.02831685 3.lb ft.894757 1000 1.√m HP kg J ou N.lb ft.76 0.90 x 10-3 0.201058 4.2390 0.019716 1058.7456999 745.920 To N J MPa lbf lbf/ft MPa psi MPa.Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 107 UNIT CONVERSIONS From A bar BTU cal F ft ft ft.45 x 10-4 0.lb ft.

m nm oz Pa Pa Pa pct (%) ppm Multiply by 1 10-9 0.Gorni From N.2958 907.0007030697 0.0068947573 0.020 x 10-7 10000 0.0001 Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook To J m kg N/m² Psi Kg/mm² ppm % From psi psi psi Psi √in Rad Short Ton W W Multiply by 0.028352707 1 1.449 x 10-4 1.001 0.001341 To Ksi MPa kgf/mm² MPa √m ° Kg J/s HP 108 .001098829 57.1847 1 0.

São Paulo. 580 p. M. _ . Editora McGraw-Hill do Brasil Ltda..Gorni Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 109 GENERAL STATISTICAL FORMULAS .R.Correlation Coefficient _ Σ (Yest − Y ) 2 _ Σ (Y − Y ) 2 r=± Notation: r: Correlation Coefficient Y: Raw Data Yest: Estimated Data Calculated by the Fitted Equation Y : Mean of the Raw Data Source: SPIEGEL. Estatística.Standard Error of Estimation σ= _ Σ (Yest − Y ) 2 n Notation: σ: Standard Error of Estimation Yest: Estimated Data Calculated by the Fitted Equation . 1976.

M. Editora McGraw-Hill do Brasil Ltda.R. .. 1976. Estatística.Gorni Y : Mean of the Raw Data n: Number of Points of Data _ Steel Forming and Heat Treating Handbook 110 Source: SPIEGEL. São Paulo. 580 p.

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