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Roxana Nazaripooya Department of Quality Tools and Integration, General Manager, Iran Khodro Company(BB) email@example.com Mohsen Mosayebi Department of Quality Tools and Integration, Manager, Iran Khodro Company(MBB)
Farshid Hosseinabadi Department of Quality Tools and Integration, Expert, Iran Khodro Company(BB)
Maryam Norouzi Department of Quality Tools and Integration, Expert, Iran Khodro Company(BB)
Abstract Many of the chronic problems in a car manufacturing company associated with quality, cost and delivery are the result of increased complexity in such industry. The Problem solving methods and expertise teams strives to make complexity more manageable and bring the chronic problem into solution. In present paper, the systematic and structured problem solving tools (simple six sigma tools with DMAIC cycle) and cross functional teams are used to reduce the defect of noise in 405 Peugeot cars, which was one of the most chronic defects of this car and one of the first items in final customer dissatisfaction. Such complex defect has consisted of so many sub-problems which must be solved and different parameters which must be brought under control. Using a very simple six sigma tools such complicated problem of this case study shows more than 60% DPU (Defect per Unit) improvement. The intent of writing this article is to present the reader with an actual case study for structuring and improvement of six sigma projects which does not need necessarily complex six sigma tools.
Key words: Iran khodro, Noise, Peugeot 405, Six Sigma
The great pioneer companies like GE, Motorola, American express, are just some of the successful companies which have taken benefits of six sigma in recent years that brings them incredible increase in profits and market share. Industries in our country special car manufacturing industry are passing critical era. They must prepare themselves as soon as possible to enter world of competitive market. So they have to increase quality to worldwide level and decrease the costs to reach economical scale in production. They can use six sigma tools as a key to reach these targets. This can be done by defining improvement projects with a very systematic phase through problem solving (as we have six sigma) .
1. Define Phase
In order to clarify present situation, complete information about noise of cars has been gathered by gemba investigations and measurements, which became the basis of project definition. In define phase, team working scope, team members and champions, targets and CTQ is defined. In Fig.1 the main charter of project, which included mentioned information, has been shown.
The main controllable characteristic of this project (y) is the negative score of whole defects are regarding to noise of vehicle, which is measured by third level auditor (IDRO).
2. Measurement phase
Regarding to final audits’ information (the audit which represents customer view and is done after commercialization of car. this process is doing in car manufacturing of Iran officially by IDRO ), it is shown that level of internal and external noise of car is above Iran Khodro’s standard limits.
The measured amount of noise of total sampled cars has shown in Fig.2
I Chart of BEFORE
1.2 1.0 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.0 1 2 Observation 3 4 UB=0.3 _ X=0.2 LB=0
Fig.2 Based on present information, it is clear that the sigma level of process is ZERO. In early analysis, three modules which are noise source in cars, has been distinguished:
1. Internal noise of car 2. External noise of car 3. Under body noise
In Fig.3 the list of parts and positions casting noise has been detailed
Moving side glasses Parcel shelf Dashboard’s door Front seat Dashboard B pillar and its cover front door Rear door Steering wheel lever Steering wheel’s cover radio cover Front glass Headlamp Doorframes Gear levers A pillar Fuel tank’s door Trunk’s door Door hinges Rear doors’ locks spring of trunk door Engine CNG regulator Hydraulic pump Axle Front wheel tire front springs exhaust
under body noise
And based on measurements a Pareto diagram of sources can be pictured as below:
Sub Projects, IDRO negative points
0.12 ID RO Negative Points 0.1 0.08 0.06 0.04 0.02 0
d F r o or on ts ea D as t hb oa Tr rd un k’s do D riv or er ’s se B at pi Ot lla he ra rs nd i ts c F r o ve on r tg la ss do or s ow ls as h D bo he lf
Because of numerous sources of causing noise in cars, 32 subprojects have been defined to decrease and control the noise problems in 405. For this aim all projects must have been started and improved simultaneously. The start date of projects is mid September and the predicted duration was 6 month.
Based Pareto diagram, the most important sources of noise in 405 cars can be narrowed down to: 1. Fuel tank’s door 2. Side windows 3. Parcel shelf 4. Dashboard 5. Driver’s seat 6. Trunk door
3. Analyze phase
For analyzing each important source of defect, which mentioned before (7 items), has been analyzed separately and using brain storming and gemba investigation. 5M of defect have been drawn. (One sample has been presented in Fig.5 for noise of front driver’s seat)
After investigating potential causes of the most repetitive defects, repetitive root causes are known and related corrective action has been considered to be followed up in next phases.
Knowing potential and practical root causes based on brainstorming, fish bone diagrams, and also gemba investigations, Leaded us to real repetitive causes which need to be corrected and solved. So related corrective action has been defined A sample of action plans for noise of front seat has been presented in Fig.6
SEAT ACTION PLAN
1 2 3 4 5 6 Decreasing the loosing tolerance in recliner of seat Adding a specific tat around the foam of seat to decrease the rubbing noise Defining and applying proper welding point in joint venture of two parts of seat for decreasing metal parts contacts Define and apply proper gap between seat cover and its structure Cutting down the stopper slider of seat Decreasing noise of fuel regulator (CNG) SAPCO SAPCO SAPCO SAPCO R&D SAPCO
5. Control phase
In the beginning of this project the negative score (based on defect per unit) was 1.053, the target of noise in 405 cars was 0.2, but using systematic problem solving with support of managers reached us to 0.15 DPU (Fig.9)
I Chart FOR DPU OF NOISE
BEFORE 1.2 1.0 Individual Value 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.0 1 2 3 4 5 Observation 6 7 8 UB=0.3 _ X=0.2 LB=0 AFTER
In this paper application of a systematic problem solving has briefly explained which resulted in noticeable improvement of a defect situation (noise of 405 cars). This has been done with the help of “DMAIC” tools. The sigma level of this defect has increased wonderfully from zero to 2.175 and so the negative score from 1.053 has been decreased to 0.15 (below the target of 0.2 of project). In summary, it can be claimed that application of six sigma can help us to reach enormous redaction in cost (based on redaction of level of reworks and scrubs which is the logical result of a decreasing defects). Improvement in product and process quality level and so sup rising improvement in profit making and share of markets. These are essential items for companies’ survival in present competitive world. Beside standardization and publication of case studies can help trainings and spreading the six sigma knowledge application in” learning organization “.
1-Hidetoshi Shibata (2003) "ProblemSolving: Definition, terminology, and patterns" 2- Raskin, Andy, “A Higher Plane of Problem Solving”. TRIZ Journal, June 2003, Vol. 4, Issue 5, p. 54 3- Darrell L., Mann, "Better technology forecasting using systematic innovation methods", Technological Forecasting & Social Change Journal, Vol. 70, pp 779- 795. 2003. 4-Kane,V.E(1986)"Process Capability Index"Journal of Quality Technology,Vol,18.
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