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In this chapter, you will learn concepts w.r.t.: Ancient India Medieval India Modern India

Chapter 1

History of India

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ANCIENT INDIA
History is a record of time. Ages have come and brought with them their foundations and ruins. The study of Ancient India begins with the study of the Stone Age. 1.

Stone Age
The Stone Age or the stages of early man can be classified into Paleolithic Age – This period was essentially the stage of hunters and food gatherers. They used crude tools made of flakes. They had no knowledge of cultivation and house building. Goat, sheep & other cattle were used. They lived on roots & fruits. By the end of the Paleolithic Age, the flint industry came up. The important development of this age was the emergence of Homo-Sapiens. Mesolithic Age – This age was the transition between the Paleolithic & the Neolithic Ages. Mesolithic people lived on hunting, fishing & food gathering. At a later stage, they domesticated animals. They used microlith - a small raw-stone tool. Neolithic Age - These people used tools & implements of polished stone. They particularly used stone axes. Parashurama became an important axe-wielding hero. Dwelling pits, ceramics, a variety of stone & bone tools & a complete absence of microliths marked this age. Cattle, sheep & goat were domesticated.

2.

Indus Valley Civilization
The most important event of ancient Indian history was the development of Indus Valley Civilization. This Civilization prospered on the Banks of river Indus. It extended from Jammu in the North to Ahmednagar in the South, and covered various regions of Gujarat. The main sites which have been found in the excavation are: • Kalibangan in Rajasthan • Lothal in Gujarat • Banwali in Haryana and • Ropar in Punjab. The Indus Valley Civilization existed between 2350 BC and 1750 BC. The main cities associated with the civilization were Harappa, Mohenjo-Daro and Lothal. The main feature of this civilization was Town Planning. They had great buildings, well-planned roads, cities and drainage systems. Trade and agriculture were the main sources of livelihood for the people. People of the Indus Valley were the first to produce cotton. Mother Goddess was the most important deity of worship.

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3.

Vedic Period
This period is marked by the entry of the Aryans, who were originally inhabitants of Central Asia around the Caspian Sea and probably came through the Hindukush Mountains. The period in which they existed was between 1500-600 BC. The Main Features of the Aryans were: i) They were admirers of nature and worshipped the Sun, Fire and Water. ii) Indra was an important deity for the Aryans. iii) Metal iron was used for the first time during this period in 1000 BC. The following religious books were written during this period i) Vedas: These were their most sacred books. (These are also the oldest known books of Indus Valley Civilization). They were four in number, viz. : a) Rig Veda – The oldest, and it contained prayers of God, Vayu, Varun, Indra and Agni. b) Sam Veda – It dealt with music. c) Yajur Veda – It dealt with formulae, sacrifices and rituals. d) Atharva Veda – It dealt with medicines. ii) The Upanishads: They are the foundation stones of Indian Philosophy and are 108 in number.

4.

Rise of Religions
The two major religions that came into prominence after the vedic period: i) Buddhism - Initiated by a Kshatriya prince of the Shakya clan, Siddhartha, (who later came to be known as Buddha) around 6th century BC. Siddhartha was born in 567 BC at Lumbini in Kapilavastu (present day Nepal). He was the son of king Shuddhodhana. He went in search of truth and attained enlightenment under a pipal tree at Bodh Gaya, and delivered his first sermons at Sarnath in U.P. He died at Kushinagar in U.P. The main Buddhist teachings of the eight–fold path of right faith, thought, action, livelihood, efforts, speech, remembrance and concentration, belief in nirvana (freedom from the cycle of birth and death), ahimsa and law of karma were recorded in Triptikas, the religious book of Buddhists. ii) Jainism - Initiated by Rishabha (a Kshatriya prince), Jainism attained peak under Vardhamana Mahavira (the 24th Tirthankara). Mahavira was born at Kundagrama in 540 BC at Bihar, and attained perfect knowledge ‘Kaivalya’ after he became an ascetic at the age of 30. He became a ‘Jina’ (one who has conquered happiness and misery) and died at Pavapuri (present day Bihar).

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The major teachings of Jainism were based on the Tri-ratna concept and the Tri-ratna concept was based on a) Right knowledge, b) Right faith and c) Right conduct.

5.

Magadh Empire (6th Century BC - 4th Century BC)
Major dynasties of the Magadh Empire were: i) Haryanka Dynasty - Bimbisara and Ajata Shatru laid the foundation of this dynasty in 684 BC. ii) Shishunaga Dynasty - This dynasty was founded by Shishunag in 413 BC after defeating the last king of the Haryanka dynasty. iii) Nanda Dynasty – This dynasty was founded in 382 BC by Mahapadma Nanda.

6.

Alexander’s Invasion of India
• Alexander, after establishing his Kingdom in present day Pakistan, crossed the river Indus and invaded India. • He defeated Porus, the then ruler of Punjab in the Battle of Hydaspes in 326 BC and extended his kingdom till India. • He founded the city of Alexandria in present day Afghanistan.

7.

The Age of Mauryas (321-198 BC)
• Chandragupta Maurya was the founder of Maurya Empire. • Kautilya was in the court of Chandragupta Maurya and he had written the book titled Arthashastra. • Megasthenese was a Greek ambassador who came in the court of Chandragupta Maurya and wrote the book titled ‘INDICA’. • Ashoka (273-232 B.C.) was the important king of this dynasty. • He fought the Kalinga war (261 BC) and after that war he adopted Buddhism. • He was the first Indian king to talk directly to the people throughout his empire. • The last king of Maurya empire Brihadratha was killed by his commander in chief Pushyamitrasingha

8.

Kushan Empire
The Kushan empire was started by the Kushan tribe of the Yuezi Confederation around 1st century BC.

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• • • • •

The Kushan Empire introduced the largest number of gold coins in India. Kanishka was most the important king of the empire. He started the Saka Era in 78 AD. His capital was at Pursushpura ( now Peshawar). He was responsible for organizing the 4th Buddhist council in Kashmir. Both Gandhar and Mathura art forms developed during Kanishka’s reign.

9.

Gupta Empire
It was founded by Chandragupta I (320-325 AD). He started the Gupta Era in 320 AD. Other important kings of the Gupta empire were i) Samudra Gupta (335-380 AD) He was known as the Napoleon of India. He was a great exponent of Veena. ii) Chandragupta II (380-412 AD) also known as Vikramaditya • Chinese Pilgrim, Fa-hien came in his court. • Aryabhatta and Kalidas were in the court of Chandragupta II. He was responsible for the start of the Vikram Era. iii) Kumaragupta I of this dynasty had constructed the Nalanda University (in present day Bihar). iv)Harshvardhana was the last important king of North India. • His capital was at Kannauj. • Hiuen-Tsang, the Chinese pilgrim came to his court. • Harshcharita, a book on the life of Harshvardhana was written by Banabhata, who had also written Kadambari. • He was defeated by Pulshekin II of the Chalukya dynasty.

10. South Indian Dynasties
10.1 The Sathavanas • This dynasty was founded by Simuka. (65 BC) • Satakarni was an important king. • They constructed many buddhist worshipping sites- the important ones being at Amaravati and Nagarjuna Konda. • They issued the maximum number of lead coins.

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• Sangam Literature relates primarily to Pandyan kingdom but also contains information about Cholas and Cheras. • Tolkkapiyam is the oldest book of Tamil grammar.

Three Major Southern Kingdoms
Kingdom Cholas Cheras Pandyas Capital Uraiyar Vanji’ Karur Madurai Emblem Tiger Bow Carp Famous Port Puhar Tondi, Bandar Korkai Important King Karikala Udiyanjeral Nedunjdiyan

10.2 The Chalukyas (6th - 7th Century AD) • Pulkeshin I bounded the Chalukya dynasty and established its capital at Vatapi. • Pulkeshin II (609 AD - 642 AD) was the most important king. • According to the Aihole inscriptions, he defeated Harshvardhana on the banks of river Narmada in 619 AD. • Narasimharaman I defeated and killed Pulkeshin II and captured Vadani. • Most of the Buddhist cover at Ajanta and Ellora was structured during the reign of the Chalukyas. • Aihole was the temple town of this period. 10.3 The Pallavas (560 AD – 903 AD) • The Pallava dynasty was founded by Simhavishnu in 560 AD. • Their Capital was at Kanch. • Mahendranarman I was defeated by Pulkeshin II. • Narasimhavarma I was the greatest king, and because he defeated Pulkeshin II and captured Badan, he was known as Vatapi-Konda. • Narshimhavarma II constructed the shore temple of Mahabalipuram and the Kailashnath Temple of Kanchi. • He was also a worshipper of Vishnu. He built the Vaikunthaperumal Temple at Kanchi. • Aparajita Pallav was the last ruler and was defeated by Aditya Chola. Administrative Units of the Pallavas Mandal (Province) Nadu (District) Village (Kottam - Group of Villages)
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Names of the Chiefs Rastrik Deshatric Gram Bhojak
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10.4 The Rashtrakutas Founded by Dantedurga in Deccan, their capital was located at Manyakhet or Malkhed. Greatest kings of the Rashtrakuta dynasty were: i) Govind III (796 AD - 814 AD) ii) Amoghavarha I (814 AD - 978 AD) - He had written the first Kannada book - ‘Kabirajamarga.’ and Ratnamalika in Kannada. iii) Kailash I built the Kailash Temple at Ellora (in 9th century). Administrative Units of the Rashtrakutas Rashtras - the provinces Visaya - the districts Bhukti - the villages 10.5 The Cholas (850 -1200 AD) • The Chola dynasty was founded by Vijayalaya in 850 AD. • Early capital was situated at Uraiyar. • Later the capital was shifted to Tanjore. • Raja Raja I (985 AD - 1014 AD) was an important king. - He constructed the Siva Temple at Tanjore which is also famous as Raja Rajeshvar Temple. • Rajendra I (1014 AD- 1044AD) was called the Napolean of South India. • The Cholas were famous for naxal power and for their village administration. Administrative Units of the Cholas • Mandlam the provinces • Valanadusnadus the districts • Taniyur the large villages • The Village Assembly was constituted of Urs- the assembly of common people. Abha - the assembly of brahmins. Nagaram - the assembly of merchants.

MEDIEVAL INDIA
It is marked by the beginning of the Sultanate of Delhi, which was established after the conquest of Muhammad Ghori. The period of the Sultanate of Delhi ranges from AD 1206-1526. It is also considered as the beginning of Muslim rule in India. Important Dynasties 1. The Slave Dynasty period ranges from AD 1206-1290. It was founded by Qutab–ud-din Aibak whose capital was at Lahore. He started the Persian festival of ‘NAVROZ’ in India. The Qutub
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Minar at Delhi was also built by Qutab–ud-din Aibak. Later Iltutmish got three more stories added to the Minar. Razia Sultana, the only woman ruler of India, and Balban were the important rulers of the Slave Dynasty. 2. T he K hi l j i D y na s t y wa s founde d b y J a l a l - u d- d i n K hi l j i a nd i t s pe r i od r a nges from AD 1290-1320. Ala-ud-din Khilji was one of the most prominent rulers of this dynasty. He started branding of horses and constructed Siri Fort at Delhi and Alai Darwaja near Qutub Minar. The Tughlak dynasty was founded by G hia suddin Tughlak a nd the per iod ra nges from AD 1320-1414. Ibn Batuta was an important African traveller who visited India in 1333. Feroz Shah Tughlak was another important king and he constructed many tombs. Mohammed-Bin-Tughlak introduced coins of brass and copper. The Lodhi dynasty was founded by Bahlol Lodhi and the period of this dynasty ranges from AD 1451–1526. Sikander and Ibrahim Lodhi were the other two prominent rulers belonging to this dynasty. Sikander established Agra City and transferred his capital from Agra to Delhi. Mughal Dynasty (AD 1526-1857) 5.1 Babar - He is credited with the foundation of the Mughal empire by defeating Ibrahim Lodhi in the First Battle of Panipat on April 20, 1526. His tomb is built at Kabul, and his autobiography Baburnama is written in Turkish. 5.2 Humayun - He was the next emperor of the Mughal empire after Babur. His tomb is in Delhi, his biography Humayunama was written by Guladan Begum. 5.3 Akbar - He was the most successful Mughal emperor. An excellent leader, who separated religion and politics, started a new religion called Din-e-Ilahi. He established Fatehpur Sikri and Buland Darwaja near Agra. He abolished the Jazia Tax. Bairam Khan, Akbar’s General, fought the Second Battle of Panipat in 1556 & defeated Hemu. Two important books Akbarnama and Ain-e-Akbari were written during Akbar’s tenure by Abul Fazal. His tomb is built at Sikandara near Agra. 5.4 Jehangir - The son of Akbar, who ascended the throne after Akbar ’s death, known for his administration and strict sense of justice. He was the husband of Noor Jahan Begum and had built Shalimar and Nishant Bagh. His autobiography is Tuzk-e-Jahangiri and his tomb is built at Lahore.
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5.5 Shahjahan - Famous ruler and son of Jehangir, who built the Taj Mahal at Agra, in the memory of his wife Mumtaz Mahal. Jama Masjid and Red Fort are the other two famous monuments that were built by him. He had transferred his capital from Agra to Delhi. 5.6 Aurangzeb - A very cruel ruler and son of Shahjahan, who demolished several religious structures of Hindus, and ruled for about 50 years. He constructed the ‘Moti Masjid’ in the Red Fort at Delhi and ‘Bibi ka Makbara’ at Aurangabad. 5.7 Sher Shah Suri (1540-1555) - He was a brilliant administrator who issued the Rupiah and Paisa coins and built the famous Grand Trunk Road from Peshawar to Calcutta. He constructed the Old Fort of Delhi. The Mughal empire started declining with the attack of Nadir Shah who took with him the famous Kohinoor Diamond to Afghanistan. Then came the Marathas who became powerful under the leadership of Shivaji.

MODERN INDIA
Coming of the Europeans
• Vasco-da-Gama discovered the sea route to India in 1498 and he belonged to Portugal. So Portugal was the first European country to start trade with India. • The East India Company (EIC) of England came to India in 1602. • The first officer of the EIC, Captain Hawkins came to India in 1608 in the court of Jahangir, the then ruler of India. • The EIC established its first factory at Surat in 1613. • The first English Ambassador, Sir Thoma s Roe, came to India in 1615 in the court of Ja ha ngir.

Important Battles of Modern India
i) Battle of Plassey (1757) Siraj-ud-Daulah, the Nawab of Bengal was defeated by the East India Co., under the leadership of Lord Clive, the first governor of Bengal. It is also known as the Black Hole Episode of the Indian history. ii) Battle of Wandiwash (1760) It was the decisive battle fought between the English and the French. The French rule in India came to an end.

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iii) Battle of Buxar (1764) The joint a rmy of Mir Q ua sim, former Na wa b of Bengal Suja -ud-Da ula h, Na wa b of Awa dh a nd Shah Alam II was defeated by the English a rmy under the lea der ship of Captain Hector Munro.

The Regulating Act (1773)
In1773, the British Parliament initiated a series of administrative and economic reforms in India. The post of Governor General for Bengal was created. Warren Hastings became the first Governor General of Bengal. The Governor General and his council had all the legislative powers. Supreme Court was established at Calcutta and Sir Elijah Impey became the Chief Justice of India.

Governor Generals of India (1774 - 1858)
1. Warren Hastings (1774 - 1785) Warren Hastings was the first Governor General of India. The foundation of the British empire was laid down by Lord Clive (first Governor of Bengal) and Warren Hastings consolidated it. 2. Lord Cornwallis (1786 - 1793) Lord Cornwallis is known as the father of Indian Civil Services. He introduced the system of the Permanent Settlement, also called the Permanent Settlement of Bengal, in 1703. It was an agreement between East India Company and the Bengali landlords (zamindars) for effective agricultural methods and productivity in the empire. 3. Lord Wellesely (1797 - 1805) Lord Wellesely adopted the policy of Subsidiary Alliance. He established the Fort William College at Calcutta. 4. Lord William Bentinck (1828 - 1835) Lord William Bentinck was a famous social reformer. He abolished the Sati system in 1829. He introduced engineering education in India. 5. Lord Dalhousie (1845 - 1856) Lord Dalhousie laid the foundation of railways in India. The first railway line was laid between Bombay and Thane and began operating in 1853. He also started the first telegram line in India between Agra and Calcutta. He introduced the Widow Remarriage Act, opened post offices throughout India, established the Public Works Department, and introduced The Doctrine of Lapse.

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Viceroys of India
1. Lord Cunning (1858 - 1862) Lord Cunning was the first Viceroy of India. He abolished The Doctrine of Lapse and also established three major Indian universities at Calcutta, Bombay and Madras. 2. Lord Litton (1876 - 1880) Lord Litton introduced The Vernacular Press Act, to curb the freedom of Indian Press. 3. Lord Rippon (1880 - 1884) Lord Rippon was known as the father of Local Self Government. He started census for the first time in India in 1881.He abolished The Vernacular Press Act and introduced Illbert Bill. 4. Lord Curzon (1899 - 1904) Lord Curzon was responsible for the partition of Bengal and Bengal was divided into East and West Bengal in 1905. He passed Indian University Act in 1904 and also passed The Indian Monuments Act. 5. Lord Minto (1905 -1910) During his tenure there was great unrest in India because of the the Indian Council Act or the Minto Morley reforms passed in 1909. 6. Lord Hardinge (1910 - 1916) During his tenure a Durbar was held at Delhi in 1911 to greet the King of England, George V. Bengal was unified and Delhi was made the capital in place of Calcutta in 1911. 7. Lord Chelmsford (1916 - 1921) Under Lord Chelmsford, The Government of India Act of 1919, popularly know as MontagueChelmsford reform was passed. The Jallianwala Bagh massacre took place on 13th April 1919. Rowlatt Act, also called the Black Bill, was passed in 1919. The Non - Cooperation movement started in the year 1919. 8. Lord Reading (1921 - 1925) The visit of the Duke of Connaught and the Prince of Wales to India was boycotted under Lord Reading. 9. Lord Irwin (1926 - 1931) During Lord Irwin’s reign, the Simon commission visited India in 1928. Civil Disobedience movement was started in India by Mahatma Gandhi. Gandhi - Irwin pact was signed in 1931. The First Round Table Conference was held at London.
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10. Lord Willingdon (1931 - 1936) Under Lord Willingdon, the second and third round table conferences were held at London. The Poona pact was signed between Dr. B R Ambedker and Mahatma Gandhi. 11. Lord Linlithgow (1936 - 1943) Under him elections were held for the first time in 11 Indian states. Congress ministries were formed in eight out of 11 provisions but subsequently resigned because India was being dragged into the Second World War. 12. Lord Wavell (1943 - 1947) Under him the Cabinet Mission came to India from London. The first meeting of the Constituent Assembly was held on 9th December, 1946. 13. Lord Mountbatten (March 13, 1947 to 14 August 1947) Under him an act for Indian independence was passed by British Parliament. He was the last British Governor General of independent India.

Presidents of Indian National Congress (Important Sessions)
Session No. 1 3 4 9 21 22 23 33 35 36 57 Year 1885 1887 1888 1893 1905 1906 1907 1917 1918 1919 1939 Place Bombay Madras Allahabad Lahore Banaras Kolkata Surat Kolkata Delhi (Annual Session) Amritsar Tripura President W C Bannerjee BadurddinTyabji George Yule Dadabhai Naoroji G K Gokhale Dadabhai Naoroji Dr Rash Behari Ghosh Mrs.Annie Besant M M Malyviya Lala Lajpat Rai S C Bose

Important Milestones of Modern India
Event First War of Independence Year 1857 Related Facts Mangal Pandey was a prominent figure. He killed two British sepoys at Barrackpore.
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Government of India Act Formation of Indian National Congress Partition of Bengal Swadeshi Movement

1858 1885

Direct governance of British Crown over India. A. O. Hume was the founder. W.C. Banerjee was the first president of Indian National Congress. Bengal was divided on the basis of religion. Indian National Congress adopted a resolution on 7th August 1905 to boycott all foreign goods. Founded by Aga Khan and Salimuddin at Dhaka. Under these reforms, a separate electorate was made for Muslims during the leadership of Lord Minto. Annie Besant started the movement in September 1916. Congress and Muslim League held their sessions at Lucknow, which strengthened the Hindu– Muslim unity. It gave unstoppable powers to the government to arrest and imprison suspects, without even having a trial. Because of firing, under the orders of General O ’ D yer, ma ny people wer e kil led, w hile attending a public meeting at Jallianwala Bagh in Amritsar. This was an anti–British movement started by two brothers Shaukat and Muhammad Ali. Gandhiji pioneered the movement which included the boycott of foreign goods a nd refusing government work. F o r a s s e s s i n g t h e e x t e n t of f o r mi n g a representative government in India, Britishers sent Simon Commission which was furiously boycotted by Indians and Lala Lajpat Rai ( a Prominent Indian leader) who died due to lathi

1905 1905

Formation of Muslim League Morley–Minto Reforms

1906 1909

Home Rule Movement

1915-16

Lucknow Pact

1916

Rowlatt Act

1919

Jallianwala Bagh Massacre

1919

Khilafat Movement

1920

Non-Cooperation Movement

1920

Simon Commission

1927

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c ha r g e i n a commission. Dandi March (Salt Satyagraha) 1930

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Gandhiji marched from his Sabarmati Ashram, which was basically a form of protest against t he t a x o n s a l t i mpos e d b y t he B r i t i s h Government. Passed on the basis of the Simon Commission report, it envisa ged the structure of the government under the direct governance of the ‘British Crown’. Mahatma Gandhi led this movement and asked the Britishers to leave India. This envisaged forming an interim government in India Without the Muslim league’s participation under the Assembly predisency of Dr. Rajendra Prasad, the Constituent Assembly was formed.

Government of India Act

1935

Quit India Movement

1942

Cabinet Mission Plan

1946

Formation of the Constituent Assembly

1946

Partition of India

1947

Indian Independence Act of 1947 was responsible for the partition of India. The Constitution came into force on 26 th Jan, 1950.

Constitution Enforcement

1950

End of Chapter

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In this chapter, you will learn concepts w.r.t.: World Wars Major Revolutions The Great Depression

Chapter 2

History of The World

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THE WORLD WARS
World War I (Aug 14, 1914 to Nov 11, 1919)
Major Participants 1. Germany, Austria, Hungary, Bulgaria and Turkey formed a group known as the Central powers. 2 . England, France, Belgium and Serbia later joined by Russia and Italy, were known as the Allied powers.

Causes of War The First World War was a consequence of 1. Archduke of Austria, Francis Ferdinand was assassinated, 2. Austria initiated a war against Serbia, and 3. Russia mobilized its forces against Austria-Hungary.

Outcome The Allied forces won the war, Treaty of Versailles was signed, which curbed the power of the German Empire and led to the creation of many new countries in Eastern Europe.

World War II (1939 to 1945)
Major Participants 1. Allied Powers - Britain, Russia, USA, and France. 2. Axis Powers (central powers) - Germany, Italy and Japan.

Causes of War The Second World War was a consequence of 1. Rise of the Nazi party in Germany. 2. Treaty of Versailles which was against Germany. 3. The expansion policy of Japan.

Outcome The Allied forces won the war and Germany was divided into two parts. Russia and the US
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became the biggest powers in the World. The end of war led to the Cold War amongst the industrialised countries.

The Cold War (1947-1991)
The Cold War refers to the period of geopolitical and economic struggle that emerged after the World War II between the US and its allies and Russia and its allies. The phase lasted from 1947 till the division of erstwhile Soviet Union in 1991. This stage was referred to as the Cold Wa r because members of both the blocs were faced with a fear of hostile attack from its enemies. The era of cold war led to a large scale development of weapons including nuclear weapons. It also led to economic warfare and trade embargoes between nations. Japan had full support of the US and Russia supported all the erstwhile Soviet Union members. The war finally came to an end in 1991 with the dissolution of Warsaw Pact which led to the division of the Soviet Union.

MAJOR REVOLUTIONS
I. The Russian Revolution (1917)
The main cause of the Russian Revolution was the autocratic rule of the Czars. This revolution led to the establishment of the rule of Lenin in Russia. In this way Russia became the first communist state of the World.

II.French Revolution (1789 - 1793)
The autocratic rule of the king of France led the country to financial bankruptcy. The philosophers and intellectuals inspired the people of France to change the face of the society. “Liberty, Equality and Fraternity” became the slogan of the revolution. Napoleon Bonaparte emerged as a great military general of France.

THE GREAT DEPRESSION
The worldwide economic downturn that began in 1929 and lasted till the late 1930’s. It was the most severe depression ever experienced by the industrialized economies of the West, which brought about drastic changes in economic institutions, macroeconomic policies, and economic theory. The depression started in the United States, but caused drastic decline in output, severe unemployment, and acute
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deflation in almost every country of the world. The social and cultural effects of the downturn were no less staggering, especially in the United States, where the harshest effects of the depression were felt after the Civil War.

The worst hit were the United States and Europe while milder impacts of the depression were felt in Asia, especially Japan and the South Americas.

The worst depression faced by the World economy was a consequence of decline in consumer demand, financial panic, and misguided government policies that caused economic output to fall in the United States. The gold standard, which was used to fix currency exchange rates between the countries, played a key role in transmitting the economic downturn to countries other than the United States. The recovery from the Great Depression was spurred largely by the abandonment of the gold standard and the ensuing monetary expansion. The economic impact of the Great Depression was enormous, including both extreme human suffering and profound changes in economic policy .

End of Chapter

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In this chapter, you will learn concepts w.r.t.: The Structure of the Earth The Shape and Composition of the Earth The Internal Structure of the Earth Important Geographical Terms

Chapter 3

Structure of the Earth

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THE EARTH
Earth is the third planet in the solar system in terms of distance from the Sun, and the fifth largest in size. It is also the largest amongst its planetary system’s terrestrial planets, making it the largest solid body in the solar system, and it is the only planet in the universe known to support life. The Earth was formed around 4.57 billion years ago and its largest natural satellite, the Moon, was orbiting it shortly thereafter, around 4.533 billion years ago. Since it’s formation, the Earth has changed through geological and biological processes that have hidden traces of the original conditions. The outer space is divided into several tectonic plates that gradually migrate across the surface over geologic time spans. The interior of the planet remains active, with a thick layer of convecting yet solid Earth mantle and an iron core that generates a magnetic field. The atmospheric conditions have been significantly altered by the presence of life forms, which create an ecological balance that modifies the surface conditions. About 71% of the surface is covered in water in the form of oceans, seas, and other water bodies and the remainder majorly consists of land masses in the form of continents and islands. There is significant interaction between the Earth and its space environment. The relatively large moon leads to ocean tides and has gradually modified the length of the planet’s rotation period. A cometary bombardment during the early history of the planet is believed to have played a role in the formation of the oceans. Later, asteriod impacts are understood to have caused significant changes to the surface environment. The changes in the orbit of the planet are also attributed to the ice age, in which significant portions of the surface were covered in glacial sheets.

THE SHAPE OF THE EARTH
The Earth’s shape is that of an oblate spheroid, with an average diameter of approximately 12,742 km (~ 40,000 km / ). The rotation of the Earth causes the equator to bulge out slightly so that the equatorial diameter is 43 km larger than the pole to pole diameter.

THE COMPOSITION OF THE EARTH
The mass of the Earth is approximately 5.98 ×10 24 kg. Most of it forms iron (35.1%), oxygen (28.2%), silicon (17.2%), magnesium (15.9%), nickel (1.6%), calcium (1.6%) and aluminum (1.5%).

THE INTERNAL STRUCTURE OF THE EARTH
The interior of the Earth, like that of the other terrestrial planets, is chemically divided into layers. The Earth has an outer silicate solid crust, a highly viscous mantle, a liquid outer core that is much less
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viscous than the mantle, and a solid inner core. The geologic component layers of the Earth are at the following depths below the surface :

Depth ( Kilometers)
0–35 35–60 35–2890 2890–5100 5100–6378

Layer
Crust (locally varies between and 70 km) Uppermost part of the Mantle Mantle Outer Core Inner Core

1. Earth’s Hydrosphere The abundance of water on Earth is a unique feature that distinguishes ‘The Blue Planet’ from the other planets in the Solar System. Approximately, 71% of the Earth is covered by water and only 29% is solid land. The Earth’s hydrosphere mainly consists of oceans, but technically includes all water surfaces in the world, including inland seas, lakes, rivers, and underground waters. The average depth of the oceans is 3,794 m (12,447 ft), more than five times the average height of the continents. 2. Earth’s Atmosphere The Earth’s atmosphere has no definite boundary, and is slowly becoming thinner and fading into outer space. Three-quarters of the atmosphere’s mass is contained within the first 11 kms of the planet’s surface. This lowest layer is called the Troposphere. Further up, the atmosphere is usually divided into the Stratosphere, Mesosphere, and Thermosphere. An important part of the atmosphere for life on Earth is the Ozone layer. The atmospheric pressure on the surface of the Earth averages at 101.325 KPa (Kilo Pascal), with a scale height of about 6 kms. Its composition is 78.09 % nitrogen, 20.95% oxygen, 0.93% argon and 0.03% minor gases and vapors. The atmosphere protects the Earth’s life forms by absorbing ultraviolet solar radiation, moderating temperature, transporting water vapor, and providing useful gases. The atmosphere is one of the principal components determining weather and climate.

The Atmospheric Layers
1. Troposphere - The Troposphere is the lowermost portion of the Earth’s atmosphere extending up to a height of 15 kms (at tropics) and 8 kms (at poles). It is the densest layer of the
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atmosphere and contains approximately 75% of the mass of the atmosphere and almost all the water vapor and particulate matter. The Troposphere is the most turbulent part of the atmosphere and is that part of the atmosphere in which most weather phenomena are seen. The Troposphere extends from the Earth’s surface up to the tropopause where the Stratosphere begins. 2. Stratosphere - The Stratosphere is situated between about 10 kms and 50 kms above surface at tropics, while at the poles it starts at a height of about 8 kms. The Stratosphere sits directly above the Troposphere and directly below the Mesosphere.The Stratosphere is layered in temperature because it is heated from above by absorption of ultraviolet radiation from the Sun. Within this layer, the temperature increases as the altitude increases; the top of the Stratosphere has a temperature of about 270 Kelvin; about the same as the ground level temperature. This top is called the Stratopause, above which temperature again decreases with height. 3. Mesosphere - The Mesosphere is directly above the Stratosphere and directly below the Ionosphere. The Mesosphere is located about 50-80 kms above the Earth’s surface. Within this layer, the temperature decreases with increasing altitude. Since it lies between the maximum altitude for most aircrafts and the minimum altitude for most spacecrafts, this region of the atmosphere is only directly accessible through the use of sounding rockets. As a result, this region is one of the most poorly understood in the atmosphere. 4. Ionosphere – This layer lies between the Mesosphere and the outermost layer of the atmosphere, the Exosphere. It extends from 80-500 kms above the earths surface. The middle layer of the region is called Thermosphere where the temperature is above 100 degress celcius. Within this layer, the ultraviolet radiation causes ionization. 5. Exosphere - The Exosphere is the uppermost layer of the atmosphere. On Earth, its lower boundary (exobase), at the edge of the thermosphere is estimated to be 500-1000 kms above the Earth’s surface, and its upper boundary at about 10,000 kms. It is only from the Exosphere that the atmospheric gases, atoms, and molecules can, to any appreciable extent, escape into outer space. The main gases within the Exosphere are the lightest gases, mainly hydrogen and helium, with some oxygen near the exobase. The atmosphere in this layer is sufficiently rarefied for satellites to orbit the Earth, although they still receive some atmospheric drag.

KINDS OF ROCKS
Rocks are naturally occuring aggregate of minerals. The Earth’s crust and mantle are formed of rocks. The study of rocks is called Petrology. Rocks are classified by their mineral and chemical

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composition, texture of the constituent particles and the process by which they are formed. The transformation of one rock type to another through geographical process is ca lled the Rock Cycle.

Types of Rocks
i. Igneous Rocks – Igneous rocks are formed when the molten magma or lava slowly cools and crystallises within the Earth’s crust. Examples of the Igneous rock are granite,basalt, etc. ii. Sedimentary Rocks – Sedimentary rocks are formed by the deposition of organic and nonorganic matter over a period of time. The process of deposition is called sedimentation. Commonly known sedimentary rocks are coal, limestone, sandstone etc. iii.Metamorphic Rocks – Pressure and change in temprature under the Earth’s surface cause Igneous and Sedimentary rocks to undergo change. This change leads to the formation of Metamorphic Rocks.

IMPORTANT GEOGRAPHICAL TERMS
i. Latitude and Longitude - In order to locate a point on the face of the earth, we look at the latitude and the longitude of the point. The latitude of a place is its angular distance, north or south of the Equator as measured from the centre of the Earth. Latitudes are, therefore, lines drawn parallel to the Equator which represents 0 degree latitude. They are marked up to 90 degrees to the North and to the South of the Equator. The longitudes show the angular distance of a point East or West of the Prime Meridian, which is at 0 degrees passing through Greenwich near London. The meridians or longitudes are drawn, joining the two poles through 360 divisions of the Equator. They are 180 degrees to the East and 180 degrees to the West of Greenwich. Longitude is represented by imaginary lines extending from pole to pole and crossing all parallels at right angles. These lines are called Meridians. They are farthest apart at the Equator, becoming increasingly close together northward and southward and finally converging completely at the poles. Among the latitudes, only the Equator is a great circle. An imaginary line drawn through the centre of the Earth from the North Pole to South Pole is called the Earth’s axis. The axis of the Earth is always tilted at an angle of 66½ to the plane of the

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ecliptic. The actual plane of the Earth’s movement around the Sun in space is called the plane of ecliptic. The seasons occur because the earth is tilted with respect to the plane of the ecliptic. An imaginary plane that passes through the Earth half-way between the poles and is perpendicular to the axis of rotation is the plane of the Equator. Some lines of latitude have significance. For example, the latitude of 0 degree is called the Equator, while those of 23 1/2 degrees North and South of the Equator, are known as the Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn, respectively . Similarly are the Arctic and the Antarctic circles, with latitudes of 66 1/2 degrees North and South of the Equator respectively. Earth’s axis is an imaginary line, which passes through the centre of the Earth. It spins round its axis, which is always inclined at an angle of 66½ degrees to the plane of Earth’s orbit. ii. International Date Line – It is the line that passes through 180 degrees East or West meridian of longitude which falls on the opposite side of the Greenwich meridian. One day is added when this line is crossed East to West and a day is deducted when the line passes West to East. iii.Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) – GMT refers to the 0 degree longitude that passes through Greenwich near London. iv. Indian Standard Time (IST) - IST refers to the 82 1/2 degree longitude that passes through Allahabad and is 5 1/2 hours ahead of the GMT. v. Solstice - It is the date on which the Sun shines vertically over a tropic when the days & nights are the longest & the shortest. On the 22nd of June the sun shines vertically over the Tropic of Cancer & this date is termed as Summer Solstice for the Northern Hemisphere & Winter Solstice for the Southern Hemisphere. Similarly, on December 22nd, the Sun shines vertically over the Tropic of Capricorn. Hence it is Summer Solstice for Southern Hemisphere & Winter Solstice for the Northern Hemisphere. vi. Equinox - It means two days during the year when the day & night are almost equal throughout the World because the Sun shines vertically over the Equator. March 21st is called the Vernal Equinox & September 23rd is called the Autumnal Equinox. vii. Equator - The Equator represents the imaginary line passing around the Earth midway between the North & South poles. It divides the Earth into two equal parts.
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viii. Meridians - They represent the imaginary lines drawn out on the global map from pole to pole & perpendicular to the Equator. Prime Meridian is the 0 degree meridian, which passes through Greenwich, a place near London. ix. Aphelion - Aphelion refers to that position of the Earth in its orbit, when it is at the greatest distance from the Sun (about 152 million kms). The Earth reaches this position during the northern summer. This term also refers to the position of any other planet or a comet, when it is at its greatest distance from the Sun. x. Perihelion - Perihelion refers to the nearest point of a heavenly body in its orbit around the Sun. The Earth at perihelion is at a distance of about 147 million kms from the Sun. xi. Apogee - Apogee refers to the position of the orbit of the moon when it is at its greatest distance from Earth. This is approximately 406,000 kms for the Earth. xii. Perigee - Perigee refers to the point of the moon when it is at its minimum distance from the Earth. This distance is approximately 364,000 kms. xiii. Cyclone - Any area of low pressure around which the air turns in the same direction as the Earth is a cyclone. In the Indian Ocean, a tropical storm with masses of air turning rapidly round a low pressure area is called a tropical cyclone. xiv. Typhoon - It is the name given to a tropical cyclone in the Far East. xv. Hurricane - It is a tropical storm in the Caribbean or West Pacific Ocean, with extremely strong winds. The wind force reaches 12 on the Beaufort scale. xvi. Tornado - It is a type of whirlwind which is formed by rising air currents associated with large cumulonimbus clouds. It rotates in an anticlockwise direction in the Northern Hemisphere and in a clockwise direction in the Southern Hemisphere. xvii. Estuary - It is the tidal mouth of a river where the salt water of the tide meets the fresh water of the river current. xviii. Isobars - Lines on the map denoting places experiencing equal pressure. xix. Isobaths - Lines denoting equal depths in the Sea.

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xx. Isobronts - Lines joining places experiencing a thunderstorm at the same time. xxi. Isochrones - Lines joining places located at equal travel time from a common centre. xxii. Isogonics - Lines joining places with the same magnetic declination.

xxiii. Isorymes - Lines denoting places experiencing equal frost.
xxiv. Isoseismics - Lines denoting places experiencing equal seismic activity.

End of Chapter

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In this chapter, you will learn concepts w.r.t.: India at a glance Indian Agriculture Major Rivers of India India’s Mineral Wealth Major Industries and Industrial Regions Important Monuments and Historical Sites States/Union Territories and Capital

Chapter 4

Geography of India

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INDIA AT A GLANCE
India, the seventh largest country of the world, accounts for about 2.4% of the total world area. It is bounded by the great Himalayas and other snowy mountains in the north. The country stretches southwards and at the Tropic of Cancer, narrows down and ends into the Indian Ocean between the Bay of Bengal on the East and the Arabian Sea on the West.

Location
India lies on the Northern Hemisphere between parallels of latitude 37 o6’ and 8o4’ North and between the Meridians of longitude 68o7’ E and 97o25’ East.

Dimensions
The land area covered by Indian mainland is 32, 87,780 Sq Kms. It measures about 3214 Kms from North to South and 2933 Kms from East to West. The length of the Indian coastline is 7615 Kms. It is bounded by Arabian Sea in the West, the Indian Ocean in the South and the Bay of Bengal in the East. The coastline of India is not indented and the sea on the coast is not very deep. The Western coast is rocky while the Eastern coast is shallow. Therefore, India does not have many good harbours. Only Mumbai and Goa are natural harbours while all the other are artificial.

Population
India is the second largest country in the World in terms of population. According to the 2001 census, the population of India was about 10270 crore (16.87% of the World population). The number of males in 2001 was 53.13 crore while the number of females was 49.57 crore. The density of population in India is about 324 persons per square km. The life expectancy is 64 years and the present literacy rate in 2005 was 65.38 percent.

Neighbours
To the North of the country lie China, Nepal, Bhutan and Afghanistan, in the East the country is surrounded by Myanmar and Bangladesh. Towards the West of India lies Pakistan and in the South, the Indian mainland is surrounded by Sri Lanka.

INDIAN AGRICULTURE
India primarily has an agrarian economy. About 2/3rd of the population is engaged in agricuture and it provides livelihood to about 54 percent of the population. About 47 percent of the total land area in India is under agricultural cultivation. It is also the largest contributor to the national income, and contributes 26 percent to the national income.

Major Soil Types
The major types of soil found in India are

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i. Alluvial Soil – Alluvial soil is formed due the deposition of particles such as silt, gravel and sand by the rivers in the plains. It is the most fertile soil form found in India and is generally found in regions of UP, Punjab, Bihar, Haryana and parts of West Bengal. This soil type facilitates the cultivation of cereals, pulses, sugarcane and wheat. ii. Black Soil - Also known as the cotton soil, this soil type is rich in iron, lime and alluminium. It covers 30 percent of the total area of the country. Black soil is generally found in Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu and facilitates the cultivation of cotton, wheat, oil seeds and tobacco. iii. Red Soil – This soil is red in colour because of the presence of Iron oxides. It is mainly found in Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Orissa and Chattisgarh and facilitates the cultivation of wheat, millets, potato and chillies. iv. Laterite Soil – Laterite soil is highly leached and the least fertile soil type found in India. It is mainly found in Kerala, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu and facilitates the cultivation of tea, coffee, and cashewnut.

RIVERS OF INDIA
There are four major river routes found in India. These are 1) Himalayan Rivers – The Himalayan Rivers are snow fed and have water throughout the year. During monsoon heavy rainfall in the Himalayan region causes frequent floods in these rivers. The major Himalayan rivers are • The Indus and its tributaries- Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Beas and Sutlej. • The Ganges and its tributaries- Yamuna, Chambal, Betwa, Sone, Ghagra, Gandak, Gomti etc. • Brahmaputra and its tributaries. 2) Peninsular Rivers - The Peninsular rivers are only rain fed and fluctuate in volume and a large number of streams dry up after monsoon. The major peninsular rivers are • Mahanadi • Krishna • Kaveri • Godavri • Narmada • Tapi (also known as Tapti) 3) Coastal Rivers - The coastal rivers, especially on the West Coast, are short and have limited catchment areas. Most of these are non-perennial as well. River Periyar, Mithi River and River Mandovi are major coastal rivers of India.
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4) Rivers of the inland drainage basin - The rivers on the inland drainage basin consists of those in Western Rajasthan which are very few and short lived, like the Sambhar, which is lost in the desert sands, and the Loni that drains into the Rann of Kutch.

Major River Projects
Name of the Project Bhakra Nangal Project Damodar Valley Project Farakka Barrage Project Hirakund Dam Project Nagarjunasagar Project Tehri Dam Project River Satluj Damodar Ganga Mahanadi Krishna Bhilangana, Bhagirathi

INDIA’S MINERAL WEALTH
India as a country is not one of the richest in the world but it does have certain basic and useful minerals such as iron and coal. India is very rich in iron, coal, aluminium, limestone, manganese, titanium, thorium and mica but does not have large reserves of mineral oil, sulphur, lead and tin. India is the largest producer of mica blocks and mica splittings, ranks third in the production of coal, fourth in iron ore, sixth in bauxite & manganese ore, tenth in aluminium and eleventh in crude steel. 1. Iron Ranked fourth in the world in iron ore production, India has almost one-fourth of the world’s iron ore reserves. Andhra Pradesh, Goa, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh and Orissa are major iron bearing areas. Singhbhum (Jharkhand), Keonjhar, Bonai and Mayurbhanj (all Orissa) are areas with richest iron deposits in the world. The major iron ore mines are at Chanda, Bastar and Durg districts in Chhattisgarh. 2. Manganese Ranked sixth in the world for production of manganese, India is a major exporter of manganese and possesses one-third of the world’s reserves. It is an important mineral used for the production of steel. A major portion of the deposits is found in Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Rajasthan, Himachal Pradesh and Jammu & Kashmir.

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3. Mica India’s is the world’s largest producer of Mica. The majority of this product (almost 60%) comes from Jharkhand. Apart from Jharkhand, Rajasthan and Andhra Pradesh are the major producers of Mica in the country. Since the domestic consumption is not very large most of the Mica produce is exported. 4. Coal Ranked third in the production of coal, 80 per cent of the coal is extracted from the mines in West Bengal and Jharkhand. Huge coal reserves exist in Rani Ganj (West Bengal) and Jharia (Jharkhand). Other coal bearing areas are in Orissa, Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra. 5. Bauxite Bauxite is an aluminium ore which is mainly found in Orissa, Madhya Pradesh, Jharkhand, Andhra Pradesh and Gujarat. These are also the largest aluminium producing areas of the country.

Major Indian Industries and Industrial Regions
• Aircraft - Bangalore and Kanpur. • Cement - Andhra Pradesh, Jharkhand, Gujarat, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan and Tamil Nadu. • Cotton Textile - Gujarat, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan. • Glass - Firozabad, Jabalpur, Amritsar, Ambala, West Bengal and Tamil Nadu. • Jute - West Bengal • Leather - Kanpur, Batanagar, Dighaghat, Deonar, Chembur, Chennai, Agra, Coimbatore and Bangalore. • Paper - Nepanagar, Pune, Saharanpur, Orissa, and Mumbai. • Rail Engine and Coaches - Chittaranjan Locomotives Works at Chittaranjan, Diesel Locomotives at Varanasi, Rail Coaches at Integral Coach Factory at Perambur and Rail Coach Factory at Kapurthala. • Silk - Karnataka, West Bengal and Jammu and Kashmir. • Sugar - Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Punjab and Tamil Nadu.

IMPORTANT MONUMENTS/HISTORICAL SITES
Historical Site / Monument Ajanta Caves Location Aurangabad

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Anand Bhawan Buland Darwaza Char Minar Dilwara Temples Elephanta Caves Ellora Temples Gol Gumbaz Golden temple Jama Masjid Kanyakumari Khajuraho Meenakshi Temple Sabarmati Sanchi Stupa Shantiniketan Sarnath Victoria Memorial

Allahabad Fatehpur Sikri near Agra Hyderabad Mount Abu Mumbai Aurangabad Bijapur Amritsar Delhi Tamil Nadu Bhopal Madurai Ahmedabad Madhya Pradesh Kolkata Varanasi Kolkata

INDIAN STATES AND UNION TERRITORIES
States/Union Territories Andaman and Nicobar Islands Arunachal Pradesh Andhra Pradesh Assam Bihar Chhattisgarh
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Capital Port Blair Itanagar Hyderabad Guwahati Patna Raipur

Since 1956 1972 1956 1972 1936 2000

Former Capital — — — Shillong (1874-1972) — —

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Chandigarh Dadra and Nagar Haveli Daman and Diu Delhi (NCT) Goa Gujarat Haryana Himachal Pradesh Jammu and Kashmir

Chandigarh Silvassa Daman Delhi Panaji Gandhinagar Chandigarh Shimla Srinagar (Summer) Jammu (Winter)

1966 1961 1987 1956 1961 1970 1966 1948 1948

— — — — — Ahmedabad (1960-1970) — — —

Jharkhand Karnataka Kerala Lakshadweep Madhya Pradesh Maharashtra Manipur Meghalaya Mizoram Nagaland Orissa Puducherry Punjab

Ranchi Bengaluru Thiruvananthapuram Kavaratti Bhopal Mumbai Imphal Shillong Aizawl Kohima Bhubaneshwar Puducherry Chandigarh

2000 1956 1956 1956 1956 1960 1947 1970 1972 1963 1948 1954 1966

— — Kochi (1949-1956) — — — — — — — Cuttack (1936-1948) — Lahore (1936-1947) Shimla (1947-1966)

Rajasthan Sikkim Tamil Nadu
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Jaipur Gangtok Chennai

1948 1975 1956

— — —
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Tripura Uttaranchal Uttar Pradesh West Bengal

Agartala Dehradun Lucknow Kolkata

1956 2000 1937 1905

— — — —

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In this chapter, you will learn concepts w.r.t.:
Continents of the World The Largest and the Smallest countries of the World Seas and Oceans Peaks of the World Least and Most populous countries of the World Countries, Capitals and Currenncies Countries and Parliaments National Emblems of Countries New Names of Countries, State and Cities Sobriquets Famous International Boundaries International Days

Chapter 5

Geography of the World

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CONTINENTS OF THE WORLD
Continents Size (Mn. Sq km) 30 13.2 Population Number of (millions) Countries 877.5 — 53 — Tallest Mountain Mt. Kilimanjaro Vinson Massif Largest Major River Country (Area Mn. Sq km) Nile, 6825 km — Chang Jiang (Yangtze), 6380 km Murray, 3370 km Volga, 3690 km Mississippi, 5971 km Amazon, 6437 km Sudan, 2.37 —

Africa Antarctica

Asia Australia / Oceania Europe North America South America

44.5

3879

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China, 9.32

7.7 9.9 24.2 17.8

32 727 501.5 379.5

14 46 23 12

Puncak Jaya Mt. El’brus Mt. McKinley Mt. Aconcagua

Australia, 7.6 Russia, 17.07 Canada, 9.33 Brazil, 8.45

THE LARGEST AND SMALLEST COUNTRIES OF THE WORLD
The 10 Largest Countries
Country Russia Canada China USA Brazil Australia India Argentina Kazakhstan Sudan Area (Mn. Sq km) 17.09 9.97 9.64 9.62 8.51 7.74 3.16 2.78 2.72 2.50 Continent Europe North America Asia North America South America Australia/Oceania Asia South America Asia Africa

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The 10 Smallest Countries
Country Vatican City Monaco Nauru Tuvalu San Marino Liechtenstein Marshall Islands St. Kitts and Nevis Maldives Malta Area (Sq km) 0.44 1.95 21.2 26 61 160 181 261 298 316 Continent Europe Europe Oceania Oceania Europe Europe Oceania North America Asia Europe

THE SEAS OF THE WORLD
The 10 largest seas of the World and the area covered by them
Sea South China Sea Caribbean Sea Mediterranean Sea Bering Sea Gulf of Mexico Sea of Okhotsk Sea of Japan Hudson Bay East China Sea Andaman Sea Area (Mn. Sq km) 2.97 2.515 2.512 2.26 1.5 1.39 1.01 0.73 0.66 0.56

The world’s largest salt water lake, which can be called an Inland sea, is Russia’s Caspian Sea. It has an area of 372,000 Sq. Km. The largest fresh water lake is Lake Superior, Canada, with an area of 82,100 Sq Km.

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THE OCEANS OF THE WORLD
The 5 largest oceans of the World are
Oceans Pacific Ocean Atlantic Ocean Indian Ocean Southern Ocean Arctic Ocean Size (Mn.Sq km) 155 76.7 68.55 20.32 14.05

THE PEAKS OF THE WORLD
The Tibetan name for Mt. Everest is Chomolungma, which means “Goddess mother of the world”. The 10 highest peaks of the World, all of which are in the Himalayas, are as follows
Peaks Everest K2 (Godwin Austen) Kanchenjunga Lhotse Yalung Kang Makalu Dhaulagiri Mansalu Cho Oyu Nanga Parbat Height (in meters) 8848 8611 8598 8511 8502 8481 8172 8156 8153 8126

THE LEAST AND MOST POPULOUS COUNTRIES OF THE WORLD
Most Populous Countries
Country China India USA Indonesia Brazil
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Population (in millions) 1306.3 1080.2 295.7 241.9 186.1

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Pakistan Bangladesh Russia Nigeria Japan

162.4 144.3 143.4 128.7 127.4

Smallest Countries
Country Vatican City Tuvalu Nauru Palau San Marino Monaco Liechtenstein St. Kitts Marshall Islands Antigua & Barbuda Population (Numbers) 920 11640 13050 20300 28880 32410 33720 38960 59070 68720

COUNTRIES, CAPITALS AND CURRENCIES
Country Afganishtan Albania Algeria Principality of An Dorra Angola Argentina Australia Austria Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belgium Belize Benin Bhutan Capital Kabul Tirana Algiers Andorra La Vieille Luanda Buenos Aires Canberra Vienna Manama Dhaka Bridgetown Brussels Belmopan Porto Novo Thimphu Currency Afghani Lek Dinar Franc Kwanza Peso Australian Dollar Schilling Bahraini Dinar Taka Barbados Dollar Euro Belize Dollar Franc Ngultrum (fixed at par with Indian rupee)

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Bolivia Botswana Brazil Bulgaria Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Central African Republic (CAR) Chad Chile China Colombia Congo Costa Rica Cuba Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Djibouti Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Ethiopia Fiji Finland France Gabon The Gambia Germany Ghana Greece Grenada Guatemala

La paz Gaborone Brasilia Sofia Bujumbura Phnom-Penh Yaounde Ottawa Bangui N’Djamena Santiago Beijing Bogota Kinshasa San Jose Havana Nicosia Prague Copenhagen Djibouti Santo Domingo Quito Cairo San Salvador Malabo Addis Ababa Suva Helsinki Paris Liberville Banjul Berlin Accra Athens St. George’s Guatemala City

The Boliviano Pula Real Lev Burundi Franc Riel CFA Franc Dollar CFA Franc CFA Franc Peso Renmimbi (Yuan) Colombian Peso Congolese Franc Costan Rican Colon Peso Cyprun Pound The Koruna Danish Krone Djibouti Franc Peso US Dollar and Sucre Egyptian Pound Colon CFA Franc Birr Dollar Euro Euro CFA Franc Dalasi Euro Cedi Euro East Carribean Dollar Quetzal

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Guyana Honduras Hong Kong Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran Iraq Ireland Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jordan Kenya Korea (North) Korea (South) Kuwait Laos Lebanon Libya Malaysia Malawi Maldives Mauritius Mongolia Myanmar (Burma) Namibia Nepal Netherlands New Zealand Nigeria Norway Oman Pakistan Peru Philippines

Georgetown Tegucigalpa Victoria HK Budapest Reykjavik New Delhi Jakarta Teheran Baghdad Dublin Jerusalem Rome Kingston Tokyo Amman Nairobi Pyongyang Seoul Kuwait City Vientiane Beirut Tripoli Kuala Lumpur Lilongwe Male Port Louis Ulan Bartor Yangon Windhoek Kathmandu Amsterdam Wellington Abuja Oslo Muscat Islamabad Lima Manila

Guyana Dollar Lempira Dollar Forint Krona Rupee Rupiah Rial Iraqi Dinar Euro New Shekel Euro Dollar Yen Dinar Shilling Won Won Kuwaiti Dinar Kip Pound Libyan Dinar Ringgit Kwacha Rufiya Maurituan Rupee Tugrik Kyat Dollar Nepalese Rupee Euro NZ Dollar Naira Krone Rial Rupees New Sol Peso

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Poland Portugal Puerto Rico Qatar Romania Russia Rwanda Saudi Arabia Seychelles Singapore South Africa Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Sweden Switzerland Syria Taiwan Tanzania Thailand Tunisia Turkey Uganda United Arab Emirates (UAE) United Kingdom (UK) United States of America Uruguay Venezuela Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe

Warsaw Lisbon San Juan Doha Bucharest Moscow Kigali Riyadh (Royal), Jeddah (Administrative) Victoria Singapore City Pretoria (Administrative), Cape Town (Legislative) Madrid Colombo Khartoum Stockholm Berne Damascus Taipei Dodoma Bangkok Tunis Ankara Kampala Abu Dhabi London Washington D.C. Montevideo Caracas Sana’a Lusaka Harare

Zloty Euro US Dollar Riyal (QAR) Leu Rouble Franc Rial Rupee Singapore Dollar Rand Euro Rupee Dinar Krona Franc Syrian Pound New Taiwan Dollar Shilling Baht Dinar Turkish Lira Uganda Shilling Dirham Pound Sterling Dollar Peso Bolivar Rial Kwacha Dollar

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COUNTRIES AND THEIR PARLIAMENTS
Country Afghanistan Bangladesh Bhutan Bulgaria Myanmar (Burma) Denmark Ethiopia Finland Germany Greenland Iceland India Indonesia Iran Israel Japan Malaysia Maldives Mongolia Nepal The Netherlands Norway Poland Russia Spain Surinam Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Name of Parliament Shora Jatiya Sangsad Tsongdu Narodna Subranie Pyithu Hluttaw Folketing Shergo Eduskusta Bundestag (Lower House) Bundestag (Upper House) Landstraad Althing Lok Sabha (Lower House) Rajya Sabha (Upper House) Majlis Majlis Knesset Diet Dewan Rakyat and Dewan Negara Majlis Great People’s Khural National Panchayat The Staten General Storting Sejm Duma Cortes Staten Liblandla Riksdaq Federal Assembly

NATIONAL EMBLEMS OF COUNTIRES
Country Australia Canada Emblem Kangaroo Maple Tree

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Denmark France Germany India Iran Ireland Italy Japan Pakistan Spain United Kingdom USA

Beach Lily Corn Flower Lion Capital Rose Shamrock White Lily Chrysanthemum Crescent Eagle Rose Golden Rod

NEW NAMES OF COUNTRIES AND STATES
Old Name Abyssinia Angora Batavia Burma Cape Canaveral Ceylon Christina Congo Constantinople Dacca Dutch East Indies East Pakistan Egypt Ellice Island Formosa French West Africa New Name Ethiopia Ankara Jakarta Myanmar Cape Kennedy Sri Lanka Oslo Zaire Istanbul Dhaka Indonesia Bangladesh United Arab Republic of Egypt Tuvalu Taiwan Mali

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Gold Coast Holland Kampuchea Leopoldville Malaya Mesopotamia Nippon Northern Rhodesia Peking Petrograd Persia Rangoon Southern Rhodesia Saigon Salisbury Sandwich Island Siam South West Africa Stalingrad Tanganyika and Zanzibar Trucial Oman

Ghana The Netherlands Cambodia Kinshasa Malaysia Iraq Japan Zambia Beijing Leningrad Iran Yangon Zimbabwe Ho Chi Minh City Harare Hawaiian Islands Thailand Namibia Volgograd Tanzania United Arab Emirates

SOBRIQUETS
Distinctive Name Britain of the South The Battlefield of Europe City of the Golden Gate City of Magnificent Distances City of Popes Country/Town/Port/River New Zealand Belgium San Francisco Washington D.C. Rome

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City of Seven Hills City of Skyscrapers Cockpit of Europe Dark Continent Dairy of Northern Europe Emerald Island Empire City Eternal City Forbidden City Garden of England Granite City Gift of Nile Herring Pond Hermit Kingdom Holy land Island of Cloves Island of Pearls The Isle of Spring Key to the Mediterranean Land of the Golden Pagoda Land of Kangaroos Land of Lilies Land of the Midnight Sun Land of Morning Calm Land of the Rising Sun Land of a Thousand Lakes Land of Thunderbolt Land of White Elephants Little Venice

Rome New York Belgium Africa Denmark Ireland New York Rome, Italy Lhasa (Tibet) Kent Aberdeen (Scotland) Egypt Atlantic Ocean Korea Palestine Madagascar Bahrain Jamaica Gibraltar Myanmar (Burma) Australia Canada Norway Korea Japan Finland Bhutan Thailand Venezuela

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Playground of Europe Queen of the Adriatic Rich Port Roof of the World Sorrow of China The Saw Mill of Europe Sick Man of Europe Sugar Bowl of the World The Down Under Venice of the North Venice of the East Yellow River White City Windy City City of the Arabian Nights The Imperial City

Switzerland Venice Puerto Rico Pamir (Tibet) River Hwang Ho Sweden Turkey Cuba Australia Stockholm Bangkok Hawang Ho (China) Belgrade Chicago Baghdad Rome

IMPORTANT INTERNATIONAL BOUNDARIES
Durand Line Hindenburg Line McMohan Line Maginot Line Radcliffe Line 17th parallel : : : : : : Boundary between India & Afghanistan. Boundary between Germany & Poland. Boundary between China & India. Boundary between France & Germany. Boundary between India & Pakistan. Defined the boundary between North Vietnam & South Vietnam before the two were united. Boundary line between North Korea & South Korea. Boundary line between USA & Canada. The line between Germany and France
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38th parallel 49th parallel Siegfried Line

: : :

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International Days
International Customs Days World Leprosy Day International Women’s Day World Disabled day World Health Day Earth day International Labor Day Mother’s Day World Red Cross Day World Telecommunication Day Commonwealth Day Anti Tobacco Day World Environment Day World Diabetes Day World Population Day World Peace Day (Hiroshima day) Nagasaki Day International Literacy Day World Tourism Day World Postal Day World Food Day U.N. Day World AIDS day Human Rights Day January 26 January 30 March 8 March 15 April 7 April 22 May 1 May (2nd Sunday) May 8 May 17 May 24 May 31 June 5 June 27 July 11 August 6 August 9 September 8 September 27 October 9 October 16 October 24 December 1 December 10

End of Chapter

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In this chapter, you will learn concepts w.r.t.: The India Constitution Indian Legislature Indian Judiciary Indian Defence

Chapter 6

Civics

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THE INDIAN CONSTITUTION
Salient Features
1. The Constituent Assembly was formed by the order of The Cabinet Mission in 1946. 2. Sachida Prasad Sinha was the temporary President of the Constituent Assembly. 3. Dr. Rajendra Prasad was the permanent President of the Constituent Assembly. 4. Dr. B.R. Ambedker was the chairman of the Drafting Committee. 5. B.N. Rao was the legal advisor of the Constituent Assembly. 6. The Constituent Assembly took 2 years 11 months and 18 days to prepare the largest written constitution in the World. 7. Rs. 64 lakhs were spent on the making of the Constitution. 8. The original Constitution consisted of 22 parts, 395 articles but at present it has 22 parts, 444 articles and 12 schedules. 9. It was adopted by the Government of India on the 26 th of November, 1949. 10. It was enforced by the Government of India on the 26 th of January, 1950.

Fundamental Rights
1. Part III (Articles 12 - 35) of the Constitution deals with Fundamental Rights. 2. Originally, seven Fundamental Rights were listed, but after the 44 th Amendment, only six Fundamental Rights are existent. These are a) Right to Equality (14 - 18) b) Right to freedom of speech (19) c) Right against Exploitation (23-24) d) Right to freedom of Religion (25-28) e) Culture and Educational Right (29-30) f) Right to Constitutional Remedies (32-33) 3. Right to Property used to be a Fundamental Right but after the 44 th Amendment it became a legal right.

Fundamental Duties
Article (51-A) included in the Constitution in the 42 nd Amendment, lays down 10 Fundamental Duties that citizens have towards the state. These are: a) To abide by the Constitution, show respect to the National Flag and the National Anthem. b) To follow the noble ideas of the freedom struggle. c) To protect the sovereignty, unity and integrity of India. d) To defend one’s country. e) To promote common brotherhood and establish dignity of women. f) To preserve our heritage and culture.

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protect the natural environment. develop a scientific temper. safeguard public property. strive for excellence in all spheres of activity.

Kinds of Bills
i. Ordinary Bill - An ordinary bill can be introduced in either of the Houses and can be passed by a simple majority in both the Houses. In case of a deadlock a joint sitting of both the houses is possible. ii. Money Bill (Article 110) – A money bill is concerned with taxation and government spending. It can be introduced only in the Lok Sabha after prior recommendation of the President. Speaker of the Lok Sabha is the deciding authority whether the introduced bill is a Money bill or not. iii. Financial Bill - A bill which is related with revenue and expenditure of the government but is not a money bill is a financial bill. iv. Constitutional Amendment Bill (Article 368) - This bill can be introduced in either of the Houses of the Parliament. It can be passed only by a special majority. (Constitutional Amendments and Articles in the Annexure)

INDIAN LEGISLATURE
India is the second largest democracy in the world. The Indian legislature is bicameral i.e. the Indian Parliament is made up of the Lower House – Lok Sabha, and the Upper House – Rajya Sabha.

Features Term Term of Members No. of Members Nomination by President Election of Members

Lok Sabha (Lower House) Five years Five Years 545 (maximum 552) 2 members (Anglo-Indian) Directly elected by people

Rajya Sabha (Upper House) It is continual in nature Six Years 250 12 Not elected by people

INDIAN JUDICIARY
Salient Features
1. The Constitution contains provisions related to the Union Judiciary in Articles 124–127.

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Supreme Court is the apex court of India. Supreme Court has 26 judges including the Chief Justice. The salary of the Chief Justice is Rs.33000 per month and each judge gets Rs. 30000 per month. The retirement age of the judges of the Supreme Court is 65 years. High Courts are at the top of hiearchy in the State Judicial System. Presently there are 21 High Courts in the country. The retirement age of the judges of a High Court is 62 years.

INDIAN DEFENCE
The President of India is the Supreme Commander of the armed forces. It is on his behalf that the Defence Minister looks after all the matters concerning the Defence Services. The Defence Minister is responsible before the Parliament for all matters concerning the Defence. However, the responsibility of national defence rests with the Cabinet of Ministers. The three services of Defence i.e. Army, Navy and Air Force, function under their respective Chiefs of Staff.

Army
Indian Army is responsible for the defence and security of India’s territorial area. The Army is organised into five operational commmands – Northern, Eastern, Western, Central and Southern and one Training Command – each headed by a Commander-in-Chief of the rank of Lieutenant General. The Army, with its headquarters at New Delhi, consists of a number of services such as armoured corps, regiment of artillery, engineer corps, infantry, army services corps, army medical corps, intelligence corps, etc. The Chief of the Army is of the designation Major General and is answerable to the Defence Minister.

Navy
The Indian Navy is responsible for the defence and security of the Indian waters. The Navy is organised into three operational commands – Western, Eastern, and Southern – headquartered at Mumbai, Vishakhapatnam, and Cochin respectively. The Western and the Eastern commands have under them operational fleets like warships, submarines, aircrafts and other support ships. The Southern Naval Command is responsible for all the training activities of the Navy. The Chief of the Navy is of the designation Admiral and is answerable to the Defence Minister.

Air Force
The Indian Air Force is responsible for the defence and security of the Indian airspace. The fourth largest Air Force in the World, it is organised into five operational commands – Western Command, SouthWestern Command, Central Air Command, Eastern Air Command, and Southern Air Command and two functional commands - a Maintainance and a Training command. It is headquartered at New Delhi. The Chief of the Air Force is of the designation Air Chief Marshall and is answerable to the Defence Minister.

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In this chapter, you will learn concepts w.r.t.: Who’s Who of the Union Government, the Judiciary and the Armed Forces The Governors and Chief Ministers of States and Union Territories The Heads of Important Government Offices The Election Commission of India

Chapter 7

Indian Polity

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THE LATEST WHO’S WHO OF POLITICS
The Union Government
Dr. A. P. J. Abdul Kalam : Mr. Bhairon Singh Shekhawat : President Vice-President

The Council of Cabinet Ministers
Dr. Manmohan Singh: Prime Minister; in charge of the Ministry of Personnel, Public Grievances & Pensions; Planning; Atomic Energy; Space and other Ministries/Departments that are not specifically allocated to the charge of any Minister. Defence External Affairs Human Resource Development Agriculture; Food & Public Distribution; Consumer Affairs Railways Home Affairs Chemicals & Fertilisers; Steel Urban Development Mines Finance Small Scale Industries, Agro & Rural Industries Tribal Affairs Road Transport & Highways; Shipping Textile Commerce & Industry Law & Justice Rural Development Information & Broadcasting; Parliamentary Affairs Youth Affairs and Sports; Panchayati Raj; Development of the North-Eastern Region Social Justice & Empowerment Environment & Forests Communications & Information Technology Health & Family Welfare Petroleum and Natural Gas

Mr. A.K. Antony Mr. Pranab Mukherjee Mr. Arjun Singh Mr. Sharad Pawar Mr. Lalu Prasad Yadav Mr. Shivraj V. Patil Mr. Ram Vilas Paswan Mr. S. Jaipal Reddy Mr. Sis Ram Ola Mr. P. Chaidambaram Mr. Mahavir Prasad Mr. P. R. Kyndiah Mr. T. R. Baalu Mr. Shankarsinh Vaghela Mr. Kamal Nath Mr. H. R. Bhardwaj Mr. Raghuvansh Prasad Singh Mr. Priyaranjan Dasmunshi Mr. Mani Shanker Aiyar Ms. Meira Kumar Mr. A. Raja Mr. Dayanidhi Maran Dr. Anbhumani Ramdoss Mr. Murli Deora

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Mr. Sushil Kumar Shinde Mr. A. R. Antulay Mr. Vayalar Ravi Ms. Ambika Soni Mr. Saifuddin Soz Mr. Santosh Mohan Dev Mr. Prem Chand Gupta Mr. Kapil Sibal

Power Minority Affairs Overseas Indian Affairs Tourism & Culture Water Resources Heavy Industries & Public Enterprises Company Affairs Science & Technology and Ocean Development

The Armed Forces
Supreme Commander of Forces Chief of the Army Staff Chief of the Naval Staff Chief of the Air Staff Commander-in-Chief of Strategic Forces Command Chief of Integrated Defence Staff President Dr. A. P. J. Abdul Kalam General J.J. Singh Admiral Suresh Mehta Air Chief Marshal S.P. Tyagi Air Marshal Avinash Devdutt Joshi Vice Admiral Raman Puri

The Judiciary
Mr. K.G. Balakrishnan Mr. Milon Kumar Banerjee Mr. Justice Ashok Agarwal Mr. Goolam E. Vahanvati Mr. B. Dutta Mr. Gopal Subramaniam Chief Justice of India. Attorney General of India. Chairman, Central Administrative Tribunal (CAT). Solicitor-General of India. Additional Solicitor- General of India. Additional Solicitor-General.

Governors and Chief Ministers
States Andhra Pradesh Arunachal Pradesh Assam Bihar Chhattisgarh Goa Gujarat Haryana Himachal Pradesh
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Governors Mr. Rameshwar Thakur Mr. S.K. Singh Lt. Gen. Retd. Ajai Singh Mr. R.S. Gavai Lt. Gen. Retd. K.M. Seth Mr. S.C. Jameer Mr. Navalkishore Sharma Dr. A. R. Kidwai Justice Retd. V.S. Kokje

Chief Ministers Mr. Y.S. Rajasekher Reddy Mr. Gegong Apang Mr. Tarun Gogoi Mr. Nitish Kumar Dr. Raman Singh Mr. Pratap Singh Rane Mr. Narendra Modi Mr. Bhupinder Singh Hooda Mr. Virbhadra Singh
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Jammu and Kashmir Jharkhand Karnataka Kerala Madhya Pradesh Maharashtra Manipur Meghalaya Mizoram Nagaland Orissa Punjab Rajasthan Sikkim Tamil Nadu Tripura Uttaranchal Uttar Pradesh West Bengal

Lt. Gen. Retd. S.K. Sinha Mr. Syed Sibtey Razi Mr. T.N. Chaturvedi Mr. R.L. Bhatia Mr. Balram Jhaker Mr. S.M. Krishna Mr. Shivinder Singh Sidhu Mr. M.M. Jacob Lt. Gen. Retd. M.M. Lakhera Mr. Shyamal Dutta Mr. Rameshwar Thakur Gen. Retd. S.F. Rodrigues Ms. Pratibha Patil Mr. V. Rama Rao Mr. S.S.Barnala Mr. Dinesh Nandan Sahaya Mr. Sudharshan Aggarwal Mr. T.V. Rajeshwar Rao Mr. Gopal Krishna Gandhi

Mr. Gulam Nabi Azad Mr. Madhu Koda Mr. H.D. Kumaraswamy Mr. V.S. Achuthanandan Mr. Shivraj Singh Chauhan Mr. Vilasrao Deshmuk Mr. Okram Ibobi Singh Mr. J.D. Rymbai Mr. Zoramthanga Mr. Neiphiu Rio Mr. Naveen Patnaik Mr. Prakash Singh Badal Ms. Vasundhara Raje Mr. Pawan Chamling Mr. M. Karunanidhi Mr. Manik Sarkar Mr. B.C. Khanduri Mr. Mulayam Singh Yadav Mr. Buddhadeb Bhattacharjee

National Capital Territory
National Capital Territory Delhi Lt. Governor Mr. B.L.Joshi Chief Minister Ms. Sheila Dikshit

Union Territories
Union Territories Andaman & Nicobar Islands Chandigarh Dadra and Nagar Haveli Daman and Diu Lakshadweep Pondicherry Lt. Governor/Administrators Lt. Gen. Retd. M.M. Lakhera Gen. Retd. S.F. Rodrigues Mr. Rajni Kant Verma Mr. Rajni Kant Verma Mr. Parimal Rai Mr. Mukut Mithi Chief Minister —————Mr. N. Rangaswamy

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Heads of Important Government Offices
Mr. B.S. Shekhawat Mr. K. Rahman Khan Mr. Somnath Chatterjee Mr. Charanjit Singh Atwal Dr. Manmohan Singh Dr. Montek Singh Ahluwalia Mr. A.B. Vajpayee Mr. L.K. Advani Mr. Jaswant Singh Mr. N. Gopalaswamy Mr. M.K. Narayanan Mr. Vijay Nambiar Mr. Yogendra Narain Mr. P.D.T. Achary Mr. Vijay Shankar Mr. P.K.H. Tharakan Mr. J.K.Sinha Mr. Ashish Kumar Mitra Mr. V.K.Joshi Dr. R. Chidambaram Mr. G. Madhavan Nair Mr. Justice Retd. A.S. Anand Dr. Amrita Patel Lt. Gen. Ranjit Singh Dr. Nirmal Kumar Ganguly Mr. Justice M. Jagannadha Rao Mr. Ravindra Kumar Mr. Hormusji Nusserwanji Cama Mr. R. Lakshmipathy Ms. M.H. Kherawala Mr. Nirupam Sen Dr. Mangla Rai Ms. Girija Vyas Prof. Suresh D. Tendulkar Mr. Sharmila Tagore Ms. Nafisa Ali Mr. C. Babu Rajeev
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Chairman, Rajya Sabha Deputy Chairman, Rajya Sabha Speaker, Lok Sabha Deputy Speaker Chairman, Planning Commission Deputy Chairman, Planning Commission Chairman, BJP Parliamentary Party Leader of Opposition (Lok Sabha) Leader of Opposition (Rajya Sabha) Chief Election Commissioner National Security Adviser and Special Adviser of PM (Internal Security) Deputy National Security Adviser Secretary-General, Lok Sabha Secretary-General, Lok Sabha Director, CBI Director, Research and Analysis Wing Director-General, CRPF Director-General, Border Security Force (BSF) Director-General, ITBP Principal Scientific Adviser to the Government Chairman, Space Commission and ISRO Chairman, National Human Rights Commission Chairperson, National Dairy Development Board (NDDB) Director-General, Border Roads Organisation Director-General, Indian Council of Medical Research Chariman, Law Commission Chairman, United News of India President, Indian Newspaper Society Chairman, PTI Chairperson, Central Board of Direct Taxes (CBDT) Indian’s Permanent Representative to UN Director-General, Indian Council of Agricultural Research Chairperson, National Commission for Women Chairman, National Statistical Commission Chairperson, Central Board of Film Certification Chairperson, Children’s Film Society of India Director-General, Archeological Survey of India
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Mr. Pratyush Sinha Mr. Wajahat Habibullah Mr. Suresh Kalmadi Mr. Kumarmangalam Birla

Central Vigilance Commissioner Chief Information Commission President, Indian Olympic Association Chairman, Board of Trade

THE ELECTION COMMISSION OF INDIA
The Election Commission of India is an autonomous constitutional body created to conduct free and fair elections for the representative bodies in India. It was established on January 25, 1950. The Constitution of India has vested in the Election Commission of India the superintendence, direction and control of the entire process for the conduct of elections for the Parliament and the Legislature of every State and for the offices of the President and the Vice-President of India.The law which governs all the elections in India as mentioned above is the Representation of People Act, 1950. The commission presently consists of a Chief Election Commissioner and two Election Commissioners. Originally, however, the commission had just one Chief Commissioner. Two Commissioners were appointed for the first time on 16 October 1989 but their tenure lasted only till 1 January 1990. On 1 October 1993, two additional Election Commissioners were appointed. The commission has followed the multi-member structure since then, with decisions taken a by majority vote. The Election Commission has a Secretariat at New Delhi consisting of about 300 officials.

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In this chapter, you will learn concepts w.r.t.: The Planning Commission The Monetary Policy The Fiscal Policy The Major Public Sector Financial Institutions Economic Liberalisation

Chapter 8

Economics

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THE PLANNING COMMISSION
The Planning Commission is the supreme organ of planning for social and economic development in India. It was established on March 15, 1950. The Prime Minister of India is the ex-officio Chairman of Planning Commission. The committee members also appoint a Deputy Chairman, who is the de-facto executive head of the Commission and enjoys the rank of a Cabinet Minister. The Cabinet Ministers with certain important portfolios act as part-time members of the Commission, while the full-time members are experts from various fields like Economics, Industry, Science and General Administration. The commission works through the following divisions • General Planning Divisions • Special Planning Divisions • Programme Administration Divisions The majority of experts in the commission are economists, making the commission the biggest employer of the Indian Economic Services.

Five Year Plans
The Indian Economy is based on the concept of planning. This is carried through the five-year plans, developed, executed and monitored by the Planning Commission. The First Five Year plan was implemented in 1951. The Tenth plan is currently underway. • First Five Year Plan (1951-56) – The first plan aimed at correcting the distortions caused to the economy after the World War II. • Second Five Year Plan (1956-61) – The second plan aimed at a pattern of development leading to a ‘socialist society’ framework for the economy. • Third Five Year Plan (1961-66) – The third plan aimed at achieving the goals enlisted in the first two plans and also aimed at achieving self-sufficiency in foodgrains, increase employment oppurtunities and expand basic and heavy industries. • Three Annual Plans (1966-69) • Fourth Five Year Plan (1969-74) – The objectives of the fourth plan were to achieve selfreliance, and give priority to agriculture, promote industrial production and exports. • Fifth Five Year Plan (1974-79) – The fifth five year plan aimed at removal of poverty, attaining economic self reliance and increasing employment oppurtunities in the country.
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• Sixth Year Plan (1980-85) – The sixth plan aimed at achieving a annual growth rate of 5.2 per cent and raising the per capita income by 3.3 per cent. • Seventh Five Year Plan (1985-90) – The plan focussed on policies and programmes to increase domestic industr ia l productivity, employment oppurtunities, and agriculture productivity by increasing the basic framework and by adopting modern technologies. • Annual Plans 1990-92 • Eighth Five Year Plan (1992-97) – The plan aimed at achieving a higher outlay of public sector enterprises to meet the demands of various central and state sectors. • Ninth Five Year Plan (1997-02) – The plan aimed to achieve an anual growth rate of 6.5 per cent. The total public sector outlay was Rs. 859000 crore. • Tenth Five Year Plan (2002-07) – This plan has adopted an aggressive approach. This plan aims at achieving 8 per cent GDP growth, reduce the poverty ratio to 20 per cent, increase the literacy rate to 72 per cent, reduce the infant mortality rate to 45 per 1000 births and clean all major polluted rivers till the end of the plan in 2007.

THE MONETARY POLICY
The Monetary Policy, as the name suggests, is the policy used as a tool to regulate the supply of money in the economy. The basic task of a monetary policy in a developing economy is to meet the credit needs of the growth sectors on the one hand and to curb the supply of money meant to be used in non - productive activities like speculative dealings, heading etc. In India, the monetary policy is regulated by the Reserve Bank of India (RBI). The policy in India is designed on the principles mentioned above and exercises various quantitative controls to make the policy effective. The policy is therefore also referred to as the policy of ‘Controlled Monetary Expansion’ which implies i. Expansion in the supply of money. ii. Restraint on secondary expansion of credit. The Monetary Policy thus helps the government to exercise control over the money supply in the economy.

THE FISCAL POLICY
The fiscal policy helps the government exercise a control over the fiscal deficit i.e. the difference between the total revenue earned and the total expenditure incurred by the government. A rise in the

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fiscal deficit implies a higher borrowing for the government from the RBI. The economic impact of such borrowing is that the money supply in the economy decreases. The pressure on the money supply leads to an increase of prices i.e. an inflationary situation. So the government, through a proper fiscal policy tries to maximize revenue sources (taxes) and reduce expenditure, thereby reducing fiscal deficits.

THE MAJOR PUBLIC SECTOR FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS
1. The Reserve Bank of India (RBI)
The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) was set up in April 1935, with its central office at Calcutta (Kolkata) under the Reserve Bank of India Act of 1934, as a private shareholder ’s bank with some subscription from the government to enable those nominated by the government to be directors. The bank was later nationalised in 1949. Presently, RBI is the central bank of India. It issues notes, buys and sells government securities, regulates the volume, direction and cost of credit, manages foreign exchange, supports other financial institutions and comes out with the Monetary Policy. The RBI is presently headquartered at Mumbai and the present RBI governor is Mr. Y.V. Reddy.

2. The Small Industrial Development Bank of India (SIDBI)
SIDBI was established on April 2, 1990. The Charter establishing it; The Small Industries Development Bank of India Act, 1989 envisaged SIDBI to be “the principal financial institution for the promotion, financing and development of industry in the small scale sector and to co-ordinate the functions of the institutions engaged in the promotion and financing or developing industry in the small scale sector and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto. The business domain of SIDBI consists of small scale industrial units, which contribute significantly to the national economy in terms of production, employment and exports. Small scale industries are the industrial units in which the investment in plant and machinery does not exceed Rs.10 million. About 3.1 million such units, employing 17.2 million persons account for a share of 36 per cent of India’s exports and 40 per cent of industrial manufacture. In addition, SIDBI’s assistance flows to the transport, health care and tourism sectors and also to the professional and self-employed persons setting up small-sized professional ventures. Mr. N Balasubramanium is the present chairman and managing director of the SIDBI.

3. The Industrial Development Bank of India (IDBI)
IDBI was established on July 1, 1964, by an act of the Parliament as a wholly owned subsidiary of the Reserve Bank of India, to catalyze the development of a diversified and efficient industrial structure in the country, in tune with national priorities. In 1976, the ownership was transferred from the RBI to
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the Government of India. The current Government holding in IDBI is about 53%. IDBI is currently the tenth largest development bank in the world. It financed some well-known institutes in India like, the National Stock Exchange of India (NSE), the National Securities Depository Services Ltd. (NSDL), and the Stock Holding Corporation of India (SHCIL). To meet the emerging challenges and to keep up with reforms in the financial sector, IDBI converted into a banking company in 2004, to undertake an entire gamut of banking activities. Mr. V.P. Shetty is the present Chairman and Managing Director of the IDBI bank.

4. The National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD)
NABARD was established on 12th July 1982 to implement the National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development Act 1981. It replaced the Agricultural Credit Department (ACD) and the Rural Planning and Credit Cell (RPCC) of the Reserve Bank of India, and the Agricultural Refinance and Development Corporation (ARDC). The following functions are performed by NABARD i. Serves as an apex financing agency for the institutions providing investment and production credit for promoting the various developmental activities in rural areas. ii. Takes measures towards institution building for improving absorptive capacity of the credit delivery system, including monitoring, formulation of rehabilitation schemes, restructuring of credit institutions, training of personnel, etc. iii. Co-ordinates the rural financing activities of all institutions engaged in developmental work at the field level and maintains liaison with the Government of India, State Governments, the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) and other national level institutions concerned with policy formulation. iv. Undertakes monitoring and evaluation of projects refinanced by it. Dr. Y.S.P. Thorat is the present chairman of NABARD.

ECONOMIC LIBERALISATION (1991)
The economic liberalisation of 1991 was initiated by the then Indian Prime Minister, Mr. P. V. Narasimha Rao and his Finance Minister, Mr. Manmohan Singh in response to a balance-of-payments crisis being faced by the country. The new economic framework adopted by the government did away with the Licence Raj (investment, industrial and import licensing) system and ended many public monopolies.

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The policy aimed at allowing foreign direct investment (FDI) in many sectors of the economy. Even though the foreign direct investment ceiling was removed by the government in 1991, it was only in 1996 that foreign investors started showing confidence in the Indian economy and large sectors saw the inflow of foreign capital. Since then, the overall direction of liberalisation has remained the same, irrespective of the ruling party, although no party has yet tried to take on powerful lobbies such as the trade unions and farmers, or contentious issues such as reforming labour laws and reducing agricultural subsidies.

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In this chapter, you will learn concepts w.r.t.: The United Nations Organisation (UNO) Important International Agencies and their Headquaters

Chapter 9

The UNO and International Agencies

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THE UNITED NATIONS ORGANISATION (UNO)
The United Nation Organisation came into existence on 24th October 1945.The name was devised by the then US President Franklin D. Roosevelt. At present, there are 192 members in the UNO. Taiwan & Vatican City are not the members. Vatican City is the permanent observer for the UN. Headquarter- First Avenue at 46th Street, UN Plaza, New York City-10017. Official Languages- English, Spanish, Arabic, Russian, French, and Chinese (Mandarin)

The Principal Organs of the UNO
The principal organs of the UNO are 1 . General Assembly - The General Assembly consists of representatives of the member nations. Each state has one vote, but may send 5 representatives. The assembly meets at least once in a year. Special sessions may be summoned by the Secretary General, on a request by the Security Council. 2. Security Council - It consists of 15 members, each of which has one vote.There are 5 permanent & 10 non permanent members. The 5 permanent members are USA, Russia, UK, France & China. The 10 non permanent members are elected by the General Assembly for a period of 2 years. The permanent members have the power to veto any decision. 3. The Secretariat - It is composed of the Secretary General, the Cheif Administrative Officer of the organisation and an international staff appointed by him under the regulatios of the General Assembly. However the Secratary General, the High commissioner of Refugees and the Managing Director of funds is appointed by the General Assembly. 4. Trusteeship Council - The Charter of the UN provides for an international trusteeship system to safeguard the interests of the inhabitants of territories which are not yet fully self-governing and which may have been placed thereunder by individual trusteeship agreements. 5. International Court - The International Court of Justice was created by an international treaty, the statute of the Court, which forms an integral part of the UN charter, and all the members are ipso facto parties to the statute of the court. There are 15 judges, appointed for a 9 year term. The court has has its seat at the Hague but may sit elsewhere, whenever it considers this desirable. The expenses of the Court are borne by the UN. 6. Economic and Social Council - It is responsible under the General Assembly for carrying out the functions of the UN with regard to international, social, cultural, educational, health and related matters. The Economic and Social council consists of 54 member States elected by a two-thirds majority of the General Assembly.

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UN Secretary Generals
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Trygve Lie (Norway) Dag Hammarskjold (Sweden) U Thant (Burma) Kurt Waldheim (Austria) Javier Perez De Gueller (Peru) Boutros Boutros Ghali (Egypt) Kofi Annan (Ghana) Ban Ki Moon (South Korea) 1946-53 1953-61 1961-71 1972-81 1982-91 1992-96 1997-2007 2007- till date

Specific UN Agencies and their Headquarters
1. The United Nations Development Program (UNDP) - UNDP is the UN‘s global development network advocating change and connecting countries to share knowledge and resources which help build a better life in countries across the globe. Presently it has offices in 166 member countries. UNDP is headquartered at New York, US. 2. The United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) – UNICEF was initially set up in 1946 as an emergency fund to provide post-war relief to children in different countries. Today, as a children’s fund, UNICEF concentrates its activities on providing assistance to children and mothers in developing countries, aiming at improving their quality of life. UNICEF is headquartered at New York, US. 3. The United Nations Educational & Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) – UNESCO was founded on 16 November 1945 to assist developing countries in their educational projects, to help the countries in scientific development and to build cultural understanding between the nations. UNESCO is headquartered at Paris, France. 4. The International Monetary Fund (IMF) – IMF is an international organisation having 184 member countries. It was established in 1945 to promote international monetary co-operation and exchange stability between nations which in turn would promote economic growth and increase employment opportunities. IMF also provides temporary financial assistance to its member contries to ease their balance of payment. IMF is headquartered at Washington DC., US. 5. The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD, commonly known as the World Bank) – The ‘World Bank’ was formed after the Bretton Woods conference in 1944, but begun operations in 1946. It aims at providing financial and technical assistance to developing countries around the World. Presently World Bank has 184 member countries and is headquartered at Washinton DC, US. 6. The World Trade Organisation (WTO) – WTO was formed as an international trade body to replace General Agreement on Trade and Tariffs (GATT) in 1995. WTO is the only international body dealing with rules of trade between the countries to help producers of goods and services, exporters and importers conduct their business. It is headquartered at Geneva, Switzerland.
GENERAL AWARENESS - BRM 67

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7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15.

The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) – IAEA was set up in 1957. It is presently headquartered at Vienna, Austria. The Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) – FAO was set up in 1945. It is presently headquartered at Rome, Italy. The World Health Organisation (WHO) – W.H.O was set up in 1946. It is presently headquartered at Geneva, Switzerland. The International Finance Corporation (IFC) – IFC is an affiliate of the World Bank, and was set up in 1956. It is headquartered at Washinton DC, US. The International Telecommunication Union (ITU) – ITU was set up in 1932. It is headquartered at Geneva, Switzerland. The International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) – ICAO was set up in 1944. It is headquartered at Montreal, Canada. The Universal Postal Union (UPU) – UPU was set up in 1875. It is headquartered at Berne, Switzerland. The International Labor Organisation (ILO) – ILO was set uo in 1919. It is headquartered at Geneva, Switzerland. The International Maritime Organisation (IMO) – IMO was set up in 1948. It is headquartered at London, UK.

INTERNATIONAL AGENCIES AND THEIR HEADQUARTERS
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. The Asian Development Bank (ADB) – It is headquartered at Manila, Phillipines. The Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) – It is headquartered at Jakarta, Indonesia. The European Union (EU) – It is headquartered at Brussels, Belgium. The INTERPOL – It is headquartered at Lyons, France The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) – It is headquartered at Brussels, Belgium. The Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) – It is headquartered at Vienna, Austria. The Organisation of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries (OAPEC) – It is headquartered at Kuwait. The South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) – It is headquartered at Kathmandu, Nepal. The Red Cross – It is headquartered at Geneva, Switzerland.

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In this chapter, you will learn concepts w.r.t.: The Highest, Longest, Largest, Biggest etc. in the World

Chapter 10

The Superlatives

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THE SUPERLATIVES

THE HIGHEST, BIGGEST, LARGEST, LONGEST ETC. IN THE WORLD
Airport Animal Largest Tallest Largest & Heaviest Fastest With max. shore line With max. area King Khaled International Airport, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

Bay

Bridge

Building Canal Canyon Church Cinema House City Continent Coral Formation Country

Dam Delta

Giraffe (Average height 6.09m) Blue Whale (190 tonnes) Cheetah (Approximately 100 km/hr) Hudson Bay Bay of Bengal Over the Royal Gorge of the Arakansas river, Highest Colorado, USA Longest Gandhi Setu across the Ganges, Patna Tsing Ma bridge linking HongKong to Lantau Rail Bridge island Highest Petronas Twin Towers, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Big Ship Suez Canal Busiest Kiel Canal Deepest Vicos Gorge (Greece) Largest Grand Canyon (Colarado River) Largest Basilica of St. Peter (Vatican City) Largest Radio City Music Hall (New York) Largest Population Tokyo Largest Area Mount Isa, Queensland, Australia Largest Asia (44.5 million sq km) Smallest Australia (7.7 million sq km) Largest The Great Barrier Reef (Australia) Largest in Population China Largest in Area Russia With largest electorate India Smallest in Area Vatican City With most Land Frontiers China Largest Grand Coulee Dam, Columbia River (USA) Highest Rogunskaya dam across river Vakash, Tajakistan Largest Sundarban’s delta (river Bramhaputra)

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Desert Diamond Dome Epic Fish Largest Largest Largest Largest Largest fresh water Most abundant Most venomous Most electric Longest Most Oscars Tallest Most nutritive Least nutritive Gulf Hotel Island Lake Largest With the most number of rooms Biggest Largest Deepest Largest fresh water Biggest Biggest non statutory Highest Peak Highest Range Largest Largest and Deepest Largest Largest Coldest Driest Hottest Rainiest Planet Biggest Brightest, hottest, and nearest to the Earth Farthest from Sun Nearest to Sun Most Satellites Plateau Highest Sahara desert, Africa The Cullinan Louisiana Superdome, USA Mahabharata Plabeuk Bristle mouth Stone fish Electric Eel Die Zweite Heimat (Germany) Ben Hur and Titanic (11 oscars each) Fountain at Fountain Hills ( Arizona, US) Avocado (Vitamin A,C,E and Proteins) Cucumber Gulf of Mexico Hotel Rossiya (Moscow) Greenland Caspian Sea Baikal Lake Lake Superior US Library of Congress (Washinton DC) New York Public Library Mt. Everest (8848 mts) Himalayas, Asia American museum of Natural History, New York Pacific Ocean Arabia National Park of Greenland Antartica Calama, Chile Dallol, Ethiopia Mawsynram near Cherrapunji in Meghalaya Jupiter Venus Neptune Mercury Uranus Tibetan Plateau

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Film Fountain Fruit

Library Mountain

Museum Ocean Peninsula Park Places

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Platform (rail) Port Railway Line Railway Station Religion Rivers Road Longest Largest Busiest Longest Largest Highest Oldest Largest Longest Highest Longest Sea Star Swimming course Telescope Largest Largest (inland) Brightest Longest recognized Largest (radio) Largest (solar) Largest refractor Largest Tallest Longest (Railway) Largest (Road) Longest Highest Widest Largest Kharagpur, West Bengal Port of New York and New Jersey Rotterdam, Netherlands Trans-Siberian Railway Grand Central Terminal, New York Condor, Bolivia Hinduism Christianity Amazon (6750 km) Kang-ti-Suu Pan American Highway (from Alaska to Brasilia) South China Sea Mediterranean Sirius A ( dog star) English Channel at US National Science Foundation at Kitt Peak National Observatory at Yerkes Observatory Angkor Wat, Cambodia C N Tower, Canada Seikan Rail Tunnel (Japan) St. Gotthard Road Tunnel, Switzerland The Great Wall of China Salto-Angel in Venezuela Khone Falls in Loas Etoha Reserve, Namibia

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Temple Tower Tunnel Wall Waterfall Zoo

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In this chapter, you will learn concepts w.r.t.: Names of Books and Authors

Chapter 11

Books and Authors

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BOOKS AND AUTHORS
Name of the book Authors

Autobiographies
B Babur–Nama M Made in Japan Mein Kamph Moon Walk S Sunny Days W Wings of Fire APJ Abdul Kalam Sunil Gavaskar Akio Morita Adolf Hitler Michael Jackson Babur

Biographies
A Ain-I-Akbari Akbarnama I Idols S Shahnama Firdausi Sunil Gavaskar Abul Fazal Abul Fazal

Classic
A All’s Well that Ends well A Tale of Two Cities Anna Karenina Antony and Cleopatra As You like it Abhijnanshakuntalam B
74 GENERAL AWARENESS - BRM

William Shakespeare Charles Dickens Leo Tolstoy William Shakespeare William Shakespeare Kalidas

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Babbit C Ceaser and Cleopatra The Comedy of Errors D David Copperfield Devdas Sharat Doctor Zhivago Don Quixote F Fountain Head G Gone with the Wind Gulliver’s Travels H Hamlet I Iliad Indica The Importance of Being Earnest Invisible Man J Julius Caesar K Kadambari Kamasutra Kamayani King Lear M Macbeth Mahabharata Meghdoot Merchant of Venice Much Ado About Nothing

Sinclair Lewis George Bernand Shaw Shakespeare Charles Dickens Chandra Chatterjee Boris Pasternak Miguel de Cervantes Ayn Rand Margaret Mitchell Jonathan Swift William Shakespeare Homer Magasthenese Oscar Wilde H. G. Wells William Shakespeare Bana Bhatt Vatsyayan Jai Shankar Prasad William Shakespeare William Shakespeare Ved Vyas Kalidas William Shakespeare William Shakespeare

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Mudra Rakshas N Natya Shastra Nine Days Wonder O Odyssey Oliver Othello P Paradise Lost Pather Panchali Pride and Prejudice R Raghuvamsa Ram Charita Manas Ramayana Ratnavali‘ Rendezvous with Rama Ritu Samhara Robinson Crusoe Romeo and Juliet S Savitri Sense and Sensibility Sohrab and Rustum T The Tempest The Count of Monte Cristo The story of My My Experiments with Truth Three Musketeers Time machine Treasure Island

Vishakadutta Bharat Muni John Masefield Homer Charles Dickens William Shakespeare John Milton Bibhuti Bhushan Bandhopadhayaya Jane Austen Kalidas Tulsidas Valmiki Harsha Vardhan Arthur C Clarke Kalidas Daniel Defoe William Shakespeare Sir Aurobindo Ghosh Jane Austen Mathew Arnold William Shakespeare Alexander Dumas Mahatma Gandhi Alexander Dumas H.G. Wells R L Stevenson

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Twelfth Night Twenty Years After U Ulysses James Unto This Last Uttar Ramcharita V Vanity Fair Vinay Patrika The Virginians Y Yama

Willam Shakespeare Alexander Dumas Joyce John Ruskin Bhavbhuti William Thackeray Tulsidas William Thackeray

Mahadevi Verma

Descriptive
A Area of Darkness F Freedom from Fear L Long Walk to Freedom M Maneaters of Kumaon My Experiments with Truth O Origin of Species S Sadar-I-Riyasat Starry Nights Karan Singh Shobha De Charles Darwin Jim Corbett Mahatma Gandhi Nelson Mandela Aung San Su Kyi V. S. Naipaul

Economics
N New Dimensions of India’s Foreign Policy W A B Vajpayee

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Wealth of Nations

Adam Smith

Fantasy
A Adventures of Tom Sawyer C Class, The D Dr. JekyII and Mr. Hyde O One Hundred Years of Solitude Other Side of Midnight, The S Swami and Friends T The Alchemist The God of Small Things Paulo Coelho Arundhati Roy R.K. Narayan Gabrial Garcla Marquez Sidney Sheldon Robert Louis Stevenson Eric Segal Mark Twain

Fiction
A Adventures of Sherlock Holmes Adventure of Robinson Crusoe Adventures of Tom Sawyer Alice in Wonderland A Bend In the River A Suitable Boy An Equal Music Arabian Nights B Being Digital C Catcher in the Rye Canterbury Tales Chitra
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Sir Arthur Conan Doyle Daniel Defoe Mark Twain Lewis Carrol V S Naipaul Vikram Seth Vikram Seth Richard Burton Nicholas Negroponte J D Sallinger Geoffrey Chaucer Rabindranath Tagore

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City of Joy Coolie E East West F Fury Future Shock G Godfather Godan The Guide Gulliver’s Travels H Half a Life Harsha Charita I Inscrutable Americans Interpreter of Maladies Iron in the soul Ivanhoe J The Judgement Jungle Book K Kim L Life Divine Lajja Lolita Love Story M Malgudi Days Midnight’s children Moor’s Last Sigh

Domonique Lapiere Mulk Raj Anand Salman Rushdie Salman Rushdie Alvin Toffler Mario Puzo Munshi Prem Chand R.K. Narayan Jonathan Swift V S Naipaul Bena Bhatt Anurag Mathur Jhumpa Lahiri Jean Paul Sartre Walter Scott Kuldip Nayar Rudyard Kipling Rudyard Kipling Aurobindo Ghosh Tasleema Nasreen V. Nabakov Eric Segal R K Narayan Salman Rushdie Salman Rushdie

GENERAL AWARENESS - BRM

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Mother N Nice Guys Finish Second P Panchatantra Post Office S The Satanic Verses Shape of Things to Come Shame T The Last Don The Tin Drum Treasure Island Two Leaves and a Bud U Unofficial Guide to Ethical Hacking V Vish Vriksha W War and Peace

Moxim Gorky B K Nehru Vishnu Sharma Rabindranath Tagore Salman Rushdie H. G. Wells Salman Rushdie Mario Puzo Guenter Grass R L Stevenson Mulk Raj Anand

Ankit Fadia Bankim Chandra Chatterjee Leo Tolstoy

History Books
A Arthashastra August 1914 (H) B Ben Hur C Communist Manifesto D Discovery of India H Jawahar Lal Nehru Karl Marx Lewis Wallace Kautilya Alexander Solzhenitsyn

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Hindu View of Life I India-A Wounded Civilisation India Divided India Wins Freedom Indian Home Rule Indian Philosophy M Man and Superman P A Passage to India W Wake up India The Wonder that Was India

D. S. Radhakrishnan V S Naipaul Rajendra Prasad Maulana Abul Kalam Azad M. K. Gandhi D. S. Radhakrishnan George Bernard Shaw E. M. Forster Annie Besant A.L. Basham

Management Books
T The Changing World of the Executive Peter Drucker

Poetry
B Bharat Bharati G Geet Govinda Gitanjali R Rubaiyat Omar Khayyam Jaya Dev Rabindranath Tagore Maithili Sharan Gupt

Philosophy
A Atlas Shrugged B Bharat Bharati G
GENERAL AWARENESS - BRM 81

Ayn Rand Maithili Sharan Gupt

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Geet govinda Gitanjali V Voice of Conscience

Jaya Dev Rabindranath Tagore V. V. Giri

Psychology
C Crime and Punishment G Games People Play M Man of Destiny S Satyartha Prakash Swami Dayanand George Bernard Shaw Eric Berne Fyodor Dostoevsky

Sociology
D Das Kapital Diplomacy G Gita Rahasya Grammer of Politics P Politics R Republic S Sub Regionalism in Asia Surviving Men T The Degeneration of India U Untouchable Utopia
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Karl Marx Henry Kissinger Bal Gangadhar Tilak Harold Laski Aristotle Plato Abul Kalam Azad Khushwant Singh T N Seshan Mulk Raj Anand Thomas Moore

GENERAL AWARENESS - BRM

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Spiritual Account
B Beyond Belief V S Naipaul

Miscellaneous
A Area of Darkness B Between the lines Brave New world Broken wing Beyond Peace Blood, Brain & Beer C Confessions of a Lover D District Diary Dragon Fire Dilemma of our time Doctor’s Dilemma Don Juan E Ends and Means F Fifth Column Farewell to Arms, A First Among Equals For Whom the Bell Tolls G Gathering Storm Glimpses of World History Golden Threshold Golden Gate, The Godan Winston Churchill Jawaharlal Nehru Sarojini Naidu Virkram Seth Rabindranath Tagore Ernest Hemingway Ernest Hemingway Jeffrey Archer Ernest Hemingway Aldous Huxley Jaswant Singh Humphry Hawensky Harold Joseph Laski George Bernard Shaw Lord Byron Mulk Raj Anand Kuldip Nayar Aldous Huxley Sarojini Naidu Richard Nixon David Ogilvy V. S. Naipaul

GENERAL AWARENESS - BRM

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H Heat and Dust I India Unbound Is Paris Burning If I am Assassinated K Kumar Sambhava M Mother India My Music, My life My Truth P A Passage to England T To live or Not to Live Triumph V Valley of Dolls W Worshipping False Gods Arun Shourie Jacqueline Susan Nirad C. Choudhary John Kenneth Galbraith Nirad C. Choudhary Katherine Mayo Ravi Shankar Indira Gandhi Kalidas Gurcharan Das Larry Collins & Dominique Lapiere Z. A. Bhutto Ruth P. Jhabwala

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In this chapter, you will learn concepts w.r.t.: Common Terminologies Important Cups and Trophies Major Sporting Events

Chapter 12

Sports

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COMMONLY USED SPORTS TERMINOLOGIES
Sport Badminton Basketball Billiards Terms associated with sports disciplines Deuce, double fault, drop, let, love all, smash Basket, blocking, dribbling, free throw, held ball, holding, jump ball, pivot Bauik line, bolting, cannon, cue hazard, long jenny, scratch, screwback, short jenny, spot stroke Babit punch, break, cut, defence, hook, jab lying on, knock, slam, upper cut, weight in, knockout Chicane, dealer, dummy, finesse, grand slam, little slam, no trump, revoke, rubber, suit, tricks, vulnerable Bishop, castle, checkmate, gambit, king, knight, pawn, queen, rook, stalemate Ashes, boundary, bowling, caught, chinaman, cover drive, crease, duck, follow on, googly, gully, hat trick, hit wicket, LBW, leg break, leg bye, maiden over, no ball, off break, on drive, over pitch, popping crease, rubber, run out, sixer, silly point, square leg, straight drive, stumped, wicket Corner kick, dribble, free kick, goal kick, hat-trick, off side, penalty kick, throw in, tripping Best ball, bogey, bunker, caddie, dormy, fairway, fourball, greed holes, links, niblic, par, put, rough, stymied, tee Bully, corner, dribble, hat-trick, offside, roll-in, scoop, short corner, stick, striking circle, tie break Deuce, drop, let, spin, smash Backhand stroke, crosscourt, deuce, double fault, fault, forehand, ground stroke, half volley, let, smash, slice, volley Blocking, doubling, heave, love point, service, volley

Boxing

Bridge

Chess Cricket

Football

Golf

Hockey

Table Tennis Tennis

Volleyball

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IMPORTANT CUPS AND TROPHIES
i. Badminton – Thomas Cup, Uber Cup, and World Cup. ii. Cricket – Ashes, Champions Trophy, C.K.Nayudu Trophy, County Championships, Duleep Trophy, Gavaskar-Border Trophy, ICC World Cup, Irani Trophy, Ranji Trophy, and Sheffield Shield Cup. iii. Football – African Nations Cup, Asia Cup, Confederations Cup, Durand Cup, English Premier League, Federation Cup, FIFA World Cup, German Bundeslga, Italian Serie A, Merdeka Cup, NFL Cup, Santosh Trophy, Spanish LA Liga, and UEFA Cup. iv. Golf – British Open, Ryder Cup, US Open, and Walker Cup. v. Hockey – Agha Khan Cup, Champions Trophy, Dhyan Chand Trophy, Sultan Azlan Shah Trophy, and World Cup. vi. Tennis – ATP Masters, Australian Open Championships, Champions Cup, Davis Cup, Federation Cup, French Open Championships, US Open Championships, and Wimbeldon Championships.

MAJOR SPORTING EVENTS
1. The Olympics – The oldest and the largest sporting event in the World, Olympics were first started in 776 BC in Greece. The games were first played in the ancient Greek kingdom of Elis to honour Zeus, the Greek god of Sky and Thunder. But after the initial games in 776 BC, they became an irregular feature and were restricted only to Greece. It was only after 1500 years, in 1892 that revival of games was undertaken by Baron Pierre de Coubretin. In June, 1894 Baron and his associates decided to make the games a regular sporting event and created the International Olympic Committee (IOC). Presently, the IOC is headqutered at Laussane, Switzerland. Olympic Symbol (five rings) – The Olympic Symbol comprises of five rings linked together to represent sporting friendship amongst countries. The rings represent the five continents – Europe, Africa, America, Asia and Australia. Olympic Games are held every four years. The table below gives the details of Olympic Games held till date. No games were held in 1916, 1940 and 1944.

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Year 1896 1900 1904 1908 1912 1920 1924 1928 1932 1936 1948 1952 1956 1960 1964 1968 1972 1976 1980 1984 1988 1992 1996 2000 2004 2008 2012

Place Athens Paris St. Louis London Stockholm Antwerp Paris Amsterdam Los Angeles Berlin London Helsinki Melbourne Rome Tokyo Mexico City Munich Montreal Moscow Los Angeles Seoul Barcelona Atlanta Sydney Athens Beijing (scheduled) London (scheduled)

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2. Commonwealth Games – The Commonwealth Games are the second largest sporting event in the World after Olympics. These games are held every four years between the years of the Olympic Games. The games involve atheletes from Commonwealth Nations (majority erstwhile colonies of the British). Started in 1930, the games were originally called the British Empire Games. It was in 1978 that the present name of the Commonwelth Games was adopted. The table below gives the details of the Commonwealth Games till date. The games were not held from 1939 till 1949.
Year 1930 1934 1938 1950 1954 1958 1962 1966 1970 1974 1978 1982 1986 1990 1994 1998 2002 2006 2010 Venue Hamilton London Sydney Auckland Vancouver Cardiff Perth Jamaica Edinburgh Christchurch Edmonton Brisbane Edinburgh Auckland Victoria Kuala Lumpur Manchester Melbourne Delhi (scheduled)

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3. Asian Games – The Asian Games, also called the Asiad, is a sporting event on the lines of the Olympic Games held every four years among atheletes from all over Asia. India played a leading role in starting an event for the Asian nations. The motto of the Asian Games is ‘Ever Onward’. The table below gives the details of Asian Games till date.

Year 1951 1954 1958 1962 1966 1970 1974 1978 1982 1986 1990 1994 1998 2002 2006 2010

Venue New Delhi Manila Tokyo Jakarta Bangkok Bangkok (originally had to be hosted by Seoul) Tehran Bangkok (originally had to be hosted by Karachi) New Delhi Seoul Beijing Hiroshima Bangkok Busan Doha Guangzhou (scheduled)

4. Cricket World Cup – The Cricket World Cup is a premier international championship for one day cricket in the world. The event is organised once every four years by the sport’s governing body, The International Cricket Council (ICC) and is contested by all Test playing nations (presently 10) plus the qualifying teams. The table below gives the details of the World Cups held till date.
Year 1975 1979 Venue England England Winner West Indies West Indies Runner-up Australia England

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1983 1987 1992 1996 1999 2003 2007 2011 2015

England Indian Subcontinent Australia & New Zealand Indian Subcontinent England South Africa, Zimbabwe & Kenya West Indies Indian Subcontinent Australia & New Zealand

India Australia Pakistan Sri Lanka Australia Australia

West Indies England England Australia Pakistan India

Scheduled

5. Hockey World Cup – The Hockey World Cup is a premier international field hockey competition organised by the International Hockey Federation (FIH) once every four years. The tournament was started in 1971. The table below gives the details of each World Cup held till date.
Year 1971 Venue Barcelona, Spain Amstelveen, The Netherlands Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Buenos Aires, Argentina Mumbai, India London, England Lahore, Pakistan Sydney, Australia Utrecht, The Netherlands Winner Pakistan Runner-up Spain

1973

Netherlands

India

1975 1978 1982 1986 1990 1994 1998

India Pakistan Pakistan Australia Netherlands Pakistan Netherlands

Pakistan Netherlands West Germany England Pakistan Netherlands Spain

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2002

Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Monchengladbach, Germany

Germany

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6. Football World Cup - The Football/Soccer World Cup is an international football competition contested by the national teams of the member nations of Federation Internationale de Football Association (FIFA). The tournament started in 1930 and is held every four years, but could not be held in 1942 and 1946 due to World War II. The table below gives details of the last ten World Cups.

Year 1974 1978 1982 1986 1990 1994 1998 2002 2006 2010 2014

Venue West Germany Argentina Spain Mexico Italy USA France South Korea & Japan Germany South Africa South America

Winner West Germany Argentina Italy Argentina West Germany Brazil France Brazil Italy

Runner-up Netherlands Netherlands West Germany West Germany Argentina Italy Brazil Germany France Scheduled

7. Tennis Grand Slams The tables below give the last five year championship winners for four major Tennis Grand Slams viz Australian Open (held at Melbourne), French Open (held at Paris, also called Roland Garros), Wimbledon (held at Wimbledon, near London) and U.S. Open (held at Flushing Meadows, New York).

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Australian Open
Men’s Title Winner 2006 Roger Federer (Switzerland) Runner-up Marcos Baghdatis (Cyprus) Lleyton Hewitt (Australia) Marat Safin (Russia) Women’s Title Winner Amelie Mauresmo (France) Serena Williams (USA) Justine HeninHardene (Belgium) Serena Williams (USA) Jennifer Capriati (USA) Runner-up Justine HeninHardene (Belgium) Lindsay Davenport (USA) Kim Clijsters (Belgium)

Year

2005

Marat Safin (Russia) Roger Federer (Switzerland)

2004

2003

Andre Agassi (USA) Thomas Johansson (Sweden)

Rainer Schuettler (Germany) Marat Safin (Russia)

Venus Williams (USA) Martina Hingis (Switzerland)

2002

French Open
Men’s Title Winner 2006 Rafael Nadal (Spain) Rafael Nadal (Spain) Gaston Gaudio (Argentina) Juan Carlos Ferrero (Spain) Albert Costa (Spain) Runner-up Roger Federer (Switzerland) Mariano Puerta (Argentina) Guillermo Coria (Argentina) Winner Women’s Title Runner-up

Year

Justine Henin-Hardene Svetlana Kuznetsova (Belgium) (Russia) Justine Henin-Hardene Mary Pierce (France) (Belgium) Anastasia Myskina (Russia) Elena Dementieva (Russia) Kim Clijsters (Belgium) Venus Williams (USA)

2005

2004 2003

Martin Verkerk Justine Henin-Hardene (Holland) (Belgium) Juan Carlos Ferrero (Spain) Serena Williams (USA)

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Wimbledon
Year Winner 2006 Roger Federer (Switzerland) Roger Federer (Switzerland) Roger Federer (Switzerland) Roger Federer (Switzerland) Lleyton Hewitt (Australia) Men’s Title Runner-up Andy Roddick (USA) Andy Roddick (USA) Andy Roddick (USA) Mark Philipoussis (Australia) David Nalbandian (Argentina) Women’s Title Winner Amelie Mauresmo (France) Venus Williams (USA) Maria Sharapova (Russia) Serena Williams (USA) Serena Williams (USA) Runner-up Justine Henin-Hardene (Belgium) Lindsay Davenport (USA) Serena Williams (USA) Venus Williams (USA) Venus Williams (USA)

2005

2004

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U.S.Open
Year Winner Roger Federer (Switzerland) Roger Federer (Switzerland) Roger Federer (Switzerland) Andy Roddick (USA) Pete Sampras (USA) Men’s Title Runner-up Andy Roddick (USA) Andre Agassi (USA) Lleyton Hewitt (Australia) Juan Carlos Ferrero (Spain) Andre Agassi (USA) Winner Maria Sharapova (Russia) Kim Clijsters (Belgium) Svetlona Kuznet sova (Russia) Justine Henin-Hardene (Belgium) Serena Williams (USA) Women’s Title Runner-up Justine Henin-Hardene (Belgium) Mary Pierce (France) Elena Dementieva (Russia) Kim Clijsters (Belgium) Venus Williams (USA)

2006

2005

2004

2003

2002

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In this chapter, you will learn concepts w.r.t.: International Awards Indian Awards

Chapter 13

Popular Awards

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INTERNATIONAL AWARDS
1. Nobel Prizes
The Nobel Prizes are prizes awarded annually to people (and, in the case of the Peace Prize, sometimes to organisations) who have completed outstanding research, invented ground-breaking techniques or equipment, or made an outstanding contribution to society in physics, chemistry, literature, peace, medicine or physiology and economics. They are widely regarded as the supreme commendation in their respective subject areas. Those honoured with a Prize are known as Nobel Laureates. The Prizes were instituted by the Swedish scientist Alfred Nobel through his will. They were first awarded in 1901, five years after Nobel’s death. The prize in economics, instituted by the Bank of Sweden, has been awarded since 1969. As of October 2006, a total of 781 Nobel Prizes have been awarded, 763 to individuals (33 of these to women) and 18 to organizations.

Prize Categories
Categories Nobel Prize in Physics Nobel Prize in Chemistry Nobel Prize in Medicine Nobel Prize in Literature Nobel Prize in Peace Nobel Prize in Economics Awarding Body Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences Karolinska Institutet Swedish Academy Norwegian Nobel Committee Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences

Nobel Prize Winners for 2006
Prize Category Peace

Winner
Prof. Muhammad Yunus (Bangladesh) and Grameen Bank

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Physics Medicine Chemistry Literature Economics

Dr. Jo hn C. Mather (USA) Dr. Gorge F. Smoot (USA) Dr. Andrew Z. Fire (USA) Dr. Craig C. Mello (USA) Dr. Roger D. Kornberg (USA) Mr. Orhan Pamuk (Turkey) Dr. Edmund S. Phelps (U SA)

2.

Man Booker Prize
The Man Booker Prize for Fiction, also known as the Booker Prize, is one of the world’s most prestigious literary prizes, awarded each year for the best original full-length novel written by a citizen of the Commonwealth or the Republic of Ireland in the English language. The Booker prize was started by Booker McConnel, a multinational conglomerate company in 1969. This award is administered by Book Trust in the United Kingdom. For the year 2006, the prize has been awarded to Indian novelist Kiran Desai for ‘The Inheritance of Loss’.

3.

Ramon Magsaysay Award
Ramon Magsaysay Award or the Magsaysay Award is the Asian equivalent of the Nobel Prize. The Ramon Magsaysay Award was established in April 1957 by the trustees of the Rockefeller Brothers Fund (RBF) based in New York City. With the concurrence of the Philippine government, the prize was created to commemorate Ramon Magsaysay, the late President of the Philippines, and to perpetuate his example of integrity in government, courageous service to the people, and pragmatic idealism within a democratic society. Every year the Ramon Magsaysay Award Foundation gives away prizes to Asian individuals and organizations for achieving excellence in their respective fields. The awards are given in six categories: • • • • • • Government Service Public Service Community Leadership Journalism, Literature and Creative Communication arts Peace and International Understanding Emergent Leadership
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Ramon Magsaysay Award Winners for 2006 1. Ek Sonn Chan (Cambodia) 2. Park Won Soon (South Korea) 3. Gawad Kalinga Community Development Foundation (Phillipines) 4. Antonio Meloto (Phillipines) 5. Eugenia Duran Apostol (Phillipines) 6. Sanduk Ruit (Nepal) 7. Arvind Kejriwal (India)

INDIAN AWARDS
1. Civilian Awards
i. Bharat Ratna – The title ‘Bharat Ratna’ translates literally to ‘the Gem of India’. It is the highest civilian award in India given for exceptional contribution to the field of Art, Literature, Science and Public Service. The award was instituted by Dr. Rajendra Prasad, the first president of India in 1954. The award initially carried a gold medal 35mm in diameter having ‘Sun’ on one side and state ‘National Emblem’ on the other. The design of the medal was altered a year later in 1955. The first Bharat Ratna was awarded to Dr. Sarvapalli Radhakrishnan in 1954. The last awardees were Lata Mangeshkar and late Ustad Bismillah Khan in 2001. ii. Padma Vibhushan – Padma Vibhushan is the second highest civilian award in India, awarded for exceptional and distiunguished service to the nation in any field including government service.

Name Adoor Gopalakrishnan C.R. Krishnaswamy Rao

Field Arts Civil Service

Native State Kerala Tamil Nadu

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Charles Correa Mahashweta Devi Nirmala Deshpande Norman E. Borlaug Obaid Siddiqui Prakash Narain Tandon Justice V.N. Khare

Science Literature & Education Social Work Science Science Medicine Public Affairs

Maharashtra West Bengal Delhi Mexico Karnataka Delhi Uttar Pradesh

2. Other Important Awards
i. Param Vir Chakra – The Param Vir Chakra is the highest gallantry award for officers from all branches of the armed forces for the highest degree of valour in the presence of an enemy. The award was instituted in 1950 by the then President Dr. Rajendra Prasad, with retrospective effect from 1947. The first Chakra was awarded posthomously to Major Somnath Sharma. The Param Vir Chakra was last awarded posthmously to Capt. Vikram Batra, Lt. Manoj Kumar Pandey, Grenadier Yogendra Singh Yadav and Rifleman Sanjay Kumar who fought the 1999 Kargil War. ii. Jnanpith Award - The Jnanpith Award instituted in 1961 is the highest literary honour conferred in India. It is presented by the Jnanpith Trust, which is largely owned by the The Times group. The award includes a cheque for Rs. 500,000, a citation plaque and a bronze replica of Vagdevi (Devi Saraswati, the godess of learning). Any Indian citizen who writes in any of the official languages of India is eligible for the honour. Before 1982, the awards were given for a single work by a writer. From 1982, the award has been given for a lifetime contribution to Indian literature. The first recipient of the award was Malayalam writer G Sankara Kurup in 1965. In 2006, the award was presented to Marathi writer Vrinda Karandikar for the year 2003. iii. Dada Saheb Phalke Award – The Dada Saheb Phalke Award is the highest honour presented by the Indian government to an artist who has, over the years made a significant
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contribution to the field of cinema. The award was instituted in 1969, the birth centenary year of Dada Saheb Phalke, the father of Indian cinema. The first winner of the award was actress Devika Rani. Malayalam film director, Adoor Gopalakrishnan was the recipient of the award for 2005.

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In this chapter, you will learn concepts w.r.t.: Commonly used abbreviations

Chapter 14

Abbreviations

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ABBREVIATIONS
AAA AAFI ABC ABLE AC AD ADB ADBS AFI AFMS AFP AG AI AIDS AIG AINEC ALGOL AMIE ANC ANERT ANN AOC APCTT AQA APEC APM ARPANET ART ASCII ASEAN ASEM ASLV ASPO ASP ATC ATM : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Asian Atheletics Association Amateur Atheletics Federation of India Atomic Biological and Chemical (warfare) Association of Biotechnology led Enterprises Ante Christum Anno Domini Asian Development Bank Advanced Data Broadcast System Atheletics Federation of India Armed Forces Medical College Agence France Presse Accountant General Artificial Intelligence Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome American International Group All India Newspaper Editors’ Conference Algebraic Oriented Language Associate Member of the Institute of Engineers African National Congress Agency for Non-conventional Energy and Rural Technology Artificial Neural Network Air Officer Commanding Asian and Pacific Centre for Transfer of Technology Assessment and Qualification Alliance Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation Administered Price Mechanism Advanced Research Project Agency Network Assisted Reproductive Technologies American Standard Code for Information Interchange Association of South East Asian Nations Asia-Europe Meeting Augmented Satellite Launch Vehicle Asoociation for the Study of Peak Oil and Gas Application Service Provider Air Traffic Control Automated Teller Machine

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ATP ATS AU AVRC AVATAR AWACS BBC BBS BC BCG BHP BIOS BIS BIT BOT BPO BPR BPS BRO CABE CAD CADA CAFTA CAG CAN CAPA CAS CAT CBDT CBFC CBM CBU CADC CDMA CECA CERT CFC CFSL CGI

: : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :

Adenosine Tri-Phosphate Anti-Tetanus Serum Astronomical Units Audio Video Research centre Aerobic Vehicle for Hypersonic Aerospace Transportation Airborne Warning and Control System British Broadcasting Corporation Bulletin Board Service Before Christ Bacillus Calrnette-Guerin (anti TB) Brake Horsepower Basic Input Output System Bank of International Settlement Binary Digit Build, Operate and Transfer Business Process Outsourcing Business Process Re-engineering Bytes per Second Border Roads Organisation Central Advisory Board of Education Computer Aided Design Command Area Development Authority Central American Free Trade Agreement Comptroller and Auditor General of India Calcium Ammonium Nitrate Centre for Asia-Pacific Aviation Conditional Access System Computerized Axial Tomography (CT) Central Board of Direct Taxes Central Board of Film Certification Confidence Building Measures Completely built up Center for the Development of Advanced Computing Code Division Multiple Access Comprehensive Economic Co-operation Agreement Computer Emergency Response Team Chloro Fluoro Carbons Central Forensic Science Laboratory Common Gateway Interface

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CGS CIBIL CIF CIS CISC CITU CMIE COFEPOSA COPRA CPWD CRM CSC CSO CTBT CVC CWC DDT DHSD DMA DNA DPT DSL DTP DVD DVI EAM ECA ECG EDI EFTA EIS EMI EOU EPCI EPROM EPZ ER&DC ERNET ESA

: : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
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Chief of General Staff Credit Information Bureau of India Cost, Insurance and Freight Commonwealth of Independent States Complex Instruction Set Computing Centre of Indian Trade Union Centre for Monitoring the Indian Economy Conservative of Foreign Exchange and Prevention of Smuggling Act Consumer Protection Act Central Public Works Department Customer Relation Management Customer Service Centre Central Statistical Organisation Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty Chief Vigilance Commission Chemical Weapons Convention Dichloro-diphenyl-trichloro-ethane Duplex-High Speed Data Service Direct Memory Access Deoxyribo-nucleic Acid Diphtheria, pertussisand tetanus (vaccine) Digital Subscriber Line Desktop Publishing Digital Versatile Disc Digital Video Interactive Emergency Action Message Essential Commodities Act Electro Cardiogram Electronic Data Interchange European Free Trade Association Executive Information System Equated Monthly Installments Export Oriented Unit Enhanced Proliferation Control Initiative Erasable, Programmable Read Only Memory Export Processing Zone Electronic Research and Development Center Educational and Research Network European Space Agency

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ESCAP ESMA ESR ETT EVA EVE FAO FBI FBT FBTR FCI FCRA FEMA FIFA FIR FIRE FLAG FOSDIC FPD FTII GAAP GAIN GATS GDP GDR GLS GMO GPS GSI GSLV GSM HAL HFD HIV HTML HTR Http HUDCO IA

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Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific Essential Services Maintenance Act Electron Spin Resonance Embryo Transfer Technology Economic Value Added Economic Valuation of the Environment Food and Agriculture Organisation Federal Bureau of investigation Fringe Benefit Tax Fast Breeder Test Reactor Food Corporation of India Foreign Contribution Regulation Act Foreign Exchange Management Act Federation Internationale de Football Association First Information Report Fully integrated robotised engine Fibre optic Link Around the Globe Film Optical Sensing Device for Input to Computers Flat panel display Films and Television Institute of India Generally Accepted Accounting Practices Global Alliance for Improved Nutrition General Agreement on Trade and Services Gross Domestic Product Global Depository Receipt Geographical Information System Genetically Modified Organisms Global Positioning System Geological Survey of India Geo-Synchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle Global System for Mobile Communications Hindustan Aeronautics Limited. High Frequency Human Immunodeficiency Virus Hyper Text Markup Language High Temperature Reactor Hypertext Transfer Protocol Housing and Urban Development Corp. Indian Airlines

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IAAI IAEA IARI IAS IATA IBRD ICAR ICCR ICJ ICMR ICRA ICU ICWAI IDBI IEEE IFC IIPA IISS ILO IMF INA INS INSAT IP IPC IPCL IPS IRBM IRDP ISBN ISDN ISI ISKCON ISRO ISSN ITBP ITI ITU IVF

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International Atomic Authority of India International Atomic Energy Agency Indian Agricultural Research Institute Indian Administrative Service International Air Transport Association International Bank for Reconstruction and Development Indian Council of Agricultural Research Indian Council for Cultural Relations International Court of Justice Indian Council of Medical Research Investment Information and Credit Rating Agency of India Intensive Care Unit Institute of Cost and Works Accountants of India Industrial Development Bank of India Institute of Electronics and Electrical Engineers Industrial Finance Corporation; International Finance Corporation Indian Institute of Public Administration International Institute of Strategic Studies International Labour Organisation International Monetary Fund Indian National Army Indian Newspaper Society Indian National Satellite Internet Protocol Indian Penal Code Indian Petro-Chemicals Corporation LTD Indian Police Service: Inter Press Service Intermediate Range Ballistic Missile Integrated Rural Development Programme International Standard Book Number Integrated Services Digital Network Indian Statistical Institute International Society for Krishna Consciousness Indian Space Research Organisation International Standard Serial Number Indo-Tibetan Border Police Indian Telephone Industries; Industrial Training Institute International Telecommunication Union In-Vitro Fertilisation

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IVM JPEG LASER LASIK LCD MIBBS MICR MIPS MLA MMTC MODEM MODVAT MOU MPEG MRTPC NABARD NAFED NAFTA NASA NATO NAV NBOT NCAER NCC NCERT NDA NGO NHPC NMDC NOC NPC NRS NSUI NTPC NTSE OAS OAU OCR OECD

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In-Vitro maturation Joint Photographic Expert Group Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation Laser in situ Keratomileusis Liquid Crystal Display Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery Magnetic ink character recognition Million Instructions per Second Member of Legislative Assembly Minerals and Metals Trading Corporation Modulator demodulator Modified Value Added Tax Memorandum of Understanding Motion Picture Experts Group Monopolies and Restrictive Trade Practices Commission National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development National Agricultural Co-Operative Marketing Federation North American Free Trade Agreement National Aeronautics and Space Administration North Atlantic Treaty Organisation Net Asset Value National Board of Trade National Council of Applied Economic Research National Cadet Corps National Council of Educational Research and Training National Defence Academy Non-Government Organisation National Hydroelectric Power Corporation National Mineral Development Corporation No Objection Certificate National Productivity Council National Readership Survey National Students Union of India National Thermal Power Corporation National Talent Search Examination Organisation of American States Organisation of African Unity Optical Character Recognition Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development

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OIC OPEC ORT PAC PAN PCM PETA PIB PIL Pin PM PMG POTA POW PSLV PVC PWD R&D RADAR RAM RDX RITES RNA ROM RPM RSS R.S.V.P SAM SAPTA SARS SCI SDR SGPC SIM SITA SLR SMTP STC STD

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Organisation of Islamic Conference Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries Oral Rehyderation Therapy Public Accounts committee Permanent Account Number Pulse code modulation People for Ethical Treatment of Animals Press Information Bureau Public Interest Litigation Postal Index Number Post Meridiem; Prime Minister Post Master General Prevention of Terrorism Act Prisoner of war Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle Poly vinyl Chloride Public Works Department Research and Development Ratio Detecting and Ranging Random Access Memory Research Department Explosive (Cyclotrimethylin Trinitratetrate) Rail Indian Technical & Economic Services Ribonucleic acid Read Only Memory Revolutions per Minute Rashtriya Swayam Sewak Sangh Repondez S’il Vous Plait (Reply if you please) Surface to Air Missile South Asian Preferential Trade Agreement Severe Actual Respiratory Syndrome Shipping Corporation of India Special Drawing Rights Siromani Gurudwara Prabandak Committee Subscriber Information Module Suppression of Immoral Traffic Act Statutory Liquidity Ratio Simple Mail Transfer Protocol State Trading Corporation Subscriber Trunk Dialing; Sexually Transmitted Diseases

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SUV SWOT TADA TAFTA TCP TDMA TELCO TIFR TISCO TMO TQM TRIPS UA V UGC UNCED UNCIP UNCLOS UNCSTD UNCTAD UNEP UNESCO UNI UNICEF UNIDO UPA UPS UPSC URL VCR VHS VIP VPI WAN WEF WFTU WHO

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Sports Utility Vehicle Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats Terrorist and Disruptive Activities (Prevention Act) Trans-Atlantic Free Trade Agreement Transfer Call Protocol Time Division Multiple Access Tata Engineering and Locomotive Company Tata Institute of Fundamental Research Tata Iron and Steel Company Telegraphic Money Order Total Quality Management Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights Unmanned Aerial Vehicle University Grants Commission UN Conference on Environment & Development United Nations Commission for India & Pakistan United Nation Convention on the Law of the Sea United Nations Conference on Science and Technology for Development United Nations Conference on Trade and Development United Nations Environment Programme United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation United Nations Population Fund United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund (Now ‘United Nations Children’s Fund’) United Nations Industrial Development Fund for Women United Progressive Alliance Uninterrupted Power Supply Union Public Service Commission Uniform Resource Locator Video Cassette Recorder Video Home System Very Important Person Virtual Private Internet World Association of Newspapers; Wide Area Network World Economic Forum World Federation of Trade Unions World Health Organisation

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WMD WMO WPI WTO WWF WWW YMCA YWCA ZIP

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Weapons of Mass Destruction World Meteorological Organisation Wholesale Price Index World Trade Organisation World Wildlife Fund, now renamed Worldwide Fund for Nature World Wide Web Young Men’s Christian Association Young Women’s Christian Association Zone Improvement Plan

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In this chapter, you will learn concepts w.r.t.: The Human Body Food and Nutrition Human Diseases Branches of Science Scientific Inventions and Discoveries Scientific Instruments

Chapter 15

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THE HUMAN BODY
The Human Body is a complicated system consisting of millions of cells organised uniquely and functioning dynamically together. The complexities are better understood when they’re highlighted. Anatomists find it useful to divide the human body into eight systems, as listed below

The System of the Human Body
1. The Skeletal System The framework of the human body is made up of bones. First are the bones of the skull.These consist of i) 8 bones of the cranium (brain case), ii) 14 bones of the face - the facial bones include the bones of the nose, throat and the upper and lower jaws. Second are the bones of the trunk. These include breast bones, ribs, the back bone, collar bones, shoulder blades and hip bones. Third are the bones of the upper limbs. Fourth are the bones of the lower limbs. Lastly there are various types of joints that help in linking the bones. The functions of the skeletal system are a) It helps us to stand up straight. b) It supports the weight of the body c) It protects the delicate parts of the body like the brain, the heart and the lungs. 2. The Muscular The framework of the human body is covered with skin. Under the skin there are pieces of flesh fixed either on the bones or on the walls of the organs. These are called muscles. There are over six hundred muscles in the human body. Muscles can be classified into two main types. a) Voluntary muscles which are controlled by our will b) Involuntary muscles which are not controlled by our will and are found on the walls of the inner organs. The muscles of the heart are called Cardiac muscles and are involuntary. 3. The Nervous System It comprises of the Brain (cerebrum), Spinal Cord and Nerves. The Brain controls thinking, will and memory. Reflex actions are controlled by the Spinal Cord. Nerves act as links between the Brain and voluntary muscles. They help in transportation of the message to the Brain. 4. The Digestive System Whether awake or asleep some parts of the human body are always wearing out. It is the food that is

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needed to repair this wear and tear. The food supplies the body not only with energy but also heat as well. Before it can supply the building material, food must be eaten and digested. The organs which help in digestion are; a) Mouth b) Gullet c) Stomach d) Duodenum e) Small intestines f) Large intestines g) Pancreas h) Liver All the above mentioned organs together constitute the Digestive System of the human body. 5. The Respiratory System It is the mechanism of the human body which helps us to breathe air into our lungs to get oxygen. Oxygen comes in contact with haemoglobin which in turn comes in contact with food to give heat and energy. We breathe 16 to 18 times a minute. When we breathe, air passes through the larynx and down into the trachea. The trachea divides itself into two branches–one goes to the right lung and other to the left lung. 6. The Circulatory System Digestive system helps in making blood, respiratory system purifies it and circulatory system circulates it in order to give energy and heat to the different parts of the human body. The heart is the pumping station, hollow, muscular and mango shaped. Impure blood from all parts of the body comes to the heart. It pumps it into the lungs for purification. The purified blood is then circulated to all parts of the body by the heart. Cardiac muscles help the heart to contract and expand. This action causes the beating of the heart. In the case of a normal adult heart beats at the rate of 72 times/minute. The vessels that take the pure blood from the heart to different parts of the body are called Arteries. The vessels that bring back the impure blood to the heart to be pumped to the lungs are called Veins. 7. The Urinary System Everyday the food and drinks we take in provide us with essential vitamins, minerals, fats, proteins, carbohydrates etc. These essential materials are absorbed by the alimentary canal and the waste left behind is thrown out of the body with the help of the Urinary System. a) The Kidneys - These are two bean shaped organs, one on either side of the spinal column. While the blood is flowing through the kidneys, they strain out the poisonous waste matters which together with

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the water (that the kidneys take of the blood) form the urine. Urine passes from the kidneys through a tube that leads from each kidney to the urinary bladder. b) The Lungs - The Lungs are an essential part of the body whose principal function is to excrete carbon dioxide from the bloodstream into the atmosphere. c) The Skin - Another organ that plays a significant part in the removal of the waste from the body is the skin. It is composed of outer and inner layers. There are a large number of sweat glands in the inner layer of the skin. Each one of these has a little tube that leads out to the surface of the skin. The sweat contains salt and waste matters similar to those in the urine. Its functions are i) To throw out the waste matter ii) To protect the inner organs iii) To give sensation of touch iv) To give shape to the body 8. The Reproductive System - Through the reproductive system, adult human beings procreate. Reproduction begins when sperm cell from a man fertilises an egg cell from a woman.

Components of a Body
1. Blood Blood is a highly specialized circulating tissue consisting of several types of cells suspended in a fluid medium known as plasma. The cellular constituents of blood are • Red Blood Cells (RBC) - which carry respiratory gases and give it red colour • White Blood Cells (leukocytes) - which fight disease and • Platelets - cell fragments which play an important part in the clotting of the blood. Anatomically, blood is considered a connective tissue from both its origin in the bones and its function.

Functions of blood :
i. ii. iii. iv. v. It It It It It helps in supply of oxygen to tissues. supplies nutrients such as glucose, amino acids and fatty acids to all parts of the body. helps in removal of waste such as carbon dioxide, urea and lactic acid. helps body in its self-repair mechanism. helps in regulation of body temperature.

2. Bones Bone is a hard connective tissue that constitutes the sketal system of the body. It supports the body, helps the body move and protects the body. It also produces RBC and WBC and stores minerals. A baby is born with about 300 bones which join together as they grow. An adult has 206 bones.
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‘Femur’ or the thigh bone is the largest bone in the body while ‘The stapes’ or the stirrup bone is the smallest bone in the body. 3. The Human Brain Human brain is the anteriormost part of the nervous system in the body. The brain controls the involutary functions of the human body like heartbeat, respiration, digestion, sensory actions, and movement. The brain consists of three parts i. Cerebrum – It is the largest part of the brain consisting of two spheres which help in controlling voluntary actions of the body. ii. Cerebullum – A large mass having ridges and furrows, attached to the cerebrum, it regulates muscular movements of the body. iii. Medula Oblongata – It is the lowermost part of the brain which extends as the spinal cord in the vertebral coloumns. 4. Nerves Human body is made up of 72.418 km of nerves that constitute the nervous system. Nerves help in transportation of messages to the brain in the form of impulses. The impulses travel at a speed of 360km/hr. 5. The Heart The Heart is the pumping station of the body, hollow, muscular and mango shaped. Impure blood from all parts of the body comes to the heart and it pumps it into the lungs for purification. The purified blood is then circulated to all parts of the body by the heart. In a day 27949.3 litres of blood is pumped through 99776.6 km of blood vessels in a day.

FOOD AND NUTRITION
Every action of human beings, mental or physical, needs energy to repair the wear and tear of the tissues of the human body.The food supplies the body with the essential energy and heat. It also helps in the growth of the body.Some constituents of food produce heat and energy while others help in the growth and repair of the worn out tissues. So the food stuffs are divided into various classes according to their functions namely 1. Proteins - These are complex compounds containing carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, sulphur, phosphorous and a large quantity of nitrogen. They are present in the white of an egg as albumen; in meat as myosin; in flour as glutens and in dals as legumin. Their uses are to i) Build up the tissues of the body ii) Produce energy iii) Repair the worn out tissues.

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2. Fats - These are the compounds of glycerine and fatty acids which contain carbon, oxygen and hydrogen. Butter, ghee and various vegetable oils provide necessary fats to the body. The uses of fats are i. To produce heat and energy ii. To help in burning carbohydrates iii. To prevent the loss of heat from the body because fats are bad conductors of heat. iv. To serve as reserve food. 3. Carbohydrates - These are compounds of carbon, oxygen and hydrogen. Of the three elements, the last two are present in the same ratio in water. They include sugar and various starches found in wheat, rice, maize and potatoes. The uses of the carbohydrates are to supply heat and energy. 4. Mineral Salts - These are the salts of calcium, iron and sodium. The salts of calcium strengthen the bones, salts of iron enrich the blood and the common salts are the source of hydrochloric acid in the gastric juice. We get salts of calcium from milk and eggs and salts of iron from green vegetables, meat and eggs. 5. i. ii. iii. 6. i. ii. iii. iv. Water - It is the compound of oxygen and hydrogen.Its uses for the human body are It acts as a solvent of food It flushes out the kidneys and helps in digestion It helps in bowel movements in the body. Vitamins - These are natural substances present in various food items. Their uses are They help in the growth and repair of the tissues of the human body They purify the blood They help in digestion They eliminate harmful products from the body.

Vitamins are water as well as fat soluble. They can be classified as: i. Vitamin A - It is found in milk, butter, ghee, eggs, carrots, tomatoes green vegetables and cod-liver oil. It promotes digestion, growth, the functioning of eyes & ears and checks anaemia. A deficiency of Vitamin A causes rickets and night blindness. ii. Vitamin B - It is soluble in water and is found in seeds of plants, egg yolk, many fruits, vegetables and grains. It is removed when rice is polished or wheat is made into maida. It helps in growth, and enhances functioning of the nervous system. A deficiency of Vitamin B leads to beri beri, intestinal stasis, and enlargement of liver.
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iii. Vitamin C - It is soluble in water and is found in green vegetables, juicy fruits (lemons, oranges) tomatoes, cabbage, turnip and onions. It helps in development of bones, reducing diseases of liver and disorders of stomach. Its deficiency causes scurvy and defective teeth and bones. iv. Vitamin D - It is found in milk, butter, ghee, eggs, cod liver oil and sun rays. It helps in bone formation. Its deficiency causes rickets, osteoporosis and osteomalacia. v. Vitamin E - It is found in wheat oil, green vegetables, peas, oats and corns. It helps in keeping away sterility. Its deficiency leads to sterility. vi. Vitamin K - It is found in fish and wheat. It helps in coagulation of blood.

HUMAN DISEASES
A disease is a condition that impairs the proper functioning of a part of the body or the body as a whole (multiple organ failure). Hundreds of different diseases exist. Diseases can be classified as 1. Deficiency Diseases - These are diseases caused by a deficiency of nutrients in a human’s diet. Some important deficiency diseases are given below

Disease Kwashiorkar and Marasmus Anaemia Goitre Night Blindness

Caused due to Deficiency of Protein Iron (Mineral) Iodine (Mineral) Vitamin A

Dermatosis Beri-Beri Riboflavinosis Vitamin B1 Vitamin B2

2. Infectious Diseases – Infectious diseases are those that can be passed from one person to another by means of environment. It is caused by small agents such as bacteria, virus, fungi and protozoa. Some of the commonly known infectious diseases known to humans are i. Bacterial Diseases – Common bacterial disease are thyphoid, tetanus, cholera, pneumonia, leprosy, plague, whooping cough, meningitis, diptheria etc.
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ii. Viral Disease – Common viral diseases are chickenpox, measles, rabies, mumps, influenza, hepatitis, encephalitis, AIDS etc. iii. Fungal Diseases – Common fungal diseases are ringworm, athelete’s foot, dhobi’s itch etc. iv. Protozoan Diseases – Common protozoan diseases are malaria, sleeping sickness, kalaazar, diarrhoea etc. 3. Diseases of Eye - A disease in the eye generally causes the defect in vision. This defect in vision is called astigmatism. Some of the common diseases that affect the eye are cataract, glaucoma, hypermetropia, and trachoma.

BRANCHES OF SCIENCES
Acoustics Aerodynamics : : The study of sound and sound waves The study of forces acting upon bodies in motion in the air (e.g., aircraft, missiles, etc.) The study of all activities pertaining to aerial locomotion (art of flying) The science of the structure of the animal/human body learnt by dissection. A branch of medicine concerned with administration of anaesthetics and the condition of the patient while under anaesthesia. The study of the origin and physical and cultural development of mankind. A scientific study of the material remains of the past as evidence of man’s life, culture and history. A science dealing with space travel and space vehicles A branch of astronomy dealing with the physical nature of heavenly bodies. The science of heavenly bodies (planets) A branch of microbiology dealing with bacteria The science of living organisms; subdivided into Botany and Zoology The physics of the vital processes of living organisms The science of the plant kingdom A branch of medicine dealing with the heart The art of making objects from clay The study of elements, their behaviour and laws of their combination, etc. The study of cosmetics and their use The study of the universe—its origin, nature, structure and evolution The study of diseased cells A branch of medicine dealing with skin

Aeronautics : Anatomy : Anaesthesiology : Anthropology Archaeology Astronautics Astrophysics Astronomy Bacteriology Biology Biophysics Botany Cardiology Ceramics Chemistry Cosmetology Cosmology Cytopathology Dermatology : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :

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Dietetics Ecology Entomology Endocrinology Etymology Genetics Geology Gerontology Gynaecology Haematology Hepatology Horticulture Hydrology Hygiene Immunology Lithology Neuropathology Obstetrics Oncology Ophthalmology Orology Ornithology Orthopaedics Paediatrics Palaeontology Pathology Physiology Psychiatry Radiology Theology Zoology

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The science of diet and nutrition The study of relationship between organisms and their environment Deals with study of insects The study of glands A study of the origin and history of words A branch of biology dealing with heredity and the laws that govern it A study of the chemical composition of the earth’s crust A branch medicine studying the ageing process, problems and diseases A branch of medicine dealing with female diseases of the reproduction system A branch of medicine studying blood and its disorders A branch of medicine dealing with liver A branch of agricultural science dealing with flowers, fruits, vegetables, etc. The science of water with reference to its occurrence and properties in the hydrosphere and atmosphere A branch of medicine dealing with health and its presevation A branch of medicine dealing with the immune system of the body The study of the characteristics of rocks A branch of medicine dealing with changes produced by diseases in the nervous system A branch of medicine dealing with pregnancy, labour and child birth A branch of medicine dealing with tumours A branch of medicine dealing with eyes and related problems The study of mountains The science of birds A branch of medicine dealing with diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the skeletal system (bones) A branch of medicine dealing with child diseases (infants) The study of fossils and ancient life-forms A branch of medicine that deals with etiologies, mechanisms and manifestation of diseases A study of the life processes of various organs of living organisms The study and treatment of mental and emotional disorders A branch of medical science dealing with the use of x-rays for diagnosis and treatment The study of religions A branch of biology that deals with animal life

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SCIENTIFIC INVENTIONS
x Adding Machine (Pascaline) Aeroplane Ballpoint Pen Barometer Bicycle Bicycle Tyre Centigrade Scale Computer Cinema Clock (mechanical) Clock (pendulum) Diesel Engine Dynamite Dynamo Electric Lam Electromagnet Elevator Fountain Pen Gas Lighting Gramophone Jet Engine Inventor(s) Blaise Pascal Wright brothers Laszlo Biro E. Torricelli Kirkpatrick J.B. Dunlop A. Celsius Charles Babbage A.L. and J.L. Lumiere Hsing and Ling-Tsan C. Hugyens Rudolf Diesel Alfred Nobel Michael Faraday Thomas Alva Edison W. Sturgeon E G Otis L.E. Waterman William Murdoch Thomas Alva Edison Sir Frank Whittle Country France US Hungary Italy Scotland Scotland France Britain France China The Netherlands Germany Sweden England US England US US Scotland US England Year 1642 1903 1938 1644 1839 1888 1742 1820 1895 1725 1656 1892 1866 1831 1879 1825 1852 1884 1794 1877 1937

120

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Locomotive Machine Gun Match (safety) Microphone Microscope Motor Car (Petrol) Motorcycle Parachute Photography (film) Printing Press Razor (safety) Refrigerator Safety Pin Sewing Machine Ship (steam) Ship (turbine) Steam Engine (piston) Steam Engine Stainless Steel Submarine Telegraph Telegraph Code Telephone Telescope

Richard Trevithic Richard Gatling J.E. Lundstrom Alexander Graham Bell Z. Janssen Karl Benz Daimler JPF Blanchard John Carbott J. Gutenberg K.C. Gillette J. Harrison and A. Catlin Walter Hunt B. Thimmonnier J.C. Perier Sir Charles Parsons Thomas Newcombe James Watt Harry Brearley D. Bushnell Sir Ernest Swington Samuel F.B. Morse Alexander Graham Bell Hans Lippershey

England US Sweden US The Netherlands Germany Germany France US Germany US Britain US France France Britain Britain Scotland England US France US US The Netherlands

1804 1861 1844 1876 1590 1885 1885 1785 1888 1455 1895 1850 1849 1829 1775 1894 1712 1765 1913 1776 1787 1837 1876 1608

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SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS
Instrument Name Ammeter Barometer Calorimeter Cardiograph (ECG) Electrometer Endoscope Galvanometer Hydrometer Hygrometer Lactometer Manometer Micrometer Microscope Periscope Polygraph Salinometer Sphygmomanometer Stethoscope Telescope Transponder Voltmeter Wattmeter Uses Instrument used for measuring electric current Instrument used for measuring atmospheric pressure Instrument used for measuring heat quantity Instrument used for recording movements of the heart Instrument used for measuring small electric current Instrument used to examine internal body organs Instrument used for measuring electric current Instrument used to relative density of liquids Instrument used to measure atmospheric humidity Instrument used to measure relative density of milk Instrument used to measure pressure of gases Instrument used to measure distances Instrument used to very minute objects Instrument used in submarines to views objects above sea level Instrument used to record changes in the physiological process in the body Instrument to measure salinity in liquids Instrument used to measure blood pressure Instrument used to hear sounds produced in the body by the lungs and the heart Instrument used to view distant objects Instrument used to receive and send signals Instrument used to measure the potential electric difference between two points Instrument used to measure the power of an electric circuit

End of Chapter
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BRM Tests

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BRM Test - 1
Questions: 50 1. The Earth completes one rotation on its axis in…………. a) 23 h 300 min b) 23 h 56 min 4.09 sec c) 24 h d) 23 h 10 min 2 s The polar diameter of the Earth is shorter than its equatorial diameter by……………. a) 25 km b) 80 km c) 43 km d) 30 km The layer of atmosphere closest to the Earth’s surface is called a) Exosphere b) Ionosphere c) Stratosphere The most abundant element in the Earth’s atmosphere is a) Argon b) Nitrogen c) Oxygen The distance between consecutive longitudes at the poles is a) Zero b) 18 km c) 25 km Equinox means a) The days are longer than the nights b) The nights are longer than the days c) The days and the nights are equal d) The shortest day and the shortest night of the year The heaviest mass revolving round the Sun is a) Moon b) Jupiter c) Neptune Which is the hottest planet in our solar system? a) Venus b) Neptune c) Mars The planet nearest to the Earth is a) Mercury b) Jupiter Time : 25 Mins.

2.

3.

d) Troposphere

4.

d) Krypton

5.

d) 10 km

6.

7.

d) Saturn

8.

d) Jupiter

9.

c) Venus

d) Pluto

10.

Which of the following planets, orbits around the Sun in a backward direction from East to West? a) Earth b) Mercury c) Jupiter d) Saturn

124

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11.

The imaginary line on the Earth’s surface which closely follows 180° meridian, is called a) The International Date Line b) The Tropic of Cancer c) The Equator d) The Prime Meridian The McMahon Line is the border between a) India and China b) Indian and Nepal c) India and Pakistan d) India and Burma The Great Barrier Reef is a a) Hill range c) Hot water sea The tides in the ocean are caused by the a) Attraction of the Moon c) Gravitation of the Earth

12.

13.

b) Coral formation d) Tidal bore

14.

b) Spherical surface of the Earth d) Gravitational attraction of the Sun and the Moon

15.

The Indian Standard Time (IST) is ahead of Greenwich Meridian Time (GMT) by a) 2 hours b) 5.5 hours c) 7.5 hours d) 6 hours Kampala is the capital of a) Uganda b) Zambia The modern capital of Brazil is a) Rio de Janeiro b) Sao Paulo The largest river in Asia is a) Yangtze b) Brahmaputra

16.

c) Kenya

d) None of these

17.

c) El Salvador

d) Brasilia

18.

c) Indus

d) Mekong

19.

Area wise, which is the largest ocean in the World? a) The Atlantic b) The Indian c) The Pacific Southern Rhodesia is the new name of a) Zaire b) Zimbabwe

d) The Arctic

20.

c) Tanzania

d) Swaziland

21.

‘The Land of the Morning Calm’ refers to a) Japan b) Korea c) Taiwan

d) Netherlands

22.

Which of the following countries is known as ‘The Land of the Thunder Bolt’? a) Taiwan b) Tibet c) Bhutan d) Japan

GENERAL AWARENESS - BRM

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23.

‘The Sick Man of Europe’ is the nick name for a) Rome b) Turkey c) Italy

d) Oxford

24.

Which of the following countries has the largest area in the World? a) Canada b) China c) USA d) Russia Which of the following rivers crosses the Equator twice? a) The Amazon b) The Nile c) The Congo Mount Everest is located in which country? a) India b) China c) Nepal Which is the world’s largest mountain range? a) The Alps b) The Himalaya c) The Andes The largest Island in the world is a) Australia b) Greenland Bauxite is an important ore of a) Aluminium b) Zinc

25.

d) The Orinoco

26.

d) Bhutan

27.

d) The Atlas

28.

c) New Guinea

d) None of these

29.

c) Copper

d) Mica

30.

Which of the following countries leads in the production of gold? a) India b) Bhutan c) Tibet d) South Africa Which of the following countries leads in the production of tea? a) India b) Myanmar c) Sri Lanka d) Japan Which country is the largest producer of silk? a) India b) Japan c) China Which country is the largest producer of rubber in the world? a) Sri Lanka b) Malaysia c) India Which country produces the maximum sugar in the world? a) USA b) India c) Cuba

31.

32.

d) Brazil

33.

d) Brazil

34.

d) Brazil

35.

Which of the following planets has the maximum number of satellites? a) Jupiter b) Saturn c) Earth d) Mars
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36.

Who discovered the sea route to India? a) Vasco Da Gama in 1498 c) Magellan in 1506

b) Columbus in 1402 d) Sir Hopkins in 1698

37.

Which of the following atmospheric layer helps in radio communication? a) Exosphere b) Ionosphere c) Troposphere d) Stratosphere Riyal is the currency of which country? a) Romania b) Saudi Arabia The term ‘Third World’ refers to the a) Developed countries c) Oil rich countries

38.

c) Japan

d) Libya

39.

b) Underdeveloped and developing countries d) Asian countries

40.

Which of the following soils is best suited for wheat cultivation? a) Black soil b) Red soil c) Laterite soil d) Deep rich soil Who was the first to classify the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World? a) Aristotle b) Plato c) Antipater d) Socrates Which among the following is the world’s longest road? a) The Grant Trunk Road b) The Broadway Street c) The Pan-American Highway d) The Monumental Axis Who was the painter of the Mona Lisa? a) Leonardo da Vinci c) Henry Smith

41.

42.

43.

b) F.A. Bartholdi d) None of these

44.

The New York version of the Statue of Liberty was engineered by a) A.G. Eiffel b) Henry Smith c) Sir Edwin Lutyens d) None of these The Kangaroo is the national emblem of a) Canada c) Italy The Water Lily is the national emblem of a) Denmark c) Italy

45.

b) Australia d) Ireland

46.

b) Bangladesh d) Luxembourg

GENERAL AWARENESS - BRM

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47.

The ‘Shora’ is the Parliament of which country? a) Algeria b) Iran c) Afghanistan d) Austria The Parliament of Japan is called a) Dail c) Cortes Reuters is the news agency of a) United Kingdom c) Former USSR

48.

b) Sejim d) Diet

49.

b) United States d) Germany

50.

Who is the first woman and Asian to head the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC)? a) Tanya Mitra b) Chitra Natrajan c) Chitra Bharucha d) Payal Ranganathan

128

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BRM Test - 2
Questions: 50 1. The French Revolution began in the year a) 1770 b) 1788 Time : 25 Mins.

c) 1789

d) 1750

2.

The ‘Renaissance’ took place in Europe in a) 12th century b) 14th century c) 15th century

d) 18th century

3.

Who emerged as a great leader in France as result of the ‘French Revolution’ ? a) Voltaire b) Napoleon Bonaparte c) Karl Marx d) None of these The Russian Revolution took place in the year a) 1917 b) 1914 c) 1910 The ‘Bolsheviks’ are associated with a) France b) Germany Who wrote the Communist Manifesto? a) Lenin b) Karl Marx

4.

d) 1920

5.

c) Russia

d) England

6.

c) Stalin

d) None of these

7.

Which was Napoleon’s last battle in which he was captured and exiled to St. Helena? a) The Battle of Trafalgar b) The Battle of Austerlitz c) The Battle of Waterloo d) The Battle of Leipzig Karl Marx belonged to which country? a) Italy b) Yugoslavia World War I started in which year? a) 1912 b) 1914 World War II started in which year? a) 1938 b) 1935 The Treaty of Versailles was signed in a) 1914 b) 1920 The UNO came into existence in a) 1946 b) 1945

8.

c) Russia

d) Germany

9.

c) 1910

d) 1916

10.

c) 1939

d) 1940

11.

c) 1928

d) 1919

12.

c) 1947

d) 1950
129

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13.

The headquarter of the UNO are located at a) New York b) Paris c) Washington DC The UN Security Council has how many permanent members? a) 5 b) 7 c) 8 The UN day is officially celebrated on a) 25th Dec b) 24th Oct

d) Geneva

14.

d) 15

15.

c) 24th Sept

d) 25th Nov

16.

Which of the following is not a principal body of UNO? a) Security Council b) International Court of Justice c) Trusteeship Council d) UNICEF How many official working languages are recognized by the UNO? a) 8 b) 7 c) 6 d) 5 The headquarters of the International Labour Organisation is located at a) Geneva b) The Hague c) New York d) Rome Kofi Annan was appointed as the Secretary General of the UNO in which year? a) 2000 b) 1999 c) 1998 d) 1997 The World Health Organisation (WHO) was established in the year a) 1945 b) 1948 c) 1957 d) 1950 Which of the following UN organizations is concerned with the welfare of children throughout the world? a) UNESCO b) UNICEF c) WHO d) FAO In which years did India become a member of the UNO? a) 1948 b) 1947 c) 1946

17.

18.

19.

20.

21.

22.

d) 1945

23.

The headquarters of the International Court of Justice is located at a) New York b) The Hague c) Geneva d) Washinton D C Who was the first Chairman of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC)? a) Gen. Zia ur Rehman b) Lt Gen. H.M. Ershad c) King Birendra d) Mrs Indira Gandhi

24.

130

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25.

The Red Cross was founded by a) J. H. Durant b) Baden Powell Match the following A) Rig Veda B) Yajur Veda C) Sama Veda D) Atharva Veda A 2 3 4 4 B 3 4 2 2

c) Trygve Lie

d) Frederick Passey

26.

1. 2. 3. 4.

Musical hymns Sacrifices and rituals Medicine Sacred Prayers C 4 2 3 1 D 1 1 1 3

a) b) c) d) 27.

‘Das Kapital’ was written by a) Lenin c) Karl Marx Match the following: Author A) Kautilya B) Panini C) Maharishi Ved Vyas D) Sarojini Naidu A 1 4 3 2 B 4 1 2 3 C 2 3 4 4 D 3 2 1 1

b) Mao-Tse-tung d) None of these

28.

1. 2. 3. 4.

Work Broken Wing Arthashastra Ashtadhyayi Bhagawad Gita

a) b) c) d) 29.

Who is the author of the book ‘A Passage to India’? a) E.M. Forster b) Jawaharlal Nehru c) Minoo Masani d) None of these ‘Swami and Friends’ was written by a) R.K. Laxman b) R.K. Narayan

30.

c) Mulk Raj Anand d) None of these

31.

‘Dak Ghar’ was written by a) R.K. Narayan b) Mulk Raj Anand c) R.K. Laxman

d) Rabindranath Tagore

GENERAL AWARENESS - BRM

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32.

Who is the author of ‘Anandamath’ ? a) Iqbal c) Tara Shankar Bandyopadhyay ‘Panchatantra’ was written by a) Bhasa b) Jaya Deva The author of Malavikagnimitram was a) Harisena b) Kalidasa The number of the Upanishads are a) 300 b) 108

b) Bankim Chandra Chatterjee d) None of these

33.

c) Vishnu Sharma

d) Banabhatta

34.

c) Vatsabhatti

d) Bhavabhuti

35.

c) 412

d) 512

36.

‘India Wins Freedom’ is a semi-biographical work of a) Jawaharlal Nehru b) Mahatama Gandhi c) Maulana Abdul Kalam Azad d) None of these ‘Meghadootam’ was written by a) Bhavabhuti c) Maharishi Ved Vyas

37.

b) Kalidasa d) Maharishi Valmiki

38.

Which is the controversial book, some pages of which were kept sealed in the Calcutta Museum to be released after 40 years of independence in 1988? a) Freedom at Midnight b) India Wins Freedom c) India Divided d) None of these Who is the author of ‘A Suitable Boy’? a) R.K. Narayanan c) Amitava Ghosh

39.

b) Nirad C. Chaudhury d) Vikram Seth

40.

Who among the following is the inventor of a system of writing and printing for the blind? a) Robert Wilhelm Bunsen b) Louis Braille c) Sir Humphrey Davy d) Christian Huygents Sigmund Freud is associated with a) Detective work c) Psychology

41.

b) Physiology and medicine d) Leprosy control

42.

Who was the first human to go into space? a) Edwin Aldrin (USA) b) Frank Boreman (USA) c) Yuri Gagarin (Russia) d) Ghrman S. Titov (Russia)

132

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43.

Rearrange the following in a chronologically descending order : 1. Aristotle 2. Socrates 3. Confucius a) 1, 4, 2, 3 b) 3, 4, 2, 1 c) 2, 4, 1, 3

4. Plato d) 3, 2, 4, 1

44.

Who is said to be the father of Modern Olympics? a) Robert Dover b) Pierre de Coubertin c) Theodosius I d) Ernest Curtis In which year did the first Modern Olympic Games take place? a) 1908 b) 1904 c) 1896

45.

d) 1895

46.

In which year was the International Olympic Committee (IOC) formed? a) 1893 b) 1894 c) 1895 d) 1896 Where were the first Modern Olympic Games held? a) Olympia b) Athens c) Seoul

47.

d) Los Angeles

48.

‘In the Line of Fire: A Memoir’ is the autobiography of a) Jaswant Singh b) Muhammad Zia ul Haq c) Pervez Musharraf d) George Fernandes Which country has joined the European Union in January 2007? a) Romania b) Switzerland c) Turkey d) Latvia ‘Out of My Comfort Zone’ is the autobiography of a) Mark Waugh b) Steve Waugh c) Nasser Hussain d) Alec Stewart

49.

50.

GENERAL AWARENESS - BRM

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BRM Test - 3
Questions: 50 Time : 25 Mins.

1.

‘Bishop’ is the term associated with which sports? a) Cricket b) Polo c) Chess The Nobel Prize for Economics was introduced in which year? a) 1968 b) 1969 c) 1970 In which year was the Nobel Prize first awarded? a) 1895 b) 1901 c) 1876 Which country awards the Nobel Prize? a) America c) Sweden

d) Golf

2.

d) 1971

3.

d) 1900

4.

b) England d) Ireland

5.

Individually the only person to have outrightly won the Nobel Prize twice is a) William Lawrence b) Dr Linus Carl Pauling c) Marie Curie d) Antoni Henri Becquerel Who was the first Indian to have won the Nobel Prize? a) Dr. C.V. Raman b) Rabindra Nath Tagore c) Mother Teresa d) H.G. Khorana Which of the following works brought the first Nobel Prize to India? a) Theory of Relativity b) Manu’s Arthashastra c) Gitanjali d) Social Work Who was the first scientist to have received the Nobel Prize in India and in which year ? a) HG Khorana in 1968 b) CV Raman in 1930 c) CV Raman in 1934 d) HG Khorana in 1940 The first woman to win the Nobel Prize was a) Mother Teresa b) Mrs. Aung San Suu Kyi c) Madame Marie Curie d) None of these ‘LASER’ is an acronym for Light Amplification by a) Stimulated Emission of Radio Waves b) Stimulated Emission of Radiation c) Spontaneous Emission of Radio Waves d) Spontaneous Emission of Radiation
134 GENERAL AWARENESS - BRM

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

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11.

AISSF stands for a) All India Special Services Federation c) All India Sikh Service Fund

b) All India Shiv Sena Folk d) All India Sikh Students Federation

12.

What was the name of India’s first base in Antarctica, set up in 1982? a) Gangotri b) Maitri c) Dakshin Gangotri d) Dakshin Maitri The currency of Indonesia is a) Dollar b) Rupiah The deepest lake in the world is the a) Red Sea b) Dal Lake The Fourth Estate means a) The Press b) The Police

13.

c) Lira

d) Rupee

14.

c) Caspian Sea

d) Baikal Lake

15.

c) The Judiciary

d) The Ministry

16.

The Asian Development Bank has its headquarters at a) Manila b) Beijing c) Delhi The Simla Pact was between a) Russia-India b) India-Pakistan The Indian Army has been divided into a) Four commands c) Six commands Where is the ‘Holy Land’ of the World? a) Amritsar c) Palestine

d) Tokyo

17.

c) India-China

d) India-Bangladesh

18.

b) Eight commands d) Five commands

19.

b) The Vatican City d) Egypt

20.

Which country is called the ‘Land of the Rising Sun’? a) Japan b) Norway c) Ireland Venice is commonly known as the a) Queen of the Adriatic c) Queen of Europe Which is the ‘City of Seven Hills’? a) Paris c) Venice

d) Thailand

21.

b) Queen of the North d) Beauty city

22.

b) Rome d) None of these

GENERAL AWARENESS - BRM

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23.

Australia is known as the a) Land of Golden Fleece c) South Europe The sobriquet used for Norway is the a) Land of the Midnight Sun c) Land of the Morning Clam

b) Dependent continent d) Richest Island

24.

b) Land of the Rising Sun d) Land of the Maple Leaf

25.

‘The Land of the Maple Leaf’ is the sobriquet of a) New York b) Canada c) Malta ‘The Sick Man of Europe’ is a sobriquet of a) Turkey b) France c) South-hall

d) Ireland

26.

d) Berlin

27.

Which of the following is known as the ‘City of the Golden Gate’? a) Amritsar in India b) London in England c) San Francisco in USA d) Sydney in Australia Numismatics is the study of a) Coins b) Numbers

28.

c) Stamps

d) Space

29.

Eugenics is the study of a) Altering human beings by changing their genetic components b) The people of European origin c) The different races of mankind d) The genetics of plants Ornithology is the a) Study of bones

30.

b) Study of birds

c) Study of smells

d) None of these

31.

Entomology deals with a) Plants b) Animals Density of milk is measured by a a) Lactometer b) Hydrometer

c) Insects

d) Chemicals

32.

c) Barometer

d) Hygrometer

33.

The instrument used to measure electric current is a) Ammeter b) Electrometer c) Galvanometer ‘Fathometer’ is used to measure a) Earthquakes b) Rainfall

d) Spectrometer

34.

c) Ocean depth

d) Sound intensity

136

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35.

Who among the following invented the Steam Engine? a) Marconi b) James Watt c) Thomas Savery Who invented the Typewriter ? a) Shockley b) Remington

d) Wright Brothers

36.

c) Scholes

d) Waterman

37.

The credit of inventing the television goes to a) Faraday b) Baird c) Edison Choose the correct combination a) Typewriter : Remington c) Evolution : Darwin Who invented the ball-point pen ? a) Waterman c) Wilson

d) Marconi

38.

b) Dynamite : Dunlop d) Aeroplane : Harvey

39.

b) Oscar d) Biro brothers

40.

Who among the following evolved the concept of relationship between mass and energy? a) Einstein b) Planck c) Dalton d) Rutherford Match the following Column I A) Marconi B) Darwin C) Laennec D) Baird columns : Column II 1. Radio 2. Natural selection theory 3. Orthogenesis theory 4. Stethoscope 5. Television C 4 3 4 2 D 5 2 5 4

41.

a) b) c) d) 42.

A 1 5 1 3

B 3 4 2 5

Who among the following is associated with the invention of Computers? a) Edison b) Babbage c) MacMillan d) Rangabhashyam Which country has won the 11th Hockey World Cup 2006? a) New Zealand b) Australia c) Argentina

43.

d) Germany

GENERAL AWARENESS - BRM

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44.

What is the full form of NASA? a) National Aeronautical Science Association b) New Aeronautical and Science Agency c) National Aeronautics and Space Administration d) None of these The Indian Constitution is divided into how many parts? a) 22 b) 21 c) 20

45.

d) 18

46.

Which city is set to become the first Wi-Max city of India and only the second in the World? a) Chennai b) Bangalore c) Kolkata d) Mumbai Which country is the latest member (192 nd ) of the UN? a) Taiwan b) Switzerland c) Malawi Which PSU has won the SCOPE award for the year 2004-05? a) SAIL b) ONGC c) IOC

47.

d) Montenegro

48.

d) GAIL

49.

Who is the autor of the book “A Call to Honor-In Service of Emergent India’? a) Bimal Jalan b) Arvind Kejriwal c) Jaswant Singh d) Yashwant Sinha Who has won the Tour de France for the year 2006? a) Lance Armstrong b) Floyd Landis c) Tim Henman d) Carl Johnson

50.

138

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BRM Test - 4
Questions: 50 1. Who wrote the book ‘The Art of War’? a) The Duke of Welllington c) Sun Tzu Time : 25 Mins.

b) Norman Schwarzkopf d) Napolean Bonaparte

2.

The smallest unit of data a computer can process is a: a) Bit b) Bot c) Byte What does GSLV stand for? a) Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle b) Geo-Synchronous Launch Vehicle c) Global Satellite Launch Vehicle d) Global Synchronous Launch Vehicle What does PSLV stand for? a) Payload Servicing Launch Vehicle b) Perfect Satellite Launch Vehicle c) Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle d) Prithvi Solar Launch Vehicle ISRO stands for ____________ a) International Satellite Research Organization b) Indian Satellite Research Organization c) International Space Research Organization d) Indian Space Research Organization

d) Bode

3.

4.

5.

6.

Which former President has got two consecutive terms in office? a) Dr Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed b) Dr. Zakir Hussain c) Giani Zail Singh d) Dr Rajendra Prasad What does the DMK (political party) stand for? a) Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam b) Dravida Moksha Kazhagam c) Davidra Muntrar Kazhagam d) Dravidrar Muktikul Kazhagam Who is the founder of the DMK? a) M. Karunanidhi c) C.N. Annadurai

7.

8.

b) Jayalalitha d) M.G. Ramachandran

GENERAL AWARENESS - BRM

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9.

Orygen Trinley Dorje is the real name of a) 16th Kagyu Karmapa c) Rimpoche

b) 17th Kagyu Karmapa d) Dalai Lama

10.

Who was India’s first Deputy Prime Minister? a) Sardar Vallabh Bhai Patel b) Sardar Baldev Singh c) B.R. Ambedkar d) Maulana Azad Rabindranath Nath Tagore composed the national anthem of which country? a) Bangladesh b) India c) India, Bangladesh and Nepal d) India and Bangladesh The first Joint Stock company to trade with India was started by a) Dutch b) British c) French d) Portuguese Who was the first Indian woman to win a medal at the Olympics? a) Karnam Malleswari b) Bachendri Pal c) Kunjarani Devi d) P.T. Usha India’s first satellite was launched in: a) 1950 b) 1965

11.

12.

13.

14.

c) 1975

d) 1985

15.

What was the name of the first satellite launched by India? a) Aryabhatta b) Bhaskara I c) Bhaskara II Who was the first Indian to go into space? a) Kalpana Chawla b) Tenzing Norgay c) Rakesh Sharma Who wrote ‘The War of the Worlds’? a) Colin Wilson b) H.G. Wells

d) Rohini

16.

d) Sanjay Thapar

17.

c) Isaac Asimov

d) Dan Brown

18.

Where are the headquarters of the International Monetary Fund located? a) Washington D C b) Geneva c) Berlin d) London Which gas makes up the single largest component of the Earth’s atmosphere? a) Carbon Monoxide b) Carbon Dioxide c) Oxygen d) Nitrogen Who was the founder of the Indian National Congress? a) Annie Besant b) A.O Hume c) M. K. Gandhi d) None of the above

19.

20.

140

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21.

Who is the Iron Man of Germany? a) Boris Becker b) Bismarck

c) Hitler

d) Napoleon

22.

Which of the following element has the lowest melting point? a) Mercury b) Carbon c) Astatine Which planet’s name means ‘The God of the Heavens’? a) Venus b) Neptune c) Jupiter

d) Rhodium

23.

d) Uranus

24.

Who founded the Arya Samaj in AD 1875? a) Raja Ram Mohan Roy b) Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar c) M. G. Ranade d) Dayanand Saraswathi The first Telegraph line, introduced by Lord Dalhousie in 1853, ran between a) Mumbai and Calcutta b) Calcutta and Agra c) Mumbai and Thane d) Mumbai and Chennai Common salt is obtained from sea water by the process of a) Evaporation b) Crystallization c) Filtration d) Sublimation Who, amongst the following, was the first Englishman to become President of the Indian National Congress? a) A.O. Hume b) George Yule c) William Wedderburn d) Ramsay McDonald Which of the following is not an ‘ear’ bone? a) Stapes b) Incus c) Sacral d) Malleus Who amongst the following invented ‘Wireless Telegraphy’? a) Gugileime Marconi b) Max Planck c) Heinrich Hertz c) Michael Faraday Duncan Pass is located between a) South and Little Andaman c) South and Middle Andaman

25.

26.

27.

28.

29.

30.

b) North and South Andaman d) North and Little Andaman

31.

Which bird’s scientific name is ‘Pavo Cristatus’? a) Peacock c) Kiwi c) Ostrich d) Emu

GENERAL AWARENESS - BRM

141

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32.

Which among the following is the largest Union Territory by area? a) Pondicherry b) Daman & Diu c) Dadra & Nagar Haveli d) The Andaman & Nicobar Islands What is the currency of Portugal? a) Euro c) Mark

33.

b) Escudo d) Schilling

34.

Which two countries lie on either side of the Durand Line? a) India and Afghanistan b) India and Nepal c) Pakistan and Afghanistan d) Pakistan and Iran Whose autobiography is ‘A Captain’s Diary’? a) Imran Khan b) Alec Stewart c) Allan Border d) Wasim Akram What does a Phillumenist collect? a) Old coins c) Match box labels Who has written ‘A Village by the Sea’? a) Arundhuti Roy c) Anita Desai

35.

36.

b) Flags of various nations d) Stamps

37.

b) Pran d) Khalil Gibran

38.

The Panumunjom border post divides which of the following two countries? a) Japan and China b) North and South Korea c) South Korea and Japan d) North Korea and China Established in the year 1931, the Commonwealth of Nations today has a membership ________ states. a) 87 Nation b) 54 Nation c) 69 Nation d) 92 Nation India is a member of 1. NATO 2. WTO a) 2 and 3 b) 1 and 4

39.

40.

3. IAEA c) 1, 2 & 3

4. NAFTA d) All the above

41.

Constantinople is the old name for which city? a) Harare b) Istanbul c) Oslo When is World Tourism Day celebrated? a) 27th September b) 27th October

d) Cardiff

42.

c) 27th November

d) 27th December

142

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43.

The river Sone is a tributary of which river? a) Indus b) Yamuna c) Sutlej Where was the 14th NAM Summit held in September 2006? a) Durban b) Moscow c) Havana Where was the 32nd G-8 summit held in July 2006? a) Gleneagles b) St. Petersburg c) Moscow Which country from the given options is not a member of G-8? a) Canada b) France c) Germany Which country is not a member of NAM? a) USA b) UAE Who has written the book ‘Mein Kampf’? a) Rudyard Kipling b) Karl Marx

d) Ganga

44.

d) Kuala Lumpur

45.

d) London

46.

d) Australia

47.

c) Egypt

d) Ecuador

48.

c) Adolf Hitler

d) Charles Dickens

49.

Who won the Ramon Magsaysay Award for the year 2006? a) Arvind Kejriwal b) Laxmi Narayan Ramdas c) Shantha Sinha d) V Shanta Who is the Chief Election Commissioner of India? a) J M Lyngdoh b) B B Tandon c) S Y Qureshi d) N Gopalaswami

50.

GENERAL AWARENESS - BRM

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BRM Test - 5
Questions: 50 1. Time : 25 Mins.

Which of the following countries is not a member of the SAARC? a) China b) Maldives c) Sri Lanka d) Bhutan Which of the following countries is not a member of ASEAN? a) Brunei b) India c) Vietnam Net factor income from abroad added to GDP gives a) NDP b) GNP c) NNP The rear view mirror used in a car is a) Convex b) Concave

2.

d) Laos

3.

d) Per capita income

4.

c) Plane

d) Parabolic

5.

The first census in India was completed in the year a) 1873 b) 1852 c) 1872 ‘Love Story’ was written by a) Khuswant Singh c) William Golding Cooking gas is a mixture of: a) Butane & Propane c) Oxygen & Nitrogen Lead pencils contain a) White lead b) Graphite The Secretariat of WTO is based in a) Paris b) London

d) 1842

6.

b) Anita Desai d) Erich Segal

7.

b) Oxygen and Butane d) Methane and Carbon Dioxide

8.

c) Red lead

d) Coke

9.

c) Rome

d) Geneva

10.

‘Truth, Love and a Little Malice’ is authored by a) Indira Goswami b) Khushwant Singh c) Amitabh Ghosh d) Anita Desai The term “puck” is associated with a) Table Tennis b) Lawn Tennis
144

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c) Ice Hockey

d) Water polo
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12.

The largest gland in the body is the a) Liver c) Thyroid ECG is related to the a) Heart c) Stomach Hepatitis is a disease related to the a) Kidney c) Liver

b) Pituitary d) Thymus

13.

b) Brain d) Gall Bladder

14.

b) Muscles d) Brain

15.

Who was the designer of the Victoria Memorial? a) G.Witet b) William Emerson c) Geronimo Veroneo d) Edward Lutyens When was the first Five Year Plan started? a) 1950-51 b) 1951-52 c) 1947-48 d) 1948-49 The battle of Waterloo was fought between a) Germany and Britain b) Poland and Britain c) Germany and France d) Britain and France Duma is the Lower House of the parliament of which country? a) Denmark b) Norway c) Russia d) Canada The amendment of which of the following Articles of the Indian constitution would enable the government to impose Value Added Tax (VAT) regime in India? a) Article 369 b) Article 271 c) Article 269 d) Article 279 Who is the current Managing Director of the International Monetary Fund (IMF)? a) Rodrigo Rato b) Hoest Koehller c) Montek Singh Ahluwalia d) James Wolfenson Who is the Chief of the Indian Army? a) Deepan Singh b) Bibek Debroy

16.

17.

18.

19.

20.

21.

c) Joginder Sharma d) None of these

GENERAL AWARENESS - BRM

145

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22.

Who is the Chief of the Indian Navy? a) Devesh Malik c) T.P. Thapa

b) Arun Prakash d) Sureesh Mehta

23.

Who is the Comptroller and Auditor General of India? a) V N Kaul b) Vineet Pandit c) Shashank Kumar d) Subhendra Pandit The deputy speaker of Lok Sabha is a) Manohar Joshi c) Charan Jeet Singh Atwal The deputy speaker of the Rajya Sabha is a) K. Rahman Khan c) Om Prakash Chautala

24.

b) K Rahman Khan d) Najma Heptullah

25.

b) S.P. Shukla d) Amar Singh

26.

Who is the President of the Bhartiya Janata Party (BJP)? a) L.K. Advani b) Raj Nath Singh c) Arun Jaitley d) Venkaiah Naidu Who is the Chief Minister of Puducherry? a) M.M. Lakhera c) N. Rangaswamy Who is the Chief Minsiter of Mizoram? a) Pu Zoramthanga c) P.K. Chamling

27.

b) Dilip Phadnis d) Arun Mathur

28.

b) P.A. Sangma d) Okram Ibobi Singh

29.

Who is the Chairman of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO)? a) Yasser Arafat b) Mahmoud Abbas c) Ariel Sharon d) Ehud Barak Who was the first India woman to swim across the seven seas? a) Shikha Tandon b) Bula Choudhary c) Amanda Beard d) Aarti Saha Who is the President of the International Cricket Council (ICC)? a) Malcolm Speed b) Ehsan Mani c) Percy Sonn d) Tayaab Khan Which Indian city is nicknamed ‘The City of Joy’? a) Chennai b) Mumbai c) Bangalore
146

30.

31.

32.

d) Kolkata

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33.

In which Asian city was the Mughal Emperor Babur buried? a) Lahore b) Kabul c) Quetta Lima is the capital of which country? a) Peru b) Chile

d) Samarkand

34.

c) Lebanon

d) None of these

35.

The first ever stamp issued in India in 1854 had the picture of which person? a) Lord Clive b) Queen Victoria c) Queen Elizabeth I d) King George V Dirham is currency of which country? a) Egypt b) Saudi Arabia

36.

c) U.A.E

d) Israel

37.

In which body part are the Islets of Langerhans present? a) Liver b) Brain c) Pancreas

d) Small intestine

38.

What is the maximum strength (number of members) of Lok Sabha? a) 540 b) 545 c) 550 d) 555 What is the currency of Poland? a) Rouble b) Euro Aswan Dam is located in which country? a) Sudan b) Uganda Lack of Vitamin A leads to a) Scurvy b) Night Blindness

39.

c) Dollar

d) Zloty

40.

c) Egypt

d) India

41.

c) Beriberi

d) Rickets

42.

Kuchipudi is a classical dance form of which state? a) Kerala b) Andhra Pradesh c) Tamil Nadu

d) Orissa

43.

Who was the first woman to go into space? a) Svetlana Savitskaya b) Valentina Tereshkova c) Sally Ride d) Adriyana Nikolayev Which of the following is not a commercial crop? a) Jowar b) Rice c) Wheat World Environment Day is observed on a) 5th January b) 31st January

44.

d) Cotton

45.

c) 5th June

d) 31st June

GENERAL AWARENESS - BRM

147

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46.

‘Madhubani’ painting is the art form of which state? a) Rajasthan b) Uttar Pradesh c) Jammu & Kashmird) Bihar The Gandhara and Mathura art forms developed during the period of……… a) Harshvardana b) Samudragupta c) Kanishka d) Huvishka Which was India’s first nuclear power plant? a) Kalpakkam b) Korba c) Tarapore In which state is the Dudhwa national park located? a) Madhya Pradesh b) Uttar Pradesh c) Uttaranchal The term of Rajya Sabha is a) 4 years b) 5 years

47.

48.

d) Trombay

49.

d) Rajasthan

50.

c) 6 years

d) 7 years

148

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BRM Test - 6
Questions: 50 1. Time : 25 Mins.

In which city is the secretariat of South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) located? a) New Delhi b) Kathmandu c) Islamabad d) Colombo The deficiency of which vitamin causes Beriberi? a) Vitamin-B-12 b) Vitamin C c) Vitamin B-1 How many ounces are there in a pound? a) 11 b) 16

2.

d) Vitamin B-2

3.

c) 10

d) 15

4.

Who is the only Governor-General of India to be appointed twice on the post? a) Lord Canning b) Lord Cornwallis c) Lord Dalhousie d) Lord Mountbatten What is the name of the Canadian author who wrote ‘Life of Pi’, which won The Booker prize in 2003? a) Jack Welsch b) Yann Martel c) Arundhati Roy d) Daniel’O Brien The J.S. Verma committee formed by the government dealt with a) Restructuring UTI b) Determining the role of exchanges and corporate with regards to price sensitive information. c) Probing into the Ketan Parekh Scam d) None of these The first Indian film with sound in it was a) Raja Harishchandra c) Pundalik

5.

6.

7.

b) Alamara d) None of the above

8.

Which was the first TV serial on Doordarshan network? a) Buniyaad b) Humlog c) Mahabharat

d) None

9.

Which is the highest civilian award given by the President of India? a) Bharat Ratna b) Dadasaheb Phalke Award c) Oscar Award d) Jnanpith Award Which city is called the ‘City of Magnificent Distances’? a) Washington D.C b) Paris c) London

10.

d) Tokyo
149

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11.

December 10th is observed as the a) UN Day c) World Red cross Day

b) World Health Day d) Human Rights Day

12.

Who was the first ever woman Prime Minister of any country in the World? a) Mrs. Indira Gandhi of India b) Mrs. Sirimavo Bhandaranaike of Sri Lanka c) Mrs. Golda Meir of Israil d) None of these The Booker prize is awarded in which field? a) Science b) Literature c) Medicine d) Social Service ‘Invisible Man’ has been authored by a) James Jeams b) Victor Hungo

13.

14.

c) G.B. Shaw

d) H.G. Wells

15.

Which country is known as ‘The Forbidden Country’? a) Lhasa b) Norway c) Malaysia What is the emblem of the United Nations Organisation (UNO)? a) Stars & Moon b) Olive Branch c) A Dove Batavia is an old name for which country? a) Angora b) Jakarta c) Beijing What is the ‘Maginot Line’? a) Boundary between Iraq-Iran b) Boundary between North & South Korea c) Boundary between North & South Vietnam d) Boundary between France & Germany Where does one find the World’s tallest fountain? a) Venice b) Jamaica c) Arizona Name the first man/men who climbed Mt. Everest? a) Edmund Hillary b) Tenzing Norgay c) Both The Asian Games 2006 were held at……… a) Hong-Kong b) Kuala Lumpur c) Doha When was the first Lok Sabha constituted? a) 1950 b) 1947 c) 1951

d) Cuba

16.

d) A Mountain Peak

17.

d) Cambodia

18.

19.

d) Los Angeles

20.

d) None of these

21.

d) New Delhi

22.

d) 1952

150

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23.

Which three countries were the chief founders of the Non-Aligned movement? a) India, Burma, Nepal b) India, China Russia c) India, Yugoslavia, Egypt d) Egypt, Yugoslavia, Sri Lanka Which British General in India was involved in the Battle of Plassey? a) Lord Duplex b) Lord Hasting c) Lord Cornwallis d) Lord Clive Which is the highest Gallantry Award of the Indian Republic? a) Paramvir Chakra b) Mahavir Chakra c) Ashok Chakra d) Kirti Chakra Chandigarh & Bhubaneswar were designed by a) Edward Lutyens b) Frank Man c) Le Corbusier d) None of these India’s highest literacy award is a) Sathitya Akademi c) Jnanpith

24.

25.

26.

27.

b) Padma Shree d) Saraswati Samman

28.

Who was the first Chairman of Rajya Sabha? a) G.L. Nanda b) Hukum Singh c) S. Radhakrishnan d) G.B Pant Who was the first Chief Election Commissioner of India? a) K.V. Sundaram b) Subashish Sen Verma c) Sukumar Sen d) T. N. Seshan The first speaker of Lok Sabha was a) M.A. Ayyangar b) G.V. Mavalankar c) Hukum Singh The Controller and Auditor General of India is appointed by the a) Finance Minister b) Prime Minister c) Law Minister The Finance Commission is constituted by the a) Finance Minister b) President of India c) Prime Minister of India d) Home Minister Which region in India is known as the ‘Rice Bowl of India’? a) The North-East Region b) Kerala and Tamil Nadu c) The Indo-Gangetic Plane d) The Krishna-Godavari Delta Region

29.

30.

d) Shivraj Patil

31.

d) President

32.

33.

GENERAL AWARENESS - BRM

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34.

K-2, the world’s second highest peak is located in which mountain range? a) The Pir Panjal b) The Himalayas c) The Karakoram d) None of these M.S. Subbulakshmi was a famous exponent in which field? a) Hindustani Music b) Acting c) Carnatic Music d) Painting Who of the following was the first to receive the prestigious Jnanpith Award? a) Amrita Pritam b) Girish Karnad c) G. Sankara Kurup d) Nirmal Verma From what event do the Mohammedans date their era? a) Hejira or the flight of Mohammad from Mecca to Medina b) The Birth of Mohammad c) The Death of Mohammad d) None of these The Bourbon dynasty ruled in which of the following countries? a) France b) China c) England d) Germany Which city is popularly known as the ‘City of Seven Hills’? a) Berne b) Rome c) Mexico Which city is known as the ‘Manchester of the Orient’? a) Hong-Kong b) Osaka c) Tokyo Which country is the largest producer of cotton in the World? a) USA b) Russia c) Saudi Arabia Which country is the largest producer of coal in the World? a) Canada b) U.S.A c) Germany Which country is known as the ‘Playground of Europe’? a) England b) France c) Switzerland

35.

36.

37.

38.

39.

d) Kathmandu

40.

d) Shanghai

41.

d) Brazil

42.

d) Russia

43.

d) Holland

44.

Trygve Lie, the first Secretary General of the UN was from which country? a) Norway b) Sweden c) Denmark d) Finland The number of non-permanent members in the Security Council of the UN is a) 20 b) 5 c) 15 d) 10

45.

152

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46.

Match the following options correctly 1. Nagaland 2. Meghlaya 3. Arunachal Pradesh 4. Manipur

A. B. C. D. E.

Aizwal Imphal Shillong Kohima Itanagar

a) 1-D, 2-C, 3-E, 4-B c) 1-D, 2-C, 3-E, 4-A 47.

b) 1-C, 2-D, 3-E, 4-B d) 1-C, 2-D, 3-B, 4-E

Which country won the FIFA Soccer World Cup 2006? a) Germany b) Brazil c) Italy d) France Who won the ‘Golden Shoe’ award at the FIFA Soccer World Cup 2006? a) Miroslav Klose b) Zinedine Zidane c) Ronaldo d) Ronaldinho Which player won the ‘Golden Ball’ award at the FIFA Soccer World Cup 2006? a) Lukas Podolski b) Gianluigi Buffon c) Zinedine Zidane d) Hernan Crespo Which player won the ‘Emerging Player of the Tournament’ award at FIFA Soccer World Cup 2006? a) Hernan Crespo b) Lukas Podoloski c) Carlos Tavez d) Lionel Messi

48.

49.

50.

GENERAL AWARENESS - BRM

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BRM Test - 7
Questions: 50 Time : 25 Mins.

1.

Kremlin is the name of the Presidential Palace of which country? a) Russia b) France c) Germany d) Italy Which among the following is currently the newest nation of the World? a) Kourou Island b) Palau Island c) East Timor d) Sierra Leone Which country is not yet the member of the World Trade Organization ? a) Pakistan b) Russia c) China d) Taiwan Which among the following states houses the Bellary Thermal Power Project? a) Andhra Pradesh b) Kerala c) Tamil Nadu d) Karnataka Who among the following was the first editor of ‘Panchajanya’? a) Bala Saheb Deoras b) H.R. Hedgawar c) Atal Bihari Vajpayee d) L.K. Advani Al-Quadissiya is the national newspaper of a) Iran b) Iraq c) UAE ‘Renminbi’ is the currency of which country? a) Malysia b) China c) Taiwan

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

d) Saudi Arabia

7.

d) Philippinnes

8.

Which of the following is the world’s most expensive city as per the latest Worldwide Cost of Living Survey? a) Zurich b) London c) Moscow d) Tokyo Who among the following has been appointed as the Director of the Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI)? a) Vijay Shankar b) B.B. Mishra c) J.K. Dutt d) Umashankar Mishra Who among the following has conceptualised ‘Vigyan Rail’? a) M.V. Kamath b) Nitish Bhardwaj c) M.S. Swaminathan d) A.P.J. Abdul Kalam ‘Dwikhandita’ (Split in Two) is the autobiography of which of the following authors? a) Taslima Nasreen b) Leila Seth c) Jhumpa Lahiri d) Meera Syal
154 GENERAL AWARENESS - BRM

9.

10.

11.

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12.

Which of the following countries has set its currency to the dollar($) at a fixed rate since 1995? a) China b) Japan c) Singapore d) The UK Who among the following was the first Indian to win the World Amateur Billiards Championship? a) Geet Sethi b) Michael Ferreira c) Ashok Shandilya d) None of the above On which river is the Tehri hydel dam project built? a) Ganga b) Yamuna c) Bhagirathi

13.

14.

d) Bhilaganga

15.

Which of the following species of mosquitoes spreads the Dengue virus? (A) Ades Aegypti (B) Cluex (C) Anopheles a) Only A b) Only B c) Only C d) Both A & C Who among the following has been appointed as the Chairman of the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO)? a) G. Madhavan Nair b) K. Kasturirangan c) B.N. Suresh d) R.V. Perumal Under which of the following Articles of the Constitution of India has Jammu and Kashmir been accorded a separate special status? a) 310 b) 330 c) 350 d) 370 Who among the following has authored the book, ‘Soul Curry for You and Me’? a) Javed Akhtar b) Gulzar c) Dilip Kumar d) Amitabh Bachchan How many countries are members of SAARC? a) 5 b) 7 c) 8 Who is the author of the book ‘Truth, Love and A little Malice’? a) Arundhati Roy b) Khushwant Singh c) Subramaniam Swami d) R.K. Narayan Which European city hosts the ‘World Economic Forum’? a) Geneva b) Vienna c) Davos d) Lausanne Who among the following is the present National Security Adviser of India? a) K. Subramanyam b) Brajesh Mishra c) Brahma Chellani d) Jyotindra Nath Dixit

16.

17.

18.

19.

d) 9

20.

21.

22.

GENERAL AWARENESS - BRM

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23.

Hafiz Mohammad Saeed is the founder-leader of a) Jaish-e- Mohammad b) Lashkar-e-Taiba c) Al Qaeda d) Abu Sayaf ‘World Telecom Day’ is celebrated on the..... a) 17th May b) 19th May c) 21st May d) 23rd May ‘My Side’ is the autobiography of ...................... a) Javed Miandad b) Pele c) Steve Waugh d) David Beckham Which of the following is the most populous state in India? a) Maharashtra b) Madhya Pradesh c) Uttar Pradesh

24.

25.

26.

d) Bihar

27.

Which among the following states has launched a scheme titled ‘Rajiv Gyanodaya Scheme’ to open libraries in every village of the state? a) Madhya Pradesh b) Chattisgarh c) Rajasthan d) Assam Which of the following sports is the J.R.D Tata Cup associated with? a) Hockey b) Basketball c) Football d) Snooker Which of the following airports was the first to be privatized in India? a) Bangalore b) Mumbai c) Delhi d) Cochin Who among the following has authored the novel ‘Pinjar’? a) Amrita Pritam b) Javed Adhtar c) Kaifi Azmi d) Harivanshrai Bachchan Which of the following cities is the permanent venue for the International Children’s Film Festival? a) Mumbai b) Hyderabad c) Bangalore d) New Delhi Who among the following has authored the novel ‘Ko’ (Speak up)? a) Javed Akhtar b) Jhumpa Lahiri c) Taslima Nasreen b) Khushwant Singh Presently how many nations are members of the European Union (EU)? a) 25 b) 26 c) 27 d) 28 The Indus Valley civilization had its main centers at Mohenjodaro and a) Lothal b) Chanhudaro c) Harappa d) Amri

28.

29.

30.

31.

32.

33.

34.

156

GENERAL AWARENESS - BRM

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35.

To which age does the Harappan civilization belongs? a) Bronze b) Paleolithic c) Iron

d) Neolithic

36.

The Upanishads are a series of books devoted to a) Yoga b) Social Law c) Religious rituals d) Philosophy The Shahnama had been written by a) Alberuni b) Amir Khusro Who was the first Indian Civil servant? a) Motilal Nehru b) S. N. Banerjee

37.

c) Firdausi

d) Abul Fazal

38.

c) C. R. Das

d) Bhagat Singh

39.

Vasco Da Gama’s ship had docked at Calicut in the year a) 1498 b) 1485 c) 1472 With which of the following was Annie Besant associated? a) The Ramakrishna Mission b) The Arya Samaj c) ISKCON (International Society for Krishna Consciousness) d) The Theosophical Society

d) 1467

40.

41.

The Dutch first established their hold in India in the year 1605 at a) Masulipatnam b) Surat c) Bombay d) Goa The temple of Angkor Vat is at a) Laos b) Cambodia

42.

c) Vietnam

d) Myanmar

43.

The Delhi Sultan who died as a consequence of having fallen from his horse while playing Chaugan or Polo was a) Iltutmish b) Ghias ud-din Balban c) Mohammad of Ghazni d) Qutub-ud-din Aibak In which year was Burma separated from India? a) 1863 b) 1902 c) 1937

44.

d) 1947

45.

In which country is Waterloo located, where the famous battle between the British and the French was fought? a) Belgium b) France c) U.K. d) Germany Panchayati Raj was introduced in India in a) 1957 b) 1952

46.

c) 1951

d) 1959

GENERAL AWARENESS - BRM

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47.

Which Government body approves the Five year plans? a) The Planning Commission b) The National Development Council c) The Prime Minister’s Office d) The Parliament Who was the first India woman to win Miss World title? a) Aishwarya Rai b) Diana Hayden c) Rita Faria d) Priyanka Chopra Tatra Kucharova, the 2006 Miss World title holder is from which country? a) Austria b) Sweden c) Denmark d) Czech Republic Zuleyka Rivera Mendoza, the 2006 Miss Universe title holder is from which country? a) Mexico b) Puerto Rico c) Argentina d) Chile

48.

49.

50.

158

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BRM Test - 8
Questions: 50 Time : 25 Mins.

1.

Article 370 of the Constitution deals with a) The presidential powers of pardon b) The protection of interests of the minorities c) Temporary provisions with regards to Jammu & Kashmir d) The formation of new states For how many years is the Finance Commission appointed? a) 6 years b) 5 years c) 4 years Which of the following is presided over by a non member? a) Lok Sabha b) Vidhan Sabha c) Rajya Sabha Which is the brightest planet in our solar system? a) Earth b) Mars c) Venus The Ozone Layer is in the.......... a) Stratosphere b) Troposphere

2.

d) 2 years

3.

d) Vidhan Parishad

4.

d) Mercury

5.

c) Mesosphere

d) Thermosphere

6.

The highest plateau in the world is the............ a) The Colorado Plateau b) The Deccan plateau c) The Mexican plateau d) The Tibetan plateau The speed at which light travels in vacuum is a) 3 × 107 m/s b) 5 × 108 m/s c) 3 × 104 km/s d) 3 × 108 m/s The highest Mountain peak in the Americas is...................... a) Mt. McKinley b) Mt. Aconcagua c) Mt. Antofalla d) Mt. Lullaillaco Match the names of the International boundaries in the left column with the countries they separate, given in the column at right A) Durand Line 1. India and Pakistan B) Radcliffe line 2. India and China C) McMahon Line 3. France and Germany D) Maginot line 4. Pakistan & Afghanistan

7.

8.

9.

GENERAL AWARENESS - BRM

159

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Choose the correct A (a) 1 (b) 2 (c) 3 (d) 4 10.

answer from the codes given below. B C D 2 3 4 3 4 1 4 1 2 1 2 3

The boundary between the United States of America and Canada is represented by..... a) The 49o N Latitude b) The 38o N Latitude c) The Rio Grande river d) The Oder-Niesse line Silvassa is the capital of a) Lakshadweep c) Dadra and Nagar Haveli

11.

b) Tripura d) Mizoram

12.

The Constitution of India provides that the three constituents of the Indian Parliament are the Lok Sabha, the Rajya Sabha and the a) Prime Minister b) Vice-President c) President d) Council of Ministers Which one of the following is used as fuel to propel rockets? a) Petrol b) Kerosene c) Hydrazine The maximum membership of the Rajya Sabha is limited to a) 240 b) 245 c) 250 In Indian economy primary sector refer to a) Manufacturing industries b) Transport c) Commerce d) Agriculture Mixed economy is a compromise between a) Private and public sector b) Capitalism and communism c) Capitalism and socialism d) Commercial and individual business Enzymes are produced by a) Endocrine glandsb) Exocrine glands c) Liver The enzyme that acts on fats is a) Amylase b) Pepsin The saliva contains an enzyme called a) Ptyalin b) Pepsin

13.

d) Alcohol

14.

d) 260

15.

16.

17.

d) Spleen

18.

c) Ptyalin

d) Lipase

19.

c) Trypsin

d) Erepsin

160

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20.

The acid that is secreted in the stomach is a) HCI b) H SO4 c) H CO3
2 2

d) HNO3

21.

Insulin is concerned with the metabolism of a) Sugar b) Fats c) Proteins ‘Kwashiorkor’ is caused by deficiency of a) Carbohydrates b) Proteins An a) b) c) d)

d) Vitamins

22.

c) Fats

d) Vitamins

23.

astronomical unit of distance is Kilometer Light year The average distance from the earth to the sun None of the above

24.

The sun continuously produces an enormous amount of energy. This is due to a) Nuclear fission b) Nuclear fusion c) Chemical combustion d) Boiling One horse power is equal to a) 625 watts b) 816 watts Match the following A) Kalpakkam B) Pokhran C) Thumba D) Mumbai A a) 1 b) 4 c) 3 d) 4

25.

c) 746 watts

d) 520 watts

26.

1. 2. 3. 4. B 3 2 1 3

Atomic Research Centre Rocket Launching Stations Atomic blast site Nuclear Power Station C D 4 2 3 1 2 4 2 1

27.

‘Nucleus’ was discovered by.......... a) Rutherford b) Moseley

c) Niel Bohr

d) J. J. Thomson

28.

Which among the following is a metalloid? a) Arsenic b) Silver c) Iodine A non-metal which is a good conductor of electricity is a) Graphite b) Phosphorus c) Sulphur

d) Copper

29.

d) Iodine

GENERAL AWARENESS - BRM

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30.

Chromosomes are concerned with a) Respiration c) Growth of the body

b) Assimilation d) Transmission of hereditary characters

31.

Which of the following organelles is known as the ‘Power House of the cell’? a) Golgi bodies b) Ribosome c) Mitochondria d) Centrosome Plant cells can usually be distinguished from animal cells, because, only plant cells possess. a) Cell and mitochondria b) Cell wall and central vacuoles c) Golgi bodies and central vacuoles d) Chromosomes and mitochondria The most abundant noble gas present in air is a) Neon b) Krypton c) Helium World Tourism Day is observed on? a) 27th September b) 17th September The Unit of heat energy is a) Watt b) Degree Water has maximum density at a) 0o C b) –15o C Solid carbon dioxide is used a) As a drying agent c) As an antiseptic Blood clotting requires vitamin a) A b) B

32.

33.

d) Argon

34.

c) 27 th October

d) 17th October

35.

c) Joule

d) Kelvin

36.

c) 4o C

d) 15o C

37.

b) as a refrigerant d) As a bleaching agent

38.

c) C

d) K

39.

The universal donor belongs to blood group a) A b) B c) AB ‘Death of Vishnu’ has been written by................. a) Manil Suri b) R. K. Laxman c) Anita Desai d) Khushwant Singh A mirage is caused because of the a) Scattering of light c) Reflection of light

d) O

40.

41.

b) Dispersion of light d) Refraction of light

162

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42.

Which of the following is an agent of bleaching? a) Hydrogen Peroxide b) Sulphur Dioxide c) Ozone d) All of the above Which measure can check ‘inflation’? a) Surplus Budgeting c) Curtailment in Public Expenditure

43.

b) Increase in Direct Taxation d) All of the above

44.

If a member of the Lok Sabha absents himself for a period of....... from the meeting of the house, without the permission of the house, he will be disqualified. a) 30 days b) 45 days c) 60 days d) 90 days World Earth Day is observed on a) April 10 b) April 22

45.

c) May 22

d) May 15

46.

What is mascot of 150 years of Indian Railways? a) Fairy Queen b) Queen Mary c) Bholu Guard

d) Pappu Driver

47.

Who is the author of the book ‘The Shade of Swords’, ‘Jihad’ and ‘The Conflict between Islam and Christianity’? a) Rafiq Zakaria b) Salman Rushdie c) Fareed Zakaria d) M.J. Akbar In which year were the Oscars started? a) 1927 b) 1928

48.

c) 1929

d) 1930

49.

Who has won the maximum number of Oscars? a) William Wyler b) Steven Spielberg c) Walt Disney d) Frank Capra Where is the World’s highest terrestrial telescope located? a) Hanley, Ladakh b) Lhasa, Tibet c) Hawaii, US d) Mount Fiji, Japan

50.

GENERAL AWARENESS - BRM

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BRM Test - 9
Questions: 50 1. Time : 25 Mins.

The headquarters of the European Central Bank, established in 1998, is at............ a) London b) Berlin c) Frankfurt d) None of these ‘Disha’, a voluntary organization active in Uttar Pradesh, is engaged in............. a) Eradication of child labour b) Eradication of illiteracy c) Water harvesting and preservation of drinking water d) None of the above Which of the following countries has become the member of the WTO recently? a) Vietnam b) Cuba c) India d) China The quorum to constitute a sitting of Lok Sabha is ............ of the total membership of the House. a) one-fourth b) one-half c) one- tenth d) one-fifth Which two countries are linked by the Khyber Pass? a) India and Pakistan b) India and Afghanistan c) Afghanistan and Pakistan d) Afghanistan and Tajikistan Authors from which of the following countries are not eligible to be considered for the Booker Prize? a) Britain b) United Kingdom c) Republic of Ireland d) United States of America Fermentation of milk to form curd happens due to a) Mycobacterium b) Staphylococcus c) Lactobacillus The ‘Kirti Stambha’ (Tower of Victory) at Chittor was built by a) Rana Pratap b) Rana Kumbha c) Rana Sanga

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

d) Yeasts

8.

d) Bappa Raval

9.

Who was the first Ramon Magsaysay Award winner from India? a) C.D. Deshmukh b) Jayaprakash Narayan c) Dr Verghese Kurien d) Acharya Vinoba Bhave Which is the universal recipient blood group? a) A b) B c) AB
164

10.

d) O
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11.

The filament of an electric bulb is made of a) Tungsten b) Iron c) Gypsum d) Graphite Which is the hardest substance available on earth? a) Coal b) Platinum c) Diamond d) Gold Short-sightedness occurs due to a) Elongation c) Weakening of the Retina What is the state language of Nagaland? a) English c) Garo

12.

13.

b) Weaker Eye Muscles d) Shifting of the Iris

14.

b) Khase d) Nagamese

15.

The Justice Liberhan Commission is related to which event? a) 1984 anti-Sikh riot b) Tehelka-tape revelation c) Babri Masjid demolition d) None of these Who among the following acts as the Chairman of the National Integration Council? a) Prime Minister b) Vice President c) Union Home Minister d) None of these The number of members nominated by the President to the Rajya Sabha is constitutionally limited to………. a) 12 b) 15 c) 10 d) 20 The Rajya Sabha can be dissolved a) During an Emergency c) Under no circumstances

16.

17.

18.

b) Every five years d) At the direction of the President

19.

How many countries are members of the Commonwealth of Nations? a) 45 b) 53 c) 43 d) 25 The protector of the Fundamental Rights guaranteed under the Constitution is the a) Parliament b) Prime Minister c) President d) Supreme Court How many countries are the members of OPEC? a) 14 b) 13 c) 12

20.

21.

d) 11

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The Union Territories get representation a) In the Lok Sabha but not in the Rajya Sabha b) In the Rajya Sabha but not in the Lok Sabha c) Neither in the Lok Sabha nor in the Rajya Sabha d) In both the Houses Before 1991, Indian rupee was devalued in a) 1951 b) 1966 c) 1976 d) 1986 Which among the following is described as the Fourth Estate? a) Judiciary b) Press c) Legislature d) Executive Who among the following dignitaries, cannot be impeached? a) President b) Vice-President c) Judges of the Supreme Court d) Comptroller and Auditor-General of India Which, of the following, does not fall within the jurisdiction of the Indian Parliament? a) Foreign pilgrimage b) Consideration of Money bills c) Consideration of Ordinary bills d) Fundamental Rights and Duties On which among the following dates, International Women’s Day is celebrated? a) 7th March b) 9th March c) 2nd March d) 8th March On which among the following dates the Tenth Plan had taken off? a) April 1, 2002 b) July 1, 2002 c) October 1, 2002 d) April 1, 2003 What are drugs used for relieving pain called? a) Tranquilizers b) Antipyretics c) Analgesics

23.

24.

25.

26.

27.

28.

29.

d) Anesthetics

30.

Who is the Chairperson of the National Commission for Women?. a) Poonam Advani b) Amrita Patel c) Girija Vyas d) Brinda Karat Which of the following countries is the largest producer of silver in the world? a) Mexico b) Peru c) Cyprus d) Spain The least populous state in the Union of India is……….. a) Sikkim b) Goa c) Himachal Pradesh d) Arunachal Pradesh

31.

32.

166

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33.

Habeas Corpus is a) A law degree conferred by the Leningrad University b) The ancient name of a Greek city c) The site of the first Olympiad d) A writ which facilitates a prisoner to appear in a court for speedy trial or release on bail The fiscal policy of India is formulated by the a) Planning Commission b) Ministry of Finance c) R.B.I. d) None of these ‘Nippon’ is the name given to Japan which means a) Land of the rising Sun b) Land of Pagodas c) Land of northern lights d) Land of Volcanoes and Earthquakes. On which river the Bhakra Nangal Project built? a) Beas b) Sutlej c) Jhelum Which state in India is the highest producer of Sugarcane?. a) U.P. b) Maharashtra c) M.P.

34.

35.

36.

d) Ravi

37.

d) West Bengal

38.

While ‘Sugar Bowl’ is Cuba, which country is leading in the production of sugarcane? a) India b) Pakistan c) Indonesia d) Mauritius Who wrote ‘The Hindu View of Life’? a) S. Radhakrishnan c) Rabindra Nath Tagore The Legislative Council has tenure of a) 6 years c) 4 years

39.

b) Sri Aurobindo d) Swami Vivekanand

40.

b) 5 Year d) a permanent nature

41.

Article............. of the constitution deals with the procedure for amendment of the Indian Constitution a) 360 b) 363 c) 368 d) 369 The World’s largest constituency in terms of population is a) South Calcutta b) Outer Delhi c) Navi Mumbai

42.

d) London

43.

The part of the Constitution that deals with the Directive Principles of state policy is........... a) II b) III c) IV d) V

GENERAL AWARENESS - BRM

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The Directive Principles in the Indian Constitution have been framed, drawing inspiration from the Constitution of which country? a) American b) Irish c) French d) Canadian Asian Development Bank is headquartered at.............. a) Manila b) Tokyo c) Kuala Lumpur

45.

d) Singapore

46.

The maximum number of Anglo- Indians who can be nominated to the Lok Sabha is.... a) 2 b) 4 c) 5 d) 13 The Parliament of Israel is known as.................... a) Diet b) Knesset c) Congress

47.

d) National Assembly

48.

What was the code name of the project that led to the development of first Atomic Bomb? a) Project Hiroshima b) Project Washington c) Project Nagasaki d) Project Manhattan For which book has Kiran Desai won the Man Booker Prize for the year 2006? a) The Sea b) The Inheritance of Loss c) The Long Loss d) The Snow Khajuraho temples’ builders, The Chandelas, were from which religious sect? a) Vaishnavite b) Saivite c) Jains Sect d) None of these

49.

50.

168

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BRM Test - 10
Questions: 50 Time : 25 Mins.

1.

Name the country where the National Parliament is known as ‘Jatiya Sangsad’ a) Turkey b) Afghanistan c) Malaysia d) Bangladesh ‘Chipko’ movement is associated with a) Environmental Conservation c) Women’s Welfare

2.

b) Human Rights d) Child Welfare

3.

Which of the following is not correctly matched? a) Aeroplane - Wright Brothers b) Printing Press - John Guttenberg c) Steam Engine - James Watt d) Telescope - Alber H. Taylor Which among the following countries has the oldest written Constitution? a) Japan b) India c) The USA d) The UK The world’s largest archipelago is a) New Zealand b) Indonesia

4.

5.

c) Sri Lanka

d) Malaysia

6.

What name does Ganga acquire as it flows in Bangladesh? a) Hooghly b) Bangla Ganga c) Meghna

d) Padma

7.

In which of the following states are the Zaskar and Pir Panjal ranges situated? a) Assam b) Jammu & Kashmir c) Andhra Pradesh d) Himachal Pradesh The Cabinet System of government originated in a) Britain b) The USA c) France Ombudsman is a............... institution a) Swiss b) Swedish

8.

d) Sweden

9.

c) Norwegian

d) Danish

10.

Which, among the following, is not an official language of the United Nations? a) English b) French c) German d) Russian The line dividing North Korea and South Korea is the a) 17th parallel b) 23rd parallel c) 38th parallel

11.

d) Oder-Neisse Line

GENERAL AWARENESS - BRM

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12.

‘A Thousand Suns’ has been written by a) Dominique Lapierre c) Frederick Forsith

b) John Grisham d) Tom Clancy

13.

Which one of the following is known as the first line of defense for the human body? a) Antibodies b) Skin c) Nails d) White Blood Corpuscles ‘No Full Stops in India’ has been authored by a) Mark Tully b) V. S. Naipaul c) Kingsley Martin d) G. K. Chesterton ‘Gita Govinda’ was written in the 12th Century by a) Bana b) Bhartruhari c) Jayadeva Dry Ice is a) Solid carbon dioxide c) Liquid hydrogen

14.

15.

d) Rama nuja

16.

b) Liquid oxygen d) Liquid chlorine

17.

The United Nations Education Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) is headquartered at…….. a) New York b) Washington c) Paris d) Amsterdam ‘Beyond the Last Blue Mountain’ is the biography of a) G.D. Birla b) R.N. Goenka c) J.R.D. Tata The youngest mountain range in the world is the a) Alps b) Andes c) Rockies

18.

d) G.D. Naidu

19.

d) Himalayas

20.

Which Greek ambassador visited India during the reign of Chandragupta Maurya? a) Megasthenes b) Seleucos c) Menander d) Demetrias The famous Iron Pillar at Mehrauli in Delhi had been built by the a) Mauryas b) Guptas c) Nandas d) Khiljis Who had become the first Governor-General of India after independence? a) Dr. Rajendra Prasad b) C R Rajgopalachari c) Lord Pethick Lawrence d) Lord Mountbatten In India, the manufacture of diesel locomotives takes place at a) Rourkela b) Cochin c) Chittaranjan d) Varanasi

21.

22.

23.

170

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24.

In India, electric locomotives are built at a) Jhansi b) Kapurthala Operation Flood was associated with a) Construction of Dams c) Dairy Products

c) Chittaranjan

d) Imphal

25.

b) Fisheries Development d) Canal Management

26.

Who is the author of the famous book ‘Mudra Rakshasa’? a) Kalidas b) Jayadev c) Mirabai

d) Vishakha Dutt

27.

The first scholar, among the following names, to visit India was a) Marco Polo b) Fahien c) Ibn-Batutah d) Hiuen Tsang The ruler of medieval India credited with the construction of the Grand Trunk Road is a) Krishnadeva Raya b) Babur c) Sher Shah Suri d) Jehangir Which among the following years is generally considered to be the final year of Great Depression that started in 1929? a) 1939 b) 1937 c) 1941 d) 1943 Sarkaria Commission was formed to look into a) Relation between State and Centre b) Animal Husbandry scam c) Tehelka.com exposure d) Enron’s Dabhol power project Who has written the book ‘Das Kapital’? a) Karl Marx c) Johan Keynes

28.

29.

30.

31.

b) Adam Smith d) John Milton

32.

Which state has the highest percentage of literacy? a) Maharashtra b) West Bengal c) Madhya Pradesh d) Kerala What is the average per capita income in India (in terms of Purchasing Power Parity)? a) Rs. 17,600 per year b) Rs. 12,530 per year c) Rs. 10,560 per year d) Rs. 9,996 per year Planetary winds are those which a) Changer their direction with the change of season b) Change their direction with day and night c) Never change their direction d) Blow up mountain slopes

33.

34.

GENERAL AWARENESS - BRM

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35.

The non-permanent members in the UN Security Council are elected for a term of how many years? a) 2 years b) 3 years c) 5 years d) 4 years Which of the following Acts enabled the Government of India to put a ban on ‘The Satanic Verses’ by Salman Rushdie? a) National Security Act b) Customs Act c) Immoral Trafficking Act d) None of these How many Union Territories does India have at present? a) Five b) Six c) Seven

36.

37.

d) Eight

38.

The Ramon Magsaysay Award is named after the former president of which Asian country? a) Thailand b) Singapore c) Laos d) Philippines NCAER stands for a) National Calamity Action and Eccentric Reactions b) National Council for Agro-Economic Research c) National Cultural, Art and Economic Research d) National Council of Applied Economic Research Which fat-soluble vitamin is needed for blood-clotting? a) A b) B-2 c) D d) K Abdul Karim Telgi was associated with which scam? a) Tehelka b) Stamp paper scam c) Fake currency Scam d) All of the above Mughal-e-Azam, which became the first Indian film to be converted in colour form, was originally directed by which among the following persons? a) Bimal Roy b) K Asif c) Mustaq Hussain d) Kamal Amrohi Naresh Chandra Committee was formed to suggest reforms in a) Highway construction b) Sagarmala project c) Civil Aviation d) Telecom policy Who has won the Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna for the year 2006? a) Pankaj Advani b) Rahuk Dravid c) Samresh Jung d) Anju Bobby George

39.

40.

41.

42.

43.

44.

172

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45.

Where were the 18th Commonwealth Games held in 2006? a) Doha b) Manchester c) Beijing

d) Melbourne

46.

Who was the Chief Guest at the 2007 Republic Day parade ? a) Hugo Chavez b) Mahmud Amadinejad c) Vladamir Putin d) Fidel Castro The book ‘Indian Summers’ has been written by……. a) John Wright b) Steven Waugh c) Mike Gatting

47.

d) Ian Chappell

48.

Who has been chosen as the MTV Youth Icon of the Year for 2006? a) Shahrukh Khan b) Anil Ambani c) M S Dhoni d) Sachin Tendukar How many languages have been identified in the eighth schedule of Indian Constitution? a) 21 b) 22 c) 23 d) 24 Which country holds the record for scoring the maximum number of runs in a single innings of a ODI match? a) South Africa b) Australia c) India d) Sri Lanka

49.

50.

GENERAL AWARENESS - BRM

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BRM Test - 11
Questions: 50 Time : 25 Mins.

1.

In terms of value, which Indian spice export holds the top position? a) Pepper b) Chillies c) Turmeric d) Cardamom Which Asian nation was the first to get a World Bank Loan? a) Vietnam b) Pakistan c) China The movie ‘Gladiator’ was directed by............... a) Quentin Tarantino b) Steven Spielberg c) James Cameron d) Ridley Scott The Kauvery water dispute does not involve.......................... . a) Andhra Pradesh b) Karnataka c) Kerala d) Tamil Nadu Which of the following countries has opened the first floating runway (Mega Float)? a) Japan b) France c) Britain d) America Pascal Lamy, the director-general of the WTO, belongs to which country? a) France b) Italy c) Philippines d) Australia Which of the following is NOT a member of the United Nations? a) Switzerland b) Taiwan c) East Timor d) Ukraine Who was appointed the new President of Iraq after the intense political impasse following Jan 30, 2005? a) Jalal Talabani b) Ibrahim al-Jaafari c) Mahmoud Abbas d) None of these Which Indian state is nicknamed “Land of the Gods” (Dev Bhoomi) because of its many holy places? a) Kerala b) Bihar c) Uttaranchal d) Haryana What is the popular name of Mohammed Abdul-Raouf al-Oudma al-Hussein? a) Saddam Hussein b) Yasser Arafat c) Osama bin Laden d) Mohammed Ali Jinnah
174

2.

d) India

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

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11.

Which among the following is the headquarters of the Palestine Liberation Organisation (PLO)? a) Ramallah b) Jericho c) Hebron d) Gaza City Which of the following Indian States/UT’s has the lowest population as per Census 2001? a) Daman and Diu b) Lakshadweep c) Sikkim d) Andaman and Nicobar Islands Who won the Dada Saheb Phalke Award for the year 2004, in 2006? a) Yash Chopra b) Viru Devgan c) Adoor Gopalakrishnan d) Mrinal Sen Which of the following books is not written by Vikram Seth? a) From Heaven Lake b) An Equal Music c) The Golden Gate d) Half Life The density of population per square kilometers in India has increased from 267 in 1991 to ............. in 2001. a) 300 b) 316 c) 324 d) 333 Which of the following is not a West Asian country? a) Algeria b) Jordan c) Qatar d) Yemen In which field are Chameli Devi Jain awards given? a) Literature b) Journalism c) Social Service d) Family Planning Who is the Union Minister of Civil Aviation? a) Sharad Pawar b) Arjun Singh c) Ram Vilas Paswan d) Prafulla Patel What is the only oviparous mammal existing on earth? a) The blue whale b) White shark c) Duckbilled platypus d) The giant turtle ‘Four Dragons’ is a group of four small Asian countries that have experienced unusually rapid economic development. Two of these countries are Singapore and Hong Kong. The other two are a) North Korea and Indonesia b) Indonesia and Japan c) Malaysia and Taiwan d) South Korea and Taiwan

12.

13.

14.

15.

16.

17.

18.

19.

20.

GENERAL AWARENESS - BRM

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21.

Where is the Mishra Dhatu Nigam, Limited, a specialist defence unit located? a) Hyderabad b) Ghaziabad c) Nasik d) Lucknow Which of the following diseases is transmitted through the bites of female aedes mosquitoes? a) Leprosy b) Dengue Fever c) Influenza d) Diphtheria At which of the following places, does ISRO not have a centre? a) Thiruvananthapuram b) Bangalore c) Mumbai d) Nasik Mohammad El-Baradei is the Director-General of the a) International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) b) United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) c) World Health Organization (WHO) d) International Labour Organisation (ILO) Which of the following sectors does not come under tertiary sector? a) Trade b) Transport c) Electricity d) Business services Which of the following places has a Special Economic Zone (SEZ)? a) New Delhi b) Jabalpur c) Kandla d) Palampur Abdullah Ahmad Badawi is the Prime Minister of a) Malaysia b) Ethiopia c) Mauritius The bank commonly known as ‘World Bank’ is a) IBRD b) IMF c) IDA The much dreaded KGB is/was the secret police organisation of a) U.K b) U.S.A c) The erstwhile USSR d) Poland Who is the new Secretary General of UNO? a) Ban Ki Moon b) Kofi Annan c) Paul Wolfgowitz d) Pascal Lamy Who gave the title music for the movie ‘Mughal-e-Azam’? a) Khayyam b) O.P.Nayyar c) Naushad

22.

23.

24.

25.

26.

27.

d) Sudan

28.

d) IFC

29.

30.

31.

d) S.D.Burman

32.

The first Indian feature film to be insured in India was…………. a) Bandit Queen b) Fire c) Taal d) Roja

176

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33.

Who among the following is the Chairman of the 12th Finance Commission? a) Jaswant Singh b) Bimal Jalan c) C.Rangarajan d) Y.V. Reddy The Buddhist Sect Mahayana formally came into existence during the reign of a) Kanishka b) Ajata Shatru c) Ashoka d) Dharma Pala The last in the succession of Jain Tirthankaras was a) Mani Subrata b) Mahavira c) Rishabha

34.

35.

d) Parsvanatha

36.

‘Business @ the Speed of Thought’ is a book written by a) Bill Gates b) M.S. Oberoi c) Alyque Padamsee d) Gita Piramal Which industry accounts for a fifth of India’s industrial production and a third of the export earnings? a) Steel b) Textiles c) InfoTech d) Pharmaceuticals The World’s largest desert is the a) Arabian desert b) Australian desert c) Gobi desert Co-relate the following tournaments with their sports A Irani Trophy I. Football B Federation Cup II. Cricket C Bardoloi Trophy III. Tennis D Obaidullah Cup IV. Hockey a) b) c) d) A IV A III A II A II B III B II B IV B III C II C IV CI CI DI DI D III D IV

37.

38.

d) Sahara desert

39.

40.

Malaria affects the a) Liver

b) Spleen

c) Intestine

d) Lungs

41.

The Election Commission functions under the a) Ministry of Home Affairs b) Ministry of Law c) Prime Minister’s Secretariat d) None of these What is the correct chronological order in which the following rulers ruled in India? I. Sher Shah Suri II. Akbar III. Allauddin Khilji IV. Iltutmish a) IV, I, III, II b) IV, III, I, II c) I, II, III, IV d) III, IV, I, II

42.

GENERAL AWARENESS - BRM

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43.

Article 352 of the Indian Constitution needs to be revoked in case a) The President’s Rule is to be imposed b) Emergency is declared c) The services of a govt. servant are to be terminated without any enquiry d) A politcal party of national level is to be banned Who is the President of Sri Lanka? a) Chandrika Kumaratunga c) Ratnasiri Wikramanayeke

44.

b) Laxman Karmadigar d) Mahinda Rajapakse

45.

Who has been crowned as Miss Universe 2006? a) Natalie Glebova b) Zuleyka Rivera Mendoza c) Kurara Chibana d) Elle McLaughlin Who has been crowned as Miss World 2006? a) Tatana Kucharova b) Unnur Birna Vihjalmsdottir c) Maria Julia Mantilla d) Rossana Davison Who has been elected as the president of Brazil? a) Luis Inacio Lula da Silva b) Jose Serra c) Ciro Gomes d) Jose Maria de Almeida The 2012 Olympic games will be held at……… a) Beijing b) Athens c) London The 2008 Olympic games will be held at……… a) Tokyo b) Beijing c) Amsterdam The 2010 FIFA Soccer World cup will be held at………… a) England b) USA c) South Africa

46.

47.

48.

d) Montreal

49.

d) Sydney

50.

d) Portugal

178

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BRM Test - 12
Questions: 50 1. Which of the planets is known as the Earth’s twin? a) Neptune b) Venus c) Mars Time : 25 Mins.

d) Saturn

2.

ISO-14001 is granted to a company for quality of a) HRD b) Service c) Production d) Protection of environment What is the correct sequence in which the following three movements were led by Mahatma Gandhi? I. Champaran Movement II. Non-Cooperation Movement III. Dandi March a) III, II, I b) II, I, III c) I, III, II d) I, II, III Sindhu Rakshak is a/an a) Aircraft carrier c) Multiple-purpose fighter

3.

4.

b) Submarine d) Anti-aircraft gun

5.

Which of the following group of States is written in the descending order with respect to the density of population? a) West Bengal-Uttar Pradesh-Kerala-Bihar b) Bihar-Uttar Pradesh-West Bengal-Madhya Pradesh c) Kerala-Bihar-Uttar Pradesh-Tamil Nadu d) Madhya Pradesh-Bihar-Kerala-West Bengal Radio-activity was first discovered by a) Becquerel b) Madam Curie

6.

c) Rutherford

d) Jenner

7.

The Nathpa-Jhakri Hydro-electric Power Project is located in which of the following States and how much power is it likely to generate? a) Jammu and Kashmir- 1000 MW b) Punjab-2000 MW c) Himachal Pradesh-1500 MW d) Tripura-2000 MW. The Dada Saheb Phalke Award is associated with which field? a) Best film director b) Best musician c) Best documentary d) Best work relating to promotion of the Indian film Industry
179

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9.

The speed of sound is maximum in which medium? a) Air b) Water c) Steel Enzymes are a) Hormones

d) Vacuum

10.

b) Proteins

c) Carbohydrates

d) Organic catalysts

11.

Who is the author of the book ‘Yama’? a) Surya Kant Tripathi (Nirala) c) Mahadevi Verma

b) Sumitra Nandan Pant d) Vatsyayan (Agyeya)

12.

Buxar Fort is situated on the banks of which river a) Jamuna b) Ganga c) Gomti Almatti Dam dispute is mainly between a) Karnataka and Tamil Nadu c) Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh

d) Brahmaputra

13.

b) Tamil Nadu and Kerala d) Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh

14.

Who developed the branch of mathematics known as Calculus? a) Aryabhatta b) Newton c) Enstein d) Archimedes The Union Council of Ministers is responsible to a) President b) Rajya Sabha c) Lok Sabha d) Both the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha The Aswan Dam is located in a) Egypt b) Libya

15.

16.

c) Sudan

d) Iran

17.

In which state is the Kanha National Park situated? a) MP b) UP c) Assam Which country is known as ‘The Springboks’ of rugby? a) New Zealand b) Australia c) South Africa Which acid is used in lead storage battery? a) Sulphuric acid b) Hydrochloric acid c) Nitric acid d) Acetic acid

d) West Bengal

18.

d) Zimbabwe

19.

20.

Which of the following cities has winter, when there is summer in India? a) Damascus b) Shanghai c) Melbourne d) Osaka

180

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21.

The Kailash Temple at Ellora is a specimen of a) Gupta architecture b) Rashtrakuta architecture c) Chalukya architecture d) Chola architecture Ghana Bird Sanctuary is in the state of a) Rajasthan b) Madhya Pradesh c) Uttar Pradesh Which of the following is a land locked country a) Thailand b) Laos c) Malaysia Amino acids are building blocks of a) Fats b) Minerals

22.

d) Maharashtra

23.

d) Cambodia

24.

c) Proteins

d) Carbohydrates

25.

In which of the following battles was Prithvi Raj defeated by Mohammad Ghauri? a) Plassey b) Panipat c) Wandiwash d) Tarain Towards the middle of the 18 th century, Delhi was devastated by a) Chengiz Khan b) Nadir Shah c) Timur Shah d) Shah Abbas The Indian Constitution can be amended under Article a) 312 b) 368 c) 390 Gregor Mendel is associated with a) Discovery of germs c) Law of conservation of energy

26.

27.

d) 249

28.

b) Laws of heredity d) Prevention of rabies

29.

What of the following is not the work of Kalidasa? a) Meghdoot b) Raghuvansha c) Sariputra Prakarma d) Ritushamhara Which one of the following pairs is not correct? a) Kaziranga Sanctuary - Assam b) Jog Falls - Karnataka c) Jim Corbett National Park - Bihar d) Periyar Wild Life Sanctuary - Kerala In which field of art did Jaimini Roy make her name? a) Sculpture b) Painting c) Music d) Drama The filament of an electric heater is made of a) Titanium b) Nichrome c) Tungsten d) Iron

30.

31.

32.

GENERAL AWARENESS - BRM

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33.

Aamir Khusro was the famous poet and aesthete in the time of............ a) Akbar the Great b) Mahmud Ghaznvi c) Shah Jahan d) Allauddin Khilji A ‘Dog Fish’ is a) A salamander c) A Plankton floating in the sea

34.

b) A Shark d) A fish with a mouth like of a dog

35.

The temples of Halebid and Belur were built by a) Cholas b) Hoysalas c) Rashtrakutas The word ‘Satyameva Jayate’ has been taken from a) Vedas b) Bhagwad Gita c) Mundaka Upnishada d) Mahabharata

d) Pallavas

36.

37.

Who can be called the father of Local self-government in India? a) Lord Rippon b) Lord Minto c) Lord Curzon d) Lord Dufferin The Vijaynagar kingdom was founded in the a) 13th Century AD b) 14th Century AD th c) 15 Century AD d) 16th Century AD Which of the following events is not correctly matched? a) Simon Commission-1926 b) Salt Satyagraha - 1930 c) Gandhi - Irwin Pact - 1931 d) Quit India Movement - 1942 The Ashoka pillar whose lion capital was adopted by the Government of India as National Emblem, is located at a) Varanasi b) Puri c) Sarnath d) Gaya The term “Niskha” which meant an ornament in Vedic period, later denoted a) A weapon b) A script c) An Agricultural Implement d) A Coin Article 25 of the Indian Constitution is concerned with a) The right to freedom of religion b) The right to equality c) The right to freedom of work d) None of the above Which one of the following bodies finalises the Five-year Plans proposals a) Planning Commission b) Union Cabinet c) National Development Council d) Ministry of Planning

38.

39.

40.

41.

42.

43.

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44.

Siraj-ud-Daula was defeated in the battle of a) Buxar b) Plassey c) Wandiwash With which historical personality is the Raigarh fort assocaited? a) Rana Pratap b) Shivaji c) Akbar

d) None of these

45.

d) Muhammad Tughlaq

46.

Next to Hindi, the language spoken by the largest number of people in the Indian subcontinent is.............. a) Urdu b) Bangla c) Telugu d) Tamil C.V. Raman got Nobel Prize for a) Thermo Dynamics c) Optics and spectroscopy Neutron was discovered by a) Otto Hahn c) Lise Meitner

47.

b) Quantum theory d) Nuclear Physics

48.

b) Enrico Fermi d) James Chadwick

49.

Which of the following countries was the first to develop a neutron bomb? a) USA b) USSR c) China d) Pakistan Bharat Jagdeo is the President of which Caribbean Island? a) Jamaica b) Trinidad & Tobago c) Barbados d) Guyana

50.

GENERAL AWARENESS - BRM

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BRM Test - 13
Questions: 50 Time : 25 Mins.

1.

Who won the 2006 Australian Open men’s tennis title? a) Raefal Nadal b) Marcos Baghdatis c) Roger Federer d) Lleyton Hewitt ‘Kathakali’ is the dance form of which state? a) Kerala b) Rajasthan c) Uttar Pradesh

2.

d) Tamil Nadu

3.

Which battle led to the establishment of the Mughal empire in India? a) The first battle of Panipat b) The second battle of Panipat c) The second battle of Tarain d) None of these Who was the first Governor-General of Bengal? a) Lord Clive b) Lord Hastings c) Lord Lytton Industrial Revolution first began in a) Germany b) England

4.

d) Lord Ripon

5.

c) France

d) Italy

6.

The International Date Line is represented by a) 1000 meridian b) 00 meridian c) 1800 meridian

d) 900 meridian

7.

Next to UP, which are the two states having maximum representation in the Lok Sabha? a) Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra b) Bihar and Maharashtra c) Bihar and Madhya Pradesh d) Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu How long can one, under the Constitution, remain minister without being a member of either of the two Houses of Parliament? a) Three months b) Six months c) Nine months d) Twelve months The largest planet in the solar system is a) Jupiter b) Saturn

8.

9.

c) Uranus

d) Neptune

10.

Iodization of salt is a public health measure to prevent a) Diabetes b) Tuberculosis c) Goitre The term ‘Ashes’ is associated with a) Hockey b) Cricket
184

d) Anaemia

11.

c) Soccer

d) Kabbadi
GENERAL AWARENESS - BRM

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12.

Which one of the following is a westward flowing river? a) Cauvery b) Sone c) Narmada Sikkim was made an integral part of India under the a) 42nd Amendment b) 40th Amendment c) 39th Amendment d) 36th Amendment

d) Ganga

13.

14.

Who among the following was the great protagonist of the ‘Doctrine of Lapse’? a) Lord Wellesley b) Lord Dalhousie c) Lord Minto d) Lord Hastings Who wrote ‘Mudrarakshasa’? a) Kautilya b) Visakhadatta

15.

c) Kalhana

d) Kalidas

16.

Which of the following pairs is not correctly matched? a) Alexander Fleming - Discovery of Penicillin b) Edward Jenner - Vaccination against smallpox c) Lister - Cure for leprosy d) Jones E. Salk - Vaccine against polio Khajuraho is located in a) MP b) Gujarat

17.

c) Rajasthan

d) Karnataka

18.

The Civil Disobedience Movement of 1930 culminated in the signing of a pact in 1931 by Gandhiji and the then Viceroy a) Lord Linlithgow b) Lord Irwin c) Lord Wavell d) None of them Which one of the following pairs is correctly matched? a) Abul Fazal - Ain-i-Akbari b) Badauni-Akbar Nama c) Abdul Hamid Lahori - Tabkat-i-Akbari d) Nizamuddin Ahmad - Badshah Nama Who is the author of the famous book ‘Politics’? a) Aristotle b) Socrates b) Plato

19.

20.

d) None of them

21.

Towards the end of the 15th century Vasco da Gama, the famous seafarer, landed at a) Mangalore b) Calicut c) Cochin d) Goa Name the periodical which Gandhiji published during his stay in South Africa a) Indian Opinion b) Young India c) Afrikaner d) Navijivan Which state in India has the highest coal reserves? a) West Bengal b) Bihar c) MP

22.

23.

d) Jharkhand

GENERAL AWARENESS - BRM

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24.

In which century did Megasthenes visit India? a) 4th Century BC b) 3rd Century BC c) 2nd Century BC d) 1st Century BC The Gandhara School of Art flourished during the time of a) The Kushans b) The Guptas c) The Mauryas The Peacock throne was made during the reign of a) Jehangir b) Shahjahan c) Akbar Charakasamhita is a work on a) Polity b) Medicine

25.

d) None of these

26.

d) Aurangzeb

27.

c) Architecture

d) Mathematics

28.

Which was the first European nation to establish its territorial rule in India? a) The French b) The Dutch c) The English d) The Portuguese Who was Dhanvantari? a) A famous general of Chandragupta Maurya b) A noted physician who adorned the court of Chandragupta Vikramaditya c) A famous dramatist who lived during the time of Harsha d) None of them Which pair is NOT matched correctly? a) Vyas - The Mahabharata c) Tulsi Das - The Ramacharit Manas

29.

30.

b) Valmiki - The Ramayana d) Bana Bhatta - Gita Govindam

31.

Which of the following chemicals in automobile exhaust can cause cancer? a) Carbon monoxide b) Polycyclic hydrocarbons c) Lead d) Oxides of nitrogen Numaligarh (Rs. 2800 crore) refinery project to produce crude oil is in a) Gujarat b) Orissa c) Assam d) Arunachal Pradesh Name the Indian leader who chaired the drafting committee of the Indian Constitution? a) Dr. Rajendra Prasad b) Jawaharlal Nehru c) Dr. B.R. Ambedkar d) Sardar Patel The ruins at Hampi are related to a) The Vijaynagar Empire c) The Gupta Empire

32.

33.

34.

b) The Bahamani Kingdom d) None of these

186

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35.

The UN Secretary General is appointed by a) The General Assembly b) The Security Council c) The General Assembly on the recommendations of Security Council d) The International Court of Justice The Salal hydro-electric project is located across the river a) Jhelum b) Ravi c) Chenab Tropic of Cancer is a/an a) Incurable disease c) Northern Latitude

36.

d) Beas

37.

b) Scientific apparatus to detect cancer d) Southern Latitude

38.

Which country is the largest producer of coconut? a) Bangladesh b) India c) Phillipines

d) Sri Lanka

39.

Man passed from the food gathering state to the food producing stage in the a) Neolithic Age b) Mesolithic Age c) Chalcolithic Age d) Palaeolithic Age Jerusalem is a holy city of a) The Jews b) The Christians Vernal Equinox takes place on a) 21st March c) 23rd September Diesel engine was invented by a) A German engineer c) A British engineer

40.

b) The Muslims

d) All of them

41.

b) 18th June d) 22nd December

42.

b) An American engineer d) None of them

43.

The basic principle of heredity was discovered by a) The Austrian biologist Gregor Mendel b) Darwin c) A.H. Becquerel d) None of them Part IV of the Indian Constitution deals with a) Fundamental Rights b) Citizenship c) Directive Principles of State Policy d) Election The oldest Hindu epic is a) Mahabhashya c) Ashtadhyayi

44.

45.

b) Ramayana d) Mahabharata

GENERAL AWARENESS - BRM

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46.

Meenakshi, Somnath and Dilwara temples are in which one of the following groups of states? a) Tamil Nadu, b) Gujarat, Rajasthan and Karnataka c) Tamil Nadu, Gujarat and Rajasthan d) Kerala, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu Who won the 2006 Australian Open women tennis title? a) Amelie Mauresmo b) Justine Henin Hardene c) Maria Sharapova d) Serena Williams Who won the 2006 French Open men’s tennis title? a) Raefal Nadal b) Mariano Puerta c) Roger Federer d) Gaston Gaudio Who won the 2006 French Open women tennis title? a) Svetlana Kuznetsova b) Justine Henin Hardene c) Maria Sharapova d) Kim Clijsters Who won the 2006 Wimbledon men’s tennis title? a) Raefal Nadal b) Tim Henman c) Roger Federer d) Tim Murray

47.

48.

49.

50.

188

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BRM Test - 14
Questions: 50 Time : 25 Mins.

1.

The Gupta Period is described as the golden age of Sanskrit literature because a) The Gupta rulers adopted Sanskrit as their court language b) The famous Kalidasa, the Indian Shakespeare, and several other great literary figures lived during this period c) The Ramayana and Mahabharata were revised in their present form and in the latter was inserted the great philosopical poem, the Bhagavad Gita or Lord’s Song d) All of these Harshavardhana’s capital was a) Kanauj c) Prayag

2.

b) Vaishali d) Patliputra

3.

The Chola kings (10th and 11th centuries) are best known for a) Their maritime activities b) Their patronage of learning c) Their good administration d) All of these Which of the following countries is considered as the last remaining seat of Lamaist Mahayana Buddhism? a) China b) Bhutan c) Tibet d) Mongolia India’s National Calendar is based on a) The Saka Era b) The Christian Era c) The Samvat Era d) The Kali Yuga The Battle of Hydaspes between Alexander the Great and Porus took place in a) 323 BC b) 324 BC c) 425 BC d) 326 BC Buddha died in a) 483 BC

4.

5.

6.

7.

b) 480 BC

c) 478 BC

d) 477 BC

8.

The Battles of the Tarain were fought between a) Mahmud of Ghazni and Jaipal b) Mahmud of Ghazni and Anandpal c) Prithivi Raj and Jai Chand d) Muhammad Ghori and Prithvi Raj The Adi Granth was compiled by a) Guru Nanak Dev c) Guru Arjun Dev

9.

b) Guru Ram Das d) Guru Gobind Singh

GENERAL AWARENESS - BRM

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10.

The religious order established by Mother Teresa is called a) Sisters of Charity b) Mothers of Charity c) Missionaries of Charity d) Messengers of Love Which Indian city is known as the ‘Space City’? a) Hyderabad b) Ahmedabad c) Bangalore Mohenjodaro is situated in a) Punjab b) Gujarat

11.

d) Trivandrun

12.

c) Sind

d) Baluchistan

13.

Which one of the following is the most densely populated country in the world? a) Bangladesh b) India c) China d) Britain The Battle of Plassey was fought in the year a) 1757 b) 1747 c) 1737 The Battle of Talikota resulted in the fall of which kingdom? a) Vijayanagar b) Ahmadnagar c) Bijapur

14.

d) 1761

15.

d) None of these

16.

Gandhiji conducted his first important experiment in Satyagraha in India at a) Dandi b) Chauri Chaura c) Bardoli d) Champaran He visited Europe and America as a cultural ambassador of India. He condemned the caste system and the current Hindu emphasis on rituals, ceremonies and superstitions. He remarked: Our religion is ‘Don’t touch me. I am holy’. These lines allude to a) Swami Vivekananda b) Swami Rama Tirtha c) Raja Ram Mohan roy d) Swami Dayananda Who among the following was not a representative of militant nationalism (also known as extremism)? a) Lala Lajpat Rai b) Bipin Chandra Pal c) Bal Gangadhar Tilak d) Gopal Krishna Gokhale The Simon Commission first visited India in the year a) 1925 b) 1927 c) 1919

17.

18.

19.

d) 1928

20.

Two Home Rule Leagues were started in 1915-16 under the leadership of a) Annie Besant and Lokmanya Tilak b) Tilak and Lala Lajpat Rai c) Tilak and Bipin Chandra Pal d) Tilak and Aurobindo Ghosh

190

GENERAL AWARENESS - BRM

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21.

In which year did the Congress adopt “Poorna Swaraj” or complete independence as its goal? a) 1930 b) 1929 c) 1928 d) 1927 Which one of the following pairs is incorrectly matched? a) BC 261-The Kalinga War b) AD 78-Commencement of Saka Era c) AD 662-Commencement of the Hijri Era d) AD 1709-Death of Aurangzeb ‘Indika’ was authored by a) Megasthenese b) Fa-Hien 29 a) b) c) d)

22.

23.

c) Hieun-Tsang

d) None of them

24.

March, 1930 is a memorable day in the history of India’s freedom movement because Gandhi was arrested and sentenced to a six years’ imprisonment Gandhi started the second major civil disobedience movement with his famous Dandi March Bhagat Singh was hanged Gandhi-Irwin Pact was signed

25.

Which of the following statement concerning the 42nd Constitutional amendment is wrong? a) The scope of judical review was narrowed down b) Directive Principles of State Policy were given preference over Fundamental Rights c) A set of Fundamental Duties was incorporated in the Constitution d) Parliamentary form of government was replaced by presidential form of government. Who was known as ‘Desert Fox’ in World War II? a) Lord Montgomery b) Field Marshal Rommel c) Hitler d) Mussolini Paleolithic Age is known for a) Hunting and food gathering c) Dawn of agriculture The ‘Char Minar’ is in a) Hyderabad b) Ahmednagar

26.

27.

b) Age of dinosaurs d) First mammals

28.

c) Ahmedabad

d) Fatepur Sikri

29.

Bile, a fluid which helps in the digestion of fats, is secreted by a) Pituitary b) Stomach c) Pancreas

d) Liver

30.

A hereditary disease of the blood in which there is a deficiency in the blood clotting mechanism is called a) Haemophilia b) Anaemia c) Haemophobia d) None of these

GENERAL AWARENESS - BRM

191

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31.

Which one of the following places is associated with the death of Buddha? a) Gaya b) Vaishali c) Kushinagar d) Sanchi Sulabsutra, a manual on mathematics (800 BC-500 BC) relates to a) Algebra b) Arithmetic c) Science of volume d) Constructional geometry The colour of a star is an indication of its a) Distance from the sun c) Distance from the earth

32.

33.

b) Luminosity d) Temperature

34.

The territory called Lushai Hills district under British rule is today known as a) Arunachal Pradesh b) Mizoram c) Nagaland d) Meghalaya The Article under Constitution dealing with recruitment, conditions of service in Union and State Governments is a) 301 b) 315 c) 311 d) 309 The number of days the moon takes to rotate round the earth is about a) 27 days b) 28 days c) 29 days d) 30 days Which one of the following ports in not located on the eastern coast of India? a) Visakhapatnam b) Chennai c) Paradeep d) Mangalore The President must summon each House of Parliament a) at least twice in a year b) at least three times in a year c) within six months from the date of the last sitting of each house d) within three months from the date of the last sitting of each house. Famous Brihadeswara temple is in a) Rajasthan b) Karnataka

35.

36.

37.

38.

39.

c) Tamil Nadu

d) Gujarat

40.

In which year was the Battle of Talikota fought? a) 1579 b) 1576 c) 1537 Sangam literature is associated with a) Maharashtra c) Tamil Nadu

d) 1564

41.

b) Uttar Pradesh d) West Bengal

192

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42.

The third battle of Panipat was fought between a) Akbar and Hemu b) Babar and Ibrahim Lodi c) Ahmed Shah Abdali and the Marathas d) Akbar and Rana Sangram Singh Shirdi Sai Baba lived in a) 19th century c) 17th century

43.

b) 18th century d) 20th century

44.

Who won the 2006 Wimbledon women tennis title? a) Amelie Mauresmo b) Justine Henin Hardene c) Maria Sharapova d) Kim Clijsters Who won the 2006 US Open men’s tennis title? a) Andy Roddick b) Roger Federer c) Marat Safin

45.

d) Andre Agassi

46.

Who won the 2006 US Open women tennis title? a) Svetlana Kuznetsova b) Justine Henin Hardene c) Maria Sharapova d) Venus Williams Who among the following, apart from India, are members of G-4? a) Brazil, Germany, Japan b) Brazil, South Africa, Germany c) South Africa, Germany, Japan d) Brazil, South Africa, Japan Who is the author of the book “The Argumentative India’? a) Karan Singh b) Khuswant Singh c) Amartya Sen d) Robin Sharma Who is the author of the book It’s not about the bike? a) Lance Armstrong b) Valentino Rossi c) Narain Karthikeyan d) None of the above Which among the following is not a benefit availed by the members of WTO? a) The member governments are shielded from lobbying. b) Freer trade cuts cost of living. c) Trade Disputes are handled constructively. d) Access to Foreign currency is made easier.

47.

48.

49.

50.

GENERAL AWARENESS - BRM

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BRM Test - 15
Questions: 50 1. The principal producer of mica in India is………….. a) Rajasthan b) Andhra Pradesh c) Bihar Which instrument is used to measure humidity? a) Hygrometer b) Hydrometer c) Galvanometer d) Thermometer The Suez Canal joins which of the following two seas? a) The Red Sea and the Mediterranean b) The Persian Gulf and the Arabian Sea c) The Mediterranean and the Black Sea d) None of these Which of the following is the oldest institution? a) Arya Samaj b) Brahmo Samaj c) Theosophical Society d) Servants of India Society The Mahabalipuram Temple in Tamil Nadu was built during the reign of which of the following dynasties? a) Chola Dynasty b) Chalukya Dynasty c) Pallava Dynasty d) Pandya Dynasty Match the Following AUTHOR A) Jawahar Lal Nehru B) Upamanyu Chatterjee C) Sarojini Naidu D) R.K. Narayan A 4 2 3 1 B 2 4 2 2 C 1 1 4 3 D 3 3 1 4 Time : 25 Mins.

d) Jharkhand

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

BOOK 1. Golden Threshold 2. Glimpses of World History 3. A Grandmother’s Tale 4. English August

a) b) c) d) 7.

Which of the following is not a Fundamental Right? a) Right to equality b) Right to property c) Right to freedom of religion d) Right to constitutional remedies

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8.

The Harappans had trade links with a) Rome c) Mesopotamia

b) Greece d) All the three

9.

Which Schedule of the Indian Constitution contains the recognized languages of India? a) Ninth b) Eighth c) Seventh d) Second The earliest of the Vedas is a) Atharva Veda c) Sama Veda

10.

b) Rig Veda d) Yajur Veda

11.

Ibn Batuta, the famous Arab traveler, was in the court of a) Ala-ud-din Khilji b) Muhammad Tughlak c) Firoz Shah Tughlak d) Babur Uranium is mainly found in which of the following states? a) Orissa b) Bihar c) Karnataka d) Jharkhand Ascorbic acid is the chemical name of………. a) Vitamin A b) Vitamin B c) Vitamin C

12.

13.

d) Vitamin D

14.

Which one of the following is popularly called ‘Dakshin Ganga’? a) Cauvery b) Krishna c) Godavari d) Tungbhadra President’s rule proclaimed in a state cannot normally be continued beyond a) Three Months b) Six Months c) Twelve Months d) Eighteen Months The first satellite launched by India was a) Bhaskara-I b) Aryabhata

15.

16.

c) Bhaskara - II

d) Rohini

17.

India is a secular state because a) All religions are equally protected b) The state has no religion of its own c) There is no discrimination on grounds of religion or caste d) All of the above The first Muslim King to invade India was a) Mohammed Bin Quasim b) Mahmud of Ghazni c) Mohammad Ghori d) Chengiz Khan

18.

GENERAL AWARENESS - BRM

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‘The generation to come, it may be, will scarcely believe that such a one as this, ever in flesh and blood, walked upon the earth’. This tribute was paid to Gandhiji by a) Jawaharlal Nehru b) George Bernard Shaw c) Albert Einstein d) Dr. S. Radhakrishnan Garba is the regional dance of which state a) Bihar b) Madhya Pradesh c) Gujarat Sanchi Stupa is in the state of a) Bihar b) Madhya Pradesh c) Uttar Pradesh Which state in India ranks first in the production of coffee? a) Karnataka b) Kerala c) Tamil Nadu What is the upper part of the sun’s atmosphere called? a) Chromosphere b) Corona c) Photosphere German Silver is an alloy comprising a) Copper, Nickel and Zinc c) Silver, Nickel and Zinc CRY is an organization dealing with a) Environments c) Welfare of neglected children

20.

d) Maharashtra

21.

d) Maharashtra

22.

d) Andhra Pradesh

23.

d) Ionosphere

24.

b) Silver, Copper and Zinc d) Nickel, Zinc and Lead

25.

b) Welfare of destitute women d) Community development

26.

Indicate the names of the following three Chola kings chronologically I) Raja Raja II) Vijayalaya III) Rajendra a) I, II, III b) III, II, I c) I, III, II d) II, I, III Which of the following planets is called the Evening Star? a) Mercury b) Mars c) Venus Of the following, whose ideas had influenced Gandhiji? a) Karl Marx b) Leo Tolstoy c) Lenin

27.

d) Saturn

28.

d) Fyodor Dostoevsky

29.

When was the first Swadeshi movement in India launched on large scale? a) 1885 b) 1905 c) 1919 d) 1930 Panini, a famous personality of ancient India, was a) a grammarian b) an astronomer c) a philosopher

30.

d) a physician

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31.

The celebrated astronomer Aryabhata of ancient India lived during the a) Maurya period b) Kushan period c) Gupta period d) Nanda period Which of the following is the correct chronological order of the following Maurya rulers? a) Bindusara, Ashoka, Chandragupta b) Chandragupta, Bindusara, Ashoka c) Bindusara, Chandragupa, Ashoka d) Ashoka, Chandragupta, Bindusara Trimurti is associated wtih a) Ellora c) Khajuraho

32.

33.

b) Ajanta d) Elephanta Caves

34.

The non-permanent members of the Security Council serve for a) One year b) Two years c) Three years

d) Four years

35.

The Muslim League passed a resolution at its Lahore session demanding a separate homeland for the Muslims of the sub-continent which later became the basis of Pakistan. In which year was the resolution passed? a) 1940 b) 1941 c) 1942 d) 1943 ‘Dome of the Rock’, a monument revered by the Muslims, is located at a) Mecca b) Medina c) Jerusalem d) Qom (Iran) The President of India can nominate, to the Rajya Sabha a maximum of ............... a) 6 members b) 9 members c) 12 members d) 15 members Match the following A. Bihu B. Onam C. Pongal D. Vaishakhi A 1 2 3 2 columns: 1. Assam 2. Kerala 3. West Bengal 4. Punjab 5. Tamil Nadu B C D 2 5 4 3 1 4 5 4 1 1 3 4

36.

37.

38.

a) b) c) d) 39.

Which of the following is the most stable element found in nature? a) Oxygen b) Hydrogen c) Lead d) Uranium

GENERAL AWARENESS - BRM

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40.

Who is the author of ‘An Unknown Indian’? a) VS Naipaul b) Shobha De c) Nirad C. Chowdhary d) RK Narayan Why does water boil below 100 o C at higher altitudes? a) There is lesser dissipation of heat at higher altitudes b) The water is purer at higher altitudes and hence takes less time c) Pollution free air at higher altitudes increases the calorific value of the fuel d) The atmospheric pressure at higher altitude is low compared to the pressure at sea level Radio was invented by ............. a) Graham Bell c) Coulomb

41.

42.

b) Marconi d) Edison

43.

When was the elevator (lift) invented and by whom? a) 1852- E G Otis b) 1831- Michael Faraday c) 1898- Otto Hume d) 1856- Richard Kone The speed of the sound is maximum in which medium? a) Air b) Glass c) Water

44.

d) Wood

45.

Where are the headquarters of the Asian Development Bank situated? a) Manila b) Jakarta c) Singapore d) Dhaka

46.

Black soil is best suited for the growth of which crop? a) Wheat b) Tea c) Cotton Thomas Cup is associated with which sport? a) Table Tennis b) Chess c) Squash Indian Railways has been organized into how many zones? a) 14 b) 15 c) 16

d) Jute

47.

d) Badminton

48.

d) 17

49.

Who is the Managing Director of the International Monetary Fund (IMF)? a) Paul Wolfowitz b) Rodrigo Rato c) Pascal Lamy d) Jacques Rogge The book ‘Wings of Fire’ has been written by……… a) APJ Abdul Kalam b) Amartya Sen c) Lord Meghraj Desai d) K R Narayanan

50.

198

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BRM Test - 16
Questions: 50 1. Red blood corpuscles are formed in………… a) Marrow b) Liver c) Kidney Leprosy is caused by.............. a) Bacterium b) Virus Time : 25 Mins.

d) Heart

2.

c) Protozoa

d) Helminthes

3.

The International Literacy Day is observed on............. a) 8th September b) 8th December c) 16th September A Paleontologist is connected to................ a) Birds b) Fossils c) Old Tombs The World Tourism Day is observed on........... a) 27th July b) 27th August c) 27th September How is the energy in the Sun generated? a) Nuclear fusion c) Nuclear fission

d) 16th December

4.

d) Planets

5.

d) 27th October

6.

b) Gravitational force d) Magnetic force

7.

Palk Strait separates which two countries? a) India and Sri Lanka b) India and Burma c) Sri Lanka and Pakistan d) India and China The book Origin of Species has been written by........... a) Adam Smith b) Louis Pasteur c) Charles Darwin d) Claude Bernard Which of the following does not have an oil refinery? a) Haldia b) Koyali c) Mathura ‘Tripitika’ is related to a) Buddhists b) Jains The Khalsa Panth was founded by a) Guru Hargobind c) Guru Tegh Bahadur

8.

9.

d) Ahmedabad

10.

c) Vaishnavas

d) Shintos

11.

b) Guru Nanak Dev d) Guru Gobind Singh

GENERAL AWARENESS - BRM

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12.

Who among the following was not captured by the British in 1857? a) Mangal Pandey b) Bahadur Shah II c) Nana Sahib d) Tantia Tope The Saka Era was founded by a) Harsha b) Kanishka

13.

c) Ashoka

d) Vikramaditya

14.

Which one of the following pairs is not correctly matched? a) Nalanda-ancient university b) Tanjore-ancient port c) Konark-Sun Temple d) Amaravati-Stupa The All India Muslim League was founded by a) Nawab Salimullah Khan b) Sir Mohd. Iqbal c) Sir Syed Ahmed Khan d) Moulana Shaukat Ali Zero was invented by: a) Bhaskara b) Aryabhatta

15.

16.

c) Varahamihira

d) An unknown Indian

17.

The Simon Commission was concerned with a) Constitution development b) Reforms in the princely states c) Higher Education d) Famines The monuments at Khajuraho belong to the period of a) Vakatakas b) Rashtrakutas c) Ganadavatas

18.

d) Chandellas

19.

Which one of the following works of Kalidasa is not a play? a) Malavikagnimitram b) Abhijanan Sakuntalam c) Meghdootam d) Vikramorvaseyam What is the correct sequence of the following events? I. The Partition of Bengal II. The Jallianwala Bagh massacre III. The Quit India Movement IV. The Simon Commission Report a) I, II, III, IV b) I, II, IV, III c) IV, III, I, II d) II, III, I, IV Match the following : I. 1931 A. Chauri-Chaura incident II. 1921 B. Dandi March III. 1942 C. Cripps Mission IV. 1930 D. Second Round Table Conference a) I-D, II-B, III-C, IV-E b) I-A, II-C, III-B, IV-E c) I-D, II-C, III-E, IV-B d) I-D, II-A, III-C, IV-B

20.

21.

200

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22.

Match the following I. Sindri II. Pimpri III. Surajpur IV. Korba

:

A. Cement B. Fertilisers C. Drugs & Pharmaceuticals D. Aluminium E. Paper a) I-E, II-B, III-A, IV-D b) I-B, II-C, III-D, IV-E c) I-B, II-C, III-A, IV-D d) I-C, II-A, III-E, IV-B 23. Leonard da Vinci’s famous painting Mona Lisa is displayed in a) Paris b) London c) Frankfurt Limestone, when metamorphosed becomes a) Granite b) Slate c) Marble

d) Athens

24.

d) Quartzite

25.

Which among the following materials has the highest electrical conductivity? a) Diamond b) Silver c) Graphite d) Wood Oxygen is liberated on heating.......... a) Zinc oxide c) Mercuric oxide

26.

b) Manganese dioxide d) Magnesium oxide

27.

The planetary winds variously known as Roaring Forties, Furious Fifties and Stormy Sixties are a) Trade Winds b) Cyclones c) Polar Winds d) Westerlies Who is known as the ‘Iron Man of India’? a) Jawaharlal Nehru b) Bal Gangadhar Tilak c) Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel d) Mahatama Gandhi Otto Von Bismarck is popularly known as the.......... a) Grand Commander b) Man of Blood and Iron c) Grand Old Man d) Man of Destiny The Ramakrishna Mission was started by a) Swami Vivekananda c) Swami Dayanand Saraswati

28.

29.

30.

b) Ramakrishna Paramhansa d) None of the above

31.

Maria Montessori’s name is associated with a) Christian mission b) Child education c) Women’s rights d) Mission hospitals

GENERAL AWARENESS - BRM

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32.

Where was Albert Einstein born? a) U.K. b) USA

c) Austria

d) Albania

33.

The first navigator to sail around the world was a) Marco Polo b) Columbus c) Amundsen John Maynard Keynes was a/an a) Poet b) Scientist Who is known as the ‘Little Corporal’? a) Adolf Hitler c) William E. Gladstone

d) Magellan

34.

c) Mathematician

d) Economist

35.

b) Napolean Bonaparte d) None of the above

36.

Who was the first Indian woman to scale Mt. Everest? a) Phu Dorjee b) Ang Dorjee c) Bachendri Pal

d) Santosh Yadav

37.

Leonardo da Vinci, who is famous for his masterpiece painting Mona Lisa was a/an a) Frenchman b) Italian c) German d) Englishman Mother Teresa was born in a) USA b) USSR

38.

c) Germany

d) Albania

39.

The first woman film star nominated or elected to the Rajya Sabha was a) Vaijayanthimala b) Nargis Dutt c) Jayalalitha d) Hema Malini The Scholar who had accompanied Mohammed of Ghazni to India was a) Al-Raza b) Ibn Batuta c) Al-Beruni d) Al-Firdausi The new name for Dabhol Power corporation is ……… a) Naptha Jhakri Corporation Ltd b) Sardar Sarovar Project Pvt Ltd c) Ratnagiri Gas and Power Pvt Ltd d) Tehri Power Project Pvt Ltd The largest producer of eggs in the world is........... a) China b) India c) Japan The largest sugar producing state of India is............... a) Maharashtra b) Uttar Pradesh c) Punjab

40.

41.

42.

d) Korea

43.

d) Haryana

44.

As per the constitution of India, Labour is a subject of the a) Central List b) State List c) Concurrent List d) It is not included in any list

202

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45.

The 7th Law Commission is chaired by? a) Soli Sorabjee b) Ram Jethmalani

c) C Rangarajan

d) M Jagannadha Rao

46.

‘Operation Flood’ was started by the............... a) Mother Dairy b) Delhi Milk Scheme c) National Dairy Development Board d) Government of India The rate of Value Added Tax (VAT) is a) 4% and 12.5% b) 4% and 12%

47.

c) 3.5% and 12%

d) 3% and 12.5%

48.

The trade route (ancient silk route) that has opened between India and China after 44 years is connected by a) Jelepla Pass b) Nathu La Pass c) Rohtang Pass d) Zozi La Pass Who is the present Defense Minister of India? a) Pranab Mukherjee b) Shivraj Patil c) A K Antony d) Sharad Pawar Mobile Phone was invented by……… a) Martin Cooper c) Thomas Alva Edison

49.

50.

b) J L Baird d) Alexander Graham Bell

GENERAL AWARENESS - BRM

203

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BRM Test - 17
Questions: 50 1. Who is the Supreme Commander of the Indian defense forces? a) The Chief of Staff of the Indian Army b) The President of India c) The Prime Minister of India d) The Defence Minister Who is the Chief Minister of Goa? a) Pratapsinh Rane c) Philip Neri Rodrigues Which is the largest airport in the world? a) King Khaled International airport c) O’ Hare International airport A money bill can be introduced in a) Either House of the Parliament c) Only the RajyaSabha Time : 25 Mins.

2.

b) Manohar Parrikar d) S.C. Jamir

3.

b) Jeddah airport d) Heathrow International airport

4.

b) Only the Lok Sabha d) None of the above

5.

One-third of the members of the Rajya Sabha retire after every ............... year/s. a) One b) Two c) Four d) Five The speaker can exercise his right to vote in the house a) At his own pleasure b) At the discretion of the party that he belongs to c) Only in the event of an equality of votes d) If the houses so desire The ‘zero hour’ in the parliament refers to a time a) When proposals made by the opposition are considered b) When a money bill is introduced in the Lok Sabha c) Interval between the morning and the afternoon sessions d) When matters of utmost importance are raised The total number of members that the president nominates to the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha is a) 12 b) 14 c) 22 d) 24

6.

7.

8.

204

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9.

A ‘minister of state’ in the union government refers to someone who is a) A nominee of the state cabinet b) A minister of the union government but not a member of the cabinet c) A nominee of the state governor d) Responsible for safeguarding the interests of the state cabinet The President’s rule can be imposed in a state under the controversial article ................... of the Constitution a) 256 b) 326 c) 356 d) 386 The president can make laws through ordinances a) Under no circumstances b) Only on subjects contained in the concurrent list c) On certain subjects even when the parliament is in session d) Only during the recess of the parliament The idea of incorporation of a concurrent list, besides the union and the state lists, has been borrowed from the Constitution of a) Ireland b) Australia c) UK d) Canada Which of the following writs is issued by the Court for the enforcement of a fundamental right, as in the case of illegal detention of a person? a) Habeas Corpus b) Mandamus c) Certiorari d) Quo Warranto If an object is placed between two parallel plane mirrors, the number of images formed will be a) 1 b) Infinite c) 0 d) 4 Laughing gas is a) Nitric oxide c) Nitrogen pent oxide

10.

11.

12.

13.

14.

15.

b) Nitrogen dioxide d) Nitrous oxide

16.

The courts can, under the writ of Mandamus, a) Ask a person to be produced b) Order to transfer a case from one court to another c) Ask to let a person free for a temporary period d) Direct the government to do or not to do a certain thing Which one of the following constitutional amendments gives a constitutional status to the Panchayati Raj Institutions? a) 71st amendment b) 72nd amendment c) 73rd amendment d) 74 th amendment

17.

GENERAL AWARENESS - BRM

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18

. ...................... is regarded to have been the father of local self government in India a) Rippon b) Bentinck c) Curzon d) Mayo The Revolt of 1857 had its beginning in…….. a) Meerut b) Plassey c) Madras

19.

d) Bombay

20.

Who had founded the Indian Home Rule Society? a) Madan Lal Dhingra b) V. D. Savarkar c) Lala Hardayal d) Shyamji Krishna Verma With whom was the seven-year rule of ‘missions, omissions, and commissions’ associated? a) Lord Dalhousie b) Lord Curzon c) Lord Lytton d) Lord Mayo The author of Ashtadhyaya is a) Charaka b) Panini

21.

22.

c) Dhanwantari

d) None of the above

23.

The Doctrine of Lapse had been put to much use by a) Lord Dalhousie b) Lord Bentinck c) Lord Curzon Who is known as the ‘Father of Geometry’? a) Kepler b) Euclid c) Pythagoras Who advocated the theory of ‘Laissez Faire’ ? a) Marshall b) Malthus c) Adam Smith Who among the following was known as ‘Fuehrer’? a) Stalin b) Lenin c) Hitler Alfred Nobel is associated with the invention of a) Cosmic rays b) Dynamite c) Dynamo

d) Lord Rippon

24.

d) Newton

25.

d) None of these

26.

d) Bismarck

27.

d) Penicillin

28.

Which, among the following crops, holds the highest acreage of cropping in India? a) Rice b) Wheat c) Cotton d) Potato Which among the following countries is the World’s largest consumer of coffee? a) USA b) Russia c) China d) UK Which part of the human body is made up of the Duodenum, Jejunum and the Ileum? a) The Stomach b) The small intestine c) The large intestine d) None of these

29.

30.

206

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31.

Which among the following states has largest number of districts? a) Bihar b) Rajasthan c) Uttar Pradesh d) Maharashtra The Reserve Bank of India was established on a) Jan-1,1934 b) April-1,1934 c) Jan-1,1935

32.

d) April-1,1935

33.

Alfonso is a famous variety of which among the following fruits? a) Grape b) Mango c) Orange d) Apple The Great Bengal famine occurred in which among the following years? a) 1911 b) 1931 c) 1943 d) 1945 Who wrote ‘Broken Wing’? a) Sarojini Naidu c) Jawaharlal Nehru

34.

35.

b) A.P.J. Abdul Kalam d) Nirad C. Choudhary

36.

Who is the president of International Olympic Committee? a) Ehsan Mani b) Lamine Diack c) Jacques Rogge

d) None of the above

37.

Who has written the book ‘War and Peace’? a) Maxim Gorky b) Leo Tolstoy c) Fyodor Dostoevsky d) Miguel de Cervantes K-2, the world’s second highest peak is located in which mountain range? a) Pir Panjal b) Himalayas c) Karokoram d) None of these CRY stands for a) Children Rescue Youjana c) Children Relief and You

38.

39.

b) Child Regulation and Youth d) None of the above

40.

Which amongst the following is the latest country to gain independence? a) East Timor b) Botswana c) Uganda d) Sudan What is the capital of Ethiopia? a) Cairo c) Addis Ababa

41.

b) Khartoum d) Congo

42.

Who has played highest number of test matches as a member of the Indian team? a) Sunil Gavaskar b) Rahul Dravid c) Sachin Tendulkar d) Kapil Dev

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43.

With what sports would you associate ‘Uber Cup’? a) Polo b) Golf c) Badminton Where would you come across ‘Savannah’ the grasslands? a) Africa b) South America c) North America

d) Chess

44.

d) Asia

45.

Which is the largest mammal in the world? a) Blue Whale b) Indian Elephant c) African Elephant d) Giraffe Who is the present Chief Minister of Maharashtra? a) Sushil Kr. Shinde b) Vilasrao Deshmukh c) Chhagan Bhujbal d) Narayan Rane Which country boasts of the famous ‘Leaning Towers’? a) Scotland b) Germany c) France

46.

47.

d) Italy

48.

India’s on-sea missile testing site Chandipur, where all AGNI missiles (Irbm) have been tested, is in which state? a) Kerala b) Andhra Pradesh c) Orissa d) Lakshwadeep Which Footballer along with Ronaldo holds the record of having been chosen the World Player of the Year by FIFA three times? a) Maradona b) Totti c) Zidane d) Cafu Swimmer Ian Thorpe, who recently announced his retirement, is from which country? a) US b) UK c) New Zealand d) Australia

49.

50.

208

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BRM Test - 18
Questions: 50 Time : 25 Mins.

1.

How many books are there in Douglas Adams’s ‘Hitchhikers’ Guide to the Galaxy’ series? a) 3 b) 4 c) 5 d) 7 What is the currency of Argentina? a) Peso b) Dollar

2.

c) Dinar

d) Euro

3.

The 2nd Battle of Panipat was fought in the year? a) 1556 b) 1566 c) 1546 Where is Indian Military Academy? a) Pune b) Jabalpur

d) 1576

4.

c) Dehradun

d) Bareilly

5.

Where is the headquarters of the Western Naval Command in India? a) Goa b) Mumbai c) Kochi d) Kandla From which country did India acquire MIG-2000? a) Russia b) China c) USA What is Vijayanta? a) Submarine

6.

d) France

7.

b) Aircraft

c) Warship

d) Battle tank

8.

India’s largest aircraft carrier is.............. a) INS Vikrant b) INS Shakti Gautam Buddha was born in…….. a) 527 BC b) 58 BC

c) INS Viraat

d) INS Samridhi

9.

c) 261 BC

d) 576 BC

10.

The First Battle of Panipat took place in the year: a) 1556 AD b) 1526 AD c) 1540 AD When did the Jallianwalan Bagh massacre take place? a) April 13,1919 b) April 13,1920 c) May 13,1919

d) 1527 AD

11.

d) May 14,1919

12.

When was the Constitution of India enacted, signed and adopted by the Constituent Assembly? a) January 26,1950 b) December 11,1946 c) December 9,1949 d) November 26,1949

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13.

When the Constitution of India was passed by the Constituent Assembly, it had how many schedules? a) 10 Schedules b) 8 Schedules c) 12 Schedules d) 19 Schedules When was the Constitution of India first amended after its adoption? a) 1954 b) 1951 c) 1962 d) 1971 Rupee was minted in the era of which famous ruler? a) Kanishka b) Sher Shah Suri c) Ashoka How many bones are there in our body? a) 208 b) 207 What is the full form of BIOS? a) Basic Input Outlook System c) Byte Input Output Space How many bits called 1 nibble? a) Four b) Six

14.

15.

d) Samudra Gupta

16.

c) 206

d) 406

17.

b) Basic Input Output System d) None of these

18.

c) Eight

d) Two

19.

The 1857 revolt broke out during the generalship of……… a) Dalhousie b) Canning c) Lawrence

d) Curzon

20.

What was the immediate cause that precipitated the sepoy mutiny of 1857? a) The introduction of greased cartridges b) Dalhousie’s Doctrine of lapse c) A wide disparity between the salaries of native sepoys and the British soldiers d) A bid to convert the Indians to Christianity The mutiny had many results; the immediate result was that it led to a) The founding of the Indian National Congress b) Expansion of the military powers of the English East India company c) Assumption of direct responsibility for administration of India by the crown d) All of the above The first International telephone line in India was between. a) New York and Mumbai b) London and Mumbai c) London and Calcutta d) London and Delhi In which year PIN code system started in India? a) 1972 b) 1969 c) 1975

21.

22.

23.

d) 1965

210

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24.

Who was the first Muslim ruler of Delhi? a) Iltutmish b) Qutbuddin Aibak c) Allauddin Khalji

d) Mahmud of Ghazni

25.

Muhammad – bin – Tughluq introduced a token currency in lieu of the prevalent silver tanka. Identify the metal used for making the token currency. a) Bronze b) Copper c) Nickel d) Brass Who founded the city of Hyderabad? a) Muhammad Shah c) Muhammad Quli Qutub Shah The National flower of India is............ a) Lotus b) Rose When is the Martyr’s day celebrated? a) 2nd October b) 30th January The currency of Iceland is called a) Forint b) Krona

26.

b) Muhammad Khan d) Chin Qilich Khan

27.

c) Lily

d) None of these

28.

c) 22nd March

d) 24th January

29.

c) Lira

d) Shilling

30.

The capital of which of the following countries does not begin with the letter ‘A’? a) Greece b) Ghana c) Jordan d) Macedonia ‘Peso’ is not the currency of which of the following countries? a) Bolivia b) Cuba c) Dominican Republic d) Chile Which state has the maximum forest area? a) Rajashtan b) Maharashtra c) Madhya Pradesh d) Uttar Pradesh We are in between which of the following Five-Year Plan? a) Ninth Plan b) Tenth Plan c) Eleventh Plan

31.

32.

33.

d) Twelfth Plan

34.

The Rs.5,000 note was reintroduced in India in 1954. Which monument did it depict? a) India Gate b) Taj Mahal c) Gateway of India d) Qutab Minar What term is used to describe the practice of registering well-known names as domains on the Internet, hoping to sell them at high prices to the rightful owners? a) Cyber Squatting b) Cyber Selling c) Domaining d) Cyber Surfing

35.

GENERAL AWARENESS - BRM

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36.

For what purpose was the compass originally developed/invented in China? a) For Sailors b) For Feng Shui c) For locating snakes d) For measuring temperature If the MRF bat which Sachin Tendulkar uses is labeled ‘Genius’, what is the corresponding label on Brian Lara’s bat? a) Genius b) Wizard] c) Masters d) Excellent The currency of Denmark is a) Pound c) Krone

37.

38.

b) Euro d) Kwanza

39.

The term ‘econometrics’ was coined by which co-winner of the first Nobel Prize in economics? a) Ragnar Frisch b) Amartya Sen c) Pareto d) Adam Smith First letter of the Greek alphabet is............ a) Beta b) Gamma c) Alpha d) Delta The Concorde airplane flies faster than Mac 1. Mac 1 is a) The speed of sound b) The speed of light c) The speed of asteroids d) The speed of electrons He discovered the ‘red shift’, laying the foundation for the Big Bang theory a) Darwin b) Hubble c) Kennedy d) Aryabhatta What would you study if you were a speleologist? a) Speech b) Caves c) Insects Which is the closest planet to the Sun? a) Pluto b) Saturn

40.

41.

42.

43.

d) Mummies

44.

c) Earth

d) Mercury

45.

Montgomery is the capital city of which country? a) Greece b) The Vatican c) Alabama

d) Albania

46.

A word spelled by rearranging the letters of another word is called………. a) Anagram b) Synonym c) Antonym d) Metaphor

212

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47.

Which country in the world has the maximum amount of External Debt due to extraordinarily high Imports? a) USA b) China c) Canada d) UK The new President of International Cricket Council (ICC) is………… a) Ali Bacher b) Percy Sonn c) Gordon Greenidge d) Ehsan Mani In 2006, Italy won the Football World Cup for the a) Fifth Time b) Fourth Time c) Third Time d) Sixth Time Milton Friedman, who died recently, is a/an a) Economist b) Author c) Dramatist d) Poet

48.

49.

50.

GENERAL AWARENESS - BRM

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BRM Test - 19
Questions: 50 1. Time : 25 Mins.

The ‘Protected Disclosure Scheme’ is already in force in the case of……….. a) PSU Banks & RBI b) Private Banks c) Foreign Banks d) All the Banks The first ceremony of the International Olympic Committee was held in 1894. In which city was it held? a) New York b) Athens c) Paris d) London Which of the following Shakespeare’s plays is not a tragedy? a) Pericles – Prince of Tyre b) Hamlet c) Othello d) Macbeth After Mandarin (Chinese), what is the most widely spoken first language? a) English b) Hindi c) Spanish d) French What commonly eaten vegetable was originally thought to be poisonous? a) Potato b) Tomato c) Brinjal d) Bitter Gourd According to the Greek, who holds the World on his shoulders? a) Atlas b) Hercules c) Krishna

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

d) Sheshnag

7.

Which US president was shot 5 days after the end of the American Civil War? a) John F. Kennedy b) Abraham Lincoln c) Jimmy Carter d) Richard Nixon The book Jurassic Park was written by……… a) Michael Crichton b) J.K. Rowling c) Jonathan Swift The book Gulliver’s Travels was written by………. a) Michael Crichton b) J.K. Rowling c) Jonathan Swift ‘A Tale of Two Cities’ was written by a) Charles Dickens c) Jane Austen

8.

d) Franklin Dickson

9.

d) Charles Dickens

10.

b) Adam Smith d) Patricia Cornwell

11.

Around the World in Eighty Days was written by a) Aldous Huxley b) Jules Verne c) Enid Blyton

d) J.K. Rowling

214

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12.

The Call of the Wild was written by………… a) Jack London b) Richard H Chase c) Christopher Watkinson d) Stephen Hawking Why is the Chinese City of Golmud famous? a) World’s highest railway has been started between Golmud and Tibetan capital Lhasa b) It has the largest infant mortality rate in China c) It is the largest Silk producing city in China d) It is the largest industrial town of China In which country did chess originate? a) China b) England Morphology is the study of……… a) The shapes of plants and animals c) The art of combining two pictures

13.

14.

c) India

d) US

15.

b) The shapes of aeroplanes d) Handwriting

16.

Who has won the Davis Cup the maximum number of times? a) USA b) Spain c) Russia Which of these is another term for the human trachea? a) Large Intestine b) Small Intestine c) Kidney A pulmonist works on which internal organ/s? a) Heart and Lungs b) Liver c) Kidney

d) Sweden

17.

d) Windpipe

18.

d) Pancreas

19.

If you are standing on the moon and drop both a feather and a rock at the same time from the same height, which will land first? a) Rock b) Feather c) Both will land together d) Both will keep floating During World War II, the Germans were allied with the….. a) British b) Americans c) Dutch

20.

d) None of these

21.

Amitabh Bachchan was conferred with an Honorary Doctorate in Arts in 2006 by which University? a) Le Corbusier University b) De Montford University c) Sheffield University d) Thomas Cook University Who was the second President of the United States? a) John Adams b) Jimmy Carter c) Abraham Lincoln d) George Washington

22.

GENERAL AWARENESS - BRM

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23.

In what year did the Japanese attack Pearl Harbor? a) 1943 b) 1942 c) 1945 Who wrote the American Declaration of Independence? a) Anderson b) Washington c) Lincoln How long is a marathon? a) 26.3 miles b) 25 miles

d) 1941

24.

d) Jefferson

25.

c) 24.8 miles

d) 27.5 miles

26.

Which city is known as the ‘Eternal City’? a) Venice b) The Vatican c) Rome

d) Paris

27.

The Dalai Lama and Nelson Mandela have both edited which magazine, at different points of time? a) Vogue b) Time c) Forbes d) Business World Who was the first woman governor of an Indian state? a) Vijay Laxmi Pandit b) Amrit Kaur c) Sarojini Naidu d) Sucheta Kriplani Who was the last British Governor General of Hong Kong? a) Chris Patten b) Cornwallis c) Dominic Lazier In which year was the first modern Olympics conducted? a) 1898 b) 1900 c) 1901 In which year did Alfred Nobel die? a) 1887 b) 1896

28.

29.

d) Wallace

30.

d) 1896

31.

c) 1900

d) 1901

32.

Who is the President of the Indian Hockey Federation (IHF)? a) V Bhaskaran b) KPS Gill c) Dhanraj Pillai The longest river in the world flows into which sea? a) Red Sea b) Caspian Sea c) Mediterranean sea d) Arabian Sea

d) Pargat Singh

33.

34.

A narrow strip of land with water on both sides connecting two larger landmasses is known as a) Isthmus b) Island c) Isobar d) Isotherm How many of the Nobel laureates are of an Indian origin? a) 4 b) 5 c) 6

35.

d) 7

216

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36.

Which of the following crops helps in nitrogen fixation? a) Rice b) Beans c) Wheat Who was the first Indian Field Marshal? a) Maneckshaw b) P. Chauhan

d) Bajra

37.

c) Capt. S. Singh

d) R.M. Singh

38.

Who is the President of the International Cricket Council? a) Ehsaan Mani b) Jagmohan Dalmiya c) Malcolm Speed d) Percy Sonn Where is the military-oriented Aircraft industry located in India? a) Nasik b) Pune c) Bhusawal

39.

d) Bangalore

40.

Which of the following committees was set up by the government to make recommendation on the pricing and taxation of the petroleum products? a) Kelkar Committee b) Rangarajan Committee c) Ahluwalia Committee d) Narsimhan Committee Among which of the following countries India has recently signed a double tax avoidance treaty? a) Indonesia b) South Africa c) Mauritius d) Austria What is the significance behind the choice of colors for the Olympic rings? a) The five colors represent the five continents b) All other colors can be formed using the five colors c) At least one of the five colors is found in the flag of every nation d) The choice of color has no significance Who will be the next Prime Minister and the first woman lead of Jamaica? a) PS Patterson b) Portia Simpson Miller c) Peter Phillips d) Danville Walker Who is Karnataka’s Chief Minister? a) N. Dharam Singh c) H.D. Kumaraswamy

41.

42.

43.

44.

b) B.S. Yediyurappa d) Anant Kumar

45.

Which of these was ranked as the world’s No.1 English Daily in terms of circulation? a) Times of India b) Indian Express c) Hindustan Times d) The Hindu Dispersion of light in the atmosphere takes place due to? a) Carbon dioxide b) Water vapor c) Helium

46.

d) None of the above

GENERAL AWARENESS - BRM

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47.

President APJ Abdul Kalam created history by becoming the first Indian Head of the state to sail in a submarine. The name of the submarine is a) INS Brahmputra b) INS Tarang c) INS Jyoti d) INS Sindhurakshak Abhinav Bindra became the first Indian to win a Gold medal in World Cup shooting championship. In which event did he achieve the feat? a) 10m Rifle b) Double Trap c) Air Rifle d) Single Trap Who is the new defense secretary of the US? a) Donald Rumsfeld b) Robert Gates c) Condoleeza Rice d) Jim Rose Which state government is planning to start evening courts? a) Karnataka b) Kerala c) Gujarat d) Madhya Pradesh

48.

49.

50.

218

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BRM Test - 20
Questions: 50 Time : 25 Mins.

1.

In which layer of the atmosphere do weather phenomena take place? a) Ionosphere b) Troposphere c) Stratosphere d) Mesosphere Which of the following countries do not lie in Asia? a) Yemen b) Oman c) Macau In which state is the Gir forest situated? a) Gujarat b) Madhya Pradesh c) Kerala

2.

d) Burundi

3.

d) Karnataka

4.

Ankleshwar, a major source of petroleum in India, is situated in which country? a) Maharashtra b) Orissa c) Gujarat d) Jharkhand Who was India’s nominee for the post of Secretary-General of the UN? a) Nirupama Sen b) Vijay Nambiar c) Shyam Saran d) Shashi Tharoor Who is the president of Venezuela? a) Hugo Chavez b) Jorge Rodriquez c) Jose R Zapatero d) Dominique de Villepin The book ‘The Last Mughal’ has been written by……… a) Dominique Lapiere b) Vikram Seth c) William Dalrymple d) Salman Rushdie Who has been appointed as India’s new foreign secretary? a) Vijay Nambiar b) S Y Qureshi c) S S Menon Who has won the the 39th Jnanpith award for the year 2003? a) D Jayakanthan b) Vinda Karandikar c) R K Shah d) Indira Goswami Who is the present World chess champion? a) Vladimir Kramnik b) Garry Kasparov c) Veselin Topalov d) Vishwanathan Anand Which cricketer has scored the fastest hundred in test cricket? a) Kapil Dev b) Adam Gilchrist c) Vivian Richards d) Brian Lara

5.

6.

7.

8.

d) Shyam Saran

9.

10.

11.

GENERAL AWARENESS - BRM

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12.

Shirin Ebadi is a well known human rights activist and winner of the Nobel Peace Prize 2003. Which country does she belong to? a) Iraq b) Egypt c) India d) Iran How many countries participated in the FIFA World Cup 2006? a) 30 b) 32 c) 34 Where did Gautam Buddha deliver his first sermon? a) Sarnath b) Lumbini c) Gaya The book English August has been written by……… a) Upamanyu Chatterjee b) Vikram Chandra c) V.S. Naipaul d) Vikram Seth Who is the Chief Minister of Jharkhand? a) Arjun Munda b) Babulal Marandi c) Shibu Soren

13.

d) 36

14.

d) Gandhara

15.

16.

d) Madhu Koda

17.

Who is the Prime Minister of Japan? ( He is also the youngest PM of Japan) a) Junichiro Koizumi b) Shinzo Abe c) Yoshiro Mori d) Obuchi Keizo Who has the Nobel Peace Prize for the year 2006? a) Grameen Bank b) Muhammad Yunus c) Both (a) & (b) d) None of the above Who has won the Nobel Prize for Literature for 2006? a) Orhan Pamuk b) Harold Pinter c) John Banville Who has won the Nobel Prize for Chemistry for 2006? a) Roger D Kornberg b) Robert Grubbs c) Richard Schrock d) Yves Chauvin Which cine personality has won the Gandhi International Peace Prize for 2006? a) Deepa Mehta b) Meera Nair c) Shabana Azmi d) Kiron Kher Who has won the Nobel Prize for Economics for 2006? a) Robert J Aumann b) Thomas C Schelling c) Robert A Mundell d) Edmund S Phelps What is the new name of Bangalore? a) Bangalurina b) Bengaluru

18.

19.

d) Kiran Desai

20.

21.

22.

23.

c) Bingalina

d) It has not changed

220

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Temple of Learning

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24.

What is the new name of Mysore? a) Mysori b) Musuru

c) Mysuru

d) It is not changed

25.

Which country won the 2006 men’s hockey World cup? a) Netherlands b) Germany c) New Zealand

d) Australia

26.

Who amongst the following was the first space tourist? a) Dennis Tito b) Mark Shuttleworth c) Gregory Olsen d) Charles Simonyi Who is the first woman to travel to space? a) Valentina Tereshkova b) Anousheh Ansari c) Yashin Debabi d) Yuri Shargin Davos, the permanent venue for the World Economic Forum is in which country? a) Germany b) Norway c) Sweden d) Switzerland When is the World AIDS day observed? a) 1st September b) 1st October

27.

28.

29.

c) 1st November

d) 1st December

30.

The Inheritance of Loss has been written by………. a) Anita Desai b) Kiran Desai c) Vikram Seth

d) Vikram Chandra

31.

Who is the present Formula One (F1) champion? a) Michael Schumacher b) Rubens Barrichelo c) Fernando Alonso d) Jenson Button Narain Karthikeyan is the test driver for which F1 team? a) Jordan b) Ferrari c) Williams Who has been chosen as the ICC Player of the Year for 2006? a) Mathew Hayden b) Adam Gilchrist c) Shane Warne d) Ricky Pointing Who has been chosen as the ICC Emerging Player of the Year for 2006? a) Kevin Pietersen b) Ian Bell c) M.S. Dhoni d) Stuart Clarke Which award did Jhumpa Lahiri win for her book The Interpreter of Maladies? a) The Booker Prize b) The Nobel Prize for Literature c) The Sahitya Akademi Award d) The Pulitzer Prize

32.

d) Red Bull

33.

34.

35.

GENERAL AWARENESS - BRM

221

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Temple of Learning

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36.

Where is the headquarters of the Western Naval Command in India? a) Pune b) Mumbai c) Secundrabad d) Ahmedabad What is the full form of MICR? a) Monitor Input Resource Copy c) Magnetic Ink character Record

37.

b) Magnetic Ink computer Recognition d) Magnetic Ink character Recognition

38.

When there is one buyer and many sellers in a market - what is this situation called? a) Monopoly b) Monopsony c) Monotony d) Oligopoly Mars, the fourth planet from the sun, is named after the Roman god of…….. a) Peace b) War c) Love d) Marriages Who is the famous author of the book ‘What They Don’t Teach You at Harvard Business School’? a) Stephen R Covey b) Mack McCormak c) John Love d) None of the above What is the disease tetanus otherwise known as? a) Lock Jaw b) Sea Jaw c) Freeze Jaw

39.

40.

41.

d) Ice Jaw

42.

In the human body, the exocrine glands are considered as a part of which system? a) Excretory System b) Respiratory System c) Nervous System d) Digestive System The Italian soccer club that is owned by the automobile company “FIAT AUTO”, is……. a) A C Milan b) Inter Milan c) Juventus d) Lazio Which country has the oldest National flag in the world? a) Sweden b) Denmark c) USA

43.

44.

d) UK

45.

India’s first National flag was designed by a) Le Corbusier b) Madame Bikaji Cama c) Rabindra Nath Tagore d) Netaji Subash Chandra Bose Which fish has a prehensile tail? a) Rohu b) Shark

46.

c) Sea Horse

d) Whale

47.

Who wrote the thriller The Day of the Jackal? a) John Grisham b) Tom Clancy c) Ken Follette

d) Frederick Forsyth

222

GENERAL AWARENESS - BRM

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Temple of Learning

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48.

In reference to American military servicemen, what do the initials ‘G.I.’ stand for? a) General’s Intense b) Government Issue c) Government’s Intense d) General Issue Which is the world third largest religion? a) Islam c) Christianity

49.

b) Judaism d) Hinduism

50.

Who did the Germans defeat at the Battle of Tannenberg in 1914? a) The French b) The Italian c) The Russian d) The British

GENERAL AWARENESS - BRM

223

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Temple of Learning

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BRM Test - 1 1. (b) 2. (c) 11.(a) 12.(a) 21.(b) 22.(c) 31.(a) 32.(c) 41.(c) 42.(c) BRM Test - 2 1. (c) 2. (b) 11.(d) 12.(b) 21.(b) 22.(d) 31.(d) 32.(b) 41.(c) 42.(c) BRM Test - 3 1. (c) 2. (a) 11.(d) 12.(c) 21.(a) 22.(b) 31.(c) 32.(a) 41.(c) 42.(b) BRM Test - 4 1. (c) 2. (a) 11.(d) 12.(a) 21.(b) 22.(a) 31.(a) 32.(d) 41.(b) 42.(a) BRM Test - 5 1. (a) 2. (b) 11.(c) 12.(a) 21.(c) 22.(d) 31.(c) 32.(d) 41.(b) 42.(b) BRM Test - 6 1. (b) 2. (c) 11.(d) 12.(b) 21.(c) 22.(d) 31.(d) 32.(b) 41.(a) 42.(b)

3. (d) 13.(b) 23.(b) 33.(b) 43.(a)

4. (b) 14.(d) 24.(d) 34.(b) 44.(a)

5. (a) 15.(b) 25.(c) 35.(b) 45.(b)

6. (c) 16.(a) 26.(c) 36.(a) 46.(b)

7. (b) 17.(d) 27.(b) 37.(b) 47.(b)

8. (a) 18.(a) 28.(b) 38.(b) 48.(d)

9. (c) 19.(c) 29.(a) 39.(b) 49.(a)

10.(d) 20.(b) 30.(d) 40.(c) 50.(c)

3. (b) 13.(a) 23.(b) 33.(c) 43.(d)

4. (a) 14.(a) 24.(a) 34.(b) 44.(b)

5. (c) 15.(b) 25.(a) 35.(b) 45.(c)

6. (b) 16.(d) 26.(d) 36.(c) 46.(b)

7. (c) 17.(c) 27.(c) 37.(b) 47.(b)

8. (d) 18.(a) 28.(d) 38.(b) 48.(c)

9. (b) 19.(d) 29.(a) 39.(d) 49.(a)

10.(c) 20.(b) 30.(b) 40.(b) 50.(b)

3. (b) 13.(b) 23.(a) 33.(a) 43.(d)

4. (c) 14.(d) 24.(a) 34.(c) 44.(c)

5. (c) 15.(a) 25.(b) 35.(b) 45.(a)

6. (b) 16.(a) 26.(a) 36.(c) 46.(b)

7. (c) 17.(b) 27.(c) 37.(b) 47.(d)

8. (b) 18.(c) 28.(a) 38.(c) 48.(d)

9. (c) 19.(c) 29.(a) 39.(d) 49.(c)

10.(b) 20.(a) 30.(b) 40.(a) 50.(b)

3. (a) 13.(a) 23.(d) 33.(a) 43.(d)

4. (c) 14.(c) 24.(d) 34.(c) 44.(c)

5. (d) 15.(a) 25.(b) 35.(b) 45.(b)

6. (d) 16.(c) 26.(a) 36.(b) 46.(d)

7. (a) 17.(b) 27.(b) 37.(c) 47.(a)

8. (c) 18.(a) 28.(c) 38.(b) 48.(c)

9. (b) 19.(d) 29.(a) 39.(b) 49.(a)

10.(a) 20.(b) 30.(a) 40.(a) 50.(d)

3. (b) 13.(a) 23.(a) 33.(b) 43.(b)

4. (a) 14.(c) 24.(c) 34.(a) 44.(a)

5. (c) 15.(b) 25.(a) 35.(b) 45.(c)

6. (d) 16.(b) 26.(b) 36.(c) 46.(d)

7. (a) 17.(d) 27.(c) 37.(c) 47.(c)

8. (b) 18.(c) 28.(a) 38.(b) 48.(a)

9. (d) 19.(c) 29.(b) 39.(d) 49.(b)

10.(b) 20.(a) 30.(b) 40.(c) 50.(c)

3. (b) 13.(b) 23.(c) 33.(d) 43.(c)

4. (d) 14.(d) 24.(d) 34.(c) 44.(a)

5. (b) 15.(a) 25.(a) 35.(c) 45.(d)

6. (b) 16.(c) 26.(c) 36.(c) 46.(a)

7. (b) 17.(b) 27.(c) 37.(a) 47.(c)

8. (b) 18.(d) 28.(c) 38.(a) 48.(a)

9. (a) 19.(c) 29.(c) 39.(b) 49.(c)

10.(a) 20.(c) 30.(b) 40.(b) 50.(b)

224

GENERAL AWARENESS - BRM

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Temple of Learning

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BRM Test - 7 1. (a) 2. (c) 11.(a) 12.(a) 21.(c) 22.(d) 31.(b) 32.(c) 41.(a) 42.(b) BRM Test - 8 1. (c) 2. (b) 11.(c) 12.(c) 21.(a) 22.(b) 31.(c) 32.(b) 41.(d) 42.(a) BRM Test - 9 1. (c) 2. (b) 11.(a) 12.(c) 21.(c) 22.(d) 31.(a) 32.(a) 41.(c) 42.(b) BRM Test - 10 1. (d) 2. (a) 11.(c) 12.(a) 21.(b) 22.(d) 31.(a) 32.(d) 41.(b) 42.(b) BRM Test - 11 1. (a) 2. (d) 11.(a) 12.(c) 21.(a) 22.(b) 31.(c) 32.(c) 41.(d) 42.(b) BRM Test - 12 1. (b) 2. (d) 11.(c) 12.(b) 21.(b) 22.(c) 31.(b) 32.(d) 41.(d) 42.(a)

3. (d) 13.(d) 23.(b) 33.(c) 43.(d)

4. (d) 14.(c) 24.(a) 34.(c) 44.(c)

5. (c) 15.(a) 25.(d) 35.(a) 45.(a)

6. (b) 16.(a) 26.(c) 36.(d) 46.(d)

7. (b) 17.(d) 27.(b) 37.(c) 47.(a)

8. (c) 18.(d) 28.(c) 38.(b) 48.(c)

9. (a) 19.(c) 29.(a) 39.(a) 49.(d)

10.(b) 20.(b) 30.(a) 40.(d) 50.(b)

3. (c) 13.(c) 23.(b) 33.(d) 43.(d)

4. (c) 14.(c) 24.(b) 34.(a) 44.(d)

5. (a) 15.(d) 25.(c) 35.(c) 45.(b)

6. (d) 16.(c) 26.(a) 36.(c) 46.(c)

7. (d) 17.(a) 27.(a) 37.(b) 47.(d)

8. (b) 18.(d) 28.(a) 38.(d) 48.(c)

9. (d) 19.(a) 29.(a) 39.(d) 49.(c)

10.(a) 20.(a) 30.(d) 40.(a) 50.(a)

3. (d) 13.(a) 23.(b) 33.(d) 43.(c)

4. (c) 14.(a) 24.(b) 34.(c) 44.(b)

5. (c) 15.(c) 25.(b) 35.(a) 45.(a)

6. (d) 16.(a) 26.(a) 36.(b) 46.(a)

7. (c) 17.(a) 27.(d) 37.(a) 47.(b)

8. (b) 18.(c) 28.(a) 38.(a) 48.(d)

9. (d) 19.(b) 29.(c) 39.(a) 49.(b)

10.(c) 20.(d) 30.(c) 40.(d) 50.(d)

3. (d) 13.(b) 23.(d) 33.(b) 43.(c)

4. (c) 14.(a) 24.(c) 34.(c) 44.(a)

5. (b) 15.(c) 25.(c) 35.(a) 45.(d)

6. (d) 16.(a) 26.(d) 36.(a) 46.(c)

7. (b) 17.(c) 27.(b) 37.(b) 47.(a)

8. (a) 18.(c) 28.(c) 38.(d) 48.(c)

9. (b) 19.(d) 29.(b) 39.(d) 49.(b)

10.(c) 20.(a) 30.(a) 40.(k) 50.(d)

3. (d) 13.(d) 23.(d) 33.(c) 43.(b)

4. (c) 14.(d) 24.(a) 34.(a) 44.(d)

5. (a) 15.(c) 25.(c) 35.(b) 45.(b)

6. (a) 16.(a) 26.(c) 36.(a) 46.(a)

7. (b) 17.(b) 27.(a) 37.(b) 47.(a)

8. (a) 18.(d) 28.(a) 38.(a) 48.(c)

9. (c) 19.(a) 29.(c) 39.(d) 49.(b)

10.(b) 20.(c) 30.(a) 40.(b) 50.(c)

3. (d) 13.(c) 23.(b) 33.(d) 43.(c)

4. (b) 14.(b) 24.(c) 34.(b) 44.(b)

5. (c) 15.(c) 25.(d) 35.(b) 45.(b)

6. (a) 16.(a) 26.(b) 36.(c) 46.(b)

7. (c) 17.(a) 27.(b) 37.(a) 47.(c)

8. (d) 18.(c) 28.(b) 38.(b) 48.(d)

9. (c) 19.(a) 29.(c) 39.(a) 49.(a)

10.(b) 20.(c) 30.(c) 40.(c) 50.(d)

GENERAL AWARENESS - BRM

225

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Temple of Learning

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BRM Test - 13 1. (c) 2. (a) 11.(b) 12.(c) 21.(b) 22.(b) 31.(a) 32.(c) 41.(a) 42.(c) BRM Test - 14 1. (d) 2. (a) 11.(c) 12.(c) 21.(b) 22.(d) 31.(c) 32.(d) 41.(c) 42.(c) BRM Test - 15 1. (d) 2. (a) 11.(b) 12.(d) 21.(b) 22.(a) 31.(c) 32.(b) 41.(d) 42.(b) BRM Test - 16 1. (a) 2. (a) 11.(d) 12.(c) 21.(d) 22.(c) 31.(b) 32.(c) 41.(c) 42.(a) BRM Test - 17 1. (b) 2. (a) 11.(d) 12.(d) 21.(b) 22.(b) 31.(c) 32.(d) 41.(c) 42.(c) BRM Test - 18 1. (c) 2. (a) 11.(a) 12.(a) 21.(c) 22.(b) 31.(a) 32.(c) 41.(a) 42.(b)

3. (a) 13.(d) 23.(d) 33.(a) 43.(a)

4. (b) 14.(b) 24.(a) 34.(a) 44.(c)

5. (b) 15.(b) 25.(a) 35.(c) 45.(b)

6. (c) 16.(c) 26.(b) 36.(c) 46.(c)

7. (d) 17.(a) 27.(b) 37.(c) 47.(a)

8. (b) 18.(b) 28.(d) 38.(d) 48.(a)

9. (a) 19.(a) 29.(b) 39.(a) 49.(b)

10.(c) 20.(a) 30.(d) 40.(d) 50.(c)

3. (d) 13.(a) 23.(a) 33.(d) 43.(a)

4. (c) 14.(a) 24.(b) 34.(b) 44.(a)

5. (a) 15.(a) 25.(d) 35.(d) 45.(b)

6. (d) 16.(d) 26.(b) 36.(c) 46.(c)

7. (a) 17.(a) 27.(a) 37.(d) 47.(a)

8. (d) 18.(d) 28.(a) 38.(c) 48.(c)

9. (c) 19.(b) 29.(d) 39.(c) 49.(a)

10.(c) 20.(a) 30.(a) 40.(d) 50.(d)

3. (a) 13.(c) 23.(b) 33.(d) 43.(a)

4. (b) 14.(a) 24.(a) 34.(b) 44.(b)

5. (c) 15.(b) 25.(c) 35.(a) 45.(a)

6. (b) 16.(b) 26.(d) 36.(c) 46.(c)

7. (b) 17.(b) 27.(c) 37.(c) 47.(d)

8. (c) 18.(a) 28.(b) 38.(a) 48.(c)

9. (b) 19.(c) 29.(b) 39.(c) 49.(b)

10.(b) 20.(c) 30.(a) 40.(c) 50.(a)

3. (a) 13.(b) 23.(a) 33.(a) 43.(a)

4. (b) 14.(d) 24.(c) 34.(d) 44.(c)

5. (c) 15.(a) 25.(b) 35.(b) 45.(d)

6. (a) 16.(b) 26.(d) 36.(c) 46.(c)

7. (a) 17.(a) 27.(d) 37.(b) 47.(a)

8. (c) 18.(d) 28.(c) 38.(d) 48.(b)

9. (d) 19.(d) 29.(b) 39.(b) 49.(c)

10.(a) 20.(b) 30.(a) 40.(c) 50.(a)

3. (a) 13.(a) 23.(a) 33.(b) 43.(c)

4. (b) 14.(b) 24.(b) 34.(d) 44.(a)

5. (b) 15.(d) 25.(c) 35.(a) 45.(a)

6. (c) 16.(d) 26.(c) 36.(c) 46.(b)

7. (d) 17.(c) 27.(b) 37.(b) 47.(c)

8. (b) 18.(a) 28.(a) 38.(c) 48.(c)

9. (b) 19.(a) 29.(a) 39.(c) 49.(c)

10.(c) 20.(d) 30.(b) 40.(a) 50.(d)

3. (a) 13.(b) 23.(a) 33.(c) 43.(b)

4. (c) 14.(b) 24.(b) 34.(c) 44.(d)

5. (b) 15.(b) 25.(a) 35.(a) 45.(c)

6. (a) 16.(c) 26.(c) 36.(b) 46.(a)

7. (d) 17.(b) 27.(a) 37.(b) 47.(a)

8. (c) 18.(a) 28.(b) 38.(c) 48.(b)

9. (a) 19.(b) 29.(b) 39.(a) 49.(b)

10.(b) 20.(a) 30.(d) 40.(c) 50.(a)

226

GENERAL AWARENESS - BRM

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m

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F -X C h a n ge

PD

F -X C h a n ge

O W !

N

y

bu

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N
.c

O W !
w
.d o

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c u -tr a c k

Temple of Learning

c u -tr a c k

.c

BRM Test - 19 1. (d) 2. (c) 11.(b) 12.(a) 21.(b) 22.(a) 31.(b) 32.(b) 41.(c) 42.(a) BRM Test - 20 1. (b) 2. (d) 11.(c) 12.(d) 21.(c) 22.(d) 31.(c) 32.(c) 41.(a) 42.(d)

3. (a) 13.(a) 23.(d) 33.(c) 43.(b)

4. (a) 14.(c) 24.(b) 34.(a) 44.(c)

5. (b) 15.(c) 25.(a) 35.(d) 45.(a)

6. (a) 16.(a) 26.(c) 36.(b) 46.(b)

7. (b) 17.(d) 27.(a) 37.(a) 47.(d)

8. (a) 18.(a) 28.(c) 38.(d) 48.(a)

9. (c) 19.(c) 29.(a) 39.(d) 49.(b)

10.(a) 20.(d) 30.(d) 40.(b) 50.(c)

3. (a) 13.(b) 23.(b) 33.(d) 43.(c)

4. (c) 14.(a) 24.(c) 34.(b) 44.(b)

5. (d) 15.(a) 25.(b) 35.(d) 45.(b)

6. (a) 16.(d) 26.(a) 36.(b) 46.(c)

7. (c) 17.(b) 27.(a) 37.(d) 47.(d)

8. (c) 18.(c) 28.(d) 38.(b) 48.(d)

9. (b) 19.(a) 29.(d) 39.(b) 49.(c)

10.(a) 20.(a) 30.(b) 40.(b) 50.(c)

GENERAL AWARENESS - BRM

227

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Annexure

The Constitutional Amendment Acts (1951 - 2002)
Number of Co nstit utio nal Am e n dm e n t First Ye ar Affected Articles Amended Subject

19 51

15, 19, 85, 87, 174, 341, 342, 372, 376; Articles 31A, 31B and Ninth Schedule Added

Second Third Fourth

19 53 19 54 19 55

81 7th Schedule 31,31A, 305 and Ninth Schedule Art.3

Fifth

19 55

Sixth Seventh

19 56 19 56

269, 286, 7th Schedule List I and List II 49, 80, 81, 82, 131, 153, 158, 168, 170, 171, 216, 217, 220, 222, 224, 230, 231, 232, 239, 240, 253, 298, 371. Articles added are: 290A, 350A, 350B, 372A, 378A, Article deleted are: 238, 242, 243, 259, 278, 306, 279-80. The Second, Fourth, Seventh Schedules were also affected. 330, 332, 333, 334 First Schedule 240, The First Schedule 66(1), 71(4) Art.240, First Schedule Art. 371A was added 239A; 240(1), First and Fourth Schedules

Eighth Ninth Te nt h Eleventh Twelth T hirteenth Fourteenth

19 60 19 60 19 61 19 61 19 62 19 62 19 62

Fifteenth

19 63

124, 128, 217, 222, 224, 224A, 226, 297, 311, 316, Seventh Schedule

Sixteenth

19 63

19, 84, 174, Second Schedule

1 . Right to equality, Right to liberty and Right to property were restriced in public interest. 2. The Land reform Acts were put into Ninth Schedule to make them out of jurisdiction of the Courts. 3 . The Sessions of Legislatures, appointment of Judges and provision relating to reservation of seats were also affected. Representation of States in the Parliament. The Subject of raw cotton, food production, animal husbandry etc. were shifted to the Concurrent List. The Compensation given in lisu of acquisition of property may be specified and the amount of compensation is to be beyond the jurisdiction of the Courts. The President was given power to specify time within which the States shall express their opinion with respect to a proposed legislation affection the boundaries and name of the States. The Parliament was given the power to tax the goods involved in the inter-State trades. 1. State reorganization in 14 States and 6 Union Territories. 2. Reallocation of Seats in the House of the People, the Council of States and the State Legislatures. 3. Provision for the appointement of acting and additional Judges andjurisdiction of High Courts. 4. Provisions for Union Territories. 5. Special provisions for the States of Andhra Pradesh, Punjab and Bombay. The Reservation of seats in Legislatures in favour of SC/ ST and the Anglo-Indian Community extended upto 1970. Provisions regarding transfer to Berubari Union areas to Pakistan. Dadra & Nagar Haveli admitted to the Union of India. Provisions relating to the Electoral College for the election of the President and the Vice-President. Goa. Daman and Diu admitted to the Union of India. Nagaland was given the Status of a State and special provisions were made for the State of Nagaland. Pondicherry was admitted in the Union of India as a Union Territory and provisions were made for the constitution of the Legislative Assembly and the Council of Ministers in that UT. 1. The retirement age of the Judges of the High Courts was raised to 62 years from 60 years. 2. Provision for the re-employment of the retired Judge of the High Courts. 3. Extension to the jurisdiction of the High Courts. The States were given the power to restrict the Right to Liberty.

228

GENERAL AWARENESS - BRM

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Seventeenth Eighteenth Nineteenth Twentiet h Twenty-first Twenty-second Twenty-third Twenty-fourth Twenty fifth Twenty-sixth Twenty-se venth Twenty-eighth Twenty-ninth Thirtieth Thirty-first Thir ty-second Thirty-third 19 64 19 66 19 66 19 66 19 67 19 69 19 70 19 71 19 71 19 71 19 71 19 72 19 72 19 72 19 73 19 73 19 74 19 74 Thirty-fourth T hirty-fifth 19 74 Ninth Schedule Art. 80 affected, Art. 371F added, The Tenth Schedule added Art. 80 affected, Art. 371F added, The Tenth Schedule deleted. Art. 239 A and 240 Art. 123, 123, 213, 239B, 352, 356, 360 Art. 71, 329affected and Art. 391A added, Schedule X repealed. Art. 31B, 297 and IXth Schedule affected Art. 316(2) 31A, Ninte Schedule Art.3 Art.3 24 Art. 233A added. Eighth Schedule Articles 244A and 371B. Added. 331, 332, 333, 334 Art. 13, 368 Art. 31. Art 31C were added Art. 312A added and Article 314 was deleted. Articles 239B and 371C were added. Art. 312A added and Art. 314 deleted. Ninth Schedule Art. 133 Articles 81, 330, and 332 Article 371 affecred and Articles 371D and 371E added Articles 101, 190 The State redefined, provisions regardings the Judicial Review. The ‘State’ redefined. Election Tribunals abolished, the provisions relating to electoral disputes. Provisions regarding appointement to District Judges. Sindhi language was added in the Eighth Schedule. Establishment of the Union Territory of Meghalaya and special provision with respect to the State of Assam. The reservation in Legislatures in favour of SCs/STs and Anglo-Indian Community was extended upto 1980. The Parliament was given power to amend any part of the Constitution including the Fundamental Rights. The Fudamental Rights were subordinated to the Directive Principles as given in the Art.39. The privy purse and other priveleges of the princess were abolished. Reorganisation of North-Eastern States. Privileges availed by the member of I.C.S. abolished. The Land Reform Acts passed by the Legislature of the State of Kerala, put into the Ninth Schedule. The limit of Rs.20,000 for making an appeal to the Supreme Court in civil matters abolished. The membership of the House of the People increased to 545 members from 525 members. Special provisions with respect to the State of Andhra Pradesh. Provision was made to the effect that the acceptance of resignation of Member of Parliament by the presiding officer is not mandatory. The Ninth Schedule extended. Sikkim was admitted as on associate State of the Union of India. Sikkim was given the status of a full State.

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Thirty-sixth

19 74

T hirty-seventh Thirty-eighth

19 75 19 75

T hirty-ninth

19 75

Fortieth For ty-first

19 76 19 76

Forty-second (Called ‘mini Constitution’)

19 76

The Preamble, Art. 31, 31C, 39, 55, 74, 77, 81, 82, 83; 100, 102, 103, 105, 118, 145, 150, 166, 170, 172, 189, 191, 192, 194, 208, 217, 225, 226, 227, 228, 311, 312, 330, 352, 353, 356, 357, 358, 359, 366, 368, 371F, and Schedule VII. Art. 31D, 32A, 39A, 43A, 48A, Part IVA

Provision for the constitution of the Legistative Assembly and the Council of Ministers in Arunachal Pradesh. The ordinance issued by thr President, the Governor and the Lt, Governor made to be out of jurisdiction of the Courts. The elelctions of the President, the Vice-President, the Prime Minister and the Speaker of Lok Sabha cannot be challenged in the Courts. New laws included in Schedule IX.Parliament was given power wirh respect to the territorial waters of India. The retirement age of the members of the State Public Service Commission and the Joint Public Service Commission raised to 62 years from 60 years. 1 . The words ‘Secular’, ‘Socialist’ and ‘Integrity’ added in the Preamble. 2 . The validity of the Constitutional Amendment can not be questioned in any Court-368(4). 3 . Extension of the Directive Principles of State Policy. 4 . Primacy given to the Directive Principles of state Policy over the Fundamental Rights. 5 . The Fundamental Duties added. 6 . Restriction on the Fundamental Rights widened.

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(Art. 51A) 131A, 139A, 144A, 226A, 228A, 257A, Part XIVA, 323A and 423A added. 7 . The power of Judicial Review of the Courts was restricted. 8 . The duration of the House of the People and the Legislative Assemblies of the State extended to 6 years during the National Emergency. 9 . Provisions were made for the participation of the workers in the Management of industries. 10 . Provisions for the protection of environment, forests and wildlife. 11 . Provisions for the protection of the children and the youth against exploitation. 12 . The delimitation of the constituencies of the House of the People and the Legislative Assemblies of the States shall be on the basis of the population of 1971 till the year 2001. 13 . No quorum shall be required for conducting the meeting of the House of the People and the Legislative Assemblies of the States. 14 . The right of the Supreme Court to examine the validity of the laws of the State under Article 32A abolished. 15 . The Jury System was given importance in the functioning of the Courts. 16 . The President shall be bound by the advice of the Council of Mininsters. 17 . The Central Government was given the power to send Central Forces in any State and the control of such forces shall rest with the Central Govenment. 18 . Emergency Provisions: (a) National Emergency may be proclaimed in a part of the Territory of India; (b) The one time duration of the President rule in a State under the Art. 19 . Some subjects - Protection of the forest and the wildlife, education, weight and measures, population control and judicial administration shifted to the Concurrent List. 20 . Provisions for the establishment of the Administrative Tribunals for public servents. 1 . Protection of the rights and powers of the judiciary. Judical Review revived. 2 . The provision relating to the power of the Parliament to declare an organization as AntiNational was replealed. 1. The Fundamental Right to Property was abolished 2 . The term of the Lok Sabha and the Legislative Assemblies of the States reduced to 5 years 3 . The disputes relating to the qualifications of the members of the parliament and the State Legislature shall be decided by the President and the Governors respectively. 4 . The provisions regarding quorum in the Legislatures was charged to as these were before 42nd Amendment. 5 . It was provided that dispites relating to the election of the President and the Vice President shall be decided by the Supreme Court and that of the election of the members of the Parliment ant the State Legislature shall be decided by the State Legislature shall be decided by the High Courts. 6 . The National Emergency shall not be proclaimed except on the written recommendation of the Cabinet. 7 . The Right to Life and personal liberty and the liberty of the press were restored.

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Forty-third

19 78

Art, 145, 226, 228, 366 affected and 31d, 32A, 131A, 144A, 226A, 228A repealed.

Forty-fourth

19 78

Art. 19, 20, 30, 31A, 38, 74, 77, 83, 105, 123, 132, 133, 134, 139A. 150, 166, 172, 194, 213, 217, 226, 227, 239A, 327, 352, 356, 358, 359, 360, 371F, and Ninth Schedule affected. Art. 19(i) (f), 31, 257A, 329 repealed. Art. 134A, 330A, Chapter IV of PartXII and 361A added.

230

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Forty-fifth 19 80 Art. 330, 332, 333 and 334 affected. Art. 269, 286 and Schedule VII affected. Ninth Schedule affected Art.3 56 Art. 244, Schedules V and VI affected Art. 33 The reservation of the seats in the Legislatures in favour for for SCs/STs and the Anglo-Indian Community was extended further for 10 years. The Sales tax imposed by the States was restructured. Fourteen new laws relating to the land reforms were included in the Ninth Schedule. The President’s Rule imposed in Punjab was extended upto two years. The Parliament and the Legislature of the State of Tripura shall have power to make laws with respect to the Tribal Areas of Tripura. The Parliament was given the power to restrict by law the Fundamental Rights with respect to the members of the Armed Forces. Provisions were made for the reservation of the Scheduled Caste and the Schedule Tribes of the North-Eastern States in the Lok Sabha and the Legislative Assemblies of those States except the seats in the autonomous areas of Assam. Provisions relating to the anti-defection law were added in the Constitution. Mizoram was included as the 23rd State of the India Union. The salary and emoluments of the Judges of the Supreme Court and the High Courts enhanced. Arunachal Pradesh was included as the 24th State of the Union of India. Goa was included in the Union of India as the 25th State. The reservation for SCs/STs of Mizoram, Nagaland, Maghalaya and Arunachal Pradesh in the Lok Sabha and the State Assemblies made more effective. Provisions for the authoritative text of the Constitution in the Hindi Language. 1 . The duration of the President’s Rule in Punjab extended upto three years. 2 . Provisions that the National Emergency can be declared in the State of Punjab on the grounds of internal disturbance. 3 . The right to life and personal liberty can be suspended during the Emergency only in the State of Punjab. The maximum amount of taxes on profession levied by a local authority was extended from Rs.250 to Rs.2500. The minimum age limit prescribed to get the voting right was reduced to 18 years from 21 years. The reservation for SCs/STs and the Anglo Indian Community in the Lok Sabha and the Legislative Assemblies of the States was extended for another ten years. The right to life and personal liberty shall not be suspended in Punjab during Emergency. The duration of the President’s Rule in Punjab (imposed on May 11, 1987) was extended to another six months. The National Commission for the Scheduled Castes and the Schedule Tribes was given a Constitutional Status. Fifty-five laws related to land reforms, enacted by the States were included in the Ninth Schedule. The duration of the President’s rule in Punjab was extended upto four years from the date of enforcement, i.e., May 11, 1987. The duration of the President’s rule in Punjab was extended upto five years. The Union Territory of Delhi was named as the National Capital Territory of Delhi. It also provided for a 70-

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Forty-sixth Forty-seventh Forty-eighth Forty-ninth

19 82 19 84 19 84 19 84

Fiftieth

19 84

Fifty-first

19 84

Art. 330 and 332

Fifty-second Fifty-third Fifty-fourth Fifty-fifth Fifty-sixth Fifty-Seventh

19 85 19 86 19 86 19 86 19 87 19 87

Art. 101, 102, 190, 191 affected & Schedule x added. Schedule I Schedule II Schedule I Schedule I Part XXII and Art. 332 affected

Fifty-eighth Fifty-ninth

19 87 19 88

Art. 394A added. Art. 356, 352, 21, and 358 affected and Art. 359A added

Sixtieth Sixty-First Sixty-second

19 88 19 88 19 89

Art. 276 Art. 326 Art. 334

Sixty-third Sixty-fourth Sixty-fifth Sixty-sixth Sixty-seventh

19 89 19 90 19 90 19 90 19 90

Art. 356 affected and 359A repealed Art. 356 Art. 338 Schedule IX Art 356(4)

Art.

Sixty-eight Sixty-ninth

19 91 19 91

Art. 256(4) Art. 239A A and 239AB added

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member State Assembly for Delhi. The members of the Legislative Assemblies of Delhi and Pondicherry were given the right to participation in the election of the President. Nepali, Konkani and Manipuri languages included in the Eighth Schedule. It provided for provisionally deciding the number of seats reserved in the legislative Assembly of Tripura in favour of the Scheduled Tribes. Provisions relating to the Constitution, elections, finance and functions of the Panchayati Raj bodies. Provisions relating to the Constitution, election, finance and functions of the Municipalities. Provisions for the establishment of a special Administrative Tribunals for the speedy disposal of the disputes between the householders and the tenants. The laws relating to reservation enacted by the Tamil Nadu Assembly included in the Ninth Schedule. Provisions made for the reservation for SCs/STs in the promotions in public services. Some land reform acts of different States included in the Ninth Schedule. The reservation of the seats for the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes as well as for the Anglo Indians in the House of the People and in the Legislative Assemblies of the States extended for another ten years. Based on the recommendations of the Tenth Finance Commission, alternative scheme for sharing the taxes between the Union and the States. The unfilled vacancies of a year which were reserved for the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes for being filled up in that year in accordance with any provision for the reservation made under Article 16 of the Constitution shall be considered a special class of vacancies to be filled up in any succeeding year of years. The amendment provides that nothing in Article 335 shall prevent the State from making any provision in favour of the members of the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes for the relaxation in qualifying marks in any examination or lowering the standard of evaluation for the reservation in the matters of promotion to any class or classes of services or posts in connection with affairs of the Union or of a State. If provides that no reservation in Panchayats need to made in favour of the Scheduled Castes in Arunachal Pradesh wholly inhabited by the tribal population. Creation of the new States of Chhattisgarh, Uttaranchal and Jharkhand. Restoration of reservation in promotions in services to the members of the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes. Right to Education has been made the fundamental right and fundamental duty has been fixed to the parent and guardian to province opportunities for education to the his child on ward between the age of 6 and 14. Provisions were made so that each state shall be divided into territorial Constitutions in such a manner that the ratio between the population as per 2001 Census, of each constitutions and number of seats allotted to it is, so far as practiciable, the same throughout the state. Taxes on services was encluded in the Union List.

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Seventieth

19 92

Art 54

Seventy-first Seventy-second

19 92 19 92

Schedule VIII Art.3 32

Seventy-third Seventy-fourth Seventy-fifth

19 92 19 92 19 94

Art. 243 revived and Schedule XI added Art. 243 revived and Schedule XII added Art. 323

Seventy-sixth Seventy-seventh Seventy-eighth Seventy-ninth

19 94 19 95 19 95 19 99

Schedule IX Art. 16(4A) Schedule IX Article 334

Eightieth

20 00

Article 268, 269, 270, 272

Eighty-first

20 00

Article 16

Eighty-second

20 00

Article 335

Eighty-third

20 00

Article 243M

Eighty-fourth Eighty-fifth Eighty-sixth

20 00 20 02 20 02

Article 1, 2, and First and Fourth Schedule Article 16(4A) Article 21(A), 45 & 51A

Eighty-seventh

20 03

Article 81, 82, 170, 332

Eighty-eighth

20 03

Article 268A, 270, Seventh Schedule

232

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Eighty-ninth Ninty 20 03 20 03 Article 338 Article 332 Provisions for creation of separate commission for Schedule castes. Provisions under which the Scheduled Tribes and nonScheduled Tribes in the Bodoland Territorial Areas District, so notified, and existing prior to the Constitution of the Bodoland Terrtorial Areas District shall be maintained. Provisions were made regarding the strength of Council of Ministers in Union as well stage of 15% of the total member of Lok Sabha or concerned Vidhan Sabha respectively. Bodo, Dogri, Maithilli and Santhali were added in the Eight Schedule of Constitution The Private Professional Educational Institutions (Regulation of Admission and Fixation of Fee) Act

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Ninty-first

20 03

Article 75, 164, 361B, Tenth Schedule

Ninty-second Ninty-Third

20 03 20 05

Eighth Schedule

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