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Optimization Model - Hybrid Car

Optimization Model - Hybrid Car

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Published by Umair Khizar
Self Designed Optimization Model of Hybrid Car.
Just a guide for optimization starters.
Self Designed Optimization Model of Hybrid Car.
Just a guide for optimization starters.

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Published by: Umair Khizar on Aug 05, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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OPTIMIZATION MODEL - HYBRID CAR 1. Introduction of the System.

The system chosen for this assignment is

Hybrid Car which is primarily uses two or more distinct power sources to move the vehicle. The term most commonly refers to hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), which combine an internal combustion engine and one or more electric motors. Hybrid Cars are categorized as passenger cars. 2. Mission. To maximize the hp of hybrid vehicle when operating on both engine and electric vehicle in a manner that it should not increase 150 hp.

Figure 1 3. Sub Systems of the Hybrid Car There are various sub systems of the Hybrid Car. The main sub systems of a Hybrid Car are as follows; a. b. c. The Gasoline Engine. Consisting of piston cylinder engine with four valves (2 intake and 2 exhaust) valves for increase of efficiency. Fuel Tank. Used to supply fuel to gasoline engine or it’s a energy storage device for Hybrid Vehicle. Electric Motor. On hybrid Cars an electric motor is supposed to be very sophisticated. Advanced electronics allow it to act as a motor as well as a generator. For example, when it needs to, it can draw energy from the batteries to accelerate the car. But acting as a generator, it can slow the car down and return energy to the batteries.


Batteries. These are the energy storage device for the electric motor. Unlike the gasoline in the fuel tank, which can only power the gasoline engine, the electric motor on a hybrid car can put energy into the batteries as well as draw energy from them.



The purpose of transmission is to carry the power of

engine or the electric motor to wheels through differential. (Source: http://auto.howstuffworks.com/hybrid-car2.htm) 4. How Systems Interact with Each Other. In a *Hybrid Car like simpler cars Engine, Fuel Tank and the Transmission interact with each other. Owing to limited number of subsystems the complete power train comprising other elements like steering system, propeller shafts, differentials and half shafts are not explained here. However, the primary systems can be broken down into two main systems ie Mechanical and the Electrical. The electrical and mechanical subsystems interact with each other to drive the transmission that turns the wheels. The various interactions taking place between these sub systems can be summarized in the following sequence of action which takes place once we turn on the ignition: “Once we turn the ignition, electric motor spins the flywheel as kick start to move the pistons inside the engine. Once the cylinder which is having its piston at top dead centre receives the spark, trust is carried to crank shaft through the connecting rod which gets a rotation. As a result of rotation the other piston reaches top dead centre and receives the spark, thus giving a thrust to crankshaft so the cycle goes on. Crankshaft is connected to transmission through power train ie propeller shaft etc. Transmission drives the wheels through the differential and the half shafts. The electric motor is also connected to transmission which is gets power from the batteries. The batteries have limited power which are required to be recharged through reroute electrical supply. A slice of bread is placed through a slot in the top of the toaster and into the carriage. Thus combination is a parallel type wherein the engine and electric motor both work to turn the transmission. Thereby lowering the fuel required by a simple passenger car to run. Vehicle is to be designed with 1000 cc wherein a non hybrid vehicle consumes 12 liters/ km.

Hybrid Vehicle – Optimization Model

(*Own description of vehicle function)

Hybrid Vehicle – Optimization Model

4. System Requirements. under:a. b. c.

The *requirements of a hybrid car are as

Electric motor should have at-least 1800 RPM. Vehicle hp should increase by 25% when operating on both engine and electric motor as compared to when it is only operated on engine. Transmission should be capable of withholding the driving power of both the engine and the electric motor ie it must be capable of sustaining at least 150 hp at a time.

d. e. f. g.

Vehicle max speed should not be less than 80 km/ hr. Fuel tank capacity should be not less than 20 liters. Vehicle weight should not exceed 2000 kg with full tank. Batteries chosen in a way that electric motor receives at most 60 hertz power supply. (*Own design for formulation of optimization model) 5. Development of Objective Functions, Decision Variables and Constraints The optimal control problem under study consists in minimizing the fuel consumption of the vehicle. A Hybrid Car has to be operated by engine as well as electric motor, therefore the two design variables are • • 6. Hp of Engine – X1 Hp of Electric Motor -- X2

From above mentioned requirements we obtain constraints as follows; X1 + X2 > .25 X1 X1 + X2 <= 150


We know that Engine Hp = weight x (speed/ 234)3 S > 80 km / hr W < 2000 kg ap_speed_method_horsepower.php) Speed Constraint Weight Constraint


Hybrid Vehicle – Optimization Model


Also Electric Motor Hp = (Torque x RPM) / 5252 Where RPM = (120 x F)/ P <= 1800 F = supply frequency (in cycles/sec) P = number of motor winding poles = 4 (Source = http://www.elec-toolbox.com/Formulas/Motor/mtrform.htm) RPM Constraint


So the *Objective Function becomes: Maximize H = {weight x (speed/ 234)3} X1 + {(Torque x RPM) / 5252} X2 Subject to:

a. b. c. d. e.

X1 + X2 > .25 X1 X1 + X2 <= 150 S > 80 km / hr W < 2000 kg RPM = (120 x F)/ P <= 1800 And fol parameters: • • • 0 <= S <= 80 1500 <= W <= 1800 150 <= T <= 190

- Engine Hp relation Constraint - Total Hp of vehicle Constraint - Speed Constraint - Weight Constraint - RPM Constraint - Speed Parameter - Weight Parameter - Torque Parameter (*Self designed optimization model)

Hybrid Vehicle – Optimization Model

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