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DEPARTMENT OF ANIMAL HUSBANDRY THIRUVARUR

HEALTHY ANIMALS WEALTHY RETURNS

DEPARTMENT OF ANIMAL HUSBANDRY THIRUVARUR

UMBLACHERY CATTLE

DISTRICT COLLECTOR THIRUVARUR

DEPARTMENT OF ANIMAL HUSBANDRY THIRUVARUR

UMBLACHERY CATTLE

THIRU.S.NATARAJAN,I.A.S

DISTRICT COLLECTOR THIRUVARUR.

UMBLACHERY CATTLE(Bos Indicus)


Umblachery cattle breed is an excellent draught breed of Tamil Nadu for its strength and sturdiness. This breed is the native of coastal districts ie. Thiruvarur and Nagapattinam districts of Tamilnadu. This breed is the outcome of selection for short stature suitable for work in marshy paddy fields of eastern districts of Tamilnadu,India. Total estimated population of Umblachery cattle in its breeding tract is 2,83,000.The breedable females,breeding bulls and bullocks constituted 41.66 % , 0.26 % and 24 % respectively.The average herd size is three animals.This is medium sized draught cattle.

HABITAT AND GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION


The name Umblachery has been derived from its place of origin ie. Umblachery village in Nagapattinam district of Tamil Nadu. Umblachery cattle were distributed in coastal region Thiruvarur and Part of Nagapattinam districts of eastern TamilNadu.

Distribution of Umblachery cattle in Tamil Nadu


Typical Umblachery animals are seen in Thiruthuraipoondi union of Thiruvarur district and Keelaiyur, Thalainayar unions of Nagapattinam district. The home tract of Umblachery cattle is located approximately between 10 0 18' and 10 0 54' N and between 79 0 18' and 79 0 48' E with an estimated total area of 3500 square kilometers. The elevation of home tract ranges from 0 to 50 meters above the mean sea level. The mean maximum and minimum temperatures were 32.7 C and 25.1 C respectively. The home tract received a total annual rainfall of 1107.36 mm in 87 rainy days in the year 2011-12. Morphological characteristics Medium sized draught animal. Calves are red or brown in colour at birth,

Calf at birth (brown colour)

Red colour begins to change to grey


Red colour begins to change to grey at three to four months of age. Total grey colour is generally attained at six to eight months of age.

COW - GREY COLOUR


Heifers and cows are grey. In the majority of cows the dark grey colour is present on the face ,neck and pelvic regions. In young males ,darkening of hump,fore and hind quarters of the body occurs at the age of two years. Bulls are grey in colour with dark grey on the head, back and pelvic regions.

WHITE STAR ON FORE HEAD

SWITCH WHITE , SOCKS APPEARANCE IN LEGS , HUMP After castration the dark part of the body begins to change to grey colour in about four months.

UMBLACHERY BULLOCK-GREY COLOUR


The forehead is fairly broad and always has a prominent white star. Horns are medium in thickness short and pointed.In adults curving horns are seen in most of the animals.

UMBLACHERY COW-TYPICAL EAR AND HORN


The ears are short ,erect and horizontally placed. The hump is fairly developed medium in size in bullocks, well developed in bulls and small in cows.

COW-TUCKED UP ABDOMEN, SMALL UDDER


The dewlap is short,thin and extent upto sternum. The legs are short, straight and with white markings called socks or stockings.

The hooves are strong ,small and black in colour or partly or wholly white in colour. The animals are straight and narrow back. The tail is long and tapers gradually below hock and the switch of the tail is white or partially white. The naval flap is inconspicuous and penile sheath in males is well tuckedup to the abdomen. The udder is small and bowl shaped and tuckedup with the abdomen. Teats are small and well set apart. The principal body measurement reveals that this breed of cattle is of medium size and smaller than other breeds of Tamilnadu. A whorl is seen on the hump. These are thin skin coated animals having short and silky hairs. These cattle usually walk like a parade. Have Straight looking head.

SPECIAL CHARACTERISTICS OF UMBLACHERY CATTLE


This breed is suitable for marshy paddy fields in this delta region because of its medium size. The bullocks are capable of doing work for six to seven hours under the hot sun. A pair of Bullocks are able to pull a total load on a cart an average of 2000 kgs over a distance of 20 kilometre in seven hours.

MARSHY PADDY FIELD PLOUGHING


Bullocks are used for ploughing, carting,threshing and levelling the marshy field. Pure breeding of Umblachery breed is done by natural mating and through artificial insemination using the frozen semen . The cows are capable of producing one calf per year upto 10 calves in its life span. The fat percentage of this breed cows milk is ranging from 4.5 % to 5.5 % and more tastier than other breed of cows milk.(SNF 8%) When compare to crossbred animals Umblachery cattle are more resistant to infectious diseases. Umblachery cows are capable of giving 2.5 litre milk perday ie 1.5 litre in the morning and 1 litre in the evening. Cows lactation period is around 8 months. By instant skin twitching it avoids flies and other insects to sit on its body.This is a typical character in this breed only. MANAGEMENT PRACTICES Farmers adopted both closed and open type of housing mostly kutcha type with mud flooring and walls.Animals were housed in the night hours only. In day times animals are allowed for grazing.Paddy straw is main staple fodder for Umblachery cattle. After harvesting of paddy ( January-February) herdmen collect the animals from various villages and maintain them on grazing for six months upto june. During night these herds were penned on agricultural fields for manure collection purpose and herdmen sell the collected manure from the pen. The herd size usually ranged from 250 to 400 animals. Cows and heifers in the herd entirely bred naturally by one or two bulls. The male calves were dehorned at 10-12 months of age using hot iron rod. During dehorning pruning of ears was also practiced. At the time of Castration hot iron branding was done across both sides of the gluteal region. The branding is done that the farmers believes the vigor of the bullock will increase and also for disease resistance. Bulls are allowed to breed at 3.5 to 4 years old. Castration of bulls done at the age about 2.5 to 3 years old by country method using two wooden rods crushing testicles or by using Burdizzo castrator.

Vaccination is done against Black Quarter disease and Foot and Mouth Disease and Anthrax for these cattle regularly. Umblachery cattle breed has its own divisions namely 1.ATTUKKARI MADU 2.GANAPATHIYAN MADU 3.VENNA MADU 4.SOORYANKATTU MADU These names are derived from the original early breeders of this breed and the geographical area of that animals where they were reared.

CATTLE FARM AT KORUKAI FOR UMBLACHERY BREED IMPROVEMENT


The Government of Tamilnadu has established a farm in 1954 at Orathanadu (Tanjore district) to develop this breed.And then a new farm was later started in Korukai near Umblachery village to conserve Umblachery breed in its home tract. Through Tamil Nadu Livestock Development Agency 40 heifers were distributed to Umblachery Cattle Herders Association members at free of cost during 2004 for preserving the germplasm of native breed. The Animal Husbandry Department Frozen semen bank at Exotic cattle breeding farm Eachankottai is maintaining Umblachery bulls and collecting semen stored in liquid nitrogen and distributing the frozen semen straws to veterinary institution for artificial insemination to increase the umblachery cattle population in Thanjavur ,Thiruvarur and Nagapattinam districts.

UMBLACHERY CATTLE HERD VETERINARY DISPENSARY AT UMBLACHERY

The Animal Husbandry Department starts functioning from 2005 a Veterinary Dispensary at Umblachery to give health coverage .

UMBLACHERY CATTLE HERDERS ASSOCIATION


An Association, a registered body is functioning to enhance the collective capacity of the cattle herders / livestock keepers for conservation of Umblachery cattle breed in wet land tract of TamilNadu state.One of the objective of this association is to empower resource poor herders,women and marginal farmers conserving Umblachery cattle breed and other local livestock. This association make network with various social activisits / stake holders at local ,state and national level to work out conservation strategies and action plan for preservation of indigenous livestock breeds.

Prepared by Dr.M.MaDhanagopal & Dr.C.Theivavirutham