18050016 Cell Phone Based Voting Machine | Central Processing Unit | Capacitor

A MAJOR PROJECT ON

CELL PHONE BASED VOTING MACHINE
SUBMITTED IN THE PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF REQUIRMENT FOR THE AWARD OF THE DEGREE OF

BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY
IN

ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGG.
FROM

KURUKSHETRA UNIVERSITY,KURUKSHETRA

SUBMITTED BY:
NIKHIL (1705429) HEMANT KUMAR (1705433) PRIYANSHU CHAUHAN (1705439)

GUIDED BY:
Prof. G.C. Lall CO-GUIDED BY: Asstt. Prof. Vijay Lamba

DEPTT. OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING HARYANA COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY & MANAGEMENT AMBALA ROAD, KAITHAL-136027

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
Many lives & destinies are destroyed due to the lack of proper guidance, directions & opportunities. It is in this respect I feel that I am in much better condition today due to continuous process of motivation & focus provided by my parents & teachers in general. The process of completion of this project was a tedious job & requires care & support at all stages. I would like to highlight the role played by individuals towards this. I am eternally grateful to honorable principal Dr. D.P. Gupta for providing us the opportunity & infrastructure to complete the project as a partial fulfillment of B.Tech degree. I am very thankful to Asst. Prof. Rajiv Chechi, Head of Department, for his kind support & faith in us. I would like to express my sincere thanks, with deep sense of gratitude to my project guide Prof. G.C Lall for their keen interests my project. I also thank Mr. Varun Sharma for his valuable help in our project. I am also thankful to all visible & invisible hands which helped us to complete this project with a feeling of success.

Nikhil (1705429)

Hemant Kumar (1705433)

Priyanshu Chauhan (1705439)

(i)

CERTIFICATE
We hereby certify the work which is being presented in the project entitled

“CELL PHONE BASED VOTING MACHINE” by “NIKHIL SHARMA, HEMANT KUMAR, PRIYANSHU CAUHAN” in partial fulfillment of requirements for the award of degree B.Tech (Electronics & Communication Engg.) submitted in the Department of Electronics & Communication Engg. at Haryana College Of Technology & Management, Kaithal under Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra is carried out during a period from August2008 to December2008 under the supervision of “Prof. G.C. Lall” Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering, HCTM Kaithal. The matter presented in this project has not been submitted by me in any other University/ Institue for the award of B.Tech. Degree. NIKHIL SHARMA (1705429) PRIYANSHU CHAUHAN (1705439) This is to certify that the above statement made by the candidate is correct to the best of my/our knowledge. HEMANT KUMAR (1705433)

Prof. G.C. Lall Project Guide

Asstt. Prof. Vijay Lamba Project Co-guide

The B.Tech Viva Voce Examination of “Nikhil Sharma, Hemant Kumar, Priyanshu Chauhan” has been held on _____________ and accepted.

(Asstt. Prof. Rajiv Chechi) H.O.D

(ii)

ABSTRACT
India is world’s largest democracy. Fundamental right to vote or simply voting in elections forms the basis of Indian democracy. In India all earlier elections a voter used to cast his vote by using ballot paper. This is a long, time-consuming process and very much prone to errors. This situation continued till election scene was completely changed by electronic voting machine. No more ballot paper, ballot boxes, stamping, etc. all this condensed into a simple box called ballot unit of the electronic voting machine. Cell phone based voting machine is capable of saving considerable printing stationery and transport of large volumes of electoral material. It is easy to transport, store, and maintain. It completely rules out the chance of invalid votes. Its use results in reduction of polling time, resulting in fewer problems in electoral preparations, law and order, candidates' expenditure, etc. and easy and accurate counting without any mischief at the counting centre. Our cell phone based voting machine consists of microcontroller ATMEL AT89S51, a DTMF decoder CM8870C, a memory storage device EEPROM. DTMF is sent to the microcontroller which is decoded by CM8870C and the password is fed with the candidate number. The EEPROM is used to store the memory in case of power failure. This project is based on assembly language programming. The software platform used in this project are Keil uVision3 and SPIPGM37.

LIST OF TABLES
TABLE NO.
1.1 1.2 1.3 4.1

TOPIC
List of Components Port 1 Configuration Port 3 Configuration Cost Analysis

PAGE NO.
3 7 8 35

(iv)

2 TOPIC Pin Diagram of AT89S51 Block Diagram of AT89S51 Pin Diagram of CM8870C Pin Diagram of 24C16 Voltage Regulator 7805 Schematic Diagram of LCD Power Supply Bridge Rectifier Basic Forms of Transformer Diode Symbol of Capacitor Capacitor & Battery Connection LED & LED Symbol Block Diagram Circuit Diagram PAGE NO.7 1. 1.9 1.2 1. 5 10 14 16 17 17 18 19 20 20 22 22 23 33 34 (v) .3 1.4 1.11 1.5 1.12 1.LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE NO.1 3.6 1.10 1.13 3.8 1.1 1.

(i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) Chapter 1  Introduction Chapter 2          Literature Review 24-29 1-23 Chapter 3 PCB Designing Working Block Diagram Circuit Diagram 30-31 32 33 34 Chapter 4 Cost Analysis Problem Faced & Troubleshooting 35 36 Chapter 5 Conclusion Future Scope 37 37 REFERENCES APPENDIX   Program Coding Datasheets 38 39-49 50-56 .CONTENTS CONTENTS Certificate Acknowledgement Abstract List of Tables List of Figures Page No.

MAJOR PROJECT REPORT: CELL PHONE BASED VOTING MACHINE 1 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION & COMPONENTS INTRODUCTION The aim of our project is to design & develop a mobile based voting machine. In this project user can dial the specific number from any land line or mobile phone to cast his vote. A reset button is provided for resetting the system. These tones (one from low group for row and another from high group for column) are sent to the exchange when a digit is dialed by pushing the key. here tones rather than make/break pulse are used for dialing. HARYANA COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY & MANAGEMENT KAITHAL . this minimisator is made possible by forming pairs with one tone from the higher group and the other from the lower of frequencies. IC 8870 converts the dual tones to corresponding binary outputs. A total key is provided to display the result. one from a lower group ( 697-940 Hz) and the other from a higher group ( 1209-1663 Hz). Actually. Each group contains four individual DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUICATION ENGG. We have also used non-volatile memory for storing all data. and are chosen so as to minimize the possibility of any valid frequency pair existing in normal speech simultaneously. DTMF SIGNALLING AC register signaling is used in DTMF telephones. EEPROM will preserve all information in case of power failure. If he has entered a valid choice & password his vote will be caste with two short duration beeps. User is allotted 15 seconds to enter his password & choice. A valid DTMF signal is the sum of two tones. each dialed digit is uniquely represented by a pair of sine waves tones. Once the user is connected to the voting machine he can enter his password & choice of vote. these tone lies within the speech band of 300 to 3400 HZ. For invalid password/choice long beep will be generated. In this project all information is transmitted through DTMF tones. The major block & their functions are described in details below. DTMF DECODER In DTMF decoder circuit we use IC 8870.

The DTMF signal contains only one component from each of the high and low group. Ten of these code represent digits 1 through 9 and 0. DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUICATION ENGG. . This significantly simplifies decoding because the composite DTMF signal may be separated with band pass filters into single frequency components. Therefore is no change of distortion caused by harmonics. HARYANA COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY & MANAGEMENT KAITHAL . Each tone is sent as along as the key remains pressed.MAJOR PROJECT REPORT: CELL PHONE BASED VOTING MACHINE 2 tones. This scheme allows 10 unique combinations. each of which may be handled individually. tones in DTMF dialing are so chose that none of the tones is harmonic of are other tone.

1µf.1000µf) Diodes Mobile Speaker Port Mobile MIC Port Quantity 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 10 17 5 1 1 DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUICATION ENGG.100KΩ.. no 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Equipment IC AT89S51 MC IC MT8870DE IC ATMEL AT24C16 Voltage Regulator 7805 2 line LCD display Transformer Crystal Oscillator Switch LED Resistors(1KΩ.MAJOR PROJECT REPORT: CELL PHONE BASED VOTING MACHINE 3 COMPONENTS LIST OF COMPONENTS USED Table No.1 List of components Sr.47kΩ. 1.10µf.) Capacitors(22pf.470µf.330kΩ.10KΩ. HARYANA COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY & MANAGEMENT KAITHAL .

0V to 5.5V Operating Range Fully Static Operation: 0 Hz to 33 MHz Three-level Program Memory Lock 128 x 8-bit Internal RAM 32 Programmable I/O Lines Two 16-bit Timer/Counters Six Interrupt Sources Full Duplex UART Serial Channel Low-power Idle and Power-down Modes Interrupt Recovery from Power-down Mode Watchdog Timer Dual Data Pointer Power-off Flag Fast Programming Time Flexible ISP Programming (Byte and Page Mode) DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUICATION ENGG.MAJOR PROJECT REPORT: CELL PHONE BASED VOTING MACHINE 4 COMPONENT DESCRIPTION 1) MICRO-CONTROLLER AT89S51 FEATURES                  Compatible with MCS-51® Products 4K Bytes of In-System Programmable (ISP) Flash Memory– Endurance: 1000 Write/Erase Cycles 4. HARYANA COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY & MANAGEMENT KAITHAL .

Watchdog timer. timer/counters. and clock circuitry. the AT89S51 is designed with static logic for operation down to zero frequency and supports two software selectable power saving modes. two data pointers. the Atmel AT89S51 is a powerful microcontroller which provides a highly-flexible and costeffective solution to many embedded control applications. PIN DIAGRAM Figure No. two 16-bit timer/counters. 1. disabling all other chip functions until the next external interrupt or hardware reset. By combining a versatile 8-bit CPU with in-system programmable Flash on a monolithic chip. 128 bytes of RAM. In addition. serial port.1: Pin Diagram of AT89S51 DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUICATION ENGG. a five vector two-level interrupt architecture. 32 I/O lines. high-performance CMOS 8-bit microcontroller with 4K bytes of in-system programmable Flash memory. The AT89S51 provides the following standard features: 4K bytes of Flash.MAJOR PROJECT REPORT: CELL PHONE BASED VOTING MACHINE 5 DESCRIPTION The AT89S51 is a low-power. HARYANA COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY & MANAGEMENT KAITHAL . The Idle Mode stops the CPU while allowing the RAM. The Power-down mode saves the RAM contents but freezes the oscillator.standard 80C51 instruction set and pin out. on-chip oscillator. The device is manufactured using Atmel‟s highdensity non-volatile memory technology and is compatible with the industry. The on-chip Flash allows the program memory to be reprogrammed in-system or by a conventional non-volatile memory programmer. and interrupt system to continue functioning. a full duplex serial port.

HIGH LEVEL LANGUAGE A high level language like C may be used to write programs for processors. Ease of programming and portability. The instructions are also called opcodes or machine codes. DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUICATION ENGG.MAJOR PROJECT REPORT: CELL PHONE BASED VOTING MACHINE 6 PROCESSOR A processor is an electronic device capable of manipulating data in a way specified by a sequence of instructions. Different numbers. The sequence of instructions may be altered to suit the application. ASSEMBLER An assembly language program should be converted to machine language for execution by processor. INSTRUCTIONS Instructions in a computer are binary numbers just like data. Different bit patterns activate or deactivate different parts of the processing core. But it must be converted into machine language for execution by processor. A program written in mnemonics Form is called an assembly language program.so each instructions is given a symbolic notation in English language called as mnemonics. Special software called ASSEMBLER converts a program written in mnemonics to its equivalent machine opcodes. Every processor has its own instruction set varying in number. when read and executed by a processor. HARYANA COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY & MANAGEMENT KAITHAL . PROGRAM The sequence of instructions is what constitutes a program. ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE Writing and understanding such programs in binary or hexadecimal form is very difficult . bit pattern and functionality. cause different things to happen. Software called compiler converts this high level language program down to machine code.

When 1s are written to port 0 pins. Port 0: Port 0 is an 8-bit open drain bidirectional I/O port.MAJOR PROJECT REPORT: CELL PHONE BASED VOTING MACHINE 7 PIN DESCRIPTION VCC: Supply voltage. When 1s are written to Port 1 pins. As inputs. they are pulled high by the internal pull-ups and can be used as inputs. GND: Ground. Table 1. P0 has internal pullups. Port 2 emits the high-order address byte during fetches from external program memory and during accesses to external data memory that use 16-bit addresses (MOVX @ DPTR). Port 2 uses strong internal pull-ups when emitting 1s. Port 1: Port 1 is an 8-bit bidirectional I/O port with internal pull-ups. The Port 1 output buffers can sink/source four TTL inputs. each pin can sink eight TTL inputs. Port 1 pins that are externally being pulled low will source current (IIL) because of the internal pull-ups. In this application.2 : Port 1 Configuration Port 2: Port 2 is an 8-bit bidirectional I/O port with internal pull-ups. they are pulled high by the internal pull-ups and can be used as inputs. The Port 2 output buffers can sink/source four TTL inputs. Port 0 can also be configured to be the multiplexed low-order address/data bus during accesses to external program and data memory. HARYANA COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY & MANAGEMENT KAITHAL . Port 2 pins that are externally being pulled low will source current (IIL) because of the internal pull-ups. External pull-ups are required during program verification. the pins can be used as highimpedance inputs. DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUICATION ENGG. As an output port. When 1s are written to Port 2 pins. As inputs. Port 0 also receives the code bytes during Flash programming and outputs the code bytes during program verification. In this mode.

ALE operation can be disabled by setting bit 0 of SFR location 8EH. This pin drives High for 98 oscillator periods after the Watchdog times out. Note. As inputs. HARYANA COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY & MANAGEMENT KAITHAL . The Port 3 output buffers can sink/source four TTL inputs. DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUICATION ENGG. Port 3 pins that are externally being pulled low will source current (IIL) because of the pull-ups. When 1s are written to Port 3 pins. however.MAJOR PROJECT REPORT: CELL PHONE BASED VOTING MACHINE 8 Port 3 Port 3 is an 8-bit bidirectional I/O port with internal pull-ups. In the default state of bit DISRTO. A high on this pin for two machine cycles while the oscillator is running resets the device. ALE is emitted at a constant rate of 1/6 the oscillator frequency and may be used for external timing or clocking purposes. If desired. ALE/PROG Address Latch Enable (ALE) is an output pulse for latching the low byte of the address during accesses to external memory. as shown in the following table: Table 1. the RESET HIGH out feature is enabled. The DISRTO bit in SFR AUXR (address 8EH) can be used to disable this feature. they are pulled high by the internal pull-ups and can be used as inputs. In normal operation.3: Port 3 Configuration RST Reset input. that one ALE pulse is skipped during each access to external data memory. Port 3 receives some control signals for Flash programming and verification. Port 3 also serves the functions of various special features of the AT89S51. This pin is also the program pulse input (PROG) during Flash programming.

that if lock bit 1 is programmed. EA must be strapped to GND in order to enable the device to fetch code from external program memory locations starting at 0000H up to FFFFH. This pin also receives the 12-volt programming enable voltage (VPP) during Flash programming. Note. except that two PSEN activations are skipped during each access to external data memory. however. HARYANA COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY & MANAGEMENT KAITHAL . When the AT89S51 is executing code from external program memory.MAJOR PROJECT REPORT: CELL PHONE BASED VOTING MACHINE 9 PSEN Program Store Enable (PSEN) is the read strobe to external program memory. EA will be internally latched on reset. XTAL1 Input to the inverting oscillator amplifier and input to the internal clock operating circuit. PSEN is activated twice each machine cycle. XTAL2 Output from the inverting oscillator amplifier DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUICATION ENGG. EA/VPP External Access Enable.

2: Block Diagram of Microcontroller DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUICATION ENGG. 1. HARYANA COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY & MANAGEMENT KAITHAL .MAJOR PROJECT REPORT: CELL PHONE BASED VOTING MACHINE 10 PROCESSOR ARCHITECTURE Figure No.

REGISTERS Registers are the internal storage for the processor.  CONTROL REGISTERS Contains configuration bits that affect processor operation and the operating modes of various internal subsystems. Operands are generally transferred from two registers or from one register and memory location to ALU data inputs.  WORKING REGISTERS Temporary storage during ALU Operations and data transfers. The result of the operation is the placed back into a given destination register or memory location from ALU output. HARYANA COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY & MANAGEMENT KAITHAL . Rotate Left/right . XOR . The number of registers varies significantly between processor architectures. OR .  STATUS REGISTERS Stores the current status of various flags denoting conditions resulting from various operations. Not .MAJOR PROJECT REPORT: CELL PHONE BASED VOTING MACHINE 11 ALU The Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) performs the internal arithmetic manipulation of data line processor. AND . Some ALU supports Multiplication and Division. The instructions read and executed by the processor decide the operations performed by the ALU and also control the flow of data between registers and ALU. NAND . Subtraction . Operations performed by the ALU are Addition . NOR . Shift Left/Right . DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUICATION ENGG. Compare etc.  INDEX REGISTERS Points to memory addresses.

circuit. low capacity. organized as sectors. UV Erasing.MAJOR PROJECT REPORT: CELL PHONE BASED VOTING MACHINE 12 MEMORY Memory is used to hold data and program for the processor. BUSES A bus is a physical group of signal lines that have a related function. used for shipping in final products.  SRAM Volatile. Used for system development and debugging. large capacity. highest capacity needs continuous refreshing.  EEPROM Electrically erasable and programmable. HARYANA COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY & MANAGEMENT KAITHAL . requires lesser external support circuitry. relatively slow. fast. Hence require external circuitry. can be erased programmed in. expensive.  DRAM Volatile.  FLASH Electrically programmable & erasable.  OTP ROM One time programmable. Processor buses are of three types:    Data bus Address bus Control bus DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUICATION ENGG.  EPROM Erasable programmable. Buses allow for the transfer of electrical signals between different parts of the processor. Used for storing system parameters.

18-pin DIP EIAJ. or 20-pin PLCC package. This device contains input protection against damage due to high static voltages or electric fields. HARYANA COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY & MANAGEMENT KAITHAL . ADC/DAC. MAX) and precise data handling. precautions should be taken to avoid application of voltages higher than the maximum rating. It has full control over the clock distribution unit of processor. I/O Peripherals The I/O devices are used by the processor to communicate with the external world    Parallel Ports. 20-pin PLCC DESCRIPTION The CAMD CM8870/70C provides full DTMF receiver capability by integrating both the band-split filter and digital decoder functions into a single 18-pin DIP. 18-pin SOIC.MAJOR PROJECT REPORT: CELL PHONE BASED VOTING MACHINE 13 CONTROLLER LOGIC Processor brain decodes instructions and generate control signal for various sub units. The filter section uses a switched capacitor technique for both high and low group filters and dial tone rejection. The CM8870/70C decoder uses digital counting techniques for the detection and decoding of all 16 DTMF tone pairs into a 4-bit code. Serial Ports. DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUICATION ENGG. SOIC. The CM8870/70C is manufactured using state-of-the-art CMOS process technology for low power consumption (35mW. however. 2) IC CM8870 FEATURES       Full DTMF receiver Less than 35mW power consumption Industrial temperature range Uses quartz crystal or ceramic resonators Adjustable acquisition and release times 18-pin DIP.

HARYANA COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY & MANAGEMENT KAITHAL . Q4: Tone pair received StD: Delayed Steering output ESt: Early steering output St/Gt: Steering input/guard VDD: Positive power supply IC: Internal connection DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUICATION ENGG.MAJOR PROJECT REPORT: CELL PHONE BASED VOTING MACHINE 14 PIN DIAGRAM Fig No.: Pin Diagram of CM8870C PIN CONFIGURATION IN+: Non-inverting IN–: Inverting GS: Gain select VREF: Reference Output Voltage (nominally VDD/2) INH: Inhibits OSC3: Digital buffered oscillator output PD: Power down OSC1: Clock input OSC2: Clock output VSS: Negative power supply TOE: Three-state output enable (Input) Q1: Three-state outputs Q2. Q3.

2. 8K.5V)          Internally Organized 128 x 8 (1K).5V) – 1.7V) and 400 kHz (5V) Compatibility 8-byte Page (1K. 16K) Write Modes Partial Page Writes are Allowed Self-timed Write Cycle (10 ms max) High-reliability – Endurance: 1 Million Write Cycles – Data Retention: 100 Years   Automotive Grade and Extended Temperature Devices Available 8-lead PDIP. 256 x 8 (2K). 8-lead JEDEC SOIC.MAJOR PROJECT REPORT: CELL PHONE BASED VOTING MACHINE 15 3) ATMEL 24C16 FEATURES  Low-voltage and Standard-voltage Operation – 2. 2K). 16-byte Page (4K.7V to 5.8V.7 (VCC = 2. 8-lead MAP and 8-lead TSSOP Packages DESCRIPTION The AT24C01A/02/04/08/16 provides 1024/2048/4096/8192/16384 bits of serial electrically erasable and programmable read-only memory (EEPROM) organized as 128/256/512/1024/2048 words of 8 bits each. DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUICATION ENGG. 8-lead MAP and 8-lead TSSOP packages and is accessed via a 2-wire serial interface.8 (VCC = 1. 8-lead JEDEC SOIC. The device is optimized for use in many industrial and commercial applications where low-power and low-voltage operation are essential. Filtered Inputs for Noise Suppression Bi-directional Data Transfer Protocol 100 kHz (1. 2. The AT24C01A/02/04/08/16 is available in space-saving 8-pin PDIP. 1024 x 8 (8K) or 2048 x 8 (16K) 2-wire Serial Interface Schmitt Trigger. 512 x 8 (4K).8V to 5. HARYANA COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY & MANAGEMENT KAITHAL .5V.

HARYANA COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY & MANAGEMENT KAITHAL . DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUICATION ENGG.0 A No external component required Internal thermal overload protection Internal short circuit current limiting Output transistor safe-area compensation Output voltage offered in 2% and 4% tolerance Available I n surface mount D2PAK and standard 3-lead transistor packages Previous commercial temperature range has been extended to a junction temperature range of -40 degree C to +125 degree C. Pin Diagram of AT 24C16 PIN CONFIGURATION A0 .MAJOR PROJECT REPORT: CELL PHONE BASED VOTING MACHINE 16 PIN DIAGRAM Fig No.A2 : Address Inputs SDA : Serial Data SCL : Serial Clock Input WP : Write Protect NC : No Connect GND : Ground 4) VOLTAGE REGULATOR FEATURES         Output current in Excess of 1.

We will start with something simple. 1. Many of fixed voltage regulator ICs has 3 leads. thus it should work with most. This example doesn't use the Bi-directional feature found on newer ports.8: Schematic Diagram of LCD Display DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUICATION ENGG. Most regulators include some automatic protection from excessive current and overheating (thermal protection).MAJOR PROJECT REPORT: CELL PHONE BASED VOTING MACHINE 17 DESCRIPTION Voltage regulator ICs are available with fixed (typically 5. They include a hole for attaching a heat sink if necessary. if not all Parallel Ports. These LCD Modules are very common these days. mainly for use in dual supplies.5: 7805 Voltage Regulator 5) LCD DISPLAY This is the first interfacing example for the Parallel Port. The maximum current they can pass also rates them. Figure No. as all the logic required to run them is on board. and are quite simple to work with. Figure No. 1. HARYANA COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY & MANAGEMENT KAITHAL . Negative voltage regulators are available. 12 and 15V) or variable output voltages.

Nothing fancy here. This will cause no bus conflicts on the data lines.10: Power Supply DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUICATION ENGG. I've left the power supply out. The 10k Potentiometer controls the contrast of the LCD panel. 6) POWER SUPPLY A D1 AC Suppl y 3 1 D3 1000 F 7805 + - + - 4 D4 B 2 D2 Figure No. As a result we cannot read back the LCD's internal Busy Flag which tells us if the LCD has accepted and finished processing the last instruction. Therefore we hard wire the R/W line of the LCD panel. We make no effort to place the Data bus into reverse direction. Therefore by incorporating the two 10K external pull up resistors. While most Parallel Ports have internal pull-up resistors. the circuit is more portable for a wider range of computers. As with all the examples. You can use a bench power supply set to 5v or use an onboard +5 regulator. some of which may have no internal pull up resistors. 1.MAJOR PROJECT REPORT: CELL PHONE BASED VOTING MACHINE 18 CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION The LCD panel's Enable and Register Select is connected to the Control Port. there is a few which don't. Remember a few de-coupling capacitors. HARYANA COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY & MANAGEMENT KAITHAL . especially if you have trouble with the circuit working properly. This problem is overcome by inserting known delays into our program. into write mode. The Control Port is an open collector / open drain output.

As a result a current starts flowing from point1.11: Bridge Rectifier OPERATION During the positive half cycle of the input supply. HARYANA COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY & MANAGEMENT KAITHAL . the flux path for the DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUICATION ENGG. through D1 the load & D2 to the negative end . 7) TRANSFORMER PRINCIPLE OF THE TRANSFORMER Two coils are wound over a Core such that they are magnetically coupled. The coupling between the coils is source of making a path for the magnetic flux to link both the coils. 1. This makes Point1 of bridge positive with respect to point 2. the upper end A of the transformer secondary becomes positive with respect to its lower point B.During negative half cycle. an iron core is used. In a Transformer. the point2 becomes positive with respect to point1.MAJOR PROJECT REPORT: CELL PHONE BASED VOTING MACHINE 19 BRIDGE RECTIFIER Bridge rectifier circuit consists of four diodes arranged in the form of a bridge as shown in figure. A core as in fig.2 is used and the coils are wound on the limbs of the core. The two coils are known as the primary and secondary windings. Because of high permeability of iron.Thus a current flow from point 2 to point1. The diode D1 & D2 become forward biased & D3 & D4 become reverse biased. A D1 AC Supply 1 D3 3 + D4 B Load D2 2 4 Figure No. Diodes D1 & D2 now become reverse biased .

N to P direction. etc DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUICATION ENGG. Diode is the component used to control the flow of the current in any one direction. The basic principles of all the transformers are same. regulator etc. The transformers may be step-up. Then it is in forward bias.e.e. i. Hence there is very little „leakage flux‟.MAJOR PROJECT REPORT: CELL PHONE BASED VOTING MACHINE 20 flux is only in the iron and hence the flux links both windings. The diode widely works in forward bias.12: Basic Forms of Transformer 8) DIODE The diode is a p-n junction device. The Zener diode is used in reverse bias function i. step-down. sound output. free-wheeling. 1. Visually the identification of the diode`s terminal can be done by identifying he silver/black line. etc Zener diode: Voltage control.  Tunnel diode: Control the current flow. when coupling is not perfect. amplifier driver etc. In the high frequency transformers.13: Diode When the current flows from the P to N direction.. APPLICATION   Diodes: Rectification. Figure 2. snobbier circuit. which does not link both the coils. frequency matching. Figure No. This term leakage flux denotes the part of the flux. The silver/black line is the negative terminal (cathode) and the other terminal is the positive terminal (cathode). HARYANA COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY & MANAGEMENT KAITHAL . ferrite core is used.

You can DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUICATION ENGG. Figure No. a capacitor is a little like a battery.in some electric circuit resistance is deliberately introduced in form of resistor. If you have read How Batteries Work. looks as an upturned horseshoe. Resistors are in ohms and are represented in Greek letter omega. Although they work in completely different ways.14: Symbol of Resistance TESTING Resistors are checked with an ohm meter/millimeter. the symbol for ohm is an omega ohm. BASIC Like a battery. capacitors and batteries both store electrical energy. 10) CAPACITORS In a way. the terminals connect to two metal plates separated by a dielectric. 1 ohm is quite small for electronics so resistances are often given in kohm and Mohm. 1.the third category is the wire wound type .where value are generally printed on the vitreous paint finish of the component. only two of which are color coded which are metal film and carbon film resistor . Resistor used fall in three categories . paper. a capacitor has two terminals. The dielectric can be air.MAJOR PROJECT REPORT: CELL PHONE BASED VOTING MACHINE 21 9) RESISTORS The flow of charge through any material encounters an opposing force similar in many respects to mechanical friction . Resistors used in electronics can have resistances as low as 0. Inside the battery.1 ohm or as high as 10 Mohm. For a defective resistor the ohm-meter shows infinite high reading. plastic or anything else that does not conduct electricity and keeps the plates from touching each other. Most electronic circuit require resistors to make them work properly and it is obliviously important to find out something about the different types of resistors available. Inside the capacitor. then you know that a battery has two terminals. chemical reactions produce electrons on one terminal and absorb electrons at the other terminal.this opposing force is called resistance of the material . Resistance is measured in ohms. HARYANA COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY & MANAGEMENT KAITHAL .

17: Symbol of Capacitor When you connect a capacitor to a battery.MAJOR PROJECT REPORT: CELL PHONE BASED VOTING MACHINE 22 easily make a capacitor from two pieces of aluminum foil and a piece of paper. Figure No. The non-electrolyte capacitor can be tested by using the digital meter. 1. DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUICATION ENGG.  The plate on the capacitor that attaches to the positive terminal of the battery loses electrons to the battery. HARYANA COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY & MANAGEMENT KAITHAL . here‟s what happens:  The plate on the capacitor that attaches to the negative terminal of the battery accepts electrons that the battery is producing. a capacitor is shown like this: Figure No. either analog meters or special digital meters with the specified function are used. but it will work. In an electronic circuit.18: Capacitor & Battery Connection TESTING To test the capacitors. It won't be a particularly good capacitor in terms of its storage capacity. 1.

The LED is diode which glows when the current is being flown through it in forward bias condition. Crystal oscillators are usually. 12) CRYSTAL OSCILLATORS Crystal oscillators are oscillators where the primary frequency determining element is a quartz crystal. 1. The process of giving off light by applying an electrical source is called electroluminescence. The frequency of older FT-243 crystals can be moved upward by crystal grinding. Figure No. For example it is almost impossible to design a stable and accurate LC oscillator for the upper HF and higher frequencies without resorting to some sort of crystal control. Hence the reason for crystal oscillators. This recombination requires that the energy possessed by the unbound free electron be transferred to another state. Temperature compensation may be applied to crystal oscillators to improve thermal stability of the crystal oscillator. The LEDs are available in the round shell and also in the flat shells.MAJOR PROJECT REPORT: CELL PHONE BASED VOTING MACHINE 23 11) LED LED falls within the family of P-N junction devices. DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUICATION ENGG. HARYANA COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY & MANAGEMENT KAITHAL . a recombination of hole and electrons. All the functions being carried out are displayed by led . The light emitting diode (LED) is a diode that will give off visible light when it is energized. In any forward biased P-N junction there is. Because of the inherent characteristics of the quartz crystal the crystal oscillator may be held to extreme accuracy of frequency stability. with in the structure and primarily close to the junction.19: LED & LED Symbol LED is a component used for indication. fixed frequency oscillators where stability and accuracy are the primary considerations. The positive leg is longer than negative leg.

8048. one of the best 8-bit microprocessors of all times). Also it is said to bear remarkable similarities to Fairchild F8 microprocessor. it should have started with chapter -2. It was a 4-bit microprocessor. There is a lot of 4-bit processing in calculators. The code memory was a 1kB mask ROM (defined by the last metallisation mask during the chip processing) or EPROM (after all. in 1971. but one thing is sure. Although the 8048 is clearly an 8-bit architecture. the 4004. Intel introduced its first microcontroller. This expansion has not only support in the hardware . external data memory support (inherently only 256 bytes addressed indirectly by R0 and R1 as there is no 16 bit pointer register such as the DPTR in 8051 . it is said to be an ancestor of the 4-bit 4004 rather than the 8080. the data memory was 64 bytes of RAM (including the 8-level stack and two pages of eight general purpose registers). In 1976. the invention of microprocessor. Today. peripherals included a timer and an external interrupt (plus the necessary interrupt system).and the I/O expand into another four 4-bit ports. it is hard to say whether something of this is true.MAJOR PROJECT REPORT: CELL PHONE BASED VOTING MACHINE 24 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW PREHISTORY: 8048 In fact. with whopping processing speed of 100 thousand operations per second. Using four of its general purpose input/output ports. The 8048 already had a lot of useful features known well to 8051-users: external code memory support. especially if the software is based on BCD arithmetics. Intel invented EPROM). HARYANA COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY & MANAGEMENT KAITHAL . and was meant for an electronic calculator.the DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUICATION ENGG. Later Intel introduced the 8-bitter 8008 and it's grownup brother . and adding one or more 8243-type chip .dedicated pins on 8048 . It integrated the processing core with code and data memory and certain peripherals.the famous 8080 (which then was perfected by an ex-Intel employee as Zilog Z80. Intel introduced a single-chip processor. the 8048 has a couple of strange features. Besides general-purpose I/O (see below).but also in the instruction set. having dedicated instructions for I/O operations (including AND and OR(!)) via the expander.

windowed (CERDIP . Although in the AT keyboard IBM used the (presumably cheaper) 6805. One of the first applications of 8048 was in a gaming console (Magnavox Odyssey2). I believe Intel will give out a copy if one really wants it (there is a "literature request" form at their "museum" pages). The romless part was a bit surprisingly marked 8035 (probably most of the parts sold as romless were parts with unusable ROM. The MCS-48 family was used in a quite wide range of applications.erasable) for development. and versions with more ROM and RAM as 8049 (2kB ROM/128B RAM) and 8050 (4kB ROM/256B RAM). but thanks to this fact the 8048 with its derivatives is most probably the most widespread microcontroller at all. due to error in the "programmed" firmware). 8048's were second sourced by a number of manufacturers. But the biggest hit came when IBM decided to use 8048 in its original PC keyboard. However. with adding of various peripherals. but there were also more "serious" applications. that 8749 came in 1981. and unwindowed (PDIP) OTP. and were cloned also behind the then iron curtain in Czechoslovakia (Tesla MHB8048/8035) and USSR. There was a low-cost version with reduced pin count and omitted some of the features as 8021. The "A" version (advanced) introduced powerdown mode There were multiple variations of the 8048 around. communicating with the keyboard. it used 8042 as a coprocessor on the mainboard. HARYANA COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY & MANAGEMENT KAITHAL . but don't search for a chip with "8042" on it . As in the 70s there were no pdf-s and no world-wide web. including NEC. 8048 itself denoted a mask-ROM part. but an instruction cycle takes 15 oscillator clocks. 8748 an EPROM part . and 8049 had also an EPROM version 8749 (the funny thing is. mostly with different numbering. such as 8-bit ADC in 8022 and a parallel-bus slave interface in 8041/8042. Toshiba. The 8042 is still present in almost each and every PC even today. there DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUICATION ENGG. Application specific versions of 8048 were also built quite early. with ROMless versions as 8039 and 8040. one year after 8051/8751). for example in one of the first car engine "computerized" control units. datasheets and other documentation is hardly available over the internet. It may come as a surprise to somebody.it is integrated in the chipset. quasibidirectional I/O ports. Maximum clock is 11MHz.MAJOR PROJECT REPORT: CELL PHONE BASED VOTING MACHINE 25 8051 inherited this 8-bit external data access). but generally denoted as the MCS-48 family.

4kB ROM and 128B RAM on chip. and an UART (which was a luxury that many lower-end microcontrollers didn't have even a couple of years ago). The raw clock frequency did not increase considerably. The extensions included code and data memory extended to 64kB with appropriate support in instruction set and registers (DPTR). since 1986 in CMOS. but that is also acceptable.de/al/mcs-48/mcs-48. but there was no cut-down "low-cost" version (presumably because of the cost of ROM/RAM and the DIP40 package went low enough). Pin compatibility was not maintained. The romless version was 8031 and the EPROM version was 8751. The "extended" version 8052 (with 8032 and 8752) came 3 years later and featured besides 8kB ROM and 256B RAM also an extra 16-bit timer.pdf . four register banks instead of two. relative conditional and unconditional jumps (conditionals and DJNZ were constrained within a 256-byte page in 8048). 8051: THE CLASSICS In 1980. one of the maintaining a wonderful document called “Grokking the MCS-48 System” at http://home. Architecturally. multiple and divide instructions.mnet-online. but it was not a real issue. which according to Intel was "software-onsilicon version of the 8052 microcontroller with a BASIC interpreter on-chip in 8K ROM". Software compatibility is not binarywise but source-wise. "unlimited" stack (8048 had stack limited to 16 bytes). Almost every feature and resource of 8048 is present in 8051 in same or superior form. second timer was added and both were extended to 16 bits with multiple modes (including 8-bit autoreload mode). An unusual chip was the 8052AH-BASIC. DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUICATION ENGG. Intel introduced the successor to 8048.MAJOR PROJECT REPORT: CELL PHONE BASED VOTING MACHINE 26 seems to be a couple of enthusiastic people. Similarly to 8048. the 8051. As for peripherals. HARYANA COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY & MANAGEMENT KAITHAL . but an instruction cycle is 12 clocks now. The preliminary datasheet read: "Enhanced MCS-48 Architecture". the 8051 is an extension to 8048. being 12MHz. Intel made sure that the transition from the already successful model will be as smooth as possible. The whole family was eventually called MCS-51 and was manufactured in NMOS. also the 8051 had variants.

for example the "bible" is better used in the Philips version. unsearchable. the manufacturers took over the annoying practice of Intel to include in datasheets only the specific differences to the "bible". the manufacturers rolled out their own derivatives and variants with varying marking there is no real standard in it (although there are some idiosyncrasies present in the marking of most manufacturers). together with DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUICATION ENGG. HARYANA COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY & MANAGEMENT KAITHAL . Some of the early adopters include Philips..is still THE reference source of information on 8051 and its derivatives. example software. Later. Signetics. So. also the 8051 has been licensed to various manufacturers worldwide. Intel did its job. THE BIRDS ARE OUT OF THE NEST Similar to 8048. they took over also the datasheets. Most of these companies don't exist any more. some have been taken over. This. some of the users consider this arrangement better than having huge datasheets containing all the “common” details). while the Intel is a scanned copy of paper document. The licensees started to make fully compatible models. but most of them still manufacture some derivative of 8051. The manufacturers published their own appnotes. but. Naturally.assembler. due to competition it is scattered across the manufacturers' sites. MHS (Matra) and Siemens. providing everything needed to make 8051 successful.MAJOR PROJECT REPORT: CELL PHONE BASED VOTING MACHINE 27 Intel provided all the needed initial tools and support with the 8051 . Some of the appnotes and software still can be found on Intel's webpages and are of excellent quality. The basic datasheet set . an another confusing fact for the newbies. More than that. All types of modifications described in the following chapters were applied. which is a verbatim copy of the Intel version. even today. but the compatibility to the original 8051 was usually maintained. and the rest is history.dubbed in the community as "the bible" .. application notes. except that it is a true searchable pdf. others have been renamed. very confusing for the newbies (but there are opinions on this. in-circuit emulator. which all together form a huge knowledge base and code library.

with added "internal external" data memory. too. In spite of this.MAJOR PROJECT REPORT: CELL PHONE BASED VOTING MACHINE 28 the availability of second-. and some of them by the bit-manipulation instructions. the resources of the ASIC are mapped as external data memory.. Soon. also the ASIC could be breadboard-prototyped in this form easily. Intel produced 80C51SL.-source of 8051 is the true source of its immortality. DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUICATION ENGG. In a particular USB webcamera.35th-.. which introduced the programmable counter array (PCA) (and was a 8052 otherwise).. It was intended for automotive applications (brake control). This approach allows to use an unmodified core. In contrast with the ASICs mentioned above. the chip interfacing the CCD and USB was controlled by an embedded 8051. EMBEDDED IN EMBEDDED Intel and the licensees soon realized that 8051 is a nice core that can be embedded in various ASIC chips to perform setup and control tasks. which speeds up the chip development and decreases the chance for error. a descendant of 8042. This allows faster code as SFRs are accessed by all the instructions using direct addressing (mov. Philips has a line of 8051based teletext controllers. accessed usually via extra SFRs. There are probably much more examples around. FB and FC continued. 80C51RA/RB/RC followed.. One of the first such derivative by Intel was the 80C51FA. third-. These were the basis for the today's 89C51RD2 "sub-family". but most of them never get public. logic). with more and more code memory. SST and Winbond. HARYANA COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY & MANAGEMENT KAITHAL . the 8051 in this form is produced probably in much higher volumes than as general-purpose microcontrollers. Atmel (as ex-Temic).. these chips tend to implement the extra features in the core itself.. Typically.. with enhanced features and increased code and data memories. as if the ASIC would be connected to a conventional 8051 chip. also general purpose derivatives have been introduced by Intel and the licensees. As an example. EXTRAS Besides application-specific. produced by Philips.

at least in the mainstream applications. MaskROM and EPROM . Besides that. Atmel introduced also 89C2051 with decreased pin count (and price). It enabled to use the production-grade chip in development.it was able to run 8051 binary code (being able to switch to native 16-bit 251mode) and had a package pin-compatible with 8051. There were 16-bit microcontrollers around (e.g. It was not a big success. Intel had it's 80C196 line).This was a smart move. and enabled the chips used in the product to be reprogrammed when upgrade or a bugfix was needed.MAJOR PROJECT REPORT: CELL PHONE BASED VOTING MACHINE 29 FAT BOYS: 16-BIT EXTENSIONS When the 8051 was accepted widely enough. but it seemed a good idea to provide a more natural migration path by creating a 16-bit version of 8051. most of them able to be programmed via some few-pin serial interface (called in-situ programming (ISP). the 16-bit versions of 8051 gained far less popularity than the 8051 and are less widespread. SPI-style or UART-style) and the higher-end versions also able to reprogram themselves (inapplication programming. FLASH FOR THE MASSES In the 90s. All in all.seems to become extinct. It brought down the 8051 to the masses . enabling fast erasure and reprogramming. where legacy code has to be maintained or parallel development with 8051 is needed. which seems to be adequate for most of the applications. and poses little constraint on the chip design itself. HARYANA COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY & MANAGEMENT KAITHAL . Atmel introduced a derivative of 8051 with Flash code memory. IAP). Today. DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUICATION ENGG. the chip proved to be extremely popular in many small applications. Intel addressed the problem by introducing 80C251. Philips on the other hand employed source-compatibility for its XA family. some of the applications started to grow and soon required more power than the 8051 even with enhancements could provide. virtually all manufacturers produce 8051 derivatives with Flash. It went all the way to achieve compatibility . most probably for bad market timing (although it is second sourced by Temic/Atmel).the small "garage" companies and hobbyists. cutting down costs.windowed or OTP .

3. Between two components. it is allowed to dry.C. Printed circuit board (P.B.C. sufficient space should be maintained. PREPARING CIRCUIT LAYOUT First of all the actual size circuit layout is to be drawn on the copper side of the copper clad board.s) is used to avoid most of all the disadvantages of conventional breadboard.C.C. The most important points are that the components layout is making proper compromise with copper side circuit layout. High voltage/max dissipated components should be mounted at sufficient distance from semiconductor and electrolytic capacitors. We have to apply the paints surrounding the point at which the connection is to be made.B. Layout of desired diagram and preparation is first and most important operation in any printed circuit board manufacturing process.MAJOR PROJECT REPORT: CELL PHONE BASED VOTING MACHINE 30 CHAPTER 3 P. DESIGNING P. 1. First of all layout of component side is to be made in accordance with available components dimensions. The following points are to be observed while forming the layout of P. It avoids the disconnection between the leg of the component and circuit track.B.B. HARYANA COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY & MANAGEMENT KAITHAL . After completion of painting work. LAYOUT The entire circuit can be easily assembled on a general purpose P.C.C.B. 2.B. they are small in size and efficient in performance. DESIGNING & WORKING 1) P. These also avoid the use of thin wires for connecting the components. Then enamel paint is applied on the tracks of connection with the help of a shade brush. DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUICATION ENGG. board respectively.

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUICATION ENGG.B. Then P. ETCHING The removal of excess of copper on the plate apart from the printed circuit is known as etching. HARYANA COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY & MANAGEMENT KAITHAL .C.B. holes 1/23inch(1mm) diameter are drilled at desired points where we have to fix the components. SOLDERING Soldering is the process of joining two metallic conductor the joint where two metal conductors are to be join or fused is heated with a device called soldering iron and then as allow of tin and lead called solder is applied which melts and converse the joint.C. which may cause poor performance of the circuit.C.C. is checked as per the layout. After the P. paint is removed by soft piece of cloth dipped I thinner or turbine.   Manual soldering with iron. field. SOLDERING AND DESOLDERING TECHIQUES: These are basically two soldering techniques. After etching.MAJOR PROJECT REPORT: CELL PHONE BASED VOTING MACHINE 31 DRILLING After completion of painting work. has been thoroughly washed. the P. is kept in clean water for about half an hour in order to get P. away from acidic. now the P. is ready for use.C. The solder cools and solidifies quickly to ensure is good and durable connection between the jointed metal converting the joint solder also present oxidation. Mass soldering.C. From this process the copper clad board wit printed circuit is placed in the solution of FeCl with 3-4 drops of HCL in it and is kept so for about 10 to 15 minutes and is taken out when all the excess copper is removed from the P.B.B.B.B.

.MAJOR PROJECT REPORT: CELL PHONE BASED VOTING MACHINE 32 2) WORKING OF PROJECT The working of this project is controlled by a microcontroller ATMEL AT89C51 and a DTMF decoder CM8870 is used for decoding key tones of cell phone and EEPROM is used for memory storage. 4. The project works in the following ways: 1. Type #22 followed with candidate number to enter the vote where 22 is the password. Switch on power supply. Message wait will appear on LCD. 2. 3. 5. HARYANA COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY & MANAGEMENT KAITHAL . 6. DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUICATION ENGG. A reset key is present to reset the microcontroller. If vote is casted then “vote casted successfully” on the LCD & if not then “invalid vote try again” will appear. To check the number of vote press the button on the PCB and number of votes of each candidate & total number of vote will appear on LCD.

MAJOR PROJECT REPORT: CELL PHONE BASED VOTING MACHINE 33 3) BLOCK DIAGRAM 230V AC Step Down T/F Full Wave Bridge Rectifier Voltage Regulator +5VDC/500mA DTMF Decoder (MM8870) Microcontroller AT89C2051 LCD Display MOBILE PHONE EEPROM (24C16) Figure No. HARYANA COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY & MANAGEMENT KAITHAL . 3.1: Block Diagram DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUICATION ENGG.

HARYANA COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY & MANAGEMENT KAITHAL .2: Circuit Diagram DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUICATION ENGG.MAJOR PROJECT REPORT: CELL PHONE BASED VOTING MACHINE 34 4) CIRCUIT DIAGRAM Figure No. 3.

MAJOR PROJECT REPORT: CELL PHONE BASED VOTING MACHINE 35 CHAPTER 4 COST ANALYSIS & TROUBLESHOOTING COST ANALYSIS OF COMPONENTS USED Table no.1: Cost Analysis Sr.10KΩ.1µf. 4.330kΩ. no 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Equipment IC AT89S51 MC IC MT8870DE IC ATMEL AT24C16 Voltage Regulator 7805 2 line LCD display Transformer Crystal Oscillator Switch LED Resistors(1KΩ. HARYANA COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY & MANAGEMENT KAITHAL ..47kΩ.100KΩ.10µf.1000µf) Diodes Mobile Speaker Port Mobile MIC Port TOTAL Quantity 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 10 17 5 1 1 Rate (in Rs.) 120 80 85 20 150 60 10 8 6 15 25 10 20 20 629 DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUICATION ENGG.470µf.) Capacitors(22pf.

many of the connection become short cktd. There should be no shorting of joints. A leg of the crystal oscillator was broken during mounting. Second problem is faced due to redundancy in handling the rotation of STEPPER MOTOR  We have to take extra care while soldering 2 line LCD    During soldering. Proper power supply should maintain. So it has to be replaced.MAJOR PROJECT REPORT: CELL PHONE BASED VOTING MACHINE 36 PROBLEM FACED   First problem that was in making the circuit of METRO TRAIN PROTOTYPE that. So we desolder the connection and did soldering again. Project should be handled with care since IC are delicate Component change and check again circuit DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUICATION ENGG. LED`s get damaged when we switched ON the supply so we replace it by the new one. it is difficult to match time with rotation of stepper motor & LCD. TROUBLESHOOT     Care should be taken while soldering. HARYANA COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY & MANAGEMENT KAITHAL .

Thus our project could make the result available any corner of the world in a matter of seconds AREA OF APPLICATIONS  Fast track voting which could be used in small scale elections. “panchayat” level election and other society level elections.  It could also be interfaced with the personal computer and result could be stored in the central server and its backup could be taken on the other backend servers. DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUICATION ENGG. once the result is on the server it could be relayed on the network to various offices of the election conducting authority.  It could be interfaced with printer to get the hard copy of the result almost instantly from the machine itself.  It could also be used to conduct opinion polls during annual share holders meeting. HARYANA COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY & MANAGEMENT KAITHAL .MAJOR PROJECT REPORT: CELL PHONE BASED VOTING MACHINE 37 CHAPTER 5 CONCULSION FUTURE SCOPE  Number of candidates could be increased by using other microcontroller. like resident welfare association.  It is used in various TV serials as for public opinion.  Again.  It could also be used to conduct general assembly elections where number of candidates are less than or equal to eight in the current situation.

net/microcontroller_tutorials/  Tutorial on LCD: www.com  www.com  www.google. J. Ayala. “THE 8051 MICROCONTROLLER AND EMBEDDED SYSTEM”  K.seimens.atmel. Second edition.rajasthan.in/Audio_VideoClips/presentation/EVM. Janice Gillispie Mazidi. HARYANA COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY & MANAGEMENT KAITHAL . Rolin D.com/electoralsystem/electricvotingmachine.indian-elections.8051projects.ppt   www.eci.html DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUICATION ENGG.com  www. “The 8051 MICROCONTROLLER”  Tutorial on microcontroller: www.8051projects.net/election/guide/evm.gov.htm www.net/lcd-interfacing/ WEBSITES  www.alldatasheets.com  www. Third edition.MAJOR PROJECT REPORT: CELL PHONE BASED VOTING MACHINE 38 REFRENCES  Muhammad Ali Mazidi . Mckinlay.howstuffworks.efyprojects.com  www.com  www.

h> #include<conio. const char msg_6[] = {"CANDIDATE-3 VOTE"}.h> #include<stdio.h> #define DTMF_PORT P1 #define DTMF_READY P3_BITS. const char msg_5[] = {"CANDIDATE-2 VOTE"}.h> #include<e2prom16.h> #include<delay. const char msg_7[] = {"CANDIDATE-4 VOTE"}.MAJOR PROJECT REPORT: CELL PHONE BASED VOTING MACHINE 39 APPENDIX CODING SOFTWARE:#include<8051. const char msg_3[] = {" TOTAL VOTE "}.B2 #define TIMER0_INT #define DELAY1 #define RESET_KEY ET0 (65536 . const char msg_2[] = {" MOBILE VOTING.h> #include<intrpt. void interrupt timer0_isr(void). "}. void on_ack(void).h> #include<lcd4bit. DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUICATION ENGG. void off_ack(void). const char msg_4[] = {"CANDIDATE-1 VOTE"}.B7 void interrupt dtmf_isr(void). const char msg_1[] = {"***WELCOME TO***"}. HARYANA COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY & MANAGEMENT KAITHAL .50000) P2_BITS.

Data5.page_add. const char msg_15[] = {"PROCESS PLS WAIT"}. P1 = 0xff. const char msg_12[] = {" VOTE CASTED "}. HARYANA COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY & MANAGEMENT KAITHAL . P3 = 0xff. VoteC4 = 0. VoteTotal = 0.Data2. VoteC2 = 0. const char msg_10[] = {" Invalid Vote "}.VoteC3. VoteC1 = 0. P2 = 0xff.Data3.VoteC4. ACK_SIGNAL = OFF. const char msg_14[] = {"SYSTEM RESET IN "}. DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUICATION ENGG. unsigned char VoteTotal.data_add. unsigned char Data1. void main() { P0 = 0xff.VoteC2.dtmf_sts. unsigned char dtmf_data..VoteC1.. VoteC3 = 0. const char msg_11[] = {"Ask to Try Again"}... unsigned int Timer.data_status.MAJOR PROJECT REPORT: CELL PHONE BASED VOTING MACHINE 40 const char msg_8[] = {"NEW VOTER ONLINE"}. const char msg_13[] = {" SUCCESSFULLY "}. const char msg_9[] = {"Please Wait."}.Data4.DataCounter.

HARYANA COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY & MANAGEMENT KAITHAL . DTMF_INT = 0. wr_lcd_cmd(LINE2).data_add++) { write_eprom(0x00. do { if(!RESET_KEY) { Timer = 50.data_add < 255. ET1 = 0. TR0 = 0. } } } DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUICATION ENGG. if(Timer == 0) { wr_lcd_cmd(LINE1). wr_lcd_data(msg_15[]). ET0 = 0. DTMF_PORT = 0xff. wr_lcd_data(msg_14[]). while((Timer > 0) && (!RESET_KEY)).MAJOR PROJECT REPORT: CELL PHONE BASED VOTING MACHINE 41 DTMF_READY = ON. for(data_add = 0.0x00).data_add.

for(data_add = 0.data_add). } DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUICATION ENGG.data_add < 100. VoteTotal++. } else if(data_status == 2) { VoteC2++. VoteC2 = 0. } else if(data_status == 3) { VoteC3++.MAJOR PROJECT REPORT: CELL PHONE BASED VOTING MACHINE 42 if(!TOTAL_KEY) { VoteC1 = 0. VoteTotal++. VoteTotal = 0. VoteC4 = 0.data_add++) { data_status = read_eprom(0x00. HARYANA COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY & MANAGEMENT KAITHAL . if(data_status == 1) { VoteC1++. VoteTotal++. VoteC3 = 0.

wr_lcd_data(". VoteTotal++. wr_lcd_data("C3 = "). wr_lcd_data(VoteC2). while(Timer). wr_lcd_data(VoteC1). } } wr_lcd_cmd(LINE1). Timer = 100. wr_lcd_data(VoteC4). wr_lcd_data(VoteC3).MAJOR PROJECT REPORT: CELL PHONE BASED VOTING MACHINE 43 else if(data_status == 4) { VoteC4++. HARYANA COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY & MANAGEMENT KAITHAL . wr_lcd_data("C1 = "). C2 = "). wr_lcd_data(". C4 = "). wr_lcd_cmd(LINE2). wr_lcd_data(VoteTotal). wr_lcd_cmd(LINE1). DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUICATION ENGG. wr_lcd_data(msg_3[mi]). wr_lcd_cmd(LINE2).

} } while((Timer > 0) && (dtmf_sts == 0)). } if(dtmf_sts == 1) { dtmf_sts = 0. if(Timer > 0) { if(dtmf_sts == 1) { dtmf_sts = 0. Data5 = dtmf_data. Data4 = dtmf_data. DataCounter++. HARYANA COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY & MANAGEMENT KAITHAL . DataCounter++. DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUICATION ENGG. if(Timer > 0) { if(dtmf_sts == 1) { dtmf_sts = 0. while(Timer).MAJOR PROJECT REPORT: CELL PHONE BASED VOTING MACHINE 44 Timer = 50. } } while((Timer > 0) && (dtmf_sts == 0)).

data_add).MAJOR PROJECT REPORT: CELL PHONE BASED VOTING MACHINE 45 } } if(DataCounter == 5) { if((Data1 == 12) && (Data5 == 12)) { if((Data4 > 0) && (Data4 < 5)) { if(Data2 == 10) { Data2 . if(data_status == 0) { write_eprom(0x00. if((data_add > 0) && (data_add < 100)) { data_status = read_eprom(0x00. data_add += Data3.data_add. DataCounter = 0. } data_add = Data2 * 10.= 10. } } } DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUICATION ENGG. HARYANA COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY & MANAGEMENT KAITHAL .Data4).

off_ack(). off_ack(). off_ack(). off_ack(). DataCounter = 0. wr_lcd_cmd(LINE2). off_ack(). BUZZER = BUZZER_ON. off_ack(). HARYANA COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY & MANAGEMENT KAITHAL . off_ack(). off_ack(). wr_lcd_data(msg_11[]). off_ack(). off_ack(). wr_lcd_data(msg_10[]). DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUICATION ENGG. off_ack().MAJOR PROJECT REPORT: CELL PHONE BASED VOTING MACHINE 46 } } if((DataCounter > 0) && (DataCounter <= 5)) { wr_lcd_cmd(LINE1). off_ack(). off_ack(). off_ack(). off_ack().

wr_lcd_cmd(LINE2). }while(1). } void interrupt timer0_isr(void) { if(Timer > 0) { Timer--. wr_lcd_data(msg_13[]). wr_lcd_data(msg_1[]). wr_lcd_cmd(LINE2). off_ack(). DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUICATION ENGG.MAJOR PROJECT REPORT: CELL PHONE BASED VOTING MACHINE 47 off_ack(). } else { wr_lcd_cmd(LINE1). BUZZER = BUZZER_OFF. while(Timer). wr_lcd_data(msg_12[]). } } wr_lcd_cmd(LINE1). HARYANA COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY & MANAGEMENT KAITHAL . Timer = 50. wr_lcd_data(msg_2[]).

i++) for(j=0. dtmf_data = dtmf_data & 0x0f. ACK_SIGNAL = ~ACK_SIGNAL. for(i=0.i<255.i<255.i++) { for(j=0. TH0 = DELAY1/256. } void on_ack(void) { unsigned char i.MAJOR PROJECT REPORT: CELL PHONE BASED VOTING MACHINE 48 } TL0 = DELAY1 & 0x0f. HARYANA COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY & MANAGEMENT KAITHAL . } void interrupt dtmf_isr(void) { dtmf_data = DTMF_PORT.j++). for(i=0. } ACK_SIGNAL = OFF.j++).j<50. } DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUICATION ENGG.j<70.j.

} DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUICATION ENGG. for(i=0.j++).i<255.i++) { for(j=0.j++).i<255.j<70. } ACK_SIGNAL = OFF. ACK_SIGNAL = ~ACK_SIGNAL.i++) for(j=0.j<70. for(i=0. ACK_SIGNAL = ~ACK_SIGNAL. HARYANA COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY & MANAGEMENT KAITHAL .MAJOR PROJECT REPORT: CELL PHONE BASED VOTING MACHINE 49 void off_ack(void) { unsigned char i.j++).i++) { for(j=0.i<255. for(i=0.i++) for(j=0.j++).j<50. } ACK_SIGNAL = OFF.j.i<255.j<50. for(i=0.

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