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Flocculent settling

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DRINKING WATER - LAB EXPERIMENTS

**LAB EXPERIMENTS SEDÌMENTATÌON - FLOCCULENT SETTLÌNG
**

Framework

This module explains the lab experiment on focculent settling.

Contents

This module has the following contents:

1. Objective

2. Experiment set-up

3. Theory

3.1 Discrete and focculent settling

3.2 Frequency distribution of settling velocities

3.3 Settling effciency as function of depth and time

4. Procedure

5. Elaboration

6. Design

Data form

**SEDÌMENTATÌON - FLOCCULENT SETTLÌNG LAB EXPERIMENTS
**

1. Objective

On the basis of a sedimentation test with a foccu-

lent suspension of clay particles the fundamentals

for the design of a settling tank can be found. For

this purpose the changes of the particle concentra-

tion in time and with depth should be measured.

From these measurements the cumulative fre-

quency distribution of settling velocities at different

depths can be calculated.

At fxed time intervals samples are taken from the

suspension at different depths. Of these samples

the turbidity is measured. With the help of a cali-

bration curve (Figure 2) the turbidity can be trans-

ferred into a suspended solids concentration (SS)

in mg/l. The determination of the turbidity gives

an enormous saving of time compared to direct

measurements of SS.

2. Experiment set-up

The test is done in a transparent pipe, 2 m high

with a diameter of 19 cm (Figure 1).

The suspension used in this experiment is made

of very fne dispersed Gouda clay particles with a

density of 1050 kg/m

.

Alum is used as a coagulant. After mixing the alum

with the suspension it is pumped in the settling

column. A stirrer in the column guarantees a homo-

geneous mixture. As soon as the stirrer is switched

off focculation begins, followed by sedimentation

of the focks. Samples are taken at different depths

at prescribed time intervals.

3. Theory

3.1 Discrete and focculent settling

Sedimentation is a treatment process where water

is slowly fowing through a reservoir. Because of

the low fow velocities particles are able to deposit

on the bottom of the reservoir. Distinction should

be made between discrete and focculent settling.

Discrete settling happens with inert particles such

as sand grains, but also when the focculation pro-

cess is fnished. The shape, size and weight of the

particles don’t change anymore.

With focculent settling the particles clog together

during the settling process, forming bigger focs

that settle faster. This process can be stimulated

by adding a coagulant. With increasing time and

depth the frequency distribution of the settling

velocities will change with focculent settling.

3.2 Frequency distribution of settling

velocities

The cumulative frequency distribution of settling

velocities can not be calculated in a theoretical way

because the size, shape and mass density of the

particles are unknown and even variable with foc-

culent settling. The frequency distribution is found

experimentally by plotting the percentage remain-

ing SS (p) against the settling velocity v

s

that can

Figure 1 - Experiment set-up focculent settling

stirrer

AL-dosing

stirrer

sampling

storage tank with

clay suspension

pump

waste

**LAB EXPERIMENTS SEDÌMENTATÌON - FLOCCULENT SETTLÌNG
**

be calculated from the depth of the sampling port

under the water surface (H) divided by the

elapsed time t.

p = 100 x c/c

0

(%)

v

s

= H/t (m/h)

With discrete settling the frequency distributions

for all differents depths will coincide into one line

and v

s

is the real settling velocity. With focculent

settling the frequency distributions don’t coincide

en v

s

is the apparent settling velocity, averaged

over the elapsed time.

3.3 �ettling efficiency as function of �ettling efficiency as function of

depth and time

Plotting the percentage remaining SS (p) against

the depth gives a curve like the one in fgure 2. This

can be repeated for different times, thus giving a

series of curves. These curves can be transferred

to effciency curves as a function of the surface

loading (s

0

) in a real settling tank.

The original amount of SS in the settling column

is represented by the total area of the rectangle

(F). After an elapsed time t=x the amount of solids After an elapsed time t=x the amount of solids

in suspension is reduced to the area (f) below the

curve. The effciency is:

−

= − ⋅ = ⋅

∫

H

0

1 F f

r 100 p dh 100%

H F

H is the depth under consideration. Every value

of H can be chosen along the curve and the right

border of the surface is bounded by the vertical

line through the point h=H. In this experiment the

values for H are fxed at 0.5 – 1.0 – 1.5 and 2.0

m. For each of these values a vertical line in fg-

ure 2 is drawn and for every curve the value r is

determined.

Figure 2 - Calibration curve of Gouda clay

**SEDÌMENTATÌON - FLOCCULENT SETTLÌNG LAB EXPERIMENTS
**

The surface loading s

0

of a settling tank is equal to

the apparent settling velocity of the particles and

is calculated as:

s

0

= H/t

where t is the time that corresponds to the curves

in fgure 3.

The relation between r and s

0

can be calculated for

any depth. The values can be plotted, resulting in

an effciency graph like fgure 4. Such graphs are

the basis for the design of a settling tank.

4 Procedure

The experiment should be executed according to

the following procedure:

- take 4 dry buckets of 15 l each.

- add 1 full spoon of dry clay powder to each

bucket.

- add 10 l water to the clay powder. Mix inten-

sively while adding.

- leave the buckets for about 20 min. to rest. The

heavier discrete particles will settle.

- check if the storage tank is clean. If not, remove

the remains of the previous experiment.

- check if the valve in the waste line is closed.

This valve must be closed!

- transfer the supernatant carefully to the stor-

age tank without any particles that are settled

on the bottom of the buckets.

- add cold/hot water to a total volume of 75 l

and a temperature equal to the room tempera-

ture.

- calculate the amount of coagulant Al

(SO

)

needed to get a fnal concentration of 2 mg

Al

+

/l.

- add the coagulant to the storage tank.

- turn on the stirrer in the settling column.

- fll the sedimentation column completely with

the clay suspension up to the overfow. Keep

stirring the storage tank during the flling pro-

cess.

- when the water level in the column reaches the

overfow (2 m) stop the pump, close the valve

and switch off the stirrer in the storage tank.

- measure the water level in the column.

- take the frst series of samples from sampling

port 1, 2, 3 and 4, just before turning off the stir-

rer. Rinse the ports before taking a sample.

- switch off the stirrer in the settling column, wait

a few minutes until the water volume in the

column is quiescent and start the clock: t=0.

- take samples after 3, 6, 9, 15, 21, 30, 45, 60,

75, 90, 120 and 150 minutes (rinse the sam-

pling ports every time before sampling) and

note the turbidity of all samples and the water

level after each sampling.

time

remaining

concentr.

%

water depht, m

Figure 3 - Percentage remaining concentration as a

function of water depth and time

surface loading, m/h

r

Figure 4 - Settling effciency against the surface load-

ing

**LAB EXPERIMENTS SEDÌMENTATÌON - FLOCCULENT SETTLÌNG
**

- transform turbidity to SS-concentration with the

calibration curve for this specifc clay suspen-

sion.

Tip: Use the periods between sampling to work

out the calculations (see below).

5. Elaboration

Execute the following steps:

- plot SS-concentration of the four sampling ports

against time in one graph. Check in this graph

if the sedimentation process really began at

t=0. If not, correct the time table.

- calculate for each sampling port the depth calculate for each sampling port the depth

under the (changing!) water level, the critical

settling velocity in m/h and the remaining per-

centage SS for all sampling times.

- draw in one graph the four frequency distribu-

tions of the settling velocities for all sampling

ports. Be aware that part of the particles prob-

ably stay in suspension.

- plot (on mm-paper) the remaining percentage

p against the depth H. Connect the points by

a curve and extrapolate up to 2 m depth.

- calculate and plot the removal ratio curves as a

function of the overfow rate s

0

for various tank

depths (0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 m).

- design on the basis of these results a rectangu-

lar horizontal fow sedimentation tank(s), given

the following data: a fow rate Q of 1500 m

/h

and the highest possible removal effciency r (to

be established by the supervisor), dependent

on your experimental results. The tank should

have a depth of at least 2.5 meter.

- check your design for turbulence and stabil-

ity by calculation of the Reynold’s and Camp

numbers. If necessary, modify the design.

- check your design for resuspension of settled

solids.

6. Design

A rectangular horizontal fow settling tank can be

designed using the experimental results.

The basic design parameters are the fow rate

Q, the required effciency r and a minimum water

depth in the tank. Attention has to be given to

some criteria:

1. The horizontal fow velocity should be limited

as to prevent resuspension of settled parti-

cles. Resuspension is caused by too high fow

velocities. The permitted velocity is determined

by the settling velocity of the smallest particle

that anyhow has to be removed. This norma-

tive settling velocity can be calculated with the

appropriate equations (see next page).

2. The fow in the tank should be as less turbulent

as possible. A measure for turbulency is the

Reynolds number Re:

3. The fow in the tank should be stable. To check

stability one can use the Camp number C

p

:

R = the hydraulic radius.

4. The designer has to choose acceptable dimen-

sions for the tank.

A further tool can be the investment cost, accord-

ing to Huisman proportional to A1.5 x H .

Resuspension of settled solids

The smallest particles that can be removed in the

tank should not be resuspended by a too high

water velocity.

The settling velocity of non-spherical focculent

particles is given by the Newton equation (a modi-

fed Stokes equation):

0

p

v

C R

g

=

0

V R

Re

⋅

=

ν

7

SEDÌMENTATÌON - FLOCCULENT SETTLÌNG LAB EXPERIMENTS

s w

s p

d w

4g

v d

3C

ρ − ρ

=

Φ ρ

in which:

C

d

= drag coeffcient (-)

Φ = coeffcient for non-spherical particles (-)

ρ

s

= density of particles (focs) (kg/m

)

ρ

w

= density of water (kg/m

)

d

p

= particle diameter (m)

The magnitude of C

d

can be approximated by

d

p

p

C 0,34

Re

Re

= + +

where

s p

p

v d

Re

Φ

=

ν

Φ = 1,0 for spherical particles, 2,0 for sand

grains and ± 20 for very loose aggregates

of focks (like activated sludge).

The scouring velocity according to Camp is

in which:

k = 0.04 for uniform particles; 0.06 for

focculent particles

f = Friction factor of Darcy-Weisbach,

± 0.03

s w

s p

w

8k

v gd

f

ρ − ρ

=

ρ

**LAB EXPERIMENTS SEDÌMENTATÌON - FLOCCULENT SETTLÌNG
**

Data form

Group number: Date

Results turbidity measurements

Time

(min)

Turbidity Sampling port

(NTU)

Water height

(cm)

1

0

9

1

1

30

60

75

90

120

150

Temperature (

o

C) begin: End:

Procedure 5.flocculent settling lab experiments Framework This module explains the lab experiment on flocculent settling. Objective 2.sedimentation . Contents This module has the following contents: 1. Experiment set-up 3.2 Frequency distribution of settling velocities 3. Theory 3. Design Data form . Elaboration 6.3 Settling efficiency as function of depth and time 4.1 Discrete and flocculent settling 3.

As soon as the stirrer is switched off flocculation begins.2 Sedimentation is a treatment process where water is slowly flowing through a reservoir. AL-dosing stirrer sampling waste 2. The suspension used in this experiment is made of very fine dispersed Gouda clay particles with a density of 1050 kg/m. forming bigger flocs that settle faster. Because of the low flow velocities particles are able to deposit on the bottom of the reservoir. With the help of a calibration curve (Figure 2) the turbidity can be transferred into a suspended solids concentration (SS) in mg/l.1 Theory Discrete and flocculent settling 3. A stirrer in the column guarantees a homogeneous mixture.Experiment set-up flocculent settling Discrete settling happens with inert particles such as sand grains.flocculent settling stirrer 1. but also when the flocculation process is finished. Samples are taken at different depths at prescribed time intervals. 3. With increasing time and depth the frequency distribution of the settling velocities will change with flocculent settling. The frequency distribution is found experimentally by plotting the percentage remaining SS (p) against the settling velocity vs that can Frequency distribution of settling velocities . From these measurements the cumulative frequency distribution of settling velocities at different depths can be calculated. This process can be stimulated by adding a coagulant. Of these samples the turbidity is measured. Alum is used as a coagulant. The shape. With flocculent settling the particles clog together during the settling process. The cumulative frequency distribution of settling velocities can not be calculated in a theoretical way because the size. Distinction should be made between discrete and flocculent settling. Objective On the basis of a sedimentation test with a flocculent suspension of clay particles the fundamentals for the design of a settling tank can be found. 2 m high with a diameter of 19 cm (Figure 1). size and weight of the particles don’t change anymore. shape and mass density of the particles are unknown and even variable with flocculent settling. At fixed time intervals samples are taken from the suspension at different depths. Figure 1 . 3. followed by sedimentation of the flocks.lab experiments sedimentation . The determination of the turbidity gives an enormous saving of time compared to direct measurements of SS. For this purpose the changes of the particle concentration in time and with depth should be measured. Experiment set-up storage tank with clay suspension pump The test is done in a transparent pipe. After mixing the alum with the suspension it is pumped in the settling column.

. averaged over the elapsed time.3 Plotting the percentage remaining SS (p) against the depth gives a curve like the one in figure 2. With flocculent settling the frequency distributions don’t coincide en vs is the apparent settling velocity. After an elapsed time t=x the amount of solids in suspension is reduced to the area (f) below the curve. The efficiency is: r = 100 − 1 F−f ∫ p ⋅ dh = F ⋅ 100% H0 H With discrete settling the frequency distributions for all differents depths will coincide into one line and vs is the real settling velocity. p = 100 x c/c0 vs = H/t (%) (m/h) to efficiency curves as a function of the surface loading (s0) in a real settling tank.0 – 1.flocculent settling lab experiments Figure 2 . For each of these values a vertical line in figure 2 is drawn and for every curve the value r is determined. thus giving a series of curves. In this experiment the values for H are fixed at 0.5 – 1. The original amount of SS in the settling column is represented by the total area of the rectangle (F).0 m.Calibration curve of Gouda clay be calculated from the depth of the sampling port under the water surface (H) divided by the elapsed time t. 3.5 and 2. This can be repeated for different times. Every value of H can be chosen along the curve and the right border of the surface is bounded by the vertical line through the point h=H. These curves can be transferred �ettling efficiency as function of depth and time H is the depth under consideration.sedimentation .

add 1 full spoon of dry clay powder to each bucket. 9.check if the storage tank is clean. . % time r water depht. 6. resulting in an efficiency graph like figure 4. The relation between r and s0 can be calculated for any depth. 75. . turn on the stirrer in the settling column. The values can be plotted. remaining concentr.Settling efficiency against the surface loading . The heavier discrete particles will settle.add 10 l water to the clay powder. 30. Such graphs are the basis for the design of a settling tank. wait a few minutes until the water volume in the column is quiescent and start the clock: t=0. - - - - 4 Procedure - The experiment should be executed according to the following procedure: . take the first series of samples from sampling port 1. .take 4 dry buckets of 15 l each.Percentage remaining concentration as a function of water depth and time Figure 4 . m/h Figure 3 . calculate the amount of coagulant Al(SO) needed to get a final concentration of 2 mg Al+/l. to rest.flocculent settling The surface loading s0 of a settling tank is equal to the apparent settling velocity of the particles and is calculated as: s0 = H/t where t is the time that corresponds to the curves in figure 3.lab experiments sedimentation . add the coagulant to the storage tank. close the valve and switch off the stirrer in the storage tank. If not. 60.leave the buckets for about 20 min. fill the sedimentation column completely with the clay suspension up to the overflow. 15. 3 and 4. just before turning off the stirrer. when the water level in the column reaches the overflow (2 m) stop the pump.check if the valve in the waste line is closed. Mix intensively while adding. measure the water level in the column. . . 45. Rinse the ports before taking a sample. This valve must be closed! - - - transfer the supernatant carefully to the storage tank without any particles that are settled on the bottom of the buckets. take samples after 3. remove the remains of the previous experiment. 2. m surface loading. 90. 21. 120 and 150 minutes (rinse the sampling ports every time before sampling) and note the turbidity of all samples and the water level after each sampling. add cold/hot water to a total volume of 75 l and a temperature equal to the room temperature. Keep stirring the storage tank during the filling process. switch off the stirrer in the settling column.

To check stability one can use the Camp number Cp: Cp = v 0 R g R = the hydraulic radius. 4. The flow in the tank should be as less turbulent as possible.0 m). If not. Elaboration Execute the following steps: . . Resuspension of settled solids The smallest particles that can be removed in the tank should not be resuspended by a too high water velocity. the required efficiency r and a minimum water depth in the tank.5 meter.5 and 2.0.plot SS-concentration of the four sampling ports against time in one graph. the critical settling velocity in m/h and the remaining percentage SS for all sampling times. . given the following data: a flow rate Q of 1500 m/h and the highest possible removal efficiency r (to be established by the supervisor). The permitted velocity is determined by the settling velocity of the smallest particle that anyhow has to be removed. The horizontal flow velocity should be limited as to prevent resuspension of settled particles.check your design for resuspension of settled solids.5. 2. A further tool can be the investment cost. If necessary.calculate and plot the removal ratio curves as a function of the overflow rate s0 for various tank depths (0.check your design for turbulence and stability by calculation of the Reynold’s and Camp numbers.draw in one graph the four frequency distributions of the settling velocities for all sampling ports. Attention has to be given to some criteria: 1. .design on the basis of these results a rectangular horizontal flow sedimentation tank(s). The basic design parameters are the flow rate Q. This normative settling velocity can be calculated with the appropriate equations (see next page).5 x H . The flow in the tank should be stable. . modify the design. The designer has to choose acceptable dimensions for the tank. according to Huisman proportional to A1. The tank should have a depth of at least 2. Check in this graph if the sedimentation process really began at t=0. dependent on your experimental results. 1. Design lab experiments - transform turbidity to SS-concentration with the calibration curve for this specific clay suspension.flocculent settling 6. . 1. correct the time table.calculate for each sampling port the depth under the (changing!) water level. .sedimentation . Connect the points by a curve and extrapolate up to 2 m depth. A measure for turbulency is the Reynolds number Re: Re = V0 ⋅ R ν Tip: Use the periods between sampling to work out the calculations (see below). Resuspension is caused by too high flow velocities. 3. . Be aware that part of the particles probably stay in suspension. The settling velocity of non-spherical flocculent particles is given by the Newton equation (a modified Stokes equation): .plot (on mm-paper) the remaining percentage p against the depth H. 5. A rectangular horizontal flow settling tank can be designed using the experimental results.

0 for sand grains and ± 20 for very loose aggregates of flocks (like activated sludge).04 for uniform particles. The scouring velocity according to Camp is vs = 8k ρs − ρw gdp f ρw in which: k = 0.flocculent settling vs = 4g ρs − ρw dp 3Cd Φ ρw in which: Cd = drag coefficient (-) Φ = coefficient for non-spherical particles (-) ρs = density of particles (flocs) (kg/m) ρw = density of water (kg/m) dp = particle diameter (m) The magnitude of Cd can be approximated by Cd = + + 0. ± 0.0 for spherical particles.06 for flocculent particles f = Friction factor of Darcy-Weisbach. 2.lab experiments sedimentation . 0.03 7 .34 Rep Rep Rep = Φ v s dp ν where Φ = 1.

flocculent settling lab experiments Data form Group number: Date Results turbidity measurements Time (min) 1 0 9 1 1 30 60 75 90 120 150 Turbidity Sampling port (NTU) Water height (cm) Temperature (oC) begin: End: .sedimentation .

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