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WORLD REFUGEE AND HUMANITARIAN PROBLEMY
SUBCOMMITTEE TO INVESTIGATE PROBLEMS CONNECTED WITH REFUGEES AND ESCAPEES
COMMITTEE ON THE JUDICIARY UNITED STATES SENATE
JULY 22, 1971
PRINTING OFFICE 1971
StrnVEYOF CIVILlANWAR CASUALTIES AMONGREFUGEES FROMTHE PLAlN OF JARS, LAos, BYWALTER HANEY,ANDTEXTOFCORRESPONDENCE :\1. BETWEEN THE CHAIRMAN ANDDEPUTY ASSISTANT SECRETARYF STATEWILLIAMH. SULLIVAN O JULY 26, 1971. WILLIAM H. SULLIVAN,
eputy A88i.!tant Secretary, epartment of State, Wa8Ungton, D.O.
DEARAMBASSADOR SULLIVAN: ust a note to say how much I appreciated your J helpful participation in the Subcommittee hearing last week. As we discussed at tbe hearing, I am formally submitting a copy of Mr. Walter "Survey of Civilian Casualties Among Refugees from the Plain of . I would appreciate the Department's evaluation of the survey as well as a comment on its conclusions and what action, if any, has been taken in Ught of its findings. Thank you for your cooperation. Sincerely, El)wARDM. KENNEDY. hairman, O
Subcommittee on Refugee8.
AUGUST10, 1971. Hon. EDWARD KENNEDY, M.
DEARMit. CHAmMAN: Thank you for your letter of July 26, 1971 forwarding a copy of Mr. 'VaIter Haney's report entitled "Survey of Civilian Casualties Among Refugees from the Plain of Jars". I have read his report with close attention and with interest, and have found it to be a serious and carefully prepared piece of work. I know Mr. Haney and have talked with him in recent weeks. He is an objective and conscientious young man who is personally attached to the Lao people with whom he has been associated as an IVS volunteer and a teacher during the past few years. His paper seems to be a conscientious one-man effort to survey civilian casualties on the Plain of Jars. As he says, it is not intended to be a complete survey but rather a study "comprised of all those case histories of civilian war victims which I could gather in the time available to me". The persons he interviewed were drawn from the same 01' similar groups of refugees who figured in the Plain of Jars Survey conducted by the U.S. Embassy in Vientiane in July, 1970. In fact, seven of the ten villages surveyed in both cases are either clearly identical or are villages whose inhabitants were once colocated in the same tasseng on the Plain of Jars. The refugee villages visited by Mr. Haney contained a total of 8,500 people. Mr. Haney has gathered case histories from this population to demonstrate that 189 people died as a result of military action. A little over half of these deaths were a result of air action. Of this latter group, somewhat less than half were victims prior to 1968-69. As I have previously testified, the fighting raged back and forth over the Plain of Jars and meticulous efforts were employed to minimize casualties resulting from that fighting. Even given the intensive fighting in 1969 when the Plain changed hands two or three times, the statistics in Mr. Haney's report indicate that this policy has been essentially successful. While 189 deaths out of an 8,500 population certainly constitute too many to have been caught in the War, they do nevertheless represent a small percentage of the total population, given the intensity of the fighting that took place.
being similar in substance to aluminum fOIl. although we have no reliable statlsttcal baSIS for extending that conclusion to all those who previously liv. At the same time I also tastffied that fear of bombing was another factor and that this was d~ubtless a much more significant element i~ the minds of some 17.ently be:en the bombing uf Innocent civilians. Ambassador Godley invited me to' discuss the matter with him personally. 67 In November. The most important reason why the refugees had to' corne here from their villages must be the bombing. I wi~h to' thank you again for the courtesy and serious purpose which have charac!enzed the hearings of your Subcommittee when I have been a witness before It. on one hand and students in the summer program on the other. Mr. but the Defense Department notes that a wide variety O'f United States or communist equipment such as . What had actually happened on the Plain or Jnrs ? What was the nature of the bombing? Were there only a few mistaken bombtngs of innocent civilians or. and the like could produce a residue. Thualy... had told me about the bombing.he substances encountered by the refugees is far from bemg specific. but that few have first-hand speeific Intormatlon about civilian deaths rrom bombing. I received copies O'fa letter from a Mr.PO'lsonsor poisonous weapons in SO'utheast Asia or elsewhere. Haney'. Abshire stated (see Appendix C fDr full text of letter) : "American air support or the Royal Lao Government . McMurtrie GO'dley. Laos (IVS) together "lt~ the .descnpbQn of t. I did not initiate my inquiry immediately. He acknowledged. 1970-11 A. . The rules do not permit attacks on non-military targets and places out-of-bounds all inhabited villages. between their off-hand reception of the Information rrom the refugees and their later retelling to' me. smoke cannistcrs. I visited a refu~ee camp north of Vientiane at Ban lIay. or bombed find killed by either Pathet LaO' (PL) forces or by Royal LaO' government (RLG) forces? . Qf the Ban lIay refugee camp. . Ambassador GO'dleyhad suggested that refugees talk of the bombing largely in general terms. We have instructed them to' redoubt their effQrts to' avoid incurring civilian casualties. On the other hand. My qUestioning foltowed this pattern. During the program. Rather.sslOn an~ the appropriate United States military anthortttes concerned With air operations in Laos. I asked not only about bombing victims. and possibly to' humans.) I a. on the basis of his eVlden<. We believe that the pollcles which govern air operatlons were eoneientiously ~nstrued by the Unlted States Mission in Vientiane and we have nO' reason to' beheve that they were flagrantly disregarded by the pilots ot: the aircraft operating in that area. Only then would I express interest in the question of civilian war victims. First.LAO'S IVa of the Survey (By WaIter M. 1970 to' January 4.e ~ave drawn the conclusions or the Haney report to' the attentlon Qf o~r l'I:h. Mr.s eoncluslon that aerial bombardment was the primary cause of CIvilian casualtie~ among the peDple he interviewed. This was the primary reason why the refugees fied from the homes Df their birth and carne here . This statement. . United States forces. The refugees m these villages were part O'f the reported 15000 who were evacuated from the Plain of Jars in February 1970. LAO'S. In his letter. From their'invQlvement with these refugees. 1970. some of which could be toxie to plants. or Jars. Ambassador to' Laos. J would innuire if any of the refugees had had any civilian relatives killed while they still lived on the Plain of J'ars. more than a dozen villagers in the same camp told me of hDW their homes had been destroyed by bombing when there were no soldiers in their village." Obviously. to' keep such errors to II strict minimum. He told me that American aircraft in LaDS adhere to' strict rules of engagement which proscribe the bombing or inhabited villages except under highly unusual circumstances.lsQsent cop~es O'fthls letter to' my SenatO'rs in Washington. SO'.protesttng what had eVld. 23. ':I'ill be cur continuing common purpose to ease the plight of those h~pless clviltans who have become victims of the fighting in Indochina Smcerely. The program was funded by USAID Laos a~d orgamzed b. Inc.000 people from the Plain of Jars who were caught up III the fighting before they were removed to' the Vientiane Plain. was bombing of civilians heavy enough to have been a "primary cause" fQr their flight to this side? B. He maintained.e. dated November 23. I helped organize a program for LaO'students to' work dur-ing their school ~acatiDn. A~ain. ~lle the . The granular yellQw powder remains unidentified. the primary cause fO'r the generatIO'n of refugees lTI Laos has been North Vietnamese military pressure. In November. Deputy ASSistant Secretary tor East Asian and Pacific Affair8.y. do ~ot employ a!lY. parachute flares.S. however. There. (see Appendix B. w. animals.I set out to' make a survey to gain specific information about what had happened on the Plain of Jars. As a result of my letters to' Senators Hart and Griffin. but more generally about any civilian casualties of war. but they saw some animals or people they would simply drop the bombs on them. is still justified. However. I believe. r conversed very generany with the vlllagers for thirty minutes or an hour.. there was a conflict between offlcial and non-offlclal accounts of the bombing.ed in the Plain. the students had not set out speclfical'lv to get information about the refugees' experiences on the Plain of Jars. we have. the long strips or silver paper correSPQnd to' an accurate descrtptlon of radar chaff which is commonly used to interrupt or c~nfuse enemy radar. During my vacation from school. It is nontoxte. I visited ten refugee camps Qn the Vientiane Plain.batteries. come up with some possible explanations .. In our discussion on NDv. Perhaps this had been the case with the refugees with whom the students worked.LaQ Mmlstry O'f Youth and Sporta. that considering the number of aerial sorties over LaDS. Qf course. however. even in the heat of battle. Method A SURVEY CIVILIANCASUALTIES MO'NG DF A REFUGEES FROM THE PLAIN QF J AlIS. 'I'here is no question but that there have been civilian victims of bombing errors which were due to both mechanical and human causes. resembling a powder. that mistakes do occur and that Innocent civIlians have on oceaston been subject to' aerial bornbardment. but a continuing effDrt goes on. The Information which I had gleaned from the students working with the refugees had been subject to a number of possible sources of error.. David Abshire of the United States Department of State." One of the students in the summer program had written (see Appendix A) : "During the bombing. Further. there was a conflict between what American officials. e • I would like to' ad? a f~w comments on the subject or poison which is menboned a number of t~mes III th~ Haney survey. I talked with the sub-district chief. !t. WIth the help of the Defense Department. yve can not dillP~t~ Mr.InternahO'nal Voluntary Services. BackgrQund to the Survey During the summer or 1970. Finally. 1971. Than Thit Thong. Were any relatives shot and killed. followlng the LaO'custom. we do not. First. Senators Hart and Griffin from Michigan. December 23. He told me that the planes had bombed only when North Vietnamese soldiers shot at the planes. As a result or what I had learned from the students I was moved to write a lette~ to the U. if the planes couldn't select a place to bomb. Nevertheless. Ambassador Godley received me most cDrdially and expressed his deep concern over the question of bombing of innocent villagers. I became increasmgly disturbed about what they had learned about bombing on the Plain or Jars.66 As I testified befO'r-_e yO'ur SubcO'm:nittee on April 22 and July 22. I became invT~h With students wh_o were teaching refugee children in four camps near e~ Vfentiane.accept hia conclueion that the bombing of the civilian populatron was e::ten~lve. When I went into a village. As t~e stud~nts told me of their experiences with the refugees. In order to' give my survey greater objecttvity. the number of errors resulting in the bombing Qf innocent villagers had been remarkably few. He suggested that while refugees may talk of the bombing in general terms. F?r example. is furnished under rules of operation designed specifically to' protect civilians and to limit attacks to military targets. the students in the summer program learned a great deal about the refugees' lives prior to their evacuation f'rorn the Plain ot Jars. there may have been omissions and distortions. SULLIVAN. WILLIAMH. Haney) VOLUNTEER. very few can actually give first hand accounts of the deaths of civilians by bombing. the information rrom the students was of a general nature with very little specific information.
Pungo N.66/1. T_ Tasseng or subdistrict of the Interviewee. Ban or village of the interviewee. Xieng Boua Pha_ V. he di6df Often I would ask additional questions in order to clarify the details of the 69 up The children were burned up. In some cases. Invariably people were happy to have their pictures taken. d h was returning through the fore. Nong. Tang. T. They C Father ~nd children had gone to wor b I~ planes dropped bombs near the .boy was. They were kllled by bom N~~ "The're were no soldiers in our Ta have been killed by PL or .they dldnoccured. There were no soldiers around. b. T_ lA.ments No relatives of Sao Chan hole. 69/6. Son of his younger ro . Pho Louang Ti-father. Ban 10_ Ban 1. I may have been wrong because In all caaes refugees knew that 1 was taking complete notes on what was said. Direct cause of death.l"lce fie't h. B. N. B. . Tang_ Ko. hid in hole when ~e planes ca~i . 9th month. C. Pungo N Sao Noi. the edge of vu age. ' SaoTui 8y. hree children Sao Bouavan 12 y.s C: He had gone to upland . Temt of Interview8 V: ':tde I.) 4. I do not have tapes of the interviews. 5_ b. V_ Daughter who was 6 y. D. the shelter. Ban 7. Khong Tal. Name of the interviewee or narrator. Ban Venn Kham-Tasseng Ues 1269 people. lAo 3 T. a. N Pho Kang Poua. t V. 1. Mine. V: C: Incident. Phan. .. They were written from my notes and the tapes of the interviews. F 105 but mother said she only kne. C_ They were at horne. Everything was burned was b urn ed _ . If an individual had had a civilian relative killed. B. 66/7 (2 young cousins) O. the abbreviations listed below have been used. Pho Xieng Ta. Phan (Thao Otmkham Phimmavong) VILLAGES 241 fami- Nasay _ Pungo Phonsay.In the interviews in Section II. 2. Untaped. Phan. Tape on which the interview was recorded. hd O. I asked the folloWIng questions: What wall the name of the narrator? From what village and district was hef What wall the name Of the victim and his relationship to the narratorr When did he di6f Why did he dief What was he dOing uihen. Nevertheless. ~ field north of village. t O.. He had gone t?1lfetchT~~ff'~~o~~fgi~rs ~~d' put the mine there. "fire bomb" from T-28. 5. the interviewee and other refugees. Circumstances of the incident. th Illage T-lA. C. "Mother was burned up. D.1A. No SOldiers/n th:.e They also shot three other vIIwhen some Meo soldiers sho un. T. refngees did not know that 1 was taping our conversa tiona. N. There were some PL soldiers in . if it was someone other than the rela ti ve of the victim. Father Pho Titkhanta Mother Me Sao Douang another woman.e her brother in He almost died time. D. PUngo N. . Please see Section III for my evaluation of the veracity of the information found in the interviews.1A. O. There were no SOldler~ I~ noerelativeS killed by PI> or VN_ Xieng To says that he has a T. T.. ) V. During an interview I took notes on what was said.1965. on the theory that information about such specific incidents would be more reliable than non-specific descriptions of the situation in general. 2. Ban 8. Khong Neua. 1 feared that If refugees knew that they were being taped they would huve felt less free to express themselves. T. Khong Neua. Sao Bouathong 9 y. up.68 I asked only about incidents in which immediate relatives of my interlocutors had been killed or wounded.: T. were ru~ nin 1i8forright thigh. Pho Xieng Onh V. Me Sao Chsasnta. wo~nd~ village when the bombing bombi. (Names listed in parentheses in this category are those of Whoever may have given most of the information during the interview. After the interview I asked the interviewee if I might be able to take his picture. o T-28 bombi. Large bomb. '63/9. D. N. Younger brother Thao La. .f.. 5. D. 6 m He stepped on a mine a C. B. T. Father *1 made these tapes sUl'I'eptltously. I also taped most interviews. Ban Ban Ban Ban Ban 6. lanes dropped the bombi before he r~ac e C Boy ran for a hole but the p . Further.: b ther V. In these instances I have tmnscribed the interviews from my notes alone. Phan. 6. Phan. Ban 9. a.: T. D. Son who was 8 years old. lagers that day." T_ 1A. f S Chanta's surviving children suggested it was o Jet big bomb (one 0 esao ~ it asajet) . Phan_ R. These interviews as transcribed in Section II are greatly abbreviated from the actual conversations. village when the planes bombed. D. T. Husband y. Relationship and name of the civilian victim. it o T-28 hole but rna C: Theingirl andThe .." There were no soldiers in e v . T-28 bombi. big bomb set everything on fire. D. 3_ 4. This was before everyone had :fled their homes.II~. Phan.~ . Vene. Later told me a ~ I s old and deaf and didn't hear also killed by bombi from a T-2S_ e wa the planes coming. t o Gunshot. Date of the incident. Phan. B.1A. .~ planes just shot and bomhed the the area hut they were ar awa bo t his older brother Ba Pa who was village. A big. '69 or '68. Interviews usually involved extensive discussions and interplay between myself. Vene. R. T.~_ Wife's younger brother Ba Chun 40Y. 6. 69/6. 't k also. yet most expressed themselves with apparent forthrightness. old.
N. Sao Deuang. wben the planes dropped the bombs on us. 134 families. V. The bombi came from a big bomb which exploded when it was still high in the air. Phan. Khong Neua. All kinds of jets. Younger brother Thao Ba La D. '67/1. Jet. Sao Leh. II A.ad gone to forest to look for food and things whleh he could sell Region 2 Meo Soldiers shot him.lm rtght thl'oug!I his cheek bones (When I asked if any other relatives had been killed by shooting or bombing they said) No but in Ban Khong 'rai in 1970 just bef'ore we came here the bombing was . N. but the bombing was only really heavy fOl. Nhat Si. The jet-maybe it was FI05-dropped big bombs. Jet bombi "F-4-hat". T. 6. Big bomb from T-28. T. Gunshot. D. Sisouphan was hurt inside. C. T. They left the hour before the Jets came. O. We lived in the holes for five Years. T. We were fleeing to this side when the Vietnamese soldiers saw us. N. No relatives killed by PL or Meo soldiers. B. He h. Gunshot. Fat. B. Sistel's Sao Nong 35y and cousin Xieng Boua Phan 26y. In the month before we came to this side the bombing was heaviest. Nhat. 1. B. 3. B. Daughter of older sister. We had to stay in the holes all the ttmo. two years '68-'69. T. Me Tum. 4. There were at least three hundred in each big cylinder. A . O. Phan. Son Xieng Thong Chan. '69/4. Fat. T. V. There were many people together but only these two were killed. Chang Khamdi.2A. There were no soldiers with us. Gunshot. Mother Sao Sa about 50y. T. porn. O. Khouane. We bad to run to go cook or work in the ricefleld. C. T. V. O. They were stayfng-e-Ilvfng' and eating with the villagers. 8. N. T. H~ died 15 days later. Ban Nhat. B. N. There were no PL NVN soldiers around. 2. Had gone out to the torest to get things to eat. V. Bombi from jet "Fl05". T. B. Phan. 1. 68/12.. T. 'I'he Meos put in all the mines No relatives killed by PL or VN. . lA. b. 'We were just starting to flee to this side. Younger brother Xham Si 12y. He was going tJ. T.: T. lB. She was walking along path when jets dropped bombi. It was very dangerous when we were coming to this side. D.69/10.thow many but thought it was a company. V. II.70 D. porn. V. Fat.to rarse food fol' us.: V. The bombi were round and fell over a wide area. 5. O. 155 mm sheiL C. T. D. O. Khong Neua. V. Fat. a.: T. We were already living in holes then because the planes always sbot up the village. . BAN PHAO INTERVIEWS . C. B. If the Vietnamese saw us they would capture us. Did? t cOl. O. C. Daughter l\Ie Pao. Sao Phim. 7. Son Xieng Boun Song 16 yrs. B. 6. O.:Uage. No relatives were shot or killed by the PL or VN. Ban Ban Ban Ban Ban Ban Fat SoL Muong. N. Napheung. It was impossible to flee. 2. When the little pieces hit a person they twisted and turned inside the body. Thong Chanh had gone to tbe forest to find things to eat and there was no place for bim to hide when the planes came. O.m. Son Thao Sisouphan 8y. Napheung. '68/12. T. Tit Khamsing. T. We had just come out of our holes. C. There were seven of us together but they only caught these two. Fat. C. But it was mostly Fl05s. Fl05 bombi. C.2A. The planes came everyday T-28s. Sao Home. c. C. 6. B. There had been PL soldiers in the VIllage.2A.: V.IA. 5. Father Xieng Bona Phan 62y cousin ThaD Kham. a hole together.:ery very heavy. a. A group of 12 soldiers caught them and shot them.ng in the forest going to upland ricefield.. Mine. T. 68/12/17. '64. Sao Sapha n. Ban Phao-Tasseng Fat. Th~re were no Soldiers in our village. Napheung. D. And they would drop flares. Fat. Bombi from T-28. 3. D. T. D. O. D. He was walki. He ran around like he w~s drunk . The boy was a novice monk. Shot h. Tasseng said that there were PL and VN soldiers in the village when planes bombed.m. 4. D. N. If the planes saw us they would shoot US. was in Ban Ko near Muong SouL There were RLG soldiers in the . '69/5.2A. D.2A. All of the fa~nily was in. big big bomb. Vene. Fat sot. They exploded porn. lB. VILLAGES 71 O. V. She was in the ricefield but didn't flee because there were no soldiers and she didn't think the planes would shoot. Even at night the planes shot and bombed. '67/6. 9. The Meo soldiers shot kil'led him. . She. C. '64(?) "The year when the PL came to Xieng Khouang for the first time.155 mm shell landed in the village and a Shell fragmen t killed her In her home.tere. Fat SoL N. They shoot anyone they see in the forest. ~e stepped on the mine at the edge of the wat at about 12 noon. Bondi. 4. and FI05s. Vieng. The planes came very fast and he couldn't find-place to hide in time. '68/8 about 6 p. C. N. 768 people.
T. 9. N. N. Leng. V. 416 families. Khan Nhao. They wanted to get the monks belongings. No soldiers. B. III. V.: T. C. 4. 73 :\fother of 'I'Itkhamphan and Backhamta. N. . BAN MAK HIAO INTERVIEWS 1. Sao La. Son Douangst 22 y.2A. 4. He was sleeping in wat when the Vietnamese came and shot up the wat.·0h. Phoum. N. B. Kheung. Ban Veun Khene--Tasseng Sene Noi. 2.0 C. No tape. T. T. V. 1. V. Sons Titkharnphen 24y Backhamta 12y. Husband Xieng Oum 53-54 s. N. T. 1\'. V. He had gone to work in the forest but he didn't flee fast enough. Unsure of year 9th month. 3. Lat Sene. O . Gunshot.: B. N. Son Titsomphan 23 s. 6. 7. No tape. C. No tape. bombi. Sao Phomma. Ton. B. The Vietnames shot up the ~ouse at night. c. T-28 firebomb. He was . Sene Noi. Lat Sene. Nhat.. O. Nason. No tape.• l et. 8. Sao Toum NL V. There were planes all around dropping flares and shooting. There were no soldiers in the village. IV. N8. Boys had gone to work in the ricefield. D. No relatives killed by PL. C. 1. 6. Ton N eua.c0Il!ing back from the market when the planes came.66/6. Nakhu. Ban Ang. T. 4. 5. D. T. He was at h?me in RLG controlled area. 5. Phoum. 12. Husband TitPhan 43y. Just after they finished eating. (unsure of origin of bullets) . 178 families 91)8 people. Ton TaL Naha. There were no soldiers in the area. O. D. C.: T. He didn't get into the hole in time. N ong Tal. Sao Som. Older brother Kang Chouk. VILLAGJ!:S nht. C. 11. Sao. 7.2A. No relatives killed by PL. He had gone to visit relatives. lIe was shot at night. No tape. let. 8. O. 8. B. Sao Tum. T. 10. '68/11 doesn't remember day but about 10 A)I. Jet with big bombs. N. T. Nason. O. O. Ton. Unsure of year but it was 9th month. Xieng Bout Si died that evening. 8. He was sitting in the house just like we are now.2A. Si. He didn't flee In time. Sene Noy. V. O. 15. T. T. '66/7/13. C. Gunshot. 14. V.. T. Ngoua Tai. Sene Noy. T. Fat. '69/9. D. The jets just dropped bombs on the vlllagers. They wanted money. Sene Noy. Sene Noy. Manh. D. B.72 O. V. Sang. Everything burned up. Tit Khampheng and Backhamta ran into the hole but a bomb dropped near their hole. Fat. Older brother Xieng Bout 8i 48 y. Phone. H usbang Xieng Phila 60 y. T. . C. The planes shot the house and he died immediately There were no soldiers in the village. D. He w~s taking things from our house. ). B. B. 66/1. Mi.2A. 8. D. VILLAGES V. C. 2.• lets and T-28's with big big bombs. T. 3. 5. N. bullets from a '1'-28. No N gan. He was walking along a path after t. There were only villagers in the area. 7. Ban Ban Ban Ban Ban Ban Ban Ban Ban Ban Ban Ban Ban Ban Ban Theuang. ne went off and killed him. Sao 80m. Naheung. Shot. 13. Sene Noy. 6. Ban Ban Ban Ban Ban Ban Ban Kao. Lat Sene. the house burned up. Ngoua Neua. Sao Moune Ta. He was at home and the plane dropped a big firebomb. D. O. Me Sanout. 69/6. B. . His wife and child died also. 6i/11. 2. B.he jet had dropped the bombi. 'ron. in-law Xieng Nohn 47 y. 69/9. the jets came. Sao Som. There were 110 soldlers around only villagers.67/3. . Younger brother Bathon 28 y.0 relatives killed by l'L or VX T. N. D. Three or four PL soldiers were also killed at the same time. b. )fayhe by a plane but not sure. No tape. 2310 people. T. Three others died also. V. C. BUllets from a T-28. Relative. D. C. T. Ban "Iak Hiao--Tasseng Sene xoi. Sene Nov. B. There were no soldiers around. Nadii. O. BAN VEUN KHENE INTERVIEWS 1. 3. There were no soldiers around.
. They were at home. a. 4. V. D. V. Sene Nol. "t. There were no soldiers around. No relatives killed by PL or VN. N. There were no soldiers around. There were no soldiers around. Seng. Had been ordered to go porter for PI. Was too little to know enough to flee when the planes came. D. father. B. O. There were no soldiers around when the jet bombed. Ther~ was only our village. There were no holes nearby which he could get into. three children and a cousin. N-V.2B. N. T. '69/3/7. B. Had gone to porter for the PL and was killed by bombs from plane. T. No relatives killed by PL or ME-o soldiers. D. T-6. '66/7/25 (?) Doesn't remember date exactly "was so afraid that I can t remember exactly. The planes shot up the houses but son did not reach the holes in time. V. '69/10.m. Nasou. (Plain of Jars) Vietnamese 3. No relatives shot or killed by the PL or VN. T. Son Titminh 30 y. N. T. He was in Ban Si. Wife Sao Oum. There were no soldiers around neither Plan VN. C.2B. V. Jet. He was unconscious and very sick but he recovered. SL Xieng Boua Phan. O.2B. T. b. T. Xieng Phomma. 7 a. Thao More (village secretary). 9.ork in ricefield all day. hear the planes commg. Ban Done 'l'ai-Tasseng Seng (Thao Pileung Vongsa ) (Khnrnphoui ) 122 families 713 people. Nong Kuang. There were no soldiers around. Nasou. D. 2. Sene NoL SL Onh Chanh. T. . He was playing at edge of ricefleld. T-28 fire bomb. Bomb from jet. Son Bit Mou117 y. C. T. Kohm. Sao La.2B. three children.1). Bombs from plane. Nasom. 69/7 (doesn't remember day because she was so afraid. C. There were no soldiers in the village but the planes bombed anyway.2B. C.) O. 7. VILLAGES T. Only villagers the the planes bombed and the house burned up completely. mother Me Douangta. Ban Kom. He was hit in the lower part of his left leg and in his left shoulder. T. Sen Nol. V. Nine. He was hit by bomb fragments in the neck and chest. 5. BAN DONA TAl INTERVIEWS Seng. Sao Bona Pa. O. Mother Sao Sonh 50. C. B. D. T. his wife. T. big bomb from T-28. O. Can only walk a little and he has four children whom he can't support because he can't work in the field. mother. N. N. O. Mother was 120 y but still very healthy "Stronger than me". Younger brother Sene Noi. Sene NoL B. O. Older brothel'. a. Big. D. Side 19 y. Phou Houm. T. '69/9/27. C. when he stepped on mine. B. 6816/10. He was too small to know enough to run. But she was deaf and didn't. V. Son Khamseum 75 T. C. V. He was playing near ricefleld. b. Has 3 children left. Kohm. B. Sene NoL B. N.: T. There were no soldiers in the village. z. Sene N oi. V. O. ago 3rd month. Had been going to buy some things to ea t near his home.: I O." O. Younger brother was also hurt. N. O. Has had no relatives killed by PL or VN. Chan Panya. No relatives shot or killed by PL or VN. F105 big.2B. a. 6. C.) T. D. Phou Houm. '69/8/16. Sao Noy. father Titkhamta.4A. There were no soldiers in the village on the day the bombs were dropped. Xieng Som DL V. N. Y. V. '68/4/11. Sao Pheng. Sao Oum. . '64/9. Mother Sao Kanna 120 s. D.: T. 4 y. No relatives killed by P L or VN. Lost wife. C. 6. C. '68/9. Small bomb (doesn't know what kind of plane) He had been taking care of buffalo alone.2B. The whole family died. Bombi from jet. 3. T.. Shot. O. T-28 (not sure) big bomb. D. Bombi from Jet. O. C. D. T. Son Thao Van 13y. He had gone to work in the rice field and his family was all at home.2B. D. T. 1. Saw the plane and ran for a hoie Lut didn't make it. 3-4 yrs. Bomb fragment. Parents were working in their upland rteefield and garden.2B. B.2B.: T. Big. 1. big bombs from T-28. 2. He was killed outside village when he reo turned. T. N. Had gone to visit relatives. B. He died 30 min later. Son Leng 20 y.74 N. 8. b. B. C. N. (Note: Probably same incident as Veunkham #1 and l\1ak Hiao #4. three children and all his belongings all he had were the clothes on his back. Son Khamsing 8 s. Son Thao Van 14 y. Sene Nol. big bomb. When fleeing to this side to Thong Hai Hin shot her. (Note: probably same family as Veunkham No. Na Sou. D. There were no soldiers around.: V. V. Son Xieng Keo. C. D.4A. Could w. '67/7/15. The government hasn't yet changed his PL money.
T. V. V.returned. Titkbamta. Kohm. Thao Vong. Seng. ThaD Myouang. T. Tit Bouang Dl. '68/12. V. (and 6B later as noted above) T. They had gone to the upland rieefield when Xieng Ohn stepped on a big can (lmpong) mine. D. She had gone to the garden with her mother. Seng. T. C. T.4A.: T. '68/6. Both Thao Khanta and Thao Sou were killed by the shell. N. B. T. Maybe they thought he was a PL soldier. V. The PL soldiers never used the path to the ricefield. Kohm. T. Daughter Nang Tut 35 y. Thao Phan (village secretary Thao Mone) . Bout Di and Xieng Khong were sawing wood outside their homes when a Shell from the government side (RLG) fell in the yard killing both of the men. Tit Khamta. T. 9. He had gone to get grass to put on the roof of his house when he stepped on a mine of the Meo soldiers.4A. Kohn. D. N. T. 5. She had gone to tbe garden with Nang Phai and h:-r mother. E. '67/9. Unsure where exactly the shot came from. T. Nang Mal (village secretary Thao :\Ione). C. C. B. V. Older brother Xieng PhiIa 33 s. T. B. O. '66/6 about 8 am. 14. T. '66/7. Sao Not V. 11. Kohm.4A. Xieng Thanh (village secretary Thao Mone). O. C. Son Thao Mi 12 yr. D. D. O. 13. Older brother Khanta 44 s older brother of ThaD Su named Thao Sou 45 y. N.4A. He lost all of his lower leg and died very soon. B. Seng. E. but only once in a long while.4A.4A. C. Seng. Had gone to get buffalo and when he came back he was killed by a mortar from the Meo soldiers. When they . Son. Thao Sing. a. E. B. Jet B-52 had dropped the bombs 3-4 days earlier. Had gone fishing with Nang Tut and Thao On and was killed at the same time. T. T.4A. Seng. b. T. Mine. They always came and went through the forest on different ways but not along the path. V. 4. D. '69/. 75mm shell. As t. O. There were no soldiers in the village. N. D.4A. T. D. V. C. T. He had gone to the upland ricefleld with his parents. '69/9 (later told me it was '66/6 about 8 :30 a. There were no soldiers in the area. tape 6B). Seng. V. V. V. Kohm. T. C. M-14 mine. '66/7 about 12 Noon. Kohm. village chief.76 D. B. o. 75mm shell. '67/9. Nang Phiou (village secretary Thao Mone) . Kohm. but Nan Pbai was too small to know enough to get in to the ditch. There were no soldiers around. O. N. Younger brother Thao Pha 35 s. N. Big bomb from T-28. Xieng Phomma (ThM Mone Village secretary). T. Kohm. She didn't because it was full of water. 'I'here were no soldiers around. 10. B. Gunshot. but there were no soldiers in the area. Nang Phai 5 yr. Bombi from "B-52" plane.: 77 lage. Younger sister Nang Bae 6 sD. Seng. 8. In a month once or twice but sometimes they didn't corne at all for two or three months.m. Both of them were killed. Husband Xieng Ohn 45 and 12 yr. There were no soldiers around. T. V. Kohm. Younger brother Tit Bout Di 25 st: and Xieng Khong younger brother ot 'I'hao Mon. Son Tit Nan Tbi 33 s.4A.4A. 106 mm shell. 'I'hao Pheng (village secretary Thao Mone). There were no soldiers around. Older sister Nang Ma. PL soldiers sometimes came to the viI5. "Can" mine. Kohm. N. '68/9. B. Meo soldiers were shooting at the PL but they made a mistake and shell fell near Ban Kohm. N. Had gone to porter for the PL when he stepped on a mine of the Meo soldiers. Seng. Mine. 7. he ran ahead of his parents and stepped on the mine put in by the Moo soldiers. N. There were no soldiers around. 67-587-71--6 . His wife was wounded at the same time but she didn't die. T. old son. O.m. C. when he stepped on it.4A. '64/6 about 3 p. Seng. 3. Seng. D.hey returned the planes came over.4A. . Had gone to school and when returning home was killed by bombi. N. O. C. N. 75 mm shell. O. C. E. C. O. also killed. The Meo soldiers shot him from far away. There were PL and NVN soldiers in the area. D. T. N. Seng. Kobm. O. C.in-law Thao On 35 s. Seng. T. D. '68/8. 12. N. O. C. Big bomb from T-28. The PL soldiers came to visit only once in a long long while. Had gone to get rice seedlings to transplant. They had gone to catch fish near Ban Kom when shell from Moo soldiers fell and killed them. But ~he children were too small to know enough to get mto the hole WIth Nang Phai's mother. 66/6 in the evening about 4 pm. 6. O.4A. . Thao Khing (village secretary Thao Mone). T. Seng. Kohm. T.
'67/4. 15. Most uf the bornbi came from jets and f rom T-26s-like. '65/8. The worst were the little bombs. T. we had to work at night or early in the morning. pum. N-V. arm and back. The bombi had been dropped by the jet two or three hours earlier. Bombi from T-28. But they really just explode by themselves. T. pnm. we called r_r-28.bomb. N-V. N. If we even heard the sound of-plane we WOuldrun for our holes. every day. O. T. Tit Pheng. D. hand. And just as you walk by one it explodes. The jets and T-28's came for many years-when we were with the PL. But it depended whether they saw people or not. If they saw a fire they would shoot. It was very difficult. '66/6 about 5 p. T. T. Son Thao ]\fo 4 s. Seng. The T-28's usually dropped big bombs sometimes bombi but not usually. V. so they WOUldn'tsee us. N-V. we called jet and the kind that went softer. O. A 75 mm shell about three meters from the house. pum. houses. C. Now its better but I still can't work very welL When they operated they took out a bone in my foot so it is dlffleult for me to walk. Jets. If they saw any people:-they didn't know if they were villagers or soldiers-they would bomb them. No tape. 21. Daughter Nang Kham 5 y. Seng. Right after cooking at 6 o'clock we had to put out the fires even if it was very cold. Bombi from T-28. '69/9. O. Mine. The kind that went very strong and loud. T. Father Xieng Phim 60 y and wife Sao Boun 27 yr. Seng. '67/8 about 8 o'clock in the morning. He was treated in a PL bospital but still can't work in tbe field. He was later taken to Hanoi and given an artificial leg. He had hidden in a hole when the jet dropped the bombs. buffalos. Artillery. Kohm. And even when he goes walking he can't keep up with his fnends because he has to walk very slowly. B. T. T. Mine of cannister type. in diameter) which we called bombi.4A. Jets. O. D. Nong Kuang. No soldiers in the village that day. Every day they would bomb three. In '65 it was mostly the T-28's which bombed. Kohm. C. Only villagers (General Narration with Thao Phoum and other refugee's from Done Tal). they bombed every year every. B. pum.78 V. T. She had gone to the field with the buffalo and was napping there. b. C. Mine. Stepped on a M-14 mine. 6B 22. At night it was the kind we called Dakota or the kind that looks like a soldiers clothes. 16. T-28'S They bombed everything. "oil bomb from six planes T-28s and T-6s. Kohm. Don't know whether it was the T-2S or the T-6 which dropped the "oil" bombs. The bombi were mostly from the jets and the T-26 planes. And the kind Dakota rrrrrr shot at night. '69/8/12 about noon. There were no soldiers in the area. O. There were no soldiers around. We T. When they went back to get the buffalo they set off the mine. C. T. Seng. It exploded killing him. T. Thao Sing. D.4B. The T-6 was bigger than the T-28 but we just called them all T-28. Mother Ta() Inh about 70 yrs. just like someone set it off. D. (Note: Thao Vohng was permanently blinded by the bombi).: T. When the airplanes came I ran for the holes but didn't make it. Was working with buffalo in ricefield when buffalo stepped on M-14 mine of the Neo soldiers. There were no soldiers in the area when the jet dropped the bombi. They would drop all over the village. V. T-28's. He had been eating evening meal with his family. He lost his leg only. a. 21. Because if we heard the sound of a plane we had to flee for the holes. B. O. T. C. However he still cannot work very easily. The planes dropped the oil bombs and her blouse and skirt caught on fire. The jets didn't come much until 1966and after. T. Thao Phom 43 y now. this size (indicating a sphere 8-12 cm. He stepped on a bombi which a T-28 plane had dropped earlier. Kohm. B. four or even five hmes. D. r-r-r-r-r. Tit Phong (village secretary Tao Mone). Older brother Thao So 33 s. D. N. D. And explode. O. They had gone to take buffalo to the ricefield. C. V. everything. She was deaf so didn't hear the planes. O. D. The bombi came from a big cannister that exploded in the air scattering the little bombs. C.4A. There were no soldiers near. B. If they saw you theY WOUld. '65/3. killing them both. B. B.6B. Seng. A bombi exploded as he passed hit him in the foot. If it was so cold that we had to make a fire then we had to keep branches handy so if we heard the sound of a plane we could put out the fire.4A. Thao Thone. transplanting rice. Can only hold a spade with one h~nd. O. T-2R . After five or ten minutes most explode then after two or three hours you think that they are all exploded and you come out. T. At that time in '65 it was mostly the T-28s which came but there were some jets too. D. Was coming back from the upland ricefield to his house. Muang.6B. He was hit by a fragment and died the next morning. N-V.4A. Still has some pellets from the bombi inside his leg and arm. Thao Soun. Kohm. 19. N-V. C. She died one day later. 18. every. Seng. If anyone wasn't very careful they would die. Bombi from jet. There were no soldiers in the village when the shell hit. D. people. She had run for a hole but a big bomb dropped near her hole. but they hadn't. Because if they saw the fire they would drop bombs. There were no soldiers in the area. T-28 except bigger. Then in the daytime we slept (laughter). 'Ve couldn't let them see the fire. Seng. Xieng Thong. C. V. Bomb from T-28. B. 20. He thought that they had all exploded. Kohm. '66/1 about 7 m. She died three days later.m. Had been working in the ricefield. '64/1. '65/3 about 4 pm. Thao Vohng 38 s. T. 17. There were different kinds of planes. O. Seng. 79 couldn't work during the day. He had gone to chase pigs out of the rice field. I was hit in the head and hand. N.
The PL soldiers came and took him about 40 km to the hospital at Lat Bouak.Thao Phu's (village chief) younger brother Thao Phai 4 y and Sao Nyouang's son 4 y were also killed at the same time. This time it was one person from each village. Seng. C. T. VI. Sao Nan. Mine. Sao Ba was curious and picked some . T. Mene. N.: T. B. Daughter Nang Thong 13 s'68/10 about 11 p. The poison came from T-6 planes.4B.6B. Husband Titwan 35 r. T. There were no soldiers with him.3A. Government soldiers ambushed him. 4. '64/11 about 12 noon. V. D. Soldiers in the area. D. a. There were some PL in the area. Pho Nan. Thao Da. Some PL soldiers had died nearby.4B. VILLAGE 81 T. ill C. T. B.3A. D. O. V. 6. The mine was from the Meo soldiers. T. BAN NKUNG INTERVIEWS . C. N. D. There were no soldiers with him. They probably suspected he was a PL. Mine. Seng.) T. N. Ban Nong Kuang. up. O. Sao Dum. T. somewhere in Xieng Khouang province. Seng. D. 3. But the planes dropped the bombs right on the houses. Father Pho Nan 48 s. C. drafte? into this task stepped on a mine. 4A (incomplete tape). T. He was alone. There had been no soldiers in the village when the planes bombed. Sao Som. Sao Si had gone out to the ricefield with her mother.m. O. D. He had gone to the forest and was returning with bufl'alo. T. Cannister mine. T. But he was just a villager. The planes dropped ~e poison three times. Seng. "poison" from planes. '68/7 around noon. (Later the village chief told me tha t the poison was dropped many times. N. C. Mene. Mene. Thao Pengo V . B. 8. Xieng Thong came out of the holes to try to put out the fire. T. This was before we fled our homes. T~ere were soldiers with Thao La when he died but don't know if any soldiers died. Younger brother Thao Bata. B. Fire bomb from T-28. O. N. Uncertain whether she ate it or just smelled it. Small arms. She picked some of it up and smelled it. N. There were no soldiers in the village. 5. O. Had taken children to the holes. Sao' Maa and one PL soldier were killed. Other PL soldiers organized v agel's to carry the dead soldiers back to their villages. The child was at home. She became very drunk and died the next day. V. V. How many people go portering from each village depends on how muc~ equipment the PL have to transport. like the T-28 only bigger. He was returning from porterIng for the PL for 2 days. C. When the planes came over the children were afraid and ran inside. VN or bombing. A PL soldier. On the way a bombi which had dropped earlier exploded killing her. Older sister Sao Maa about 40 y. Son Thao Phone 4 s. B. 1. T. Nang Ouan (Thao Phu). 2.4B. and Xieng Thong was hit in the stomach. Nang Ming. Ban Muang. O. N. When villagers have to go portsrlng they usu~lly go for around three days. T. If it's not very much few go. There weren't any PI. Gunshot and grenade. D. T. None were killed by the mine.4B. If It IS a lot many go. B. "Canon. She became very drunk and threw up and dIed the next day. Seng. Mene. There were no ~ol(Jler~in the villaA'e." C. Husbang Thao Tha. Mene. T. Sao Naa (village chief Thao Phu). D. O. died at the same time. O. He had been gone on the porterage for three days. T. Mene. She had gone to take gifts to the Wat. 7. Some PL w~re passilng by and stopped to watch and talk with the villagers catching fish Meo soldiers up on the mountain saw the PL and shot at them. 9. Younger brother Thao La 17 y. Daughter Sao Ba 5 s. Seng. Usually we were very careful because the PL had told us that it was poison. Seng. N. 9. '69/3. V. '67/3. Seng. The PL had taken him to porter for them. B. But Sao Si picked it up and smelled it before her mother could keep her from pteklng it up. Mene. D. Mene. V. B. 10.4B. '67/10 in the morning. B. O. Seng. '69/9. N. he stepped on a mine. Sen. The planes had dropped the gold and silver paper. Younger sister Sao Si 8 years old. C The planes had dropped poison.M. The planes came back and strafed again. Sao Nyouang). The village chief has to select who WIll go. Silver and gold paper from the airplanes. b. '67/7/3 about 5 PM. The planes bombed the houses. V. O.3A. As he returned. Ban Mene. C. Sao Di (village chief Thao Pha ). Sao Maa had gone to look for fish outside Ban Mene. The children's parents had all gone to work in the upland ricefield. Mene.3A. They probably thought he was a soldier. He was pottering for the PL one day out of Ban Mene. T. 30 families 158 people. The Meo soldiers saw him and shot him immediately.80 C. Sao An (Thao Phu village chief. '66/10 about 8 A. They had released him to come back alone. a company officer. V. C. Has no other relatives killed by PL. T. Bombi from T-28 (?). N. There were no soldiers around when they dropped the poison. '65/6. Mene. T. D. B. Ban NaKung-Tasseng Seng. V.
) It was very pretty so the children like to pick it up. ducks. T. '69/5 in the evening. T. Bouak. T. The girl who died had picked it up and put it around her neck and smelled it. Bonak. He was hit and killed along the way. Seng. Mane. '67/9/11 about 8 A. '66/2/9 about 11 A. A group of villagers had gone to their upland ricetleld to get rice. 7. D. Xieng Pheng (village Secretary)". (At this point one man picked up a rice straw to show me what the paper was like. I asked. D. Sao Ba was wearing a white blouse. But the plane. I. C. Seng. No tape. Leh. Be couldn't get his clothes off fast enough. 11. Can mine. B. It was on a path which villagers always used going. . No tape. Seng. Ban Kohm. Na! Phouang (village chief).M. O. the children didn t run because they were afraid that the planes would see them. Seng.82 V. B. T. Wife's younger brother Xieng Moun 37 y. But they bad started a small fire to keep warm. 67/12 about 10 A. buffalo so he went out to see. b. We couldn't touch it so we bad to take sticks and push it into holes and bury it. 3. When they were returning some Moo soldiers saw them and shot at them. Bouak. Ban Thoun Loua-Tasseng Seng. Big bomb 500kg from jet. Seng. '65/12 about 2 P. V. Ban Leh. C. VILLAGES 83 him. When the planes dropped the burning oil Ai Tao was hit. D. Son Pa Pheung 3 y and younger sister Sao Euan 12 y. N. Bouasone (village chief). Big bomb 500 kg from a T-28. Pigs. In Ban Mone. 5. T. "I do not yet understand about this poison. '67/11. T. C. T. C The three men had taken their buffalo out to the fields when four T-28s . O. Younger brother Thao S124--25y. Seng. O. O. T. Thao Phone.M. V. a. They dropped it all over. .M.3A. Bouak. Around noon he stepped on the mine and died. 12.one would die. D. We had to live with the pigs and eat with the dogs. came over. Mine. V. '68/5 about 11 A. C. He had gone to look tor a place to make an upland rlcelleld. Both Sao Ba and Bai Eh were killed. '69. 4. V. The children had been playing in the sun. O. If animals ate the grass on which the poison had dropped they would die.) Very narrow. Be was going to the upland ricefield. We had told the children not to run back to the big holes when the planes came because they would see where the big shel~ers were and then every. T.3A. Sao Nya. No soldiers ever used the path. Sao Phohng. silver and gold paper. No. back and forth. Doesn't know who set the rnme but we were living in region controlled by PI •. Life was very difficult then because the planes came all the time. T. He stepped on a mine and was killed.6B. They ran for the forest but they did not get there in time. Father Al Tao 80 s. O. N. They dropped it many times in '67. V. Thao Khan. Daughter Nang Khong 15 s. No tape. All three were killed. The l'athet Lao told us that it was poison. cousin Thao Van 28 y Thao Phan 38 y. '66/5. There were no soldiers in the area. VII. T. cows even dogs died from the poison. Thao Phu (primarily). 6. Leh. B. Tbey were afraid and ran out and Nang Khong was killed and the other two were wounded. II d hi C He had heard a mine go off and he was afraid that it had ki e B . D. N. T. N. B. T. No tape. (I returned to Nalrung after I realized that 1 had not comprehended the explanation of the "poison". D. BAN THOUN LOUA INTERVIEWS N. The path was only used by villagers. C. The PL soldiers never used the path. The planes dropped a bomb which broke open and sent out the paper. T. Son Xieng Nyo 21 y.M. The T-28 planes dropped the burning oil this time. B. 500kg bombs from T-28's. The polson was dropped by T-28's and T-6 planes. The "poison" was sent down by the airplanes. There were no soldiers in the village that day. Four days after he was hit he died. Big bomb 500kg from a T-28. Three children had gone to look tor fish when the plane came. '66/11 in the evening. 1. We called it 1Ia phit or 1Ia beua. D. V. Soldiers never used it. C. Bouak. '68. D. B. 6. chickens. The plane saw them playing in the open space. Ban Bouak. V. N. D. When the planes came. so 1 talked with the village chief Thao Phu and a group of 4 or 5 others.: T. No tape. No tape. Thao Kong (vUlage chief Bouasone). Bumps came out all over his body and then they burst and his eyes burst also.M. Not really white but this color like your watch (silver. O. Big big bomb from T-28. Seng. Ban Leb. They were both buried when the bomb exploded. N. There were no soldiers around. There were no soldiers with . V. Seng. T. Sao Di who had originally told me of her sister and daughter being killed by the poison was not in the camp. Can you explain It to me?") N. Tbere were :livevillagers in the group no soldiers but the Meo probably thought they were soldiers. Two viUagers died. T. Burning oil. T. B. No tape. Daughter Sao Ba 12 yr and young nephew Bai Enly. Husband Thao Kbanta 43 y. Older brotber Tbao Kong. O. It was long but very narrow like the noodles in Chinese soup. Sao Ba and Sao Si didn't eat the poison they just picked it up and smelled it and in two days they died. buffalo. There were no soldiers in the area. D. B. O. 2. '68/6 early morning. They tried to stay still. Older brother Xieng Ouan 39 s. . V. 57 families 223 people. an F-4-hat jet dropped big bombs in the area of their hole. N. The plane probably saw the fire before they could put it out. Big bombs from T-28. Be was badly burned. a.
At that time. big bombs. No tape. and a tree fell over on the child killing him. Leh. Bouak.M. A thousand. T. '67/6/1S. T. D. N. Later ve . V. The bombi had been dropped by T-28 two days earlier. No tape. C.6B. Husband's younger sister Sao Deng 22 y. 'Ve had to collect them and bury them. Leh. '68/11/9 about 11 A. '68/2/9 about 12 Noon. green and brown like the color of a dried up leaf. Triangular in shape and quite flat. Seng. C. He was only S0-4Om away from the village. 14. Thao Bu was in his hole near the village. the planes came four or five Urnes a day. Xieng Bona (narrated originally by village Chief Bonasone.6B. But the planes must have seen them because they dropped the bombs. Seng.M. 11. B. Bombi from T-28's. Wben the planes came---six of them-all the people lay down in the field.). The planes bombed the forest around the village also and that's when Thao Bu died. Two T-28 planes came over. And only one plane. The planes dropped big. Son Thao Phorn 10 y. There were no soldiers. But there were many. They were very dangerous and we had to be very careful. '67/10 about 8 A. 66/8/11 about 9 A. ri N. They were much smaller. C. 16. Ten buffalo were killed from stepping on the butterfly bombs. We learned that it was safe to pick them up by one of the three corners. Sao Douang. 8. 7. 11. O. 10. The planes were bombing village next to the ricefield. Nang Deng.4B. Seng. No soldiers in area. O. T. B. Bona. Two villagers died. T. Big bombs from T-28 planes. No. C. C. B. 'When the jet dropped the butterfly bombs there were no soldiers in the whole area. Many people had been working together in the field binding bundles of rice and taking them for storage.: V. I can't tell you anything about the poison they never dropped any poison in Ban Bouak. O. D. O. There were some far away but there were none near. V. O. N. N. O. Xieng Douans couldn't get out of the ricefield in time and was killed. O. There were no soldiers in the village. B. T.) They only dropped these bombs once. Son Thao Onh. They probably saw him because they bombed the village. There were no soldiers around when the bombs were dropped. C. N. The planes had already passed once but while Thao Ph om was in the village six T-28's came back.4B. Child had been playing in area near the village. Sao Deng was killed by one of the bombi which exploded when she was near. D. . C. He was just walking along when he was hit. Mostly T-2S's bombed then. The jets and the T-28's would come together. N. The jets started coming heavity in 1968. The boy was sleeping at home. T. Big bombs from T-28's. V. T. T. Xieng Douang was working in the ricefield when four T-28 planes of the very black kind came over. Big bombs from jet.: T. Big bombs from T-28 planes. There were no soldiers near. B. Sao Toum (village chief Bouasone). fied by Xieng Boua). These bombs carne in two dif· ferent colors.4B. O. 85 Nephew of Xieng Boua named Xleng Phoumi19 y. V. Son Thao Thone. There were no soldiers around. Seng. Two nephews Thao Phom 16 y and Thao Bu 24 y. No one else was killed. Bouak. 9. (At this point he took two leaves. Thao Ot and Sao Me's daughter Nang Deng who was 19 s. Everyone else in the village had heard the planes coming and had fied.: T. Bombi from T-28. B. N. T. D. Pho Phouang (village chief). We hadn't yet gone to live in the holes. D. Leh. Villagers were all living in holes but Thao Phom returned to the village to get rice for the children to eat. one green and one dry and brown in order to show me what the butterfly bombs were like. T. 12. Thao Sing. The bombs dropped too close to the house and the child was killed immediately. T. D. There were no soldiers around.M. Three days ear1ier 2 T28s and 2 F-4·hat jets had destroyed a bridge and had dropped bombi all around the area of the bridge. Two T-28 planes came over. V. T. Nang Ban. '66/1 about 10 A. If we touched either of the wrong corners the bombs would explode ami we would he killed.4B. C. He was alone in the rice field. Leh (near Ban Leh). T. N. :\Iore than a thousand. bombs from T-28.M. Sao Deng had gone out to watch the buffalo. Bombi from T-28. But a jet did drop butterfly bombs on Ban Bouak once in 1968. His parents had gone to work in the ricefield. He tried to hide along the path but there wasn't any good place to hide. Seng. n.6H. Seng. The kind with wire. If you stepped on one it would explode and blow off your leg. There was no one in the village. Very small like a leaf. . There were no soldiers in the village when the planes bombed. There were no soldiers around that day neither in the village or in the forest. In an area as big as like Thoun Loua to Ban Nakung (4-5 km. T. 13. a. Bombi from jets and T-28's.84 C. they were dangerous. D.M. T. There were no soldiers around. We were in the upland ricefield when these bombs were dropped. T. H. Sao Me V. Seng. His parents were working in the upland ricefield. 15. but the planes saw the buffalo and dropped the bombs. Seng. He hid. they weren't the same as bombi. He was killed by the bombi. '66/11/22 about 11 A. b. D. B. He was coming back from the upland ricefield. He was bringing the buffalo back home. They were dropped all around. Leh.4B. Villagers were sttlt living in the village. '68/12/13 about 2 P. Yes. Everyone ran for the holes but a bomb hit Xieng Phouml's hole and killed him. V. B. He was coming back from his bath at the river. Bouak. O. Son Thao Phom 23 y. Seng. Thao Pheng.'\10. Son of older sister Xieng Douang 19 y. Four planes came and bombed the village. Older brother Thao Ot 22 s. But by one corner it was safe to pick them up. 500 kg. C. 67/9/8 about noon.M. b.
7A.M. shell from Bouamlong. '69/9. O. The children had been told to stay in the holes and hide from the planes. 2. Nang Boudi ate some vegetables near where the bomb had fallen. Daughter Sao Phim 8 s. Older brother Thao La. they started to throw up. 24. T. The planes had dropped poison two D. D. T. T. Nasay. Thao Khan. D. of F105 like the one which dropped bomb which injured Thao Bouala. bombs and both girls were killed. D. T. O. B. 18. Nasay. N.M. Sao Leh was eating in a hole. They hid in a hole when the planes came. C. 106 mm. Three days later they all died. There were no soldiers In the area. But in many different sizes sometimes as big as 1 m. T. 1 ) (Earlier Xieng BOUR and Bouasone had described the poison in genera terms. 3. N. Both T-288 and jets were around that day. T. Naliang. pigs. Ban Ban Ban Ban Siphom. Daughter. They stopped to eat some sour leaves. C. shell fell nearby and a fragment flew into the hole and killed her immediately. Big bombs from a jet. Bouak. T. C. V. Khamphounta was shy and preferred that I take a picture of her children. Sang. the kind which they regularly ate. Dong Kaleum-Tasseng Xieng. BAN DONG KALEUM Xieng. VIII. Threw up many times. The planes dropped the poison many times. Kang Pa. C. Tit Boun Thong had been working in the ricefield and did not reach the hole in time when the planes came over. B. There were no soldiers in the area. N. There were no soldiers in the area that day. There were no soldiers around when the planes bombed. The kind Which they shoot. But the jets dropped big. O. C. V. Nang Khamphounta couldn't remember how many times the planes came over in a day because when they came she was very frightened and just ran for shelter. Bouak. A 106 shell from Bouamlong fell near them killing them both. Artillery shell from Bouamlong. Thao La was working in the ricefield when the jet ca~e over. Leh. Thao Bouasone village chief. . Khamphanh and Phon were in the village. Thao Chandi's son Thao Phi 6 yr. No relatives have been killed by the PL or the Vietnamese. No tape. V. ArtllIery shell. There were no soldiers around." C. N. C.M. No tape. Thao Bouala tied for the hole when the jets came but he didn't make it. N. 20.7A. there were always planes around. T. D. Husband Tit Boun Thong 27 s. '69/8/23 in the afternoon 3 or 4 P. No tape. Thao Duan. Nal Mul. The soldiers (PL) usually stayed in the forest and in the mountains. Thao SoP!. Xieng. Leh. The . Daughters Nong Khamphanh 3 y and Nang Phon 2 r. Seng. V. We think that the bomb had poisoned the vegetables. VILLAGES N. x 25 em. The poison was like sheets of paper. Big bombs from T-28. She got sick and died three days later. Sao Thongdi. No tape. '69/7. O.M. He survived but lost the use of his left ann. Relative Thao Keo 26 sD. They never came to stay in the village. T. (Pic. Sao Khampa (village chief Boua Sane). Sao Thoumi's daughter Nang Yang Pheng 3 yr. D. The bomb was about the size of a bucket. B. '66/11 about 8 A.) T. It would burn your feet if you stepped on it. Seng. Big. buffalos and chickens. C. 3. until noon. Be was hit in the neck and 1. O. T. T. shell fragment struck her. '69/11 about 10 A. The poison had probably contaminated the' leaves. Thao Oun's son Thao Phi 10 y. V. Smoke bomb (1). T. 60 families 340 people. T. B. She died immediately. O. The T-28's didn't bomb very much then. to 4 P. '00/3/14 or 15 IIbout 2 P. "Every time I heard a plane I fled fur the holes. Sang.M. She was playing in the vi'llage when the shell hit. '67/10. Seng. The poison was like sheets of paper. He had been working in the ricetield near the village. Seng. O. '69/4 about 9 A. cows.) 17. 1. D. O.frag. C. Grand-daughter Sao Leh 4 s." (Picture is of Nang Khamphounta's children Phomachan and Chanthadon. Many animals died from the poison. Be ran for a hole when the planes came but did not make it. N.. ments from the bombi killed him. 2. V. Son Thao Phiou 8 s .M. Bombi from a jet. big bombs from T-28 or jet (not sure). T. The children had gone to care for the bufl'alo. B. N. Xieng. A smoke bomb fell near the hole. D. But this time after eating the leaves. V. A. B. Bouak.M. A. 19.) T. Xieng Pa. He was hit by fragments from a bomb. C. (Partial interview only. D. B. T. Adults had gone to work in the village. Nang Khamphounta. Don't know whether it was T-28 or jet which dropped the smoke bomb. '67/5 about noon. At that time the planes were always around. O. There were no soldiers In the village. big bombs-500 kg. It was both green and white in color. Seng. T. V. Most of the adults in the village had gone to work in the upland rlcefield.M. The boys didn't make it to the hole in time. '69/1/12. 6B. The guns in Bouamlong would sometimes shoot constantly from 7 A. Sons Thao Boun Tham 4 y and Thao Boun Thian 2 y. T. V. Younger brother Thao Bouala now 10 years old. 4. Mostly F105 and F-4-hat jets. 87 days before. E. No tape. Bomb from FI05 jet. "Poison. V. N. Phia Vat. 4. From 7 A. Xieng. No tape. There were no soldiers around when they dropped the pOlson. B. The planes had dropped the poison on the village and the area aroun~ the village. There were no soldiers in the vitlage but the planes probably thought that there were some in the forest near the village. N.86 Xieng Thong. O. No tape. Ifi .
: V. N. Xieng Som Si 15 yr. He had come hack from working in the field and had stopped to talk with friends. T. There were no soldiers around at the time. O. The FlO!) jets first came in 1965.5A. B. Bombs from T-28. T. Xieng. They just shot everything. There were more than one hundred prisoners in the jail. He had gone to porter for the PL. D. N. N. can't remember what kind of planes. N. D. They had just heen sitt ine talking together.M. Xieng. Three planes (thinks they were jets but not sure) came over. T. Son Xleng Ouan 26 s. O. Xieng. b. In '67 the planes didn't come very often. O. B. B. The bombing was the worst in '68 and '69. 67/5. a. '64/11 about 5 P. jet or T-2S (not sure) . There were no soldiers in the village at th~ time. N-V. Pho Ngeun Nan Ta's son Xieng Dam Douan 18 s. T. He only knew that he was shot while he was in the village. Xieng. D. She was the only one in the house. V. ":T. F-4-hat jets.5A. There were no soldiers in the village when the bombs were dropped.5A. Rixty·thl'ee died when the planes bombed. B.5A. '67/7 about 4 P. 12. '68/7/5. 5. D. only two times a daY· I was mostly jets then. Only father was killed. SI Phom. T. C. Big bomh.) Maybe the planes wanted to shoot the soldiers.M.d n C. D. C. N. O. Sang. N. Ban Nasay. She died the next morning. 106 shell from the RLG side. '69/12. One day out of Ban Rang when he stepped on a mine and was killed. Shot. Mother Sao Deng 64 y. She had been boiling rice at home. but it was not very heavy. There were no soldiers with him but sometimes the L soldiers used that ath. SI Phom. C. But the soldiers went away into the forest. Sao Ka Meung. At that time the F-4 hat jetR came very often. Sao Oun. T. 1'10 all they could see was villuaers. It was in the jungle out sid« of Ban Kong Pho. O. N. 70/4. Tiavat. Didn't stop to look. D. O. They took out two shell fragments but it didn't do any good. Jets. T.: T. But the soldiers must have seen him and thought that he was a PL because the jets came and strafed them. We had to stay in the holes an the time. Father tried to bring out two of his small children before the rest of the family. 10. They bombed the village and Ka Meung's house burned up completely. 6. The bombing started in 1965. D. O. Father Vou Chin Chong 60 y. : T. He st~ 0 a mine and died. a. Xieng.M. only villagers.5A. Mine. C. C. 6. There were no soldiers in the village when the planes bombed. He was trving to go up Phou Khe mountain.v planes. '69/7 about 11 A. There were four of them but unsure of which kind. '67/9/10 about 2 P. O. Pho Ngeun Nan Ta. C. But that evening the PL came and operated on Sao Deng. 14. Older Brother Xieng Nuan 45 y. When We heard the sound of a plane. Often the T-28's came first and then the jets came after." T. Xieng PhaL V. There had been 10 PL in the village but they left just before the planes came. Only the men came out of the holes all of the time. Big bombs. V. 89 T. D.: T. Came out after the other refugees. All the rest were in the holes. '68/3 morning.5A. B. Xieng Dam Douan had been at home when the planes came over. Nasav. Husband Thao Khen 27 s. 9. V. 1'10 they bombed villflgt'-I'S. 8. A 106 shell landed under the house. Xieng.5A. Nan Ta. T..5A. B.88 stomach by bomb fragments and died that day there were many.: T. Aftel' 1965 all three kinds were in together T-28. B. ~. V. man. Mi. 7. Me Daa.. V. 'I'here were no soldiers but there were some police guards. C. Son Xieng Onhta 18 yr. O. O. He Waf!in the PI. 11. Xieng. D. b. Xieng. C. He was trying to come to this side. T. Thao Tha was the only one at home when the planes came. a. or noon. the planes came over. Younger brother Thao Mi 53 y. N. V. There were not any soldiers with the group or even in the area.5A. 13. D. T.M. T. V. There were no soldiers around when the shell feU. Big bombs from T-2S planes. Xieng. V. He waS hit by fragments and died. He had gone to visit relatives when he was coming back with a group of twelve people. He had gone to catch fish in small stream near rlcefield. C. He was the only one who was killed. Pho Ngeun NanTa didn't really know the cause of his son's death. (On tape after #14). T. Fl05 and F-4 hat. Xieng Boua Pa. ~flilcalled Thnm Chan. f thev saw anyone they I would shoot. B. Mine. He had been going to the ricefield when the planes came over. Big bombs from T-28's. There were no soldiers in the village. 62 (?) /3. Big bombs from T-28. mnnv times each day. Masay. Xieng. The two children were taken to Savannakhet by the soldiers. The F-4 hat jets came after that.5A. Sao Deng was old but she was very strong and always went to work in the rieefteld. Sao. (I then asked whether the planes just shoot at the sotdiers. Nasay. ( . C. "Always fled.5A.M. B. There were only T-28s. Xieng Roua Pa fled for the holes but it wasn't quite in time. Nasay. T. O. '65/6 about 9 A. The people ran for the holes but Xieng 80m Si did not make it in time. D. Than Tit Bounmi. T. Younger brother Thao Tha 15 y.
The planes. '68/7/5 about lOAM. Seh Fa. Thao Li l3y. mostly Jets. Older brother Xieng Tan 33 yr. C. O. D. '67/12/7 about 4 PM. O. '68/9 in the morning. Small arms. 106 shell. . Na Liang. 106 shell. Some PL guards were witb them. 15. Kong Pa. about noon. 18. Xieng Souha. D. Nang Thong Tan 12y.T-28s rather than jets which dropped the bombl. This was when they on the PL side. (T. Thao Khamsouk 5y. IX. O. Doctors went to see but they didn't know what was wron!l"' E. N. came two or three times a day. Bombi from T-28s and jets. Thao Von l6y. Sang. B. would just have a fever for a few days and then they would die. C. However. '(:S/l1 about the 11th. B. Thao Chantadom lOy. T. V. Both Sao Phomma and the child were killed. D. N. ld h fever C. (I) recovered although it still hurts sometimes. It wasn't a normal dIsease. All of the villagers were living in holes then. He had been gone portering with the PL one . D. N. V. Thao Khamla ts. All of my children. Jets and T-28s came together. (at this point a neighbor started to help in the narration because Me Bounta's child was crying) : V. V. R. Ban 7. O. Muang Ngan. There were about 20 prisoners working in the field but none of them were injured. Ngan. O. B. 19. C. VILL . 93 families 486 people. D. '67/2 or 3 morning. T. T. But Tit Van Di went back to the village to get some things to take to the holes. shell fell nearby injuring him. Nasar.. He was killed by a mine. Xieng. He had gone to porter for the PL. D. T. About 500 meters away from Thao Somnuck. It was when we were at Nalouang. It was the place Nalouang. In '69 it was mostly jets which bombed though on the occasion when I was wounded. t-iixty·two or sixty-three prisoners died. T. The PL had put Tit Thani in the jail called Tham Chanh. T. Konhsavan. He wasn't out of Ban Thieng more than one day. He cannot do heavy work. No tape. T. The PL gave him medical treatment and took him to a hospital in Xieng Khouang for an operation. There were no soldiers in the village but maybe the planes saw villagers and thought that they were soldiers. Two PL soldiers were in the village RLG soldiers encircled the village. O. T. Thanh Nui. The ebildren sfill died.) They wou . T. 91 Was wounded in the back. R. C.. T.90 Phieng.ave a hey for two or three days and then die.5R. Me Bounta. Everyone ran for the holes when the planes came but I did not reach a hole in time. Thao 80mnuel( had gone to work in the rice field when a 106. Older sister Sao Phomma and her child Thao Chanh 3 y. Son Thao Somnuck 13 yrs. Nong Van Pheung-Tasseng Xieng. Sang. 5. They dropped big bombs which destroyed everything. Younger brother Thao Thong 19 y. Xieng So Pha 62 yrs. It was a bad place. '68/9/18. Older brother Tit Thani 60 yr. No tape. And the two PL soldiers were killed too. B. 17. He did not die but he lost hIS right hand. all seven died.5A) In 1968 the planes came to Ban Sang many times each day maybe even 10 or 20 times a day. T. V. Xieng.. T. 20. Two other villagers were also killed. Mine. Naou. C. Some prisoners from the jail called Tharn Chan were working in the field nearby. Kang Pa. Xieng So Pha was hit in the back and head. Xieng. Ban Pho S1. They and the guards all reached the holes safely. V. '69/7 and 8. There were many villagers to~ether portsrtng and some guards. 3. O. N. Ban 8. Xieng. 5B (bad tape). N.. NONO V. Had been putting away rice when two T-28 planes came. T. Tit Phang. But the guards just locked the prison and tied into their holes as soon as the planes came. The shell was from the RLG side. Xieng. Sometimes the T-28's would drop the big bombs first and then the jets would drop the bombi. Big bombs from T-28 planes. 21. Xieng.5A. Had been transplanting rice. It had bad spirits. Xieng. D. Older brother Thao Tun 48 s. SA.. Children. The planes probably bombed on acecount of the PL guards. N akham. B.and a half or two days. Muong Khong. There were some about lkm away on top of a mountain. (RLG. N-V. At that time the planes came many times every day 4 or 5 times even at night. If they saw anyone they would just shoot them. T. A lOB cannon shell fell and killed Thao Tun. In the battle which followed Xieng Tan was killed. There were no soldiers in the village. Nang Saysompheng 1y. While he was in the village the jets bombed before he could tlee.ven an American doctor came but it didn't help. Nal Eh. 4. '65/4. sometimes for many days. C Sao Phomma was carrying the child on her back when the shell fell.. Usually all the villagers made it to the holes in time. C. N-V. Sang. O. D. cannon . Ban Ran Ban Ban 6. Thoum. Big bombs from T-28s and jets together. PL sometimes had villagers porter for one day only. Ban 2. V. he is still deaf in his right ear and it hurts inside. The jets and the '1'-28s together. it may have been. O. B. Disease. O. 106 cannon shell. Nang Inh. T. D. T. N. Big big bombs from jets. There were some PL soldiers in the area when the shell fell. -5B.5A. 1. 67/1. D. PHEUNG N INTERVIEWS 1. Husband Tit Van Di 25 y. There were no soldiers nearby when the shell fell. :r . Siphom. 16. N. C. b. Sao Siphan 47 s. '69/9/10 about noon. V. ES G B. Nang Sida. C.
B. Xleng.. Thao Bounchan 5 s. Nang Damdouan D. T.3 y and Thao Eh 2 s.6A. T. V. Boun Song (Tasseng Xleng Secretary) and group of 5-6 other villagers (I asked if the airplanes had ever dropped poison on their villages) Yes. It was the Meo soldiers from region two who made him a soldier. T. D. (Same) '69/8. The paper kind sometimes was in very long pieces two or three meters. V. 13. D.8.6A.6A. Xieng. Xieng.6A. Thao'l'ha (Tasseng Xieng Recretary) Boun Song. C. Fever.92 T. 9. ther-e were many kinds of things which the villagers called poison. V. I explained that I was primarily interested in civilians. The doctors gave them mall". B. D. See #12). N. They all died in Nalouang. It was when we came on the plane to Vientiane. N. Xleng. If the chickens ate it they would die. D. Xleng. V. He didn't want to be a soldier. Fever. The doctors gave them shots but they died in 4 or 5 days. '70/3. Xieng. B. Sao Van Di said that her husband really wasn't a soldier.M. Douchett (small rocket) from '1'-28. Sao Anta. C. Sao Van Si. T. we're not. But they made him a soldier anyway. Kham. N. No. Daughter Sao Dam Douan. T. C. sure. Husband Xieng Dong Di 35 y. T.child was in a bole but the hole was hit by a douchett from a T-2R There were no soldiers in the village. Muong Khong. V. The Vietnamese said that it was poison. 6A. D. B. 6A. they died from the fever. N. T. Xieng. After buffalo ate grass on which it was dropped they died. Fever.6A. O. O. No. It was in Nalouang. Xieng. Xieng Pheng joined in the conversation). (Same. Sao Vandi. O. 3. Nakham. Thao Le 7 s. They captur-ed him and made him a soldier. 6. Sao Boun Ma. Seh Fa. but its not important. Xieng. (No tape. O. We were there in Nalouang altogether about 11 months. Thoum. '1'. It looked like thin strips of paper. It looked like the little noodles from Chinese soup. T. N. T. T. He did not want to be a soldier. 4. 8. Tbe. Sao Pha1. When we were in Nalouang. Seh Fa. C. (Same. V. He died less than a month later. You see there were two kinds. Nil. Children Sao Boun Mil. D. They made him be a soldier. T. Thao Eh 1 s. 67-587-71-~1 B. '69/8. She had a fever and a cough and was given shots but after 4 or 5 days she died. B. T. Sickness. C. She had the fever also. N. D. (At this point other villagers. T. V. B. V. They died in Nalouang. 12. Whether it came from the planes or whether someone brought it.6A. 10. C. T. Sao Khampheui. Sao Keo 10 y. Daughter Nang Boua Wai 1s. T. N. including village chief of Ban Kang Pn. 5. T.6A. They died after we had been in Nalouang only about one month. Thanh . Fever. B. In Xieng Khouang all I saw was the bombs that exploded sending out many small white particles. T. Xleng. V. T. Thanh Boun Song (Tasseng Xieng Secretary). He had a headace and fever for two or three days. C. O. It was small and white like salt. Ban Nakham. 93 V. She died when we were in Nalonang. Three or four hundred children died algether. it wasn't Uke paper. after we had come to this side. (Note: When I learned that Xieng Dong Di had been a soldier when he died. Xieng. llostly all children . Daughter Sao Phai 5 s. Children Thao Ko 5 y. "'e don't really know where it came from. bue still died. one like salt and the other like paper. Fever. Xieng Sing. The Pathet Lao taught us to get long stfcks and use the sticks to move it into holes and bury it. Fever. 11. C. They died in Nalouang also.6A. N. N. T. Kang Pa. '69/8. Children 4 y. 'ti9/10. Like if you cut a piece of white paper into small strips. B.) O. Also there was another kind of poison which looked like salt. They had the fever. We were afraid to touch it. We had come to this side already on the plain of Jars.Tan 2 because I had not recorded the vlllagers description of the poison on Jan 1. Three or four hundred children from Tasseng Xieng and Tasseng Nueun died while we were in Xalouung. '69/7. shots but in 4 or 5 days they died. Just a couple old people. 67/2/5 5 :30 A. It was the FI05 jets which dropped it. all four of my children. T. At least every day. T. N. C. It was long. But really he was a civilian "just like us.6A. At that time the planes came alot. 7. Sao Nouan. O. I haven't received any money fr-om the gover-nment and I have six children to raise. Out of th is number 300 children died when we were in Nalouang. She got the fever and a Meo doctor gave her a shot but it didn't do any good. (I returned to Van Pheung on . C. N. Nephew Thao Soundara 5 s. N. T. The two Tassengs had maybe 2600 people altogether. O.") Xieng. Nakham. Fever. Children Sao Khamtan 5 y Thao Thongton 3 y. Child Thao 'l'ha 6 s. I have no children left. D. they dropped it on us. B. Yes. It is very difficult. 2. Nakham. '69/12. O.) O. D. B. -7. I never saw any poison.) . Sao NaIl.
If buffalo ate It they WOulddie. Brothers Xieng Si Da and Thlt Phim Pha.then two F~105's then two F-4--hats. They only ate the white kind which was like salt The paper kind came in long long pieces. First there was an Eller~19 which shot-smoke bombs. Thai. Big bombs from jets and T~28's.so that it would be hard for the planes to shoot us. (~t this point one man in the background said the plane~ sometimes dr-opped paper). If we touched it. T.5A. Tasseng Chanphet and old man. No. He had gone to get rice in the upland rice field. 1. Thai.the bom~re Ii our or five VIetnamese al. (There followed 11 general discussion of villagers killed by bombing. Then T~28's would ShODt. 7. N. Bombs from T~28's and jets. All the time there were a few. Sao Phan. C. the bO~l)lng was the heaviest. The Vietnamese told us that it was poison and that we shouldn't touch it or pick it up.-28s and Jets dropped the bombl.94 During the Ma! and June of . Four villagers from Kang p died from the bombing in 1909. That day they mostly dropped the 150 kg bombs. In 1968 there were more F105 than F-4--hat. Chuay. They couldn't flee in time. T. We dug a hole 10 meters into the side of the mountain. (See map) when they were returning to the holes an Eller 19 saw three or four of the villagers and must have ordered the jets. There were more th an 100 villagers in Kang Pa. They told us "this is poison. I don't know. Sao Siphan. D. They had no place to' hide. There were no soldiers in the village. Never. First the Eller 19 plans would come and shoot a smoke bomb.6A. Ban Puk. artillery and one woman killed by the "enemy" when she tried to corne to this side. He had gone portering for the PL. Thai. There wet! some people who got sick and drunk though. There were no soldiers around only villagers. Or som~ti~es t~ey ~alled it u« mao (literally "drunk medicine") O. All of the villagers had to live in the holes for two years '68--'69. 5. N. T. In '66 only the T~28's came to bomb. The planes shot everything. Mine. Puk. There were no soldiers around just villagers. C. N. they dropped many homln. 2 'l'~28 planes and jets. If we moved from one place to another they would al ways move with us. D. SO' the mine was probably put in by the soldiers from this side. O.iers i.r they sa~d hke m Vietnam K-nee poison. Nine villagers were killed. etc. '69/11.M. They came in pairs two at a time. I didn't have time to get all of the deratls or even nnmos. Then there were two T~28's then all the rest were jets. Husband Thao 'I'oumma 23 y." Even if you only touch it. Thai. T. BAN MAK NAO INTERVIEWS . '69/11 about 12 noon. On her way back the planes came and dropped big bombs. it would burn. T. V. Chuay. 3. When he was returning. 6. B. the houses and the buffalo. B. V. We took him to a hospital but he died before we could get there. T. The o-ther kind was white. '[he bombing was the heaviest in 1\1 a and June before the government (RLG) came in July Yes th ay . T. like salt. B. T-28's and jets. F105 and F-4--hat. B. O. 'When she brought them he started cutting the foil into small strips perhaps 2-4 mm wide. it was about 4km from the rice field to the holes Twelve of the villagers were caught in the valley half-way between the ricefield and the holes. C. Thai. In those days the planes came very often 8 or 10 times each day. Mine. TheY They came like the birds. Sao Chan. C. VILLAGES 95 D. All of our houses were th: th~ T. They ran for the holes but couldn't reach safety in time. Even at night we couldn't sleep safely. Father Tit Tuam 56 yr.. 64/11 (?) O. At that time the planes came very often. we never saw a poison. We had dug our holes between the two mountains.969 before the government (RLQ cam~. (One man took the foil from a cigarette package and Sent a small girl to get some scissors. They had gone to the upland ricefield to' get rice to bring back to' the holes. V. Younger brother Siphan 22 s. O. 4. The planes shot up our village 12 times. They just dropped bombs. he stepped on a mine. Sometimes three or fou. but in 1969 there were more F-4--hat than FI05. We were in the region controlled by the PL. They couldn't hide when the planes came over. N. C. Bouavan. Nine villagers died. Sister-in-law Sao Mnne 27 y. Don't touch it or you will get drunk and die. T.n the village when the planes dropped . There were two kinds of jets. Ban Chuay.6A. Mother Sao Da 54 y and younger brother Boua Thong 14 s.) The paper was like this. T. In very small strtps. There were more planes than birds. V.ere solct. He had gone to get rice in the upland ricefield. N. Even though there were no soldiers the planes shot up everything. C. V. They probably thought that there were many people in the hills on both sides of the valley. On the day that nine villagers died there were twenty-two planes.6A. They had gone to get rice in the upland ricefield. 'We had to take sticks and ~ury it. No. N. It was hke this (gesturing to the cut strands from the cigarette package foil. He stepped on a mine and was killed as he was returning to Ban Chuay. O. D. In those two last years we had to stay in our holes all the time.) X. it it all burned. we could~'t touch it. just everything. Sao Oun. A large group of maybe 30 villagers had gone to get rice in the ricefield near Ban Chuay. the planes never dropped any silver paper in our village. Both T~28's and jets dropped it. The planes dropped big big bombs. The F-4--hat could go very low close to the trees but the F105 usually flew much higher. It carne from the planes like the other kind. 2. Puk. N. Bombs from T~28's and jets. Puk.6A. No. 44 families 203 people. Nine villagers died at the same time. '69/11 or 12/. etc. They carne at 9 A. She had gone to get rice in the ricefleld. But by '68 there were more jets than T~28's. T. T. O. '66 (?) /1. Chuay. Thai. can't count how many times the Plan dropped the bombi.6A. They were afralci that we would come to this side. If it fell on grass all the grass would die. When they were coming' back to' the holes the planes came. Animals never ate this kind of polson. meters. and brother-in-law Thao Then 23 y. Thai. T. B. V. Whether dropped any poison in Kang Pa or not. B. It was paper like this. There were no soldiers with the group. we never saw aillY poison.wa~s stayed with us. that morning 'and shot all through the day. Bot~ T.) excep~ much longer. The planes came very often. Mak Na(}-Tasseng Thai (Thao Chan Phet) . Nine were killed. When they were returning the planes came over.
I believe that the information in these interviews is quite accurate. Such opinions seem to be based entirely on the fact that the people were living in PL controlled areas. If the porterage was a large one of say 30 people. Sometimes one or two days. or even. the people would not have been killed. except that in Nong Vang Pheung. If they hadn't been slow the planes probably wouldn't have seen them. Another section of the interviews which ought to be judged with some reservation is that of the date of the incidents. You can't really get ." So I would suggest that the years given for the incidents are not always completely accurate. On our village they only dropped bombs. shot everything. They seem to have no basis for such conclusions other than this assumption. EvaluaNon of the Survey l. This was completely impossible since the refugees had come to Vientiane in February of 1970.) The bO~bing was particularly heavy in 1968 and 1969. I saw some Vietnamese soldiers.) An that if a nar-rator did not specify by which calendar he was rec on ng. (see Interviews Section III.. If you opened them they would explode. Also. What do you mean r Why did you say that the deathS of these people were caused by the Pathet Lao'!" He answered. Incld. people seemed to be able to tell the differ:nce between what types of planes had been present. the subdistrict chief showed me a list of civilian fatalities. There were over 20 animals tied together. women kept coming up to me wanting to relate how their children had died. I again noticed contradictions in the accounts of minor officials and those of refugees holding no official positions. their village. The 1. why don't you go look at the lists which we sent to VientIane. sometimes. And it was th~ faUI~ of the Pathe'!. Lao because they would not let the people come to this SIde. for instance. Sometimes we had to go porter. IiNo. One man told me quite simply that. y'ou know. Answers about det. They would be with the PL soldiers. A further difficulty in the identification of the aircraft responsible for an individual's death was that.agers. I found that officials were hesitant to talk about such casualties.ene refugees holding no official positions were much more expUcit about the primarv causes of tndtvidual war victims.lrefugees. Beyond these reservations. Our life was very difficult. or small arms.stern CAlend. and that of th~lr deceased relative. We didn't have any money or gold or houses.ain characteri1Stics of our conversations indicated truthfulness. We were very lUCkynot U> lose our lives. This is not. When we went portering the SUb-district chief and the village chief would consult about who should go. the particular month of the incidents.R~ugel"ll could l'PCAIl the months or fIIll'Uc"IR~ tnelnPlltR l'"IIRhlv b~flll. When I first went into a village. the 10th month. however. the following were described to me by refugees from the Plain of Jars: . people simply didn't know with much accuracy. In Kovember. It is clear.96 destroyed. Many people told me about a second type of Jet wbich they called et 8i hat (11' 4-H.ails often came only after discussions among family or neighbors. He told me." I inqnired further." The logic of this subdistrict chief is undeniable but Veun Kh. I feel th~t refugees knew their own sub-distri'ct. I found that people sometimes were hesitant to talk to me about civilian war casualties. When J asked if they were sure it was 1970 or "But when did you come to Vientiane. I think however that most non-official refugees told me their stories with as much truth as their memories would serve them. Just our own bodies and our lives. however. Summary. For instances. Even that time no one would have died except that they returned from getting rice after the rest of us. The planes buzzed the buffalo and then dropped the bombi. Maybe 9 or 10 altogether.u is the eb. On account of the war.G forces were the source of mines and artillery fire which killed vi]l.hth m~ntr La calendar. Nine buffalo were killed. "There were verv few civilian deaths. the seventh month W . If I saw PL soldiers ten times there would be Vietnamese with then only once. If you wound the watches they would explode. Almost invariably refugees reported that RI. no more than that. Because we always hid.nth or twelfth month. I. in such eases. but I would question identi~cation of specifl~ types of jets or I?ropellor driven planes. I asked him why the people had died. the subdistrict cbief seemed to try to dissuade me from my mquiry." "I do not understand. then it must have been 1969. We were too afraid. "poison.e th"v e. people volunteered information about which 1 would never have thought to ask. I would be less certain of reliability. three or four soldiers would go with us. they seemed to know reliably." However. There were never any soldiers in our village. to say that either 'the refugees memories of."0 cftlendar Is on(' mont . But. Villagers told me about them..7B. Arnone: the ordnance dropped by the planes. Or maybe more but never more than 5 out of 10 times.m " information here. So they just shot. The planes never saw any people because if we even heard the sound of a plane we fled and hid. I found that after I had been in a village for a length of time. "Do you mean Lao eatendar or Western (sao kone) t" D. using a wide variety of ordnance. The people have therefore assumed that any shelling Dr minim" of the HeH must have been done by RLG forces. This bomhing was done by a vanety of jet and propeller driven atrcrafr." they would simply reply. From 1964 to 1009. Particularly. He replied. I never saw them. I only heard about them. Yes. But you could not pick them up.~~ wa: l . which planes had dropped which bombs or caused which deaths. On many occasions during my ten day survey.. Thus. I had found that ma':lY ~ndividual refugees in Ban Hay had contradicted the account of the sub-dIstnct chief of that refugee camp who had told me that planes only bombed when Vietnamese soldiers shot at the planes first. There were no soldiers around or even any people. This hesitation seemed to vary directly with the level of the official.· The year of the incident was often a source of much discussion. we lost villagers only on that one occasion.) Also. But if the Pathet Lao had not been there. And they dropped belts and pens.. If there were 20 PL soldiers there might be five Vietnamese. Cert. "The people were killed by many things. They only dropped the poison in Tasseng Seng. But the planes didn't know if they were villagers or soldiers or what. I think that the interviews in section two are truthful insofar as the knowledge and the memories of the refugee interviewees would Serve them. vlllazers on the Plain of Jars were subjected to dangers from many sources. different types of aircraft were reported to have been present together. Once in 1969. Vietnamse soldiers never went portermg. Very pretty pens. I those people could have come to this side they would not have been killed. Most of the refugees in the survey simply could not recall the day of the month or which a relative died. with complete accuracy. But I never saw them I only heard the news. In a number of cases people told me that relatives died on the Plain of Jars in the summer of 1970. In a group of 10 PL soldiers there might be one Vietnamese never more than one. Many pens and watches. Conversations were not dominated by a single individual. "Oh.. Accuracy of the Interviews. whether jets or propeller dnven planes. types of propellor driven craft other than T-28's were identified. The soldiers were always Lao soldiers. original knewledge of particular incidents were completely faultless. "On account of the Pathet Lao. In the Veun Kbene refugee camp. It's hard to say why they died_ It uc very confused. Also. But usually there were no Vietnamese. a of the western calendar (Le. 'All the planes which went r-r-r-r-r-r-r-r and had propellors we called T-28's and all the kind which went rrrrrrrrrr and didn't have any propellors we called ai phone (jet) or et loi ha (F 105). Big bombs and the bombi. Would ask. 1. This was in 1969. From 1964 on.mld reId . General Pattern of the Bombing. they bombed our buffalo. I feel that people knew with accuracy the general cause of their relation's deaths such as bombing. that the major source of hazard for tbese people was aerial bombardment (see Tilbles 1 and 2.. it seems dear that more than just these two types of a~rcraft took part in the bombing. The groups of villagers portering sometimes number 10 or 20 or sometimes 30. mines. In this village.) Also in the refugee camp in Dongkaloum the sub-district chief seemed to give a storY quite different than that of most non-offlcia.onts to seas()nlll aettvtttes such as planting rice In the sixth or seventl~l m~nt~ or harv eating ricl' In the elev . More particularly I would judge the accuracy of the responses as follows. 97 The responses of invidual refugees (See Dongkaleum Interviews Section VIII) again were much more e)l:plicit about causes of death. T. "Wha t do you mean? Were these people 'all shot by the Pathet Lao. When it came U> identifying the specific cause."Nor was I particuliady interested in people who bad died from disease. their name.
" In both cases the refugees reportedly describe it as looking like long strips of silver colored paper. The second type of "poison" described to me was of a ~lal" or powdery character. such reports are usually second or third hand. These distinctions between the "poison paper" and radar chaff are rather tenuous and at any rate were probably unknown to the majority of the refugees. iv. Refugees in the Ban Mak Nao camp had never seen any of the "poison". Bombing of Pathet Lao Prison. However. Six said SImply that the victims had gone portering (pai lam Hang. aerial bombardment and small arms. And ne re~ugee (Interview II 8) related that Vietnamese soldiers had killed vn. 1. . They said that any fruit trees or grass on which it was dropped would die. Napalm referred to by refugees as bom napan or bom fai (fire bomb. b. The poison paper was toxic to both plants and animals. agel'SIn order to get their belongings. Four were reported killed prior to 1966. Also they said that it was toxic to many kinds of animals which would forage in an area where it was dropped. I stumbled on to an account of civilian deaths due to "poison" quite by accident. They compared the color to the yellow of a khaki uniform. (see Nakung Interviews VI 9 ond 12) After this first story about the poison. I therefore will omit any discussion of these devices. Porterage. I have received reports that the refugeeS in r . three In 1966-67. a. 6.) Others reported that the victims had been ordered (bang khap. _ 'Y~ile I '. Only after I had returned to get details of tJhe"poison" did I really comprehend that they were describing something quite distinct from napalm. of the 'last four camps which I visited. 58 5 11 91 11 6 In two of the incidents in the first category it was reported that Pathet Lao soldiers had. thess prisoners were evidently political. I have personally received accounts of it only l'rOiilrertYgt!€S ttr'the Nong Vang Pheung camp. eleven involve the deaths of civilians while either portering for the Pathet Lao (eight) or while returning from porterage duties (three. J!'or obvious political reasons the Pathet Lao might have identified such radar chaff as poison."'as interviewing r~fugees in the Dongkaleumrefugee camp. This type of "poison" sounds suspiciously like radar chaff which might have been dropped by the airplanes in order to jam radar controlled antiaircraft installations in the area. ases (Nakung and Nong Vang Pheung) refugees described it as being long strips of silver colored paper. 5.It is interesting to note how the refugees referred to porterage. this individual said that of the sixty-three fatalities from the prison bombing. The prison was reportedly bombed by T-288 and jets. The most commonl described e of ''poison'' (Mong Yang Pheung. U. The most commonly described type was round roughly 8-1Ocm in diameter." See pictures numbar 1 and 2 which contain drawings by refugees of these two types to anti-personnel weapons. (Interviews II 4b and IV 3a. Presence of North Vietnamese Soldiers. Anti-personnel bombs or what the refugees called "bombi. "big. Nong Vang Pheung. Naku. I began to make gentle inquiries about it in other refugee camps. I thought that the refugees were simply using the word "poison" to describe napalm which had not ignited. They reported that on one occasion it was dropped on a field and after grazing there thirty cows died. They described it as looking like yellow fiour. When I first heard the account of the childrens' deaths due to "poison" I did not quite believe it. One of the lDCldents lD the second category. 3. the planes sometimes did drop the "radar paper". wa~ larger and rested on a set of "legs. The other.' These wer~ evidently of two different types.) told of how Vietnamese had lived with the vi1la~rs in order to prevent them from coming to RLG controlled territory. sixty were prisoners and three were Pa thet Lao guards. VIII 13 and VIn 16_) Both of these refugees told me that the bombing of the jungle prison occurred on July 5. sixty-three died.) Two related that Vietnamese soldiers shot villagers as they were trying to flee to this side. They said further that it would kill plants as well. oun oua 00 e I epa. Picture number 3 shows pellets which reportedly came from one of the "bombi. and I think It safe to assume that refugees were refering to North rather than South VietlUlrnese) in six separate interviews indicates that North Vietnamese soldiers certainly were present on the Plain of Jars. He said that the poison paper looked almost exactly like the radar paper but could be distinguished from it in four ways. There. was that of the prison bombing described in the next section.98 a. yes. b~n pre_sent in the village but had left just before the bombing. Other Devtces.) The 74 incidents of aerial bombardment Involving 108 casualties were described to me as follows: Number of incidents I. The first time I heard of the incident. refugees compared it to salt.) These stories were corroborated in an informal conversation which I had with a refugee from the Ban Ilay refugee camp. They said that if pigs or Chickens foraged in an area where it had been dropped they would die with their flesh turning yellow and intestines green. The man told me only that sixty prisoners of the "Lao Issara" (Pathet Lao) had been killed when the planes bombed a prison in the forest near Ban Sang.. A paper sort of ''poison'' was alsO described to me in the ou oUa camtrDut here the refugees described it as sheets rather than strips.) forced (inum. The other two descripttons were much more explicit. 2. Ironically. Evidently this paper was dropped in long tangled masses. Some refugees compared it to the small thin noodles in Chinese soup. Of the more than 100 prisoners in the jail. (See Dongka leum Interviews No. have been reported by only a single individual. (Reportedly making the water toxic. three Individuals Independently described to me the bombing of a Pathet Lao prison in 1968. However.) One narration by a group of refugees in Ban Wong Yang Pheung (Interview IX 13. less frequently described variety. Presence or absence 01 soldiers hot noted in Ihe inlerview ~ __ _ Number 01 casualties 99 the Veun Kham camp and the Ban lIay camp both talk about this paper "poison.) Of these eleven individuals. I suggested this explanation to one refugee. "Poison" dropped by aircraft. big bombs" or "500kg" bombs. _'" II. If the paper poison was immersed in water it would bubble. ~~ ~~ III.' Refugees had gathered these pellets to use in their home-made muskets. b. A wide variety of other explosive and poisonous devices have been described to me. I had visited all of the other refugee camps prior to first hearing about the "poison" and so had made no inquiries about it in the majority of the villages which I visited. smaller or "regular" bombs which apparently were in the 150-250kg class c.f012 animals. However. Two refugees simply mentioned the Presence of Vietnamese soldiers (Interviews III and X 6. Therefore. According to the refugees it killed both ~nt§. One man compared it to rirt. Nakung and Thoun Loua.·three in 1968-69 and in one case the year was not noted. I think it safe to assume that at least some of the reports of the poison silver paper were merely reports of radar chaff. No PL or NVN soldiers present at time of incidenL~ _~ • ~_~__. I heard first hand accounts of the poison in three camps. Of the incidents described in this survey. I can only hope that these reports are the products of Pa thet Lao propaganda and have no basis in fact. or thahaan Vietnam. involving two deaths. refugees in Ban Veun Kham told of this type of poison. If the paper poison was hit or moved roughly it would give off a fine dust. Further. if first-hand. Also in an interview taped by a Lao friend of mine. d.) or organized (chat. anti-Pathet Lao.) into portering_ While I did not delve into the question of porterage extensively these descriptions indicate that coercion was often involved in the organization of porterage. the mention of Vietnamese soldiers (thahaan keo. If the paper poison was touched it would feel hot or at least warm. straw Dne man said t'ftdf it was the color of my silver watch and others said t at it was the color of the foil paper from a cigarette package. eight were reported killed by mines and one each by artillery.) caught (chap. 4. Altogether. Pl soldiers present at lime of incident. Two types of "poison" were described to me. (Le. the description was very vague.) iii. Again. He replied that. As I mentioned earlier. 1968. Or. this is a question into which I did not delve directly.
I~~ ~~~rei~uNJ~nat~~t~s93~~egations by refugees that total 189_ bombing by jet aircraft was relatively light prior 10 1968 but • The "r~~B" rubric includes aircraft identified by refugees as "A-6" as well as other propeller driven planes • ThIS figure.ectlOn. into being soldiers or carrying SUppliesand weapons for the army. I have atlempled to avoid listing multiple lions of smgle lncidents (e.") -. Each family had not less than 20 cows and numerous pigs. Whe.h reportedlf caused by. • TABLE fI_-CIVILIAN CASUALTIES: CAUSE VERSUS YEAR' Pre-1966 Aerial bombardment byJets _ _~ ~~ :: .asualties due to bombing lneludes the 6 deaths attributed by vitlagers to poison dropped by airplanes (.. who reads but does not write English. Life with the Pathet Lao was difficult because they always accused people of holding allegiance to the Roya'l Lao Government (RLG). The constant moving created many problems for the refugees. FORMER LIFE OF THE REFUGEES IN BAN VEUN KHAM . T-28's or3 aircraft unidentifted == === Both sc/lfIl 196~7 1961Hi9 Year not give n In this village there live 223 families containing 2219 people.t. (S. It was reported that these 9 individuals died during a bombing raid by 2 T ~28's and 19 Jets • 21 disease. and IV7 and the much described bombing incident in Ban Mak Nao s. ducks.2 17 4 2 0 II 0 6 0 6 a 0 1 0 --~---------------- 22 63 97 b. .ncludes 9 civilian deaths reported from Bon Hak Hao. Oonclusion ctVtltan war vwtims which I could aatner in the time avaiUllilc to me_ The vmage~ which I visitert contain approximatcly 8500 of the 25. Aerial bombardment was the primary cause of civilian war casuaUie8 among retueeee from the Plain of Jars while under Pathet Lao controZ 19641969. I have known him for more than a year. And on the paths in the area it was necessary to place grass after traveling back and forth. -. They had to carryall their food and belongings with them_ When the food was all gone they had to return to their old homes and dig up rice which they buried in barrels. Young men and women were drafted into working tor the army.Jars as a whole. The holes had to be dug very deeply and on top it was necessary to put broken tree branches.refugees from th~ Plain of Jars. bombardment of the cwtluI:n population.100 TABLE I. Sometimes they were not able to sleep all night. This _survey was by no means a complete survey of all of the civilian war casualtles amo'. The living had been very oppressive on account of the moving. IV 4. However. The unusuallyh. Also. He wrote it originally in Lao and I translated it into English. After 19M the conditions of the area changed greatly in many different ways. Then II. and chickens. Always they moved at night. interviews l l . Nor was it a complete survey o~ :'ill of the cl:Vlban war casualties from any of the refugee villages which I v~s~t~. 2.aj/ be drawn. If that wasn't done they would be bombed. 1. company of Meo Lao soldiers would come and order the people to move. they WOuldsimply drop the bombs on them. III 2.. including taroe numbers of Amertcan Jets. rn order to msure against any dupitcations in the tabulation I have not listed any casualties whl~h were ~escllbedonly rn vague term Without any specification of name or relationship to the narrator (e g the "o1her village:s killed" in mlervilw I Sb.4> and 1 rle. He wrote the following article at my request. The boy is a student at one of the highest educational institutions in Laos. _ Aerial bombard- ment Mines 2 0 0 0 '10 3 2 3 0 2 '22 Artil· lery 1 Caus unknow~ 15 6 8 rr IU 7 28 15 1 9 <108 0 0 19 1 4 5 0 0 6 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 20 0 0 2 '21 0 a a 1 0 a 0 The following account of the "Former Life of the Refugees in Ban Veun Kham" was written for me by a student participant in the 1970 IVS Student Summer Work Experience Program. This was the primary reason why the refugees fled from the homes of their birth and came here. Before 1964 (according to the refugees) in the region of Tasseng Phan and Tasseng Phieng there was only prosperity in the ricefield and fish in the plentiful waters.'g. 8 CIVilians were killed m counecocn With porterage. on account of the .tervlews V19a.X) more than cnee. was eeteneioe anrt caused large numbers of civilian casuatties. north of the Plain of Jars just south ot a Ime of mountains occupied by. Girls 13 years old and older had to work for the army. VIII. - D. The RLG forces eVidently used these positions to shell Pathet Lao positions to the south. the hapless Villagers In Tasseng Seng receIVed more than their share of stray artillery shells. _Contrary t~ the policy statement» of Amcrican officials. During the bombing. ~== ==~:=:~ =:=:_ === = f~lr~nTL~i~i:e:j:: Total 1 Sum ~~~~~:::: ~:~: ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~: 1~ 0 7 1 4 a 4 27 3 12 219 • 22 2 8 . VI10. I have omitted the name of the student since he was fearful of personal repercussions. These refugees came from the province of Kieng Khoueng which is presently controlled by the Neo Lao Hak Sat. They came trcm r. At that time began the bombing increasing the misery of the people until finally it became impossible to live in the regton. until finally they decided not to move anymore and they fled to the region controlled by our government to gain their freedom. If the branches were already dry it was necessary to remove them and put on fresh branches. if the planes couldn't select a place to bomb. LIFE UNDE& THE PATHET LAO CMlREB . What made it especially oppressive for the refugees was when they were ordered to move. _2. If the sampling in this survey is representative of the experience of the refugees from the Plain of .of 22. The English translation was reviewed and approved by the student.) _• Thetotal of 108 c. He came to the summer program recommended by both Lao and foreign staff at his school.. People were always being taken for interrogation. let me give the following biographical information. but they I18. Sometimes the administration of the area belonged to the Royal Lao Government and sometimes the area was under Pathet Lao administration. Sometimes they heard news that the position of their tunnel homes had been revealed.gh number of deaths caused by artillery and by mines reported in the Done Tai refugee camp may be partially explained by the ong m 01 these refugees. VI 12. RLG terces. There were no floods and no droughts because the water which fed the rice plants came from the mountains and not simply from rainfaU as in our part of the country. Rather _Itwas a random sampling comprised Of all those casc historics of When the bombing became heavy with T-28 airplanes and many kinds of jets bombing the forests in the vicinity of the villages. 'Sum t?tall~-:-In tabulating Ihe~e figures for civilian casualties.ti while pcrtsring and the 2 while relJrn. When the airplanes came over 11 lot it meant that there wouldn't be enough rtce for everyone. and VII 14).g. This was the second reason which forced my friendS to flee and come here. and VIII.never they stopped they had to dig holes in which to hide. Of the Plain of Jars by aircraft. But more often the Neo Lao Hak Sat (NLHS) controlled the area. then the following conclusions fll.ng from portenng. smoke bomb (interview VII 20)_ 'Of the 22 casualties by mines.sseng Song. For food it was necessary to work together in teams when the planes were not bombing. it was necessary to go live in the forest and to dig holes in which many families lived together. Many animals were raised very comfortably. They grew sick and tired of working that way. m:gi~~:~:' PI"n of Jars.-CIVIliAN CASUAlTIES: REFUGEECAMP VERSUS CAUSE' Small Arms RLG-meo PL~NVN forces forces 3 0 0 0 2 3 0 0 0 0 101 APPENDIX A Refugee camp Veunkham _________________ Ban Phao__________________________ Vaun Khone ______________ Mak Miao __________________________ Done TaL ______________________ Nakung ____________________________ Thoun Loua________________________ Dongkaleum ________________________ Nang Vang Pheung __________________ Mak Nao____________________ Total.W some animals or people.fJOO refugees from the Plain Of Jars now rcsirting on the Vientiane Plain. dogs. Sometimes they tunneled Into the tops of mountains. 9b. Thus.
little children who didn't know enough not to touch them. These "bombi" were another important reason why the search for food was dangerous. It was impossible to grow rice. Th~se refuge~s were part of the reported 15. From this damage there remained only many ponds two 01' three times a man's height in depth.. fish and other food was also conscripted. The variations in program length were necessitated by our limited budget. The refugees had to live in holes in the ground.102 living in holes eating in the holes and sleeping in the holes this way.out many smal! bullets. When the refugees came to the government's side. When the refugees arrived in the area controlled by the Meo soldiers. APPE:'<IlIX B Hon. like the ruins of the mistreatment of the refugees when the wa r ended. All of the above is from the real lives of the refugees as related by them. The poverty of living. very early. If this leaf is lost and not eaten then their hearts will not be courageous. if they try to escape they will kill them. . the Meo soldiers stole their cattle and buffalo and killed them for eating right in front of their. Up until 1-9-69 the refugees said that they were fleeing from hell.S. In singing the only popular songs were those which cursed all the American imperialists. 'I'raveling to school had to be done when the airplanes were not bombing.fugees. all added to the sorrow of these fellow Laotians. the refugee's eyes. Many people said that the Meo soldiers waged war not to win independence but to win cattle. The program was moderately successful. When traveling to and from school the children had to add tree branches to their clothing and wear very drab colors. McMuRTIEGOIlLEY. they have 'power for freedom and all have thoughts like "Fight against the interfering imperialists.. For recruiting young men into serving they had many kinds of psychology.. The. Their (the PL) object of worship during the time of battle is the rain. In response to my questions the refugees said that they now regard themselves as having a very low status. Rat. Planting rice had to be done at night.fngee~ said that thpy wprp "everywhere In e Khonang" In the "lUnges. He Bnld h.. Now the refugees. Yet it was impossible to claim their livestock because the soldiers maintained that the buffalo and cattle had been captured from the Vietnamese. For instance when the young men hold their guns. PROBLEMS OF THE REFUGEES IN THEIR PRESENT LIVES EDUCATION OF THE CHILDREN With the Pathet Lao the children were not able to study with full effectiveness because they did not have schools. "dok dao hnuana" lent. It shows how the children have been trained by the Pathet Lao and the training has all been absorbed by the children. If the rain falls they will have good opportunity to win easily because their weapons are most effective when the rain talts. but there is a great lack of kerosene. The -people were then relocated by the Pathet Lao. many others. the people were drafted into working without pay. Embassy. tbeY will fight until the others give in. Laos. The r. In the forpsts and In the rlcetlelds. students who were teaching children in four refugee villages near Vientiane. When living with the Pathet Lao cadres. The habits of the children were to like singing songs to like dancing. It is this leaf which all of the PL soldiers must eat before they wage war. and the land on which they had always planted their crops. if the others don't give in they won't alloW them to escape." If they are allowed to fight anywhere against those from the government's (RLG) side. With the Pathet Lao. Ambassador to Laos.. living in a new place. We could say that the emigration was necessitated equally in these two ways.H. He Was uncertain of their meaning. caused problems. Ban nay Refugees in Ban Ilay told students of how their houses were burned in 1963 by gunfire from the Pathet Lao.. Then they came out of their holes to the region of freedom. The most important reason why the refugees had to come here from their villages must be the bombing. They cannot swim or sail boats. it is as at only very low wages. but that is not what concerns me here. the "Naly" dance. They absolutely could not wear red or white. For the adults specifically: Old people also had to go to school under the trees. Rice. The program was funded by USAID and organized by International Voluntary Services. the land where they had spent all of their days. Vientiane. During the program I became especially involved with. Each student had to pay an instruction fee of 50k/month.." \v. Jets started bombing their village in 1964. the fatigue of constantly being ordered to move. Also there were "bombi" of the very round kind. 8endlno. the conscription of food by the Neo Lao.her. A~IBASSADOR: During the summer of 1970. Of trees there remained only a fe\. hod n~ver heard of It before talking with the r. The refugees sa~ that the adults and the older children learned to avoid them but thnt they were ve dangerous for th . Lawlessness was present on both sides. Equipment for living and cooking is sufficient. who had done no evil but still reaped such misfortune. W. Also the upland rice fields where the bombs had already fallen had become entirely covered with ponds and small craters.Jars as told to students in the summer program. The things which interest the refugees are far beneath the dignity and concerns of the local villagers. working together with the Lao Ministry of youth and Sports. the fear of all the different kinds of bombs dropped by the airplanes. After nine A.y were simply terms used by the refugees In explaining the "freedom grass. The teachers were selected by their own village when the village saw that the candidate had sufficient knowledge. have no jobs or if they do. At first they tried eulttvat• I checked with th . an of the animals which they used to sell to earn profit for their homes were completely bombed. The houses where they had always lived and always slept. Th. buffalo and property of the population. like 200K per day.. like very. so many that they were almost everywhere.H. There are many diseases which easily kill the animals. The workers really belonged to the NLHS. eating and sleeping in the holes. There is a certain kind of grass which they call freedom grass or grass against 1 After translattng this paper r asked the author to explaln what was meant by the term "bomb!". Laos DEAR MR. the school let out.H. This. Also. There was left only the remains of the earth which had lost its fertility for growing crops. He could then compose his own lessons and teach. the children practiced the dance "Cooperation".000 who were evacuated from the Plain of Jars in Februarv 1970. Catching fish seems very difficult because the refugees are not used to such large bodies of water. had explained thnt the "bombl" were round metal balls dropped by the alrplnne1!'x1h~ wpre rnuehlv IOem 1'1 diameter. I helped organize a program for Lao students to work during their school vacation. To summarize: wickedness was always with the people. TACTICS OF THE NEO LAO (HAK BAT) As normal. nor teachers with much knowledge. the conscription into working.) mango trees and coconut trees.M. U. I shall omit students' names since they were fearful of personal repercussions. The refugees were sick and tired of the actions of the Meo soldiers because as they said they were always seeking wealth. Inc. But they had "workers" to teach them separately. When the "bombl" "'IVe~ tonched or disturbed they would Holode. These are the problems of the refugees at the present time. The wealthy people were those who had the power. Sometimes the planes would bomb all ni~ht until daylight so there was no ()pportunlty to plant rice. author of this paper on the signlflcanoe of the "spilt leaf" and th . and bombed most heavily in 1966. Many parents of refugee children had been killed by the Meo soldiers. The students in the program taught in the refugee villages for lengths of time varying from four weeks to ten weeks. nor teaching equipment. different from that where one had always worked and made a living and spent his life. they cannot raise animals with much success because their houses were built too close together.. • This Is a kind of dance for girls only. and many. I would like to relate some of the profoundly disturbing stories of the refugees' lives prior to their evacuation from the Plain of . and to like working together. 1 103 things which have a split leaf like the dok daD heuang 'leaf' except bigger. many of them saw buffalo and cattle which the Mao soldiers had stolen. W.
Ban Nongsa related to students working there that they had not hked Iivtng With the Pathet Lao because the Pathet Lao had not allowed them" to practtee their. evils have been perpetrated by the Pathet Lao. and in North Laos have expelled the naurral Royal Lao Government of Souvanna Phouma from a large part of the national territory.gees. The young peo 1 chose to stay WIth !he P. One man told how his wife had gone out to their water huffalo and had been strafed by a jet. The rules do not permit attacks on non-milttary targets and place out·of-hounds all inhabited villages. thl' .) lied to the! ~ I then asked . a Lao national is required to participate in the control bombing operations.LTER . Senate. Tbe United States has been waging an "]l. As an American I feel compelled to protest these policies. as the passage on villagers' efforts to Shootdown aircraft illustrates. Some of them now think differently.thlS same student why he thought these villagers had bee'n ~ombed. In cases where it is believed there may be a question about the nature of the target.L~JJI"H me cnmpatgn against the civilian populations of portions of Pathet Lao ill'M1:DU'" territory. is furnished under rules of operation designed specificallY to protect Civilians and to limit attacks to military targets. would ask them where they got the offerings to waste on the monks.000 troops of North Viet-Nam. "Wickedness waS always with the people . Ban Veun Kh.am Refugees in this village told students how they had to live in holes in ground for ~hree years.L. Surely. When ~r refugees came down from the Plain in February 1970. Sometimes the planes would even bomb cattle or buffalo. U· DanNa Nga 105 Exactly what portion of the bombing has been conducted by US aircraft and what portion by Royal Lao aircraft is unclear. These policies.L. Re~ugees told ~ow they had had to farm at night because if they worked in ~he rlc~fields during the daytime the planes would shoot at them. the neutral government of Laos. . American air support of the Royal Lao Government. they would be bombed and strafed by the planes ~l'lI lagers said that they had to live in holes in the ground for three years. acting in response to the unprovoked invasion of that neutral country by North Viet·Nam. He answered. \Ve deeply regret the fate of all the victims of Washington. however. are nndertaken not independently but at the request of the Royal Lao Government. In contrast to the North Vietnamese-/Pathet Lao. Despite this. Because the P:L. Whether the bombs were dropped by US planes or by RLG nta nos is Jmmaterial. Undoubtedly. Haney has received through the Lao students who worked with him last summer attest vividly to the suffering which the war has imposed on the Lao. ":. The P. D. Sincerely yours.L. they had thought that stones were merely Pathet Lao propaganda.hy the airplanes. which specifically forbid the introduction of foreign troops into Laos. to me. The rules of operation are the subject of continual review. HANEY. but it was because the outlaws (P. Even if a'll of the bombs were dropped by RLG aircraft the United States Is culpable. Villagers told how they had to live in holes in the ground or Ji. and when the bombing stops the1 want to go back to their homes. one fact ~merge Incontrovcrttblv.The approximately 2000 refugees in this village came from Ban Lat Se Xlen~ Khouang provinc~. :sut out of !heSe stories from four separate villages. one or two of the y e me-n and women from each family stayed with the Pathet Lao." . Refugees stories testify to thiS. North Viet-Nam. P U. As the student author of the appended article has written. "Because there were Pathet Lao sold' ' III the VIllage.! any kind of a Ught at night because the planes would see it and shoot at It. particularly those areas of Laos near North Viet-Nam. But . pur At first the villagers simply fled wh~n they heard the sound of a plane." leN ~nquired further. which is defending itself against. The above information comes from the refugees as told to students in summer work program. Villagers ev~ told how once some I:ll0nks in their orange robes had been strafed by a jet the~ came out of thetr cave. and to provide them with food and medical care. signed the Geneva Agreements of 1962.' they would be ridiculed by the Pathet Lao. some of the stories were related to me with imperfect And after worki~g in Laos for more than two years. hed to them and persuaded them to stay. GRIFFIN.'. pal"t of the country from which these refugees come. but a continuing effort goes on. perhaps most harshly of all in the northeastern . He replied.O. Mr. completly inexcusable. The appended article comes from tJhe same None ~f this is iJ_lformati. Also it wu. Villa. Lawlessness was present on both sides. All o~ the people's homes were destroyed so they had to UceIII the for~st or m cave~ in the mountains.yo the forest for two or three years.S. "Do Y0ll: mean t~at Pathet Lao had a camp in the village?" !-\ 0: ~ut some of ~he boys in the VIllage had joined the Pathet Lao and the were Iivlng and working with their families.ates government.. ' J:t !.sho." But a large part of the "lawlessness" perpetrated on these "Laotions who had done no evil but still reaped such misfortune. our Government has relleatedly protested orth Viet-Nam's imposition of war on laos. Walter Haney of Vientiane concerning the grave effects of the war ~nLaos on the civilian population of the country. to keep such errors to a strict minimum. WA. like us. It is clear that danger comes to the civilian population from both of the combatant sides. ROBERT.. It is information which stllldl~nt:s the summer program discovered through their work in the refugee Some of the students were quite agitated about what they learned refu.g~rs in. N Like the Royal Lao Government. There is no question but that there have been civilian victims of bombing errors which were due to both mechanical and human causes. .. If the villa started e~en a small nre. which seeks no more than neutrality and to be left alone. The President on March 6 made public the fact that we provide air support for .. In 1969 the planes started drop i ve flares at mght and bomblng by the light of the flares. If the people gave offerings to the monkS.:ould suggest that perhaps the offerings came from the government. Ban NongBa . The reports of the rerugees which Mr.L. 'l'hey said that the bombing started there in 1967~~U bombing was so heavy in the daytime that villagers could work in their Ii e ~elds only at night. The planes would shoot or bomb any people whom thel" saw.then the planes started bombing at night. DEAR SENATOR RIFFIN:I have received your communication transmitting the G letter of Mr. simply because we train and supply the Royal Lao Air Force.'uleto policies of the United States government. (RLG) Side where many people still follow such wasteful traditions. : Imposslble to . which is directed against North Vietnamese troop concentrations. even in the heat of battle. . I would readily so~e of the stones may have been embellished by the villagers in tellinz. The bombing of Innocent civilian population is.104 lug rice at night. But this distinction is a spurious one. and also that the line between civilian and soldier is blurred." seems direcuy atlXllJUw. Previous to their summer work experie-nce. I asked o~:~ ~. B th~n the PL taught them how to use rifles to shoot at the planes. Some of children (again according to the refugees as told to the students in the sum e work program) lJecame very adept at shooting down the planes. The-y . Haney attrihutes a large part of the misfortune Infllcted on the villages to the policies of the Unite-d St. . ~uddhist beliefs.'1 l\lany of the refugees told students that they do not like life in Ban Na Nga They went there on ~ccount of the bombing.on which has been dug out by a reporter or by else WIth a particular VIewpoint to push. lines of communication and logistic stores. the North Vietnamese continue to use Lao territory in the southe-rn part of the country for a large road network serving their war aims in South Viet-Nam. we also give major support to the Lao Government to relocate members of the civilian population who freely choose to move away from the areas of fighting. M APPENDIX C Hon.he students why ~hese young people had stayed with the P.invasion by more than 60.
If we can be of further assistance on this or any other matter. and those whose lives have been lost or disrupted as a consequence of the defense of their country. DAVID . Sincerely yours. M. ABSHIRE. please do not hesitate to let us know. both those kUIed by North Vietnamese action.100 the war. Assistant Secretary tor Oonl1ressional Relations.
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