The  European  Union  between  Free  Market  and   Fascism  

A  Reader                 The   European   Union   between   Free   Market   and   Fascism   is   a   reader   that   comprises   a   series   of   texts   that   tackle   social,   economic   and   political   inconsistencies  and  transgressions  of  the  First  world,  specifically  EU.     Although   more   precise   title   of   this   reader   would   probably   have   been   “The   European   Union   as   Perfect   Combination   of   Free   Market   Economy,   Colonialism,   White   Christian   Fundamentalism   and   Racism,”   current   title   serves   well   to   accent   not  only  main  discourses  of  the  Union,  but  to  accent  the  non-­‐decisive  character   of  the  Union  in  political  adoption  of  any  of  these  models  of  rule.     Hence,  since  the  official  agenda  of  the  Union,  in  regard  to  the  establishment  (or   sustainment)   of   the   rule   of   law,   human   rights   and   equality   in   approach   to   the   hierarchies   of   rule   is   profoundly   influenced   by   the   free   market   logic,   the   inconsistencies   produced   by   this   relation   were   not   deemed   in   this   reader   as   “incidents”   (as   complicit   academic,   intellectual   or   colloquial   argument   would   have   suggested),   but   as   a   reflection   of   at   best,   constitutive   hypocrisy   in   reproduction   of   institutional,   economic,   political   and   cultural   discourses   of   the   Union.     Hence,   to   state   that   the   “hypocrisy”   marks   the   logic   behind   the   sustainment   of   circulation  of  capital  is,  of  course  far,  too  banal,  what  is  really  “happening”  is  that   1  

the   state   of   exception   (as   an   exception   to   constitutional   dimension   of   the   law)   and   dominant   epistemic   and   institutional   discourses   are   being   intertwined   to   that  measure  where  they  already  became  a  normative.   The   infringements   of   the   constitutional   dimension   of   the   law;   racist   classifications   of   the   population;   discriminatory   immigration   politics;   de-­‐ secularization   of   the   state;   racist,   hypocritical   foreign   policy   in   regard   to   EU's   periphery;  harbouring  of  double-­‐standards  in  political  conduct;  utilization  of  art   and   culture   for   ideological   goals;   equalization   of   fascism   and   anti-­‐fascism;   utilization   of   populist   politics;   engagement   in   wars   of   conquest   in   the   Third   world  are  just  some  of  the  procedures  that  mark  the  contemporary  model  of  rule   in  the  EU.     Consequently,  complete  subjugation  of  society  to  the  free  market  agenda  was  not   marked  only  by  mere  regime's  divinization  of  consumerism  as  proper  model  of   contemporary   emancipation,   but   was   marked   by   (re)instatement   of   the   racial   hierarchies   and   classification   of   those   more   and   less   worthy   of   integration   into   the  market  or  worthy  of  having  any  rights  at  all.     Sustainment  of  these  hierarchies  therefore  serves  not  just  as  as  a  tool  that  would   subvert   political   antagonization   of   capitalist   opression,   but   it   also   serves   as   continuation  of  an  Eurocentric  racist  epistemology  that  claims  the  monopoly  on   definition  of  progress,  civilization  and/or  generally  modernism.   Consequently,     coloniality   or   colonialism   seem   to   have   stayed   a   fundamental   pattern  of  European  political  thought  and  a  matrix  of  rationalization  of  upgraded   colonial  style  exploitation  that  influenced  both  internal  politics  of  the  Union  and   its  expansion,  that  is,  production  of  central  and  peripheric  zones  of  exploitation   and  control.     Hence,   Eu's   utmost   (official)   neglect,   irresponsibility   and   malevolance   in   approach   to   its   own   colonial   history,   genocides,   subjugation,   expropriation   and   slavery,   that   all   contributed   to   (Western)   EU's   position   as   one   of   the   wealthies   regions   in   the   World   therefore   pointed   to   the   practice   of   sticking   to   the   old   “recipy”  of  rationalization  of  exploitation  and  its  upgrading  to  contemporary  set  


of  rules,  which,  as  a  result  of  both  the  colonial  capitalist  expansion  and/or  auto-­‐ colonial  complicity  to  ambigous  exercise  of  democracy,  continue  to  repeat.     In  this  context,  in  the  first  text  in  this  reader,  EU-­Visione,  Sebastjan  Leban  tackles   the   historical   progression   of   Europe,   the   logic   behind   the   procedures   of   contemporary   colonialism   and   its   justification   matrixes   that   lurked   behind   the   “democratization”  of  the  Southeast  Europe  and  its  subjugation  to  the  free  market   exploitation,  which  is  underway  as  we  speak.       The   second   text,   Fortified   Knowledge:   From   Supranational   Governance   to   Translocal  Resistance  by  Lina  Dokuzović  and  Eduard  Freudman  specifically  deals   with   the   issues   of   education,   that   is,   privatization   of   education   institutions   and   conditioning   of   knowledge,   but   also   provides   a   global   perspective   in   which   it   deals   with   Eu’s   role   in   the   establishment   of   post   WW2   global   economy,   based   on   debt  economy  and  "Structural  Adjustment  Policies.     Stas   Kleindeinst's   text,   EU   –   Some   Thoughts   on   Ideology   deals   with   procedures   and  ideological  grounds  that  show  us  “how  the  representation  of  contemporary   European   ideology   works   by   organizing   a   matrix   of   relations   towards   its   own   history  (or  in  this  case,  towards  the  history  of  Eastern  Europe)  that  “legitimizes   Europe’s  own  processes  of  violence  and  makes  them  natural  to  the  functioning  of   the  Union.”   Tatjana   Greif's   text,   Catatonic   Harmony   or   Let's   Blame   Homos,   deals   with   the   destructive   role   clerical   circles,   specifically   the   church   has   on   institutional   and   otherwise   discrimination   of   sexual   minorities   and   women   in   the   EU.   Specifically,   author   focused   on   a   procedures   used   by   the   church   and   reactionary   circles   to   equalize   pedophilia   and   homosexuality,   that   is,   to   pacify   their   own   criminal   transgressions.   Šefik   Tatlić’s   text   Racist   Core   of   EU’s   Structural   Design   deals   with   political   procedures   that   equal   the   democracy   to   ideology   and   with   consequent   destruction   of   political   society   and   political   state   in   favor   of   imposition   of   colonial  racial  hierarchies  that  are  being  imposed  as  bases  of  social  and  political   differentiation.  


Ivana   Marjanović’s   text   The   Racist   Regime   of   the   (White)   EU   Schengen   Border   Regime   addressed   the   (racist)   immigration   policies   of   the   Union,   specifically   analyzing   the   case   and   implications   of   German   deportation   of   number   of   (German   speaking)   Roma   people   out   of   Germany.   Further   implication   Marjanović  dealt  with  included  the  notion  of  exception  to  neoliberalism,  that  is,   the   procedures   that   made   political   and   social   exclusion   of   racially   qualified   populations  and  subjectivities  a  constitutive  part  of  a  new  “European  apartheid”   (Marjanović).     And,   Marina   Gržinić’s   text   De-­Coloniality   of   Time   and   Space   addresses   the   relation   among   the   post-­‐Fordist   mode   of   production,   monopolization   of   the   notion   of   modernity   and   subjugation   of   contemporary   art   as   an   ideological   instrument  for  production  of  fictive  decolonization  of  the  colonizers  themselves.   In   short,   this   text   tackles   the   “temporal   war”   contemporary   capitalist   regime   (with   an   accent   on   the   Western   power   structures)   wage   in   order   to   embellish   both   its   genocidal   past   and   its   oppressive   present   by   ascribing   of   a   status   of   a   victim  to  it  self.     So,   as   Walter   Mignolo   stated   by   referring   to   Santiago   Castro-­‐Gómez   who   saw   colonial   epistemology   as   “’the   hubris   of   the   zero-­‐point’:   the   knowledge   of   the   observer   who   cannot   be   observed”   and   since   EU   has   ascribed   that   kind   of   “exclusivity”   to   it   self,   this   reader   should   serve   as   anti-­‐Eurocentric   and   de-­‐ colonial  denial  of  that  exclusivity.   Some   of   the   text   in   this   reader   have   already   been   published   and   were   contributed   by   the   authors   with   their   approval.   The   texts   that   have   not   been   designated   as   published   are   hereby   published   for   the   first   time.   The   opinions   presented   in   this   reader   are   the   opinions   of   the   authors,   not   exclusively   the   opinion  of  the  Ultra  collective.  All  rights  dependent  on  the  copyright  policy  of  the   original   source   of   the   text,   copyright   policy   and   authors   themselves.No  institution  or  individual  has  financially  supported  this  reader.   Ultra   collective   wishes   to   express   its   gratitude   and   thanks   to   all   contributing   authors  in  this  reader.   Šefik  Tatlić,  Ultra  Collective  /,  Bosnia-­‐Herzegovina,  April,  2011.   4  



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Leban  |  Eu  -­‐  Visione     1. Sebastjan  Leban   EU  -­  Visione     What   is   today’s   Europe?   Some   call   it   the   new   world,   the   land   of   new   opportunity,  some  on  the  other  hand  name  it  a  fortress,  an  unjust  system  of   quasi   tolerance   behind   which   dark   mechanisms   have   been   operating   interruptedly   for   centuries.   Some   might   even   call   it   the   new   fascist   dream   that   is   veiled   under   the   false   promise   of   equality   that   has   at   its   basis   only   the   formation   of   the   new   Empire   conquered   not   by   brute   force   but   by   market   economy   and   the   mediation   of   western   capitalist   values.   The   more   one   analyses   it,   the   more   complex   the   above-­‐mentioned   relation   becomes.   One   thing   is   certain,   there   exist   many   truths   as   also   many   realities   that   can   be   read  differently  and  simultaneously,  but  regardless  of  what  we  are  being  told   or  how  we  interpret  the  situation,  we  can’t  deny  a  strict  neoliberal  policy  by   way  of  which  our  contemporaneity  is  being  formed.     Since   we   are   living   in   a   globalized   era   where   capital   went   worldwide,   it   seems  unavoidable  to  analyze  it  in  order  to  grasp  not  just  the  surface  of  it  but   to  be  able  to  get  inside,  to  see  what  it  is  made  of  and  how  does  it  taste.  The   power   is   always   in   relation   to   domination   and   oppression.   As   stated   by   Foucault:     In   a   society   such   as   ours,   there   are   manifold   relations   of   power   which   permit,  characterise  and  constitute  the  social  body,  and  these  relations  of   power   cannot   themselves   be   established,   consolidated   nor   implemented   without   the   production,   accumulation,   circulation   and   functioning   of   a   discourse.   There   can   be   no   possible   exercise   of   power   without   a   certain   economy  of  discourse  of  truth,  which  operates  through  and  on  the  basis  of   this  association.   It   is   this   same   truth   that   is   subjected   to   power   and   vice   versa.   At   the   same   time   Foucault   links   power   and   truth   to   right,   the   right   of   the   sovereign   to   6  

  economical   and   cultural   control.   art..                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Leban  |  Eu  -­‐  Visione   rule.   it   is   established   through   the   mediation   of   Western   capitalist   values   conveyed   by   the   system   through   visual   messages   based   on   the   use   of   white.   does   not   include   only   laws   but   the   whole   complex  of  apparatuses.  This  goes  on  simultaneously  at   two   levels:   firstly.   Christian.   and   privatization   as   also   education.   and   heterosexual   values.  A  perfect  example  of  what  is  just  being  told  is  shown  in  the   commercial   Kosovo:   The   Young   European   where   a   group   of   youngsters   are   making   the   puzzle   of   Kosovo   that   is   then   taken   up   in   the   skies   by   balloons   and.   etc.  put  again  on  the  ground.   the   EU   introduces   the   strategy   of   subjugation   implemented   through   political.   no   matter  how  good  this  unification  may  be.   to   declare   a   state   of   exception.  if  analyzed.  many  issues  remain  unsolved  and   unclear.   However.   And  it  is  exactly  this  domination  that  I  want  to  emphasize  in  relation  to  the   economy   of   discourse   of   truth   branded   by   the   EU.   which   means   that   capital   investments.  Kosovo  is  one  such  example  that.   to   execute   its   power   over   the   citizens.   are   the   means   of   controlling   and   governing   the   social   structure   in   a   given   country   or   geographical  area.   Secondly.  forces  us  to  ask  what   were/are  the  EU  interests  in  its  recognition.  in  a  second  moment.   but   also   by   the   fact   that   the   motivation   behind   the   unification   is   not   oriented   socially   but   strictly   economically.  If  we  were  to  paraphrase   the  meaning  of  the  lyrics  that  goes:     ultrainput.  but  of  domination.  In  the  present  moment.   according   to   Foucault.  institutions  and  regulations  that:   transmit[s]   and   put[s]   in   motion   relations   that   are   not   relations   of   sovereignty.   A   case   in   point   is   the   erasure  of  differences  between  the  states  included  in  EU.  I  am  not  referring   just  to  differences  evidenced  by  the  fact  that  some  of  the  member  states  are   old   colonial   powers   that   have   built   their   power   and   fortune   by   subjugation   and   7   .   the   contemporary   colonization   strategy   whose   parallels   are   implemented   in   different   parts   of   the   world   and   to   which   different   geopolitical  plans  and  strategies  are  applied.   equities.  Kosovo   represents  a  form  of  colonization  typical  of  the  neoliberal  expansive  logic  of   capital.   This   right.   the   media.

 Even  students  have  trouble  getting  a  visa.  but  in  an  incubator  as   a   newborn.   according   to   the   Internationals.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Leban  |  Eu  -­‐  Visione   it’s   time   to   start   over.  Apart  from  that.   that   they   possess   the   estimated   sum   for   monthly   expenses   for  the  whole  period  of  their  studies  in  advance.   has   no   political   will  and  is  not  a  subject  that  can  decide  for  it   8   .   In   this   respect   the   commercial   Kosovo:   The   Young   European   shows   exactly   the   economy   of   discourse   of   truth   run   by   the   EU.   the   unseen   reality   behind   the   EU   expansion?   Where   are   the   death   bodies   of   EU’s   economies   of   discourse   of   truth?   Does   liberte.   time   to   join   it….   brutal   and   physical   violence   anywhere   and   anytime   but   not   much   more   than   that.   Kosovo   escaped   from   prison   but   entered   into  a  hospital.   we   need   to   analyze   the   visa   regime   to   which   this   young   European   country   is   forced.   after   the   year   1999.  In  this  respect  it  is  meant  to   stay   in   the   hospital.   however.   the   average   wage   of   a   Kosovar.  As  stated  by   Albin   Kurti.   What   are   the   collateral   facts.  is  around  €200.  In  this  hospital  Kosovo  is  allegedly  free.   This   new   born.  the  report  claims  that  Kosovars   are   the   most   frequently   refused   applicants   for   Schengen   visas   in   the   Balkans.   egalite   and   fraternite   really   mean   that   every   man   is   born   with   ultrainput.   To   go   further   into   the   matter.   Kurti   concludes   its   thesis   by   saying   that   the   liberation   Kosovo   got   is   a   liberation   from   arbitrary.   The   sky   open   minded   today.   Also   in   this   case   the   youth   is   particularly   affected:   of   those   between  18  and  25  years  old  and  unemployed.  despite  their   having  been  accepted  by  their  host  university..   either   through   their   bank   account   or   in   the   form   of   a   scholarship   confirmation.   The   NGO   Forum   2015   calculated   that   an   application   for   a   Schengen   visa   costs   on   average   €124.  the  chances  of  obtaining  a   visa  are  minimal.   I   am   feeling  the  life  that  I  want  to  coming  to  me…       we   could   say   that   the   act   of   putting   the   puzzle   on   the   ground   represents   exactly  the  dreams  that  vanishes  as  soon  as  it  hits  the  EU  reality.  since  they  have  to  provide   proof.   As   stated  by  Isabel  Ströhle:     The  degree  of  isolation  becomes  particularly  obvious  when  comparing  it  to   the   number   of   visa-­‐free   travel   destinations   open   to   citizens   of   other   countries.

 to  breathe.     So   what   is   the   actual   state   of   the   processes   creating   the   EU-­‐vision?   The   EU   brought   us   freedom   of   movement.   As   described   by   Corinna   Milborn.   Frontex   presents   itself   as   an   organ   assuring   freedom.   Ever   since   Frontex   was   established.  and  only  after  that.   the   number   of   people   that   drowned   and   died   on   the   way   is   reported   to   have   increased   drastically   as   they  are  forced  to  travel  longer  distances  in  order  to  avoid  control  executed   by   Frontex.   The   project   is   supported   by   the   European   Cultural   Foundation   and   other   influential   EU   private   and   public   institutions.  but  it  carries  out  control  and  security  from  outside  –  on   the  other  side  of  the  fence.  This  is  of  course  fantastic  if  you  live   inside  the  EU  and  have  enough  money  to  travel  and  enjoy  the  whole  ranges  of   commodities  that  such  a  vision  offers.  If  by  chance  you  have  time  you  can  also   taste  how  it  is  to  feel.   directional   microphones.   spotlights.  The  game  basically  enables  a  player  to  experience  life  on  both   side   of   the   border   as   the   authors   say.  to  live  illegality  by  simply  downloading  the   game  Frontiers.  the  free  movement  for  EU   citizens  inside  the  EU  internal  borders.  and  appointed  Frontex  (EU  External  Borders  Agency)  to  do   the   job.   The   area   is   protected   by   more   than  1.  The  situation  is  no  different  on  the  Spain-­‐Morocco   border  (Ceuta  and  Melilla)  where  the  EU  has  erected  an  iron  fence  intended   to   secure   the   border   against   illegal   crossing.   whereas   in   fact   it   is   an   institutionalized   preventive   control   agency   with   the   same   function   as   a   watchdog   except   that   Frontex   is   not   located   inside   the   fence   (save   its   symbolic   headquarter)   from   where   it   protects  its  property.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Leban  |  Eu  -­‐  Visione   inalienable  and  indefeasible  rights  or  are  rights  just  brands  by  way  of  which   the   apparatus   mediates   its   propaganda   exactly   to   diminish   them?   By   protecting   its   vision   and   expanding   its   dream   and   its   brand   of   free   movement.   the   free  float  of  goods  and  capital.   the   EU   insurrected   a   fence   on   its   external   borders   to   prevent   illegal  entrance.  As  described  on  the  ECF  page:     ultrainput.200  border  guards  whose  role  it  is  to  prevent  refugees  from  entering   the  EU.   but   what   is   the   trigger?   Chiefly.   a   teargas   9   .   every   40   meters   there   is   a   watchtower.   Yes.   security   and   justice.   in   Ceuta   and   Melilla   there   is   a   six-­‐meter   high   iron   fence   made   of   steel   and   barbed   wire.

 Everything  is  brought  to  the   level   of   fiction   where   there   are   thousands   possibilities   to   die   and   start   all   over  again  until  you  finally  make  it  or  even.   to   reach   a   wider   part   of   the   population.   Should   you   fail.     Although  Frontiers  is  presented  as  a  socially  aware  project  on  the  problem  of   migration.   the  experience  of  life?  Of  course.   The   bionecropolitical   gets   to   its   purest   form.   It   is   precise   through   the   game   fictivisation   that   the   player   is   allowed   to   be   simultaneously   the   executioner   and  the  victim.   where  every  40  meters  there  is  a  watchtower.   pain   become   a   means   for   the   production   of   commodities  for  that  same  subject  that  moves  freely  within  the  EU  borders.  even  worse.   starvation.   ground-­‐breaking   gaming   project   available   as   a   free   download.   many   things   testify   to   its   questionable   10   .     The   reality   of   the   six-­‐meter   high   iron   fence   made   of   steel   and   barbed   wire.   These   can   be   found   in   many   of   the   statements   where   the   authors   describe   the   game   as   follows:     Race  for  the  Moroccan-­‐Spanish  fence  line  in  Ceuta  and  make  it  safely  to  the   other   side.   When   do   we   cross   the   border   of   being   socially   engaged   into   just   taking   advantage   of   a   serious   problematic   for   our   personal   interest?   What   are   the   consequences   of   translating   the   problematic   of   migration.  Frontiers  is  accompanied  by  a  detailed  website  containing  info   on  migration  and  integration  issues.  one  can  understand  the  right  purpose  of  the   authors   of   the   project   who   try.   you   will   find   yourself   in   the   Saharan   desert   with  600  km  to  go  until  you  make  it  to  the  border.   by   approaching   the   migration   problematic   through   the   medium   of   a   computer   game.  with  directional  microphones.   persecution.  The  real  obstacles.   The   problem   of   such   fictivisation   is   that   death   ultrainput.   its   horrifying   reality  into  a  game?  Creating  a  fictivisation  and  naming  it  life  or.  you  just  type  the  right  cheat  that  gives  you  unlimited  health  to  finish   the   game   without   difficulty.   gritty.   death.   spotlights  and  a  teargas  system  is  thus  reduced  to  fiction.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Leban  |  Eu  -­‐  Visione   a  beautiful.   However.   what   they   really   do   is   to   reproduce   exactly   that   same   reality  that  the  project  is  supposed  to  criticise.  as  it  is  customary  with  the  known   games.

      In  order  to  get  a  clearer  picture  on  contemporary  Europe.   necropolitics   involves   its   deregulation   through   the  regulation  and  production  of  death.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Leban  |  Eu  -­‐  Visione   and   its   reproduction   become   even   more   alienated.  and  on  the  other.   which.   the   raw   materials   of   war   were   being   turned   into   instruments  of  reconciliation  and  peace.  It   is   the   year   1950.   Likewise   questionable   is   the   position   of   EU.  As  it  is  stated  on  the  official  EU   webpage  Europe  in  12  lessons:   In  countries  which  had  once  fought  each  other.   they   represents  the  dual  same  of  one  reality  –  the  capitalist  one.  the  production  of  coal  and   steel  would  be  pooled  under  a  common  High  Authority.  biopolitics  (Agamben)  and   necropolitics   (Mbembe)   are   not   diametrically   opposed.  In  a  practical  but   also   richly   symbolic   way.   but   on   the   contrary.   If   we   further   analyze   the   relation   of   biopolitics   vs.   necropolitics.   exploitation   and   oppression   differently   in   different   parts   of   the   world.     ultrainput.   This   last   allows   the   capitalist   matrix   to   carry   out   contemporary   processes   of   subjugation.  it  is  essential  for  us   to  go  back  in  the  past  where  the  foundations  of  today’s  EU  had  been  placed.  finances  such  projects.  branding  them  as   examples  of  excellent  praxis.   but   have   since   ever   formed   a   homogeneous   strategy   of   governmentality.   If   biopolitics   involves   the   regulation   of   life.   I   can   state   that   we   face   a   bionecropolitical   contemporaneity   that   has   never   been   divided   into   bio   and   11   .   on   the   one   hand.  Therefore.   founds   agencies   for   preventing   illegal  entrances.   On   9   May   1950   Robert   Schuman   (French   foreign   minister)   proposed   to   establish   a   European  Coal  and  Steel  Community  (ECSC).     Twelve  Points  of  Departure   In   many   of   my   previous   texts   I   started   to   question   the   relation   between   biopolitcs  and  necropolitics  and  have  also  investigated  their  dialectic  relation   and   how   they   were   used   (and   still   are)   to   (re)shape   society.   and   Europe   is   still   recovering   from   the   atrocities   of   the   WWII   when   the   idea   of   the   united   Europe   started   to   take   place.   Life   and   death   can’t   be   split   up   into   two   worlds.   they   constantly   complement   and   upgrade   one   another   through   the   imperialism   of   circulation   (Grzinic).

 For  centuries.  among  many  the  following:     the   European   Union   encouraged   German   unification   after   the   fall   of   the   Berlin  Wall  in  1989.     However.  one  gets  quickly  in  difficulty  since   it  becomes  obvious  that  a  series  of  questionable  statements  is  included  inside   the  text.  Nothing  is  written  in  per  se.   but   it   is   incapable  of  condemning  its  own  genealogy  of  horror.   Nowhere   in   the   text   either   the   colonizers   or   the   guilty   are   mentioned   or   a   clear   condemnation   of   colonization   can   be   found   together   with  the  atrocities  it  brought  about.   capital  has  absorbed  all  alternative  systems.   an   agenda   behind!   If   by   any   chance   the   reader   stops   at   chapter   11   with   the   title   European   union   on   the   world   stage   and   the   subtopic   on   Africa   one   will   immediately   notice   that   there   is   a   basic   discrepancy   between   the   written   general   concern   for   the   developing   nation   and   the   diction   used   to   describe   it.   the   text   fails   to   mention   that   the   fall   of   the   Berlin   wall   and   communism  with  it  is  a  part  of  the  expansionist  logic  of  capital.   after   decades   under   the   authoritarian   yoke   of   the   Warsaw   Pact.  When  the  Soviet  empire  crumbled  in  1991.  the  former   communist   countries   of   central   and   Eastern   Europe.     Let  us  be  precise  and  not  naïve.   which   began   in   the   early   1960s   turned   this   link   into   a   different  kind  of  association  between  sovereign  countries.  There  is  always  a   reason.  the  EU  condemned  Communism  and   Socialism   putting   them   side   by   side   with   Fascism   and   Nazism.  No.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Leban  |  Eu  -­‐  Visione   When  continuing  reading  the  12  points   12   .     Moreover.  with  socialism  that  saw  its  symbolic  decline  in  the  fall   of  the  Berlin  Wall.   specifically  in  Europe.   decided   that   their   future   lay   within  the  family  of  democratic  European  nations.   one   might   even   get   the   impression   that   some   strange   alien   force   were   the   colonizer   and   that   Europe   as   such   (its   old   forces   of   power)   had   ultrainput.  then   taking   their   place   to   finally   erase   them   for   good.   This   is   what   happened.   By   referring   to   the   period   of   colonization   and   stating   that   the   relations  between  Europe  and  sub-­‐Saharan  Africa  dated  a  long  way  back.  and   that   decolonization.  means  to  proclaim   that   the   master-­‐slave   dialectics   ceases   to   exist   within   the   limits   of   (de)colonization.  firstly  subordinating  them.

 But  the  facts  are  more  than  clear.   so  I  stood  up  and  loudly  said:     I  am  John.     In   this   regard   I   still   today   vividly   remember   the   first   English   class   in   the   primary   school   where   we   were   given   an   English   name   and   a   name   of   the   town   were   everyone   of   us   was   located.  I  am  twelve  years  old.   but   most   vividly   Cotonou   Agreement   which   beside   trade.  I  am  from  Liverpool.   who   has   the   right   to   enter   in   the   elite   country-­‐like   club   of   the  civilized  and  who  doesn’t.   Caribbean   and   Pacific   States.   The   main   objectives   of   the   agreement   are   promoted   to   be   the   reduction   and   eradication   of   poverty   as   also   of   the   gradual   integration   of   African.   cultural   and   economical   control).   To   this   do   not   testify   just   the   well-­‐known   contemporary   cases   such   as   Kosovo   and   Iraq.   But   considering   Europe’s   past.   I   would   like   to   draw   on   Etienne   Balibar’s   thesis.  It  is  a  simple   ultrainput.   Twice   a   week  we  had  a  block  of  two  hours  and  each  time  you  had  to  present  yourself.   while   adhering   to   the   aims   of   sustainable   development.  Colonialism  was  and   continues   to   be   a   significant   part   in   European   (as   also   Western)   genealogy   of   domination.   Thus   the   EU-­‐vision   continues   to   construct   its   agenda   that   includes   the   organization  of  our  lives.   its   politics.   Caribbean   and   Pacific   States   into   the   global   economy.   One   is   the   lack   of   a   unified   European  social  politics  and  the  other  is  the  authoritarian  regime  of  a  border   of   exclusion   for   membership   in   Europe.  To  conclude  this  introductory  investigation  on  EU.   This   fence   that   primarily   excludes.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Leban  |  Eu  -­‐  Visione   nothing  to  do  with  it.   one   would   seriously   doubt   it   to   be   its   only   purpose.   shifts   the   old   mode   of   exploitation   (by   brut   force)   to   the   newer   one   (political.   functions   also   as   a   distinction   marker   that   reminds   us   of   who   is   the   master   and   who   the   13   .   I   was   John   from   Liverpool.     One  might  wonder  why  would  this  be  considered  problematic.   which   states   that   today   we   face   two   major   obstacles   to   the   idea   of   really   democratic   European   states.   policy   and   collateral   effects.   In   this   relation   we   can   understand   the   Cotonou   Agreement   as   the   renewed   attempt   (since   it   followed   the   Lomé   Convention   from   1975)   to   colonize   anew   the   African.

  Slovenia.kosovo-­‐young.  1980   Sebastjan  Leban.  Reading  images  in  the   post-­‐Yugoslav  context.  May  2010     Isabel  Ströhle.   but   with   one   more   blue   starred   flag   and   with   an   additional   citizenship   of   a   state(s)   to   which   seems   I   don’t   really   belong   –   except   in   economical  terms.  Reartikulacija  no.  2008     http://www.frontiers-­‐  Leban/Kleindienst.  The  Strategy  of  the  Modernisation  of  the  Ideological  and  Structural  Matrix  of   Neoliberalism.  Excerpts  from  the  interview  Kosovo  a  Permanent  State  of  Exception.  Import/Export:  The  Logic  of  Contempt  in  Contemporary  Neoliberal  Imperialism.  relocate  me?  Perhaps  this  relocation  is  exactly  the  same  as   the   one   present   in   the   project   Frontiers.  De-­linking  from  Capital  and  the  Colonial  Matrix  of  Power:  Class  Racialization  and  the   ultrainput.  Power/Knowledge:  Selected  Interviews  and  Others  Writings.   Why   did   they   have   me   change  my  name.3.   a   learning  toll.5.   a   help   for   the   child   to   more   easily   immerse   in   the   character.  2008     Albin  Kurti.   based   in   Slovenia.   at   the   time   still   part   of   Yugoslavia.  But  does  this  explanation  suffice?  Does  it  really  reflect  the  whole   colonization  apparatuses  behind  the  linguistic  implication  of  such  a  learning   method?   Why   couldn’t   I   simply   be   Sebastjan.   Today   I   am   still   Sebastjan.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Leban  |  Eu  -­‐  Visione   diction.   a   twelve   year-­‐old   from   Nova  forthcoming     Sebastjan   14   .   2011     http://www.   of   course   slightly   modified   and   updated   with   the   new   technology.   Reartikulacija  no.  New  York.  June  2010     Sebastjan  Leban.  Rethinking  Kosovo:  The  New  Born  and  ‘The  Young  Europeans’.           References     Michael  Foucault.

 Institute  of  Philosophy  at  Scientific  Research  Centre  of  the   Slovenian  Academy  of  Sciences.14.  2009       http://europa.     ultrainput.   At   the   moment   he   is   enrolled   at   the   PhD   programme  at  the  University  of  Nova  Gorica.  He  is  one  of  the  co-­‐founder  and  co-­‐editor  of  Reartikulacija.  May  2010   Etienne  Balibar.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Leban  |  Eu  -­‐  Visione   (De)regulation  of  Life.  May  2010     ***   Sebastjan   Leban   is   working   in   the   field   of   theory   and  At  the  Borders  of  Europe.  Pavilion  no.  a   platform   for   radical   critical   analysis   (http://www.  May  2010   15   .makeworlds.   He   is   a   lecturer   of   Radical   Critical  Analysis  at  the  Academy  of  Visual  Arts  (AVA)  in  Ljubljana.

  Duke   University.   at   the   cost   of   those   constituting   knowledge   production.  Lina  Dokuzović  and  Eduard  Freudmann       Fortified   Knowledge:   From   Supranational   Governance   to   Translocal   Resistance       Originally   published   in   The   Worlds   &   Knowledges   Otherwise.   echoing   the   corporate   agendas   in   and   around   education.”   This   shifting   base   forms   the   foundation   which   ebbs   and   flows   in   relation   to   the   needs   or   crises   of   the   center.   USA)   http://trinity.   One   of   the   consequences  of  the  expanse  of  education  has  been  the  geopolitical  restructuring   of  spaces  of  education.   Education.   exposing   the   two   as   joint   partners   in   the   enterprise   of   the   knowledge   economy.   a   laboratory   for   the   creation   of   branded   epistemologies   that   are   the   center   and   starting  point  for  the  reproduction  of  these  concepts  inside  and  beyond  the  walls   that  fortify  it.”  in  which  a  greater  marketability  and  exchange  of  “education  units”  can   take  place  on  behalf  of  supranational  market  agendas.  not  only  as  another  sphere  of  life  appropriated  by  capital.  to  an  increase  in  police  forces  on  university   ultrainput.   The   consequences   of   this   structure   have   echoed   16   .   but   in   terms   of   national   narratives   on   a   supranational   level.   That   expansion   builds   “areas”   and   “zones.duke.   Global   Capitalism   and   Ideology.  Freudman  |  Fortified  Knowledge   2.   with   the   production   of   profit   nevertheless   regulated   by   a   “center.   Supranational   market   expansion   challenges   traditional   national   borders.”   which  creates  hierarchical  strata  of  outlying­‐3-­‐dossier-­‐2-­‐on-­‐europe-­‐education-­‐ global-­‐capitalism-­‐and-­‐ideology-­‐2     Contemporary   educational   structures   are   a   basis   for   capital   reproduction.   (Center   for   the   Global   Studies   and   the   Humanities.   Dossier   2:   On   Europe.                                                                                                                                              Dokuzović.   ranging   from   lack   of   access   to   education.  International  economic  crisis  is  being  remedied  with  a  knowledge   economy.  the  bottommost  of  which   constitutes   the   “zone.       The  consequences  of  this  process  are  manifold  and  as  interlinked  as  capital  and   nation.   to   the  loss  of  homes.  to  student  debt.   Volume   3.

  semi-­‐   17   .  Freudman  |  Fortified  Knowledge   campuses.   such   conditions   within   education   are   not   being   tolerated   and   the   antagonism  which  has  erupted.  worldwide.   following   a   supranational   market   logic.”   in   which   public   funds   are   invested   in   financing   the   war   effort   and   prisons.   This   analysis   will.   reached   a   transnational   level.   As   educational  areas  become  supranational.   rather   than   invested   in   improving   the   school   system.   expanding   to   all   spheres   of   life.  placing  public  moneys  into  private  pockets.   In   the   US.   proposing   alternatives   for   a   struggle   against   both  capitalism  and  nationalism  in  their  variegated  and  obfuscated  forms.  has   expanded   as   far   as   the   problems   being   contested.   so   too   has   the   nature   of   the   protests.   All   the   while.                                                                                                                                              Dokuzović.   Indians  in  Australia  against  structural  racism  and  abuse.   The   demands   of   the   protestors   have   extended   to   a   critique   of   the   commodification   of   all   spheres   of   life.   approach   how   supranationality   substantiates   a   center.   People   in   Europe   have   been   protesting   against   the   current   Bologna   Process   reforms.   peripheries   and   zones   of   suspension   in   regard   to   education.  despite  and  due  to  the  forces  of  regulation.   in   the   US   against   high   tuition   fees   and   cutbacks.  The  concept  of  transnational   struggle   against   supranational   structures   will   thus   be   questioned   in   terms   of   the   entanglement   of   state   and   capital.   education.   therefore.   accumulating   profit   from   education   and   using   education  as  a  tool  for  reproducing  that  very  logic.   They   are   part   of   a   complex   system.  and  in  the  “developing   world”   against   the   ever-­‐changing   institutions   following   Structural   Adjustment   Policies   implemented   decades   ago.   building   a   knowledge  economy.   However.   a   new   logic   of   resistance   may   need   to  be  assessed.  These  worldwide  issues   have   a   common   element.   Just   as   the   crises   are   of   a   transgressive   nature.  the  manifold  protests  have.  as  a  purported  solution  to  a  failing  global  capitalist  order.   militias   and   prisons   become   increasingly   privatized.  regulating  and  preventing  discord.       ultrainput.   to   name   a   few.   protestors   have   referred   to   the   “war   on   our   universities.   Individuals   have   been   protesting   around   the   world.       The   necessity   has   come   for   a   struggle   that   transgresses   national   borders.       However.  as  the  entanglement  of  capital  and  education  examine  the  roots  of   supranationality   within   capitalized   education.  for  the  first   time.

 emanating  from  the  assumption.   2  See  for  example:  http://www.   Officially   introduced   in   1949.   justifying  their  “reform”  and  greater  financial  investment.”  being  fired   –   the   consequences   of   which   are   the   segregation   or   gentrification   of   the   social.   the   No   Child   Left   Behind   Act1   has   allowed   for   such   radical   transformations   as   entire   staffs   of   “under-­‐performing”   public  schools.                                                                                                                                              Dokuzović.  which  have  failed  to  satisfy  “world  class  standards.   published   what   later   became   known   as   the   Singer-­‐Prebisch   thesis.   stabilizing   and   supporting   the   development   and   wealth   of   the   center   in   a   traditional   colonial   format.   the   “dependency   theory”   provides   an   important   model   for   analysis.   For   example.   Hans   Singer   and   Raúl   Prebisch.  but  under  the  terms  of   upgrading   such   schools   into   private   industrial   research   facilities.   providing   new   “standards”   and   a   new   production  of  knowledge.   which   in   nearly   all   cases.  Freudman  |  Fortified  Knowledge   Opening  World  Markets  –  US  Adjustment  Policies       The   commodification   and   homogenization   of   knowledge   and   education   are   grounded  in  a  long  history  of  international  structural  “development”  policy  that   was   conceived   and   installed   by   the   US   in   order   to   ensure   its   position   as   the   center.clevelandleader.   the   social   space   is   essentially   cleansed.       In   terms   of   regulation   of   profit   on   a   global   level.   in   two   separate   papers.  It  claims  that  a  center  and  a  periphery  must  exist  in  which  the  periphery   provides   the   resources   and   cheap   labor.2   The   intervention  of  financial  “rescue”  brings  with  it  the  consequences  of  capitalized   regulation   of   formerly   public   spheres.   more   evidently   “underperform”   economically.   Among   poverty-­‐stricken   regions   suffering   the   most.   but   relating   to   earlier   Marxist ultrainput.   standardization   and   evaluation   have   served   to   filter   through   the   institutions   where   filtration   by   monetary   investment   is   unavailable.   such   as   public   primary-­‐level   education.   dominating   and   exploiting   its   peripheries.   Immanuel                                                                                                                   1  A  legal  act  of  US  standards-­‐based  educational  reform.   with   consequences   most   heavily   experienced   by   those   not   financially   endowed   enough   to   intervene.   as   a   private-­‐public   18   .   In   terms   of   regulating   the   center.  that  the   establishment  and  assessment  of  measurable  standards  would  improve  individual  outcomes  in  education.

  The   US   encouraged   long-­‐term   adjustment   policies   through   the   system.  Freudman  |  Fortified  Knowledge   Wallerstein.   does   not   take   Wallerstein’s   theory   as   a   given.  This  surplus  would  be  sent  to  semi-­‐peripheral  Europe  to  rebuild   ultrainput.  specific  economic  and  structural  reform  processes  need  to   be   considered   in   order   to   elaborate   education’s   role   in   not   only   colonial   or   capitalist   systems.                                                                                                                                              Dokuzović.  based  on  the  standardized  exchange  rate  of   currencies  relayed  to  the  massive  US  gold  reserves.   The   underlying  Bretton  Woods  Agreement  was  signed  by  all  of  the  Allied  nations  in   1944  as  a  US  rescue  mission  for  the  ravaged  European  continent  during  WWII.   the   policies   and   structures   initiated   by   the   Bretton   Woods   System   must   be   examined.  In   exchange.       In  order  to  analyze  the  transgressive  commodification  and  privatization  of  public   goods   and   commons.   This   analysis.”   claiming   that   a   far   more   complex   and   shifting   relationship   between   colonizer   and   colonized   exists.   introduced   the   semi-­‐periphery   in   his   “World   Systems   Theory.   Wallerstein’s   theory   provides   a   point   of   departure.   however.   in   which   the   US   would   trade   at   a   tremendous   profit   between   the   “developing”  nations  of  the  periphery.   turning   both   into   US   semi-­‐peripheries.   with   the   semi-­‐periphery   playing   an   increasingly   significant  role  as  the  balancer  of  the  system  and  the  disguise  of  the  wealth  gap   between   the   “developed”   and   the   “developing”   in   globalism.   opening   the   door   for   the   development   of   neoliberal   capitalism   and   new   relations   between   state   and   capital.  The  Agreement  founded  the   International   Monetary   Fund   (IMF)   and   the   International   Bank   for   Reconstruction   and   Development   (later   to   become   the   World   Bank   Group)   in   order   to   control   and   regulate   the   system.   which   implies   the   inherent   coloniality   in   capitalist   expansion.  an  international  monetary  system  was  introduced.  However.   promoting   European   and   Japanese   competitiveness   in   order   to   rebuild   their   devastated   economies.   It   draws   from   that   economic   model   in   order   to   create   parallels   to   education   in   regard   to   the   development   of   economic   education   areas   and   the   production   of   “zones”   for   better   understanding   effective   methods   of   protest.  expanding  the  market  and  expropriating   raw   19   .   but   also   in   neoliberal   capitalist   ones.  which  established   homogenous  capitalist  market  logic.   however.   taking   a   closer   look   at   the  relationship  between  state  and  capital.   This   would   form   the   basis   of   a   system   of   triangular   trade.

  making   privatized   education   more   inaccessible   rather   than   opening   it   up.  The  development  aid  of   SAPs  was  more  likely  to  establish  debt  slavery  and  “long-­‐term  adjustment”  than   the   short-­‐term   adjustment   policies   which   provided   a   semi-­‐periphery   for   fertile   competition  with  Europe  and  Japan.  following  Bretton   Woods.  establishing  the  “developing”  world  as  a  testing   20   .   SAPs   were   expanded   for   restructuring   “developing”   regions  in  favor  of  producing  dependence  on  the  sovereign  nation.   This   led   to   educational   reforms   in   South   America   and   Africa   during   the   1970s   and   1980s   that   have   left   irreparable   damage.   and   the   first   measures   to   eradicate   socialism   were   made   through   SAPs   in   socialist-­‐aligned   regions   of   the   Global   South.   transitional   regions   would   gain   a   significant   position   in   creating   new   semi-­‐peripheries   as   Europe   rose   to   be   a   substantial   economic   competitor   to   the   US.   led   by   the   Washington   Consensus  –   a   ultrainput.   which  have  been  granted  to  build  up  the  semi-­‐periphery.  a   devaluing   of   the   local   currency   and   a   privatization   of   formerly   public   systems.  They  can  be   understood   as   the   Bretton   Woods   policies   for   the   periphery.                                                                                                                                              Dokuzović.     A  continuation  of  this  US  “salvation  policy”  of  development  aid.  Education  played  a   significant  role.   was   further   articulated   in   the   Structural   Adjustment   Policies   (SAP).     As   “developing”   regions   were   aided   under   terms   that   implemented   debt   slavery.   The   parallel   process  of  implementing  rewritten  histories  and  corrected  knowledges  was  the   ideological   basis   of   Structural   Adjustment   Policies.  Freudman  |  Fortified  Knowledge   the   war-­‐torn   economies.   providing   the   US   as   the   main   market   for   goods   and   as   a   salvation  army.   justifying   the   very   reforms   taking  place.   rather   than   those.   resources  or  services.  maintained   by   the   colonial   ideological   basis   that   education   was   necessary   for   that   very   “development”   to   proceed.   In   order   to   ideologically   justify   the   economic   expansion   to   socialist   regions   –   which   created   a   great   hindrance   to   opening   global   markets   –   an   eradication   of   the   socialist   “evil”   would   be   purported   through   the   salvation   mission.       SAPs  granted  aid  in  exchange  for  opening  up  markets  for  foreign  investment.  healthcare  or  education.   of   the   IMF   and   World   Bank.  such  as  water.

  following   the   Bretton   Woods   System   and   its   many   extensions.  9.   4  Subhabrata  Bobby  Banerjee.  Ljubljana.   As   Bobby  Subhabrata  Banerjee  states.  in  an  “imperialism  without  colonies.   opening   the   new   era   of   “transition”   and   liberal   “democratization.  2009.   merely   echoes   colonial   salvation  missions.  fashioned  for  the  expropriation  of  wealth  and  resources  from   outlying   territories   and   the   appropriation   of   everything   that   produces   it.   implemented   by   the   financial   institutions  set  up  by  Bretton  Woods  for  opening  up  the  region  to  capitalization   processes   through   “development   aid”   following   the   fall   of   the   Berlin   Wall.”4       European   Recovery   –   Paving   the   Way   for   a   Competitive   Knowledge   Economy       Supranationality   would   become   the   method   necessary   to   strengthen   Western   Europe’s   position   in   an   approaching   neoliberally-­‐capitalized.  http://www.reartikulacija.   neocolonized   world.  As  the  disastrous  laceration  of  WWII  weakened ultrainput.3   allowing   a   complete   transition   towards   global   capitalism.  it  would  become   important   that   the   US   domination   and   salvation   mission   remain   within   limited                                                                                                                   3  The  period  of  the  Cold  War  between  the  Soviet  invasion  of  Afghanistan  (1979)  and  the  rise  of  Michail   Gorbachev  (1985).   based   on   the   level   of   development   of   the   former   Eastern   Bloc.  with  increasing  US-­‐Soviet  tensions  and  a  change  in  Western  policy  from  détente  to  more   confrontation  against  the  Soviet  Union.  Freudman  |  Fortified  Knowledge   series   of   regulations.   would   establish   a   neocolonial   platform   for   financial   development.   in   which   both   centers   were   avidly   investing.  “Histories  of  Oppression  and  Voices  of  Resistance:  Towards  a  Theory  of  the   Translocal”  in  Reartikulacija.   supporting   open   market   ethics   and   a   privatization   of   previously   socialized   goods   and   services.  no.                                                                                                                                              Dokuzović.com   21   .   implementing   a   new   semi-­‐periphery   and   a   new   competition   between   the   USA   and   Europe.   What  was  and  still  is  referred  to  as  the  “liberation”  of  territories  and  a  salvation   mission   of   bringing   “democracy”   to   the   oppressed   world.”       The   neoliberal   capitalist   turn.”  we  can   now  refer  to  a  “democracy  without  choices.   This   marked   the   moment   that   the   global   capitalist   “salvation”   process   succeeded.   Socialism   would   essentially   be   eradicated   worldwide   during   the   “Second”   Cold   War.

”   was   not   violently   fought   between   the   nations   which   wagered   war.   http://www.   the   project   of   the   European   Community   would   begin.   the   European   Coal   and   Steel   Community.”   The   expropriation   of   goods   and   resources.   6  See  e.   Formed   according   to   the   US   format   of   the   military-­‐industrial  complex.  economy  and  resources:  the  Western   European   Union.   The   peripheral   battles  could  by  no  means  be  considered  “cold.  production.   expanding   the   market   area   in   Europe.   Each   of   these   constellations   would   depart   from   the   basic   assumption   of   the   principles   of   human   rights   and   the   anti-­‐tyranny6   consensus   of   the   participating   countries.   enforcing   guidelines   for   “development”   by   which   the   “East”   should   become   “civilized”   enough   to   enter   Europe.  Winston  Churchill’s  speech  on  the  academic  youth  in  Zurich  1946:  “Let  Europe  arise!”.   all   the   while   supporting   competition   between   the   US   and   Europe   on   “developing”   soil.   These   structures   would   lay   down   the   basic   framework  for  the  approaching  European  Union.                                                                                                                                              Dokuzović.5  Western  Europe  would  begin  to  form  supranational   areas  based  on  the  pillars  of  the  military.   national  armed  forces  and  the  industrial  sector  in  research.   cheap   labor   and   opening   of   markets   to   capital   and   financing  civil  wars  in  the  periphery  maintained  a  perpetual  state  of  exception7   in   the   regions   which   were   not   recognized   as   part   of   the   war.   a  long-­‐winded  integration  process  of  the  post-­‐socialist  countries  of  Central  and   Eastern   Europe   would   begin.   Following   the   US   establishment   of   strong   capitalist   trading   areas   and   the   parallel   communist   bloc.g.   in   contrast   to   a   “hot   war.       With   the   establishment   of   the   EU   in   1993.  use.pdf     7  According  to  Giorgio  Agamben.  equipment.  and  support  for   military  training.  the  “state  of  exception”  describes  increased  state  power  in  purported   times  of  crisis.   This   should   additionally   be   viewed   in   terms   of   what   was   taking   place   during   the   Cold   22   .  and  facilities  within  the  national  defense  and  security  policy.uzh.  development.   While   the   Cold   War.   safeguarded   by   the   political   collaboration   of   the   Council   of   Europe   and   its   European   Court   of   Human   Rights.  weapons.eiz.  an  open  area  of  economic  and   political  union.   the   European   Economic   Community   and   the   European   Atomic   Energy   Community.   their   dirty   work   was   being   done   in   the   outlying   peripheral   regions   of   the   “developing   world.”  With  the  fall  of  the  Berlin  Wall  in                                                                                                                   5  The  military-­‐industrial  complex  is  a  notion  referring  to  the  interdependent  relation  of  governments.  Freudman  |  Fortified  Knowledge   boundaries   of   fertile   competition.

9   who   analyzes   the   transformation   of   the   border   into   the   zone.  Vienna.”   a   system   of   detention   camps   and   zones   of   suspension8  fortify  the  borders  to  the  outlying  “developing”  territories.  She  claims  “former   Eastern   Europe”   constitutes   such   a   “border   zone”   for   testing   the   whole   territory.   Kosovo   and   Albania.       In   terms   of   shifting   borders   and   the   creation   of   zones.”   a   term   originally   coined   in   reference   to   the  Nazi  occupation  of  Europe.   are   the   non-­‐Christian   nations   of   Bosnia.   This   situation   describes   the   regions   open   to   capitalization   at   the   time.   which                                                                                                                   8  Per  Agamben.   http://eipcp.       In   order   to   protect   the   economic   and   political   area   of   the   EU.   Therefore.  but  of  the  transformation  of  a  whole  territory  into  a  zone  that   functions  in  such  a  way  as  a  (new)  border.  we  propose  the  use  of  the  term  “fortified  Europe”  instead.  forming   what   is   criticized   as   “fortress   Europe.  Freudman  |  Fortified  Knowledge ultrainput.       Referencing   Balibar.”  The  question  of  borders  disappears   in  order  for  the  physiognomy  of  borders  to  change  radically.  12/2009.   the   conditions   of   capitalist   expansion   and   development  aid  would  reach  and  open  the  area.   Marina   Gržinić   states   that:   “We   do   not   talk   about   the   East   and   West   of   Europe  anymore.”.   The   only   exceptions.   it   is   important   to   recognize   the   nearly   complete   EU   integration   process.   claimed   to   be   an   open   area   “without   borders.  indefinite  suspension  of  the  law  characterizes  the  “state  of  exception.   following   the   opening   of   the   Eastern   Bloc   after   the   fall   of   the   Berlin   Wall.  but  the  unrecognized  “hot”  portion  would   continue   into   the   23   .   The   “cold”   tensions   between   the   center   and  its  competition  simmered  down.  “Analysis  of  the  exhibition  ‘Gender  Check  –  Femininity  and  Masculinity  in  the  Art  of   Eastern  Europe’.   However.  these  zones  continue  to  shift  and   reappear  in  different  constellations.  a  new  zoned  global  market  would  arise  in  which  nearly  all  regions  would   be   open   to   intervention   by   the   Center.  However.   however.  as  the  integration  process  expands.  applying  the  Nazi  propaganda  term  to   current  conditions  becomes  problematic  as  it  likens  the  methods  of  the  German   Wehrmacht   to   those   of   the   contemporary   EU   border   and   migration   regimes.   however.  European  Institute  for  Progressive  Cultural  Policies.                                                                                                                                              Dokuzović.”     9  See  Marina  Gržinić.

 in  order  to  continually  fortify  the  center  and  extend   the   logic   of   salvation.   This   would   allow   Europe   to   elevate   its   global   economic   status   from   a   semi-­‐periphery   to   a   center   of   power.                                                                                                                                              Dokuzović.   deemed   unworthy   for   the   salvation   missions   dictated   by   the   cultural   superiority   of   24   .   establishing   a   joint   military  policy.  which  aims  at  forming  an  EU  army  for  military  missions  outside   of   EU   territory.       While   Europe   lagged   in   scientific   development   during   WWII.   it   would   enhance   intra-­‐European   academic   mobility   and   promote   Europe’s   profile   as   a   study   and   research   destination   for   non-­‐European   students.   This   logic   must   reeducate   the   citizenry   in   order   to   gain   consensus  to  its  advancement.   This   intra-­‐European   academic   mobility   would   be   structured   through   the   creation   of   ultrainput.   supplementing   other   political   interests   such  as  economic.   education   would   take   on   an   increasingly   significant   position.  Additionally.   the   USA   excelled.   already   established   in   Maastricht   in   1992   and   largely   expanded   in   the   Lisbon   Treaty   of   2007/2009.  it  can  be  observed  how   restructuralization   under   capitalization   begins   with   the   privatization   of   commons.  Freudman  |  Fortified  Knowledge   have   instead   been   converted   to   zones.   implanting   itself   within   education.  In  order  to  increase  Europe’s  competitiveness  with  the  USA.   To   catch   up   and   challenge   the   US   foothold   in   scientific   development.  With  the  example  of  SAPs.  legal  and  military  intentions  with  educational  restructuring.   the   EU   has   shifted   the   focus   of   its   policy   to   the   Common   Foreign   and   Security   Policy   (CFSP).   Europe   would   invest   in   a   growing   engagement   in   Research   and   Technological   Development  (RTD).           Knowledge  Economy  Areas       As  Europe  began  the  process  of  emancipation  from  the  economic  dominance  of   the   USA   following   WWII.   This   example   clarifies   the   terms   under   which   open   market   ideology   functions   –   coupling   liberal   capitalism   with   conservatism   or   neoliberalism   with   neoconservatism   –   exposing  coloniality  in  the  “salvation”  of  the  “undeveloped”  as  the  very  basis  of   capitalization.   regulating   itself   through   violently   fortified  borders  and  reproducing  its  own  logic  through  reeducation.

 “International  Student  Struggles  Transnational  Economies.   ultrainput.  Guest  Consumers  and   Processes  of  Restructuring”  in  Mutiny.pdf   11  For  a  list  of  the   25   .  15:1.   13  See       With   the   elevation   of   Europe   from   a   semi-­‐periphery   to   a  Freudman  |  Fortified  Knowledge   the   European   Higher   Education   Area   (EHEA)   aimed   for   2010.   That   structure   has   been   supported   by   the   launch   of   the   Bologna   Process   in   1999.proasyl.  targeting  an  Asia  Pacific  Higher   Education   Area   for   competition   with   the   US   and   aspiring   EU   models.   http://www.   as   the   EHEA   and   EU   are   congruent   with   the   EU   border   and   migration   regime   supporting   the   necropolitical12   border   defense   projects   of   use   the   term   “fortified   knowledge   centers”   to   refer   to   how   this   relates   to   the   fortification   around   the   knowledge   economy   areas.   We   therefore.   includes   the   52   countries   of   the   region   invited   to   the   Asia-­‐ Pacific   Education   Ministers’   Meeting   in   April   2006.    2010.  pp.  http://www.   not   only   accepting   the   consequences   of   drowning   boat   refugees.   based   on   incoming   students.  see:  http://www.   seen   as   “guest   consumers.”10   represented   statistically   as   an   “educational  export.11   This   region   subsequently   composes  Australia’s  periphery.   influenced   by   the   successful   knowledge   economic   model.htm   12  Achille  Mbembe  defines  “necropolitics”  as  “the  subjugation  of  life  to  the  power  of  death”  in  “Necropolitics”   in  Public  Culture.  however.  winter  2003.                                                                                                                                              Dokuzović.youtube.brisbanecommunique.deewr.   http://jura.       It   is   important   to   understand   that   the   functionality   of   the   center-­‐periphery   model   as   a   territorial   strategy   of   dominance   is   based   on   the   control   and   regulation   of   mobility   and  http://www.   Australia   has   subsequently   gained   significant   economic   success.  is  the  development  of  a  European  Research  Area  (ERA)   incepted  in  2000.  or  the  broader   Asia-­‐Pacific   region.  no.  but  enforcing  it.13                                                                                                                       10  Ben   whose   joint   primary”  The  area  under  the  Brisbane  Communiqué.  11-­‐40.pdf.   Australia   would   also   enter   the   race   by  initiating  the  Brisbaine  Communiqué  in  2006.  in  supporting  Research  and  Technological  Development  (RTD).au/files/jura/Mutiny%2048%20WebV3.

  never   to   be   integrated   into   the   EHEA   or   EU.                                                                                                                                              Dokuzović.  Freudman  |  Fortified  Knowledge   By  aiming  to  declare  all  of  its  neighboring  countries  “safe”  “third  countries”14  and   financing   massive   detention   centers   there.   services   and   capital   allow   an   unlimited  production  of  profit.”   such   as   the   EHEA.  subjects  them  to  cruel   conditions  the  EU  effectively  imposes.   yet   regulated   mobility   arrangement   has   introduced   the   same   terminology   into   education   as   used   in   economic   trade.  and  migration.   Is   it   also   significant   to   maintain   the   difference   here   between   mobility.   into   which   any   asylum   seeker   who   is   caught   in   the   EU   can   be   deported   to   without   the   EU   legally   violating   the   Geneva   Convention.   supplying   cheap   labor   to   the   center.  The  outlying  regions  in  which  movement  can  be   sanctioned   can   be   defined   in   terms   of   the   aforementioned   zones.   whereas   the   most   excluded   group   gets   sent   back   to   the   peripheries   as   sediment   following   the   expiry  of  granted  access.   Incoming   students   are   seen   as   guest   consumers   during   their   studies   and   as   potential   intellectual   or   scientific   upgrades   after   their   studies.     This   flexible.   the   appeal   of   Europe   to   researchers   and   students   outside   of   the   center   is   exacerbated.   the   EU   creates   a   semi-­‐peripheral   buffer   zone. ultrainput.  such   26   .  those  who  arrive  at  the  base  and  filter  into   a   useful   elite   can   be   granted   some   eventual   rights   to   stay.  meanwhile  blaming  the  conditions  on  the   “underdeveloped”  conditions  of  the  outlying  regions.   This   outsources  the  responsibility  of  accepting  asylum  seekers.     Those   who   are   able   to   enter   the   center   from   the   peripheries   through   means   of   educational   mobility   are   strictly   regulated   and   framed   accordingly   to   work   force   demands.  which  is  protected  by  law.  which  is  punishable  by  law.   etc.   defined   by   Balibar.”   maximal   mobility   of   goods.   Simultaneously.  These  zones   are  regulated  through  a  permanent  state  of  suspension  or  exception.   a   region   not                                                                                                                   14  A  "third  country"  is  any  nation  which  is  not  a  member  state  or  party  to  the  contract  of  a   bilateral/multilateral  or  supranational  structure.   allotting   them   a   position   at   the   base   of   society.  which  function  to  replace  the  traditional  national  borders.   or   in   the   example   of   the   entire   region   of   sub-­‐Saharan   Africa.   ERA.  Such  zones   can   be   the   outlying   regions   of   Europe.   In   these   “areas.   Thereby   a   core   of   wealthy   consumers   who   can   afford  the  investment  are  welcomed.   however.  and  primarily  referring  to  the  Schengen  area.   of   “areas.

  Being   inside   the   borders   of   the   Schengen   area.  they  have  the  right  to  work  and  make  a  living   –  principles  that  are  guaranteed  by  the  EU  judiciary.   but   simply   support   the   “developed  world”  as  resource-­‐rich  bargain  bins.”   http://conventions.   18  The  European  Cultural  Convention  was  signed  by  the  members  of  the  Council  of  Europe  in  1954  to   “achieve  a  greater  unity  between  its  members  for  the  purpose  […]  of  safeguarding  and  realizing  the  ideals   and  principles  which  are  their  common  heritage.coe.   but   not   the   latter).   the   countries’   citizens   purportedly   increase   the   intra-­‐European   academic   mobility   as   they   enjoy   the   freedom   of   movement   and   are   therefore   enabled  to  study.  Freudman  |  Fortified  Knowledge   “civilized”   enough   to   enter   bilateral   or   multilateral  research  and  teach  in  any  location  within  the  Schengen  area.       The  Semi-­Periphery       The  part  of  the  EHEA  outside  of  the  EU  forms  its  semi-­‐periphery.                                                                                                                                              Dokuzović.   Russia.   The   signatories   of   the   Bologna   Declaration   are   congruent   with   the   Member   States   of   today’s   EU16   and   form   the   core   of   the   EHEA   or   its   center.   The   semi-­‐periphery   is   defined   through   all   signatories   of   the   European   Cultural   Convention18   and   the   Member   States   of   the   Council   of   Europe   (the   only   exception   is   Belarus   who   signed   the   previous.  which  entered  the  Bologna  Process  two  years  later  in  2001.pambazuka.   Moldova.   the   creation   of   the   center   and   its   peripheries   becomes   clear.   the   Ukraine.  This  includes   the   Western   Balkans.15       The  Center       When   examining   the   development   of   the   Bologna   Process   leading   to   the   EHEA.  Monaco  and  San   16  Except  for  Cyprus.g.   thereby   all   non-­‐EU   countries   on   the   Eurasian   landmass   west   of   the   Caspian   Sea17   and   (since   March   2010)   Kazakhstan.  As   EU   27   .   they   cannot   be   charged   more   tuition   fees   than   residents.   scholarships  are  available  to  them.   the   Caucasus   Republics.   they   are   additionally   protected   from   discrimination   based   on   their   national   origin   e.   Its   citizens   benefit   from   the                                                                                                                   15  Term  expanded  by  Khadija  Sharife  in  “DRC’s  Magic  Dust:  Who  Benefits?”   http://www.   Turkey.htm   ultrainput.   17  Except  Belarus.

20  the   Middle  East21  and  Central  Asia.  Egypt.htm   24  European  Cultural al_setting_finalreport.  Freudman  |  Fortified  Knowledge   comparability   of   the   national   education   systems.coe.   http://www.  13.  Libya.  Volume  20.ond.  “Looking  out:  The  Bologna  Process  in  a  Global   ultrainput. http://www.  Lebanon.22  all  of  them  participating  in  Tempus.  http://conventions.  Syria   22  Tajikistan.  A   woman’s  lower-­‐level  annual  income  after  taxes  in  Austria  in  2008  was  6.   there   is   no   perspective   to   integrate   these   countries   into   the   EHEA.   because   they   are   not   signatories   of   the   European   Cultural   Convention.htm   25  Pavel  Zgaga.  Uzbekistan   23  See  the  World  Education  Services.wes.491  Euro.   http://www.   the   domination   strategy   –   the   export   of   epistemology   and   “braindrain”   of   the   zones   –   is   established   “with   regions   and   countries   in   other   parts   of   the   world   by   promoting   the   idea   and   practice   of   regional   cooperation   and   through   practical   cooperation   and   dissemination   of bis_2008_020055.  the  applicant  has  to  prove  being  in  possession  of  7.   therefore.  Tunisia   21  Israel.”24   In   the   case   of   the   periphery.   they   can   transfer   credits   and   easily   continue   their   studies   in   the   center   in   case   they   are   selected   and   permitted   to   enter   the   Schengen   area   where   they   are   subjected   to   a   number   of   (nationally-­‐varying)   discriminations   such   as   the   obstruction   to   work   for   money  and  the  simultaneous  obligation  to  prove  the  possession  of  an  amount  of   money.  April  2007.”25   meaning                                                                                                                   19  To  get  a  student  visa  prolonged  in  Austria.statistik.  Jordan.  Norwegian  Ministry  for   Education  and  Research  2006.”  p.  Palestine.   therefore.055  euro.pdf   20   they   are   not   considered   to   share   the   “common   cultural   heritage   of   Europe”   and   “safeguard   and   encourage   the   development   of   European   culture.  which  exceeds  the  maximal  allowed  annual  income.   28   .  Issue  4.”23   According   to   the   Bologna   Process   Conference   Berlin   2003.19       The  Periphery     The  periphery  of  the  EHEA  is  comprised  of  the  countries  of  Northern  Africa.  “a  vehicle   for   the   promotion   and   exchange   of   Bologna   ideas   to   countries   surrounding   the   EU.  Morocco.                                                                                                                                              Dokuzović.

europa.   with   its   exclusive   and   inclusive   mechanisms   of   the   center   and   its   peripheries.  April  2007.  p.   http://www.  but  its  function  depends  on   the  disfranchisement  of  excluded  and  included  individuals.”28  Interestingly.   Latin   America   and   Caribbean)   Common   Area   of   Higher   Education.  Freudman  |  Fortified  Knowledge   to   advocate   “the   need   to   expand   cooperation.  Issue  4.  January  2010.pdf­‐america/regional-­‐ cooperation/eurosocial/documents/declaration_vienna_en.   with  the  exception  of  Turkey.   geared   towards   mobility   and   cooperation.  Volume  20.  So  it  is  necessary  to   not  only  refer  to  “fortified  Europe”  in  terms  of  its  migration  politics  and  border   regime.  zero   29   .”26  With  that  aim.   such   as   Alfa27   or   attaching   “priority   to   the   creation   of   the   EU-­‐LAC   (European   Union.   not   only   closely   relates   to   the   fortification   of   Europe  by  utilizing  the  same  center  and  buffer  zones.                                                                                                                                              Dokuzović.htm   28  See  Article  52  of  EU-­‐LAC  Declaration.  http://www.htm   27­‐factory.   therefore.   faculty   and   students   from   non-­‐Bologna   countries.  7.   understand  the  EHEA  as  a  “fortified  knowledge  center.   exchange   and   scholarship   programs   for   administrators.  This  precise  apportionment  of  the  territories  can   be   seen   as   a   continuation   of   the   territorial   demarcation   processes   that   the   colonial   empires   carried   out   with   their   colonial   conferences   until   the   20th­‐america/regional-­‐cooperation/alfa/index_en.       The   establishment   of   the   EHEA.”29       So   what   is   at   stake   is   that   the   center   of   the   First   Capitalist   World   (USA)   dominating   its   peripheries   (Western   Europe   and   the   “developing”   world)     was   ruptured  within  the  last  two  decades  into  three  centers  –  with  the  emerging  EU   and   Australia   –   who   established   structures   for   education   and   research   areas   in                                                                                                                   26  See:  World  Education  Services.   but   to   understand   the   fortification   as   a   transgressive   logic   being   gradually   applied   to   every   sphere   of   life   regulated   by   EU   policy­‐factory.pdf 29  See  the  Edu-­‐factory  collective:  “The  double  crisis:  living  on  the  borders”  in  EduFactory  webjournal.  Europe  is  even  fishing  in  foreign  waters  by  launching   academic   exchange   programs   with   Latin   America.  there  is  no  country  which  is  part  of  both  the  EHEA   or  its  periphery  and  the  Australia-­‐dominated  Asia  Pacific  Higher  Education  Area.

      Expanding  Education  as  an  Empire       The  dominant  models  of  the  educational  areas  of  the  center  have  expanded  and   linked  to  their  peripheries  globally.   as   the   center   of   knowledge   production.                                                                                                                                              Dokuzović.   The   central   position   of   the   US   territory.   It   was   envisioned   by   Muammar   al-­‐Gaddafi   as   a   supranational  Arab  state.  5.  Between  1933  and  1945.g.   exporting  its  epistemology  to  rule  and  “braindrain”  its  periphery.  After  1945.  it  is  always  possible  for  other  (semi-­‐)peripheral   territories  to  do  so.  Operation  Overcast  or  Project  Paperclip).org/en/category/features/59828 ultrainput.  January  2010.31  China  and  India.  is  the  result  of   hegemony   of   the   US   research   and   knowledge   production   system   that   lasts   for   decades  worldwide.  for  example.  the  US  authorities  “imported”   scholars  that  had  been  serving  the  Nazi  regime  (see   30   .   through   multilateral   trade   agreements   and   academic   exchange   programs.  which  has  begun  fertile  competition  and  coordination   with  Europe.  such  as  China  and  India.32                                                                                                                     30  Immigration  of  scientists  to  the  US  reached  its  peak  around  WW  II.pambazuka. 31  See  the  Edu-­‐factory  collective:  “The  Double  Crisis:  Living  on  the  Borders”  in  EduFactory  webjournal.  are   members  of  the  BRIC  nations  –  Brazil.   Mauritania.   the   combined   economies   of   the   BRICs   could   eclipse   the   combined   economies   of   the   current   richest  countries  of  the  world.   Some   significant   emerging   semi-­‐peripheries   can   be   seen   in   the   Maghreb  region  and  in  South  Africa.  see  Yohannes  Woldemariam  “The  Plight  of  Eritrea’s  Boat  People”  in:   http://www.  The  five  states  of  Algeria.  for  example.  including  acting  as  a  regulator  for  African  migrants  into  the  EU.  a  significant   number  of  scholars  escaping  Nazi  persecution  migrated  to  the  US.  with  the  appeal  of  allowing  the  elevation  to  a   semi-­‐periphery.  zero   issue.  p.30       As  Europe  and  Australia  elevated  themselves  from  a  (semi-­‐)periphery  to  a  center   at  the  expense  of  US  domination.     32  For  an  account  of  Gaddafi’s  exchange  policy  between  the  EU  and  African  migration  camp  regimes  in  other   parts  of  Africa.  Russia.  Libya.  India  and  China   –  the  most  rapidly   developing   economies   in   the   world   and   those   with   the   greatest   investment   in   Africa   (their   periphery).   Goldman   Sachs   argues   that   by   2050.  Freudman  |  Fortified  Knowledge   order   to   compete   with   the   US   and   create   their   own   profitable   peripheries.   Morocco   and   Tunisia   established   the   Maghreb   Union   in   1989   to   promote   a   common   market.

 Freudman  |  Fortified  Knowledge     In   December   2009.   the   World   Trade   Organization   Secretariat   launched   a   new   program   of   support   for­‐ 01   34  http://www.   calls   for   holding   a   world   summit   that   should   guarantee   the   Maghreb’s   transformation   into   a   knowledge-­‐economy   based   region.  Raising  the  Level  of  Competitiveness   and   Realizing   Balanced   Development”   was   organized   by   the   Islamic   Educational.   the   “International   Conference   for   Knowledge-­‐Based   Economies  for  Creating  Job  Opportunities.)  are  in  favor  of  the  adjustment  of  African  universities   to   the   Bologna   model.   many   parents  simply  cannot  afford  to  send  their  children  to  school.   however.magharebia.  the  World  Bank  and  the  Tunisian   government.   the   incompatibility   with   the   “common   cultural   heritage   of   Europe.  etc.   strengthening   the   role   of   private-­‐sector   enterprises   and   civil-­‐society   organizations.”   inherently   excludes   the   participation   of.   the   Declaration   calls   for   establishing   suitable   mechanisms   for   “enhancing   cooperation   and   partnership.   31   .34     Zones   stabilize   the   elevation   and   “opening”   of   entire   regions.                                                                                                                       33  http://www.   The   Tunis   Declaration.  so  while  drastically   disciplining   and   enforcing   class   division.   This   example   demonstrates   one   of   the   attempts   of   the   periphery   to   rise   to   a   semi-­‐periphery.                                                                                                                                              Dokuzović.   Scientific  and  Cultural  Organization  (ISESCO).magharebia.”33   Algeria.   On   the   other   hand.   Additionally.   On   January   26th   2010.   which   emerged   from   it.   Muslim   countries.   for   example.   thereby   merely   supporting   a   continuation   of   a   European  panopticon  model.  World  Bank.   research   and   outreach   activities   at   14   universities   in   the   “developing”   world.   investment   is   nonetheless   made   in   order  to  bolster  the  knowledge  economy  area  models.   and   coordinating   contributions   from   specialized   regional   and   international   organizations.   urged   by   the   Ministry   of   Education’s   disappointment   with   graduation   statistics.   International   financial   organizations   and   institutions   (UNESCO.   has   begun   fining   the   parents   of   children   who   do   not   regularly   attend­‐ 01 ultrainput.

  regulating   its   peripheries   through   domination   on   a   micro-­‐level.   On   January   29th.  as   envisaged  in  the  Bologna  Declaration  of  1999.   the   police   had   a   dress   rehearsal  for  the  Hofburg’s  fortification.  Members  of  Burschenschaften  periodically  attack   the  Austrian  Verbotsgesetz  1947.   have   close   ties   to   neo-­‐Nazism.  Freudman  |  Fortified  Knowledge     Nationalism  and  Transnational  Struggle  –  the  Fortified  Hofburg       On  March  12.  which  suppresses  any  potential  revival  of  Nazism  and  regulates  the   prohibition  of  denying  or  grossly  minimizing  the  Shoah  or  other  Nazi  war  crimes.  action.  Vienna’s  Imperial  Palace.  resistance  and  policies.   After   the   protestors   invited   activists   from   all   over   the   world   to   join   them   in   a   counter-­‐summit   and   days   of   action   challenging   the   official   Bologna   Summit.  because  it  was  involved  in  bombings  in   South  Tyrol.  during  a  ball  held  by  far-­‐right  extremist   fraternities.                                                                                                                                              Dokuzović.   shortly   before   the   Bologna   Summit   at   the   Hofburg.  but   for  Adolf  Hitler’s  speech  on  the  Hofburg’s  balcony  on  March  15.  a  city  which  had  been  the  site  of  massive  education  protests  in  late  2009.  provided  the  legal  framework  for   the  process  of  de-­‐Nazification.  1938.  the  annex   of  Austria  to  the  German  Reich  to  hundreds  of  thousands  of  raving  Viennese  after   the   Nazis   took   over   power   from   the   Austro-­‐fascists.   the   Austrian   police   reactivated   the   original   function   of   the   Hofburg.  Lately  its  abolishment  has  not  only  been  claimed  by  the   far-­‐right-­‐wing  Austrian  Freedom  Party  (FPÖ)  that  has  been  doing  so  since  its  inception.35  in  that  very  building.  such  as   the   infamous   Olympia.  they  are  primarily   affiliated  with  pan-­‐Germanism  and  a  far-­‐right-­‐wing  credo.  It  represents  the  anti-­‐ fascist  consensus  of  the  Austrian  Second  Republic.   as   a   fortified   castle.36   In   order   to   prevent                                                                                                                   35  Burschenschaften  are  academic  male  societies  in  the  German-­‐speaking  area.”  Therefore  a  micro-­‐  and  macro-­‐level  analysis  must  be  made  in   order  to  compare  potentialities.   Thereby   it   applied   the   same   structure   of   the   fortified   center.  In  Austria.  2010  the  launch  of  the  European  Higher  Education  Area  (EHEA).  Some  of  them.  but  also  by  the   Akademikerbund.  After  its  reestablishment.   effective   throughout   “fortified   Europe”   and   the   “fortified   knowledge  center.   2010.  was  declared  by  Ministers  of  the   participating  47  countries  at  the  Bologna  Ministerial  Anniversary  Conference  in   Vienna.  the  academic  association  related  to  the  conservative  Austrian  People’s  Party  (ÖVP).com   32   .  or  Burschenschaften.  a  legal  act  that  banned  the  Nazi  party.   which   hosted   the   Bologna   Ministerial   Anniversary   Conference.  it  protested  against  the  conviction  of  the  Austrian  neo-­‐Nazi  Gottfried   ultrainput.  is  not  only  known  for  its  royal  past.       The  Hofburg.   36  The  Olympia  was  suspended  in  1961  by  Austrian  authorities.   with  several  Universities  squatted  and  tens  of  thousands  demonstrating  against   the   commodification   of   education   and   knowledge.

 according  to  the  Verbotsgesetz  in  1993  and  invited  several  neo-­‐Nazis  for  concerts  or  lectures.  http://nowkr.  Several  of  the  blockade  attempts   were   successful   as   police   became   overwhelmed   by   the   flexibility   of   the   protestors.  The  Olympia  member.000   demonstrators.  January  2010.   each   serving   to   blockade   a   major   route   to   the   fortress   within   the   city’s   semi-­‐periphery   in   order   to   prevent   the   Ministers   and   their  peons  from  accessing  the  fortified  center.38                                                                                                                     Küssel.   The   main   part   of   the   protest   led   people   to   and   ended   in   front   of   the   Hofburg’s   main   gate.  delaying  the  Ministers’  and  their  cohorts’  arrival  to  Vienna  by  several   hours.   they   gained   significance   because   of   an   additional  action  in  the  city’s  periphery.37     Approximately   one   month   later.   37  Press  release  noWKR  Bündnis.   hundreds   of   assembling   protestors   were   closed   in   by   police   and   criminalized   through   penalties.  Vienna’s  streets  were  populated  with   around   33   .   The   protesters   were   separated   into   several   groups.   among  them  the  British  Holocaust  denier  David  Irving  (2005).  Martin  Graf.  This  fortification  of   the  Hofburg  is  not­‐ausflug-­‐nach-­‐wien-­‐ hindernissen.   A   demonstration   against   the   ball   was   forbidden   by   Viennese   authorities.   ultrainput.   As   these   can   be   seen   as   actions   against   the   divisions   of   center   and   semi-­‐periphery   on   a   micro-­‐level.  nor  do  those  involved  recall  such  an  action  in  their­‐ demonstrationsfreiheit-­‐mit-­‐brutaler-­‐polizeigewalt-­‐ausgehebelt 38  It  is  not  clear  if  the  tracks  were  really  blocked  (according  to  the  report  of  a  traveler)  or  if  the  transfer  to   busses  was  a  preventative  measure  by  the  police  who  feared  a  blockade  (as  it  is  stated  in  the  article  of  the   Austrian  Press  Agency:  http://relevant.   Meanwhile.  Freudman  |  Fortified  Knowledge   protestors   from   jeopardizing   the   event.  when  railroad  tracks  were  blockaded  on   the  route  from  Budapest  to  Vienna.                                                                                                                                              Dokuzović.   participants   were   called   out   to   join   a   series   of   blockade   actions   in   the   city’s   arteries   surrounding   the   Hofburg.wordpress.   14   anti-­‐fascist   activists   were   arrested   and   at   least   20   individuals   were   hospitalized  after  injury  by  police  forces.story).   which   was   closed   off   from   the   international  protestors.   the   police   closed   the   fortified   Hofburg.  was   elected  as  Vice-­‐President  of  the  Austrian  Parliament  in  2008.  forcing  a  transfer  from  the  chartered  trains   to  busses.   as   the   first   day   of   the   Bologna   Summit   was   held   in  the  Hungarian  parliament  in  Budapest.  creating  a  true  fortified  stronghold.

malen-­‐nach-­‐zahlen.”  See:   34   .g.   “just”   five   arrests)   shows.  which  had  been  carried  out  against  education  protestors  worldwide.mp3   ultrainput.   that   the   micro-­‐ level  comparison  to  “fortified  Europe”  and  its  “fortified  knowledge  center”  drifts   apart   at   the   moment   when   the   question   of   citizens   and   their   rights   comes   into   play:   Those   who   challenge   the   system   on   the   macro-­‐level   are   oppressed   with   brutal   restriction   and   absolute   disfranchisement.  have   reminded  us  that  some  of  the  Bologna  aims  and  reforms  have  not  been  properly  implemented  and   explained.40   indicating   their   recognized   eligibility   as   potential   future   successors   of   the   administration   within   the   (micro-­‐)center.41   However.  Freudman  |  Fortified  Knowledge   The  fact  that  the  police  were  relatively  subdued  in  their  reaction  to  the  blockades   of   “fortress   Hofburg”   (none   injured.”  (http://www.­‐ content/uploads/Schmidt_Wulffen_keine_polizei_mp3.  Molotov-­‐ cocktails  and  blackjacks  escalating  in  a  pogrom  in  which  the  police  did  not  intervene  but  instead  reacted   after  some  days  by  deporting  the  attacked  to  detention­‐ Vienna_Declaration.   by   calling   the   police   to   evacuate   occupied   spaces   at   the   University   of   Vienna   and   the  Academy  of  Fine  Arts  Vienna  in  December  2009.         International  Oppression       As  most  of  the  university  occupations  and  protests  against  the  commodification   of  knowledge  were  reacted  to  with  police  violence  and  oppression.   the   protestors   on   the   micro-­‐level   in   Vienna   were   regarded   as   part   of   the   macro-­‐center.  by  authors:  For  me.  in  violation  to  the  unwritten  law  that  police  are  not  to  enter  university   grounds   in   Austria.heise.pdf.  that  is  a  law  inscribed  in  stone:   there  are  to  be  no  police  in  universities.  partly  directed  against  developments  and  measures  not  related  to  the  Bologna  Process.   http://www.  11/2009.bmwf.                                                                                                                                              Dokuzović.de/tp/r4/artikel/31/31894/1.  how  the  protests  were  explained  in  the  Budapest-­‐Vienna  Declaration  as  an  outcome  of   lack  of  understanding  from  a  missing  explanation  of  the  Bologna  Process:  “Recent  protests  in  some   countries.   additionally   regarded   with   a   benevolent   method   of   infantilization.gv.  Article  6)     41  See  Lina  Dokuzović  and  Eduard  Freudmann:  “Squatting  the  Crisis:  On  the  Current  Protests  in  Education   and  Perspectives  on  Radical  Change.39   In   contrast.”  Trans.html 40  See  for  example.   therefore   enjoying   all   legal   rights   of   European   citizens.42   Austrian   universities   have   adopted   policies   of   open   repression.   http://eipcp.”  European  Institute  for  Progressive  Cultural  Policies.  the  recent  case  of  a  community  of  illegalized  agricultural  workers  in  Italy  protesting  against  racist   violations  and  unbearable  living  conditions  that  was  attacked  by  a  racist  mob  with  firearms.  varied  levels                                                                                                                   39  See   42  The  rector  of  the  Academy  of  Fine  Arts  Vienna  even  stated  repeatedly:  “Das  ist  für  mich  ein  eisernes   Gesetz:  An  der  Universität  gibt’s  keine  Polizei.

 Heidelberg  and­‐factory.   then   finally   shot   in   the   face   twice.   44  http://wozazimbabwe.  Referred  to  as  “delusional”   and  “hysterical.43   A   student   was   severely   beaten   and   11   were   arrested   at   the   University   of   Zimbabwe.  who  needed  a  cane  to  walk  due  to  a  childhood  case  of  polio.   Australia   a   demonstration   of   47  http://www.   leaving   him   in   critical   condition   after   losing   his   tongue   and   jaw.huffingtonpost.  class  and   segregation.46   6   students   were   arrested   for   distributing   flyers   against  the  neoliberal  university  at  Hosei  University  in  Korea.”  the  police  were  called  when  Adu-­‐Brempong  raised  his  voice  in   his  home.  with  65  activists  detained.   exceed   far   beyond   such   levels   of   violence.  Freudman  |  Fortified  Knowledge   of  brutality  have  depended  on  geopolitical  locations.   following   arrests   in   Harare   and   Bulawayo   the   week   before.   the   165   cm   tall   man.   protesting   against  racist  assault.  Adu-­‐ Brempong.   After   the   brutal   35   .000   Indian  shot  twice  with   an   assault   rifle.45  Water  cannons  were   used   to   disperse   protesting   university   students   in   Johannesburg   demanding   free   tertiary   education   for   the   poor.49     The   presence   of   police   on   campuses   can.”  established  by  protestors  at  UC  Berkeley  was  raided   by  police.44   In   45­‐  17  activists  were   arrested   for   anti-­‐racist   demonstrations   at   the   University   of   California   Irvine48   and  the  “Open­‐j02.shtml 46  http://www.html   49­‐irvine-­‐protest-­‐17-­‐arre_n_475903.  was  arrested                                                                                                                   43  Among  others  in  Frankfurt.  For  example.  Adu-­‐Brempong  was  then  tased  by  police  forces  twice.  lived  in  on-­‐campus  housing  was  reported   as  worried  that  his  student  visa  may  not  be  extended.  an  immigrant  from  Ghana.  Jena.reuters.  was  violently  broken  up  by  police.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=258:uc-­‐berkeley-­‐ open-­‐university-­‐raided-­‐by-­‐police-­‐65-­‐arrested&catid=34:struggles&Itemid=53   ultrainput.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=284:six-­‐students-­‐ were-­‐arrested-­‐on-­‐hosei-­‐university&catid=34:struggles&Itemid=53   48  http://www.wsws.                                                                                                                                              Dokuzović.   a   35-­‐ year  old  doctoral  student  and  teaching  assistant  at  the  University  of  Florida.   such   as   in   the   exceptional   case   of   Kofi   Adu-­‐Brempong.  economic  status.   nevertheless.  several  universities  in  Germany  were  evacuated  by  the   police   with   teargas   and   beatings   immediately   after   they   were   occupied.

      This   context   becomes   exposed   differently.”50  as  reflected  in   a  recent  interview51.   protesting   and   demanding   “justice   for   Kofi”   and   an   end   to   oppressive.   51  http://www.   They   show   a   struggle   that   transgresses   national   borders.   having   thrown  eggs  at  African-­‐American  passersby.   three   days   before   the   nationwide   protests   against   the   privatization   of   education   were   declared   to   take   place.   violent   strategies   at   universities.   In   a   state   with   a   dense   history   of   slavery   and   racism.   expanding  to  question  all  of  the  spheres  of  life  appropriated  by  capitalization  and   privatization.   this   panopticon   model   of   surveillance   and   submission   for   fear  of  violent  punishment  is  a  global  model.   2010.   as   no   significant   protests   had   taken   place  in  Florida  until  then.       “Politicized  by  the  three-­‐month  squatting  of  the  ‘Arena’  in  1976.   36   .   the  extremity  provoked  a  group  of  400  students.   transnational   meetings   and   solidarity   with   Adu-­‐Brempong   show   a   significant   realignment   of   protest   methodology.       Taking  Down  the  Fortress       The   examples   of   blockade   in   Europe.   international   uprising.  self-­‐organized  cultural  center  in  Vienna’s  former   run-­‐down  slaughterhouse  and  represents  the  culmination  of  the  engagement  of  social  and  political   movements  of  the  1970s  in  Austria.hoanzl.  not  a   local”   The   five   special   operative   police   officers   involved   had   been   charged   with   racist   violence   in   the   past.  with  the  team  leader  being  demoted   to  campus  security  for  that  reason.  worked   on   a   film   about   a   workers’   strike   at   “Semperit.   it   was   historically   common   for   a   slave-­‐owner   to   “make  an  example  of  a  slave”  to  prevent  any  potential  rebellion.  the  Austrian  Jewish  filmmaker.  Freudman  |  Fortified  Knowledge   with   felony   charges   for   “violently   resisting   arrest.  locals  and  professors  to  march   into   the   Board   of   Trustees   office   at   the   University   of   Florida.                                                                                                                                              Dokuzović.  with  the  attack  on  Kofi  Adu-­‐Brempong  taking  place  on   March   1.”   a   tire   factory   in   an   industrial                                                                                                                   50  The  squatting  was  aimed  at  establishing  an  alternative.  Ruth  Beckermann.  In  Adu-­‐Brempong’s  case.  however.html   ultrainput.

 for  example.  dvo.  to  see  redundant  anti-­‐Semitic   stereotypes   reproduced   by   a   group   of   students   from   Weimar’s   Bauhaus   University   without   being   called   out   and   contested.   reproducing  one  of  the  most  dangerous  anti-­‐Semitic  myths  of  the  Jews  and  their   economic  dominance.  p.                                                                                                                                              Dokuzović. 53  See  Lina  Dokuzović  and  Eduard  Freudmann:  “Squatting  the  Crisis:  On  the  Current  Protests  in  Education   and  Perspectives  on  Radical  Change.   they   spread   thousands   of   flyers   of   fake   dollar   bills.   While   traveling   past   international   university   occupations.  Jüdisches  Leben  und  Antisemitismus  in  Wien  seit  dem  19.pdf   ultrainput.  Freudman  |  Fortified  Knowledge   quarter   south   of   Vienna.  […]  You  shouldn’t  be  over-­‐sensitive  because  of  an  anti-­‐Semite.  Jahrhundert.”  At  the  editing  table.  Vienna.  Therefore  it  is  essential  to  be  vigilant   about  all  exclusionist  strategies  that  are  reproduced  within  the  protests.”52     By   including   “demands.”53   the   global   education   protests   proved   to   be   transgressive   –   a   crucial   characteristic   considering   the   transgressive   character   of   the   opposed   system.  Sexism   and   racism   were   not   sufficiently   attacked   and   led   to   some   of   the   affected   individuals  breaking  away  from  the  protests.  Botz  et  al.   criticism   and   claims   that   go   beyond   the   immediate   context  of  education  and  universities.   this   must  include  the  protest  movement  itself.  Beckermann  decides   to   leave   his   conglomerate   of   classical   anti-­‐Semitic   dictums   out   of   the   37   .   replaced   with   a   picture   of   Milton   Friedman   and   a   claim   criticizing   Bologna   on   the   back.  As  the  only  personified  supplement  for  all  possible  claims   against  the  commodification  of  knowledge.  eds.   he   clarifies   that   companies   and   syndicates  are  controlled  by  “the  Jew.”  European  Institute  for  Progressive  Cultural  “Illusionen  und  Kompromisse.   Vienna  1990.  expanding  to  the  identification  of  how  the   neoliberal   capitalist   market   logic   has   infiltrated   all   parts   of   life.  11/2009.   Reporting   on   an   interview   with   one   of   the   workers   about   the   trouble   of   the   strike   movement.       Within  the  protests.54   therefore   ANY   claim   criticizing   the                                                                                                                   52  Ruth  Beckermann.   http://eipcp.   identifying   a   Jewish   economist   as   the   root   of   all   evil.  Zur  Identität  der  Wiener  Juden  nach  1945”  in  Eine   zerstörte  Kultur.   However.uni-­‐weimar.  it  was  alarming.  357.  the  banknote  can  be  downloaded  as  a   template   to   fill   in   ANY   claim.   remarking:   “It   is   about   the   worker’s   struggles   which   we   want   to   support   with   this   54  http://m18.

  In   a   fight   against   the   commodification   of   education.”       As   increasing   levels   of   oppression   are   the   response   to   resistance.   censoring   an   art   project   dealing   with   the   Shoah55   and   concealing   its   own   cruel   history   of   anti-­‐Semitism.  Freudman  |  Fortified  Knowledge   commodification  of  knowledge  is  supplemented  with  “the  Jew”  as  the  universal   scapegoat.  but  perhaps  this  is  the  moment  to  envision  a  new  vocabulary  of  worldwide   resistance.  anti-­‐Semitic  and  other  exclusionist  elements  must   be   critically   confronted   with   uncompromising   rejection   regardless   of   any   wrongly  intended  restrictive  thoughts  “for  the  sake  of  the  protests.                                                                                                                                              Dokuzović.php?id=3886&L=1 ultrainput.   and   sometimes   even   with   ‘civil   society.”  http://medinatweimar.   in   the   working   of                                                                                                                   55  See  Ronen  Eidelman.”   because   “The   nation-­‐state   then   is   a   fundamental   building   block   of’   while   also   making   connections   with   other   resistance   movements   in   different   parts   of   the   world.   the   link  between  capitalization  and  nationalization  –  supranational  or  transnational   –  must  be  observed  and  fought  against  as  well  as  transnationality  has  the  danger   of   accepting.  racist.   perpetuating   and   reproducing   the   logic   of   the   nation-­‐state.  It  is  also  remarkable  that  this  action  came  from  a  university  just  10km   (approximately   6   miles)   away   from   the   Buchenwald   concentration   camp.   its   subservience   to   capital   and   coloniality   and   education’s   role   as   reproductive   machinery.  “The  Neues  Museum  saga.”   continuing   with:   “The   ultimate   challenge   of   a   theory   of   translocal   resistance   is   to   conceive   the   inconceivable:   an   extension   of   the   democratic   that   transcends   nation-­‐state   sovereignty.   perhaps   even   transcends   citizenship.   protestors   cannot  accept  a  reproduction  of  such  ideologies  within  their  articulated  demands   and­‐neues-­‐ museum-­‐saga/   56  See  the  “history”  section  of  the  university’s  website:  http://www.       This   broader   interlinkage   of   local   implications   of   oppression   and   struggle   describes  what  Banerjee  terms  “translocality”  as  “[…]  local  communities  living  in   democratic   societies   that   are   engaged   in   conflicts   with   both   the   state   and   the   38   .   the   reproduction  of  sexist.56   No   matter   what   the   protestors   intended.   The   expansion  to  transnational  struggle  and  transnational  networking  of  protests  is   key.uni-­‐ weimar.

  therefore.       This   is   where   translocality   comes   into   play.   It   takes   the   understanding   one’s   own   involvement   in   global   processes   into   resistance                                                                                                                   57  Subhabrata  Bobby  Banerjee.  no.  from  all  regions.  It  showed  that  in  order  to  take  action  and  create  a  blockade.  the  manifold  protests  taking  place  throughout  the  Global   South.   it   must   be   carried   out   on   all   three   levels:   the   periphery   (of   the   fortress   –   blockades).  2009.   uniting  the  nations  of  Europe  or  states  of  the  USA.   which   does   not   acknowledge   the   privilege   of   those   within   the   center.  NAFTA  and  WTO.  World  Bank.   and   in   the   creation   of   the  multi-­‐state  institutions  such  as  the  UN.  inside  and  outside.   in   the   institution   of   policies   that   determine   the   mobility   of   labor.   the   semi-­‐periphery   (siege)   and   the   center   (sabotage).   for   example.  9.”57     The  model  of  the  siege  of  the  fortress  Hofburg  demonstrates  the  micro-­‐version  of   a  macro-­‐model.  Ljubljana.   The   same   applies  to  the  macro-­‐level:  radical  change  can  only  be  achieved  when  the  fortress   is  fought  on  multiple  layers.   and   zones   subjugated   to   erasure.   solidarity   and   struggle   must   extend   to.reartikulacija.  “Histories  of  Oppression  and  Voices  of  Resistance:  Towards  a  Theory  of  the   Translocal”  in  Reartikulacija.  The  conditions  of  the  center   are  both  connected  to  and  complicit  in  the  conditions  of  oppression  worldwide.   […]   So   the   translocal   emerges   at   the   intersection   of   political   society   and   civil   society  where  groups  of  people  comprising  the  political  society  in  different  parts   of  the  globe  are  fighting  similar  battles  over  resources  against  market  and  state   actors.   and   does   not   reproduce   the   colonial   ideology   of   salvation   through   education   or   the   complex   structures   composing   the   knowledge   economy.  IMF.       Struggle   and   solidarity   must   not   only   take   place   within   and   across   the   centers.   the   struggles   in   non-­‐Christian  nations.   the   very  movement  necessary  for  transnational  union.   The   protest   cannot   legitimize   that   erasure!   Such   zones   receive   brutal   sanctions   against   movement   of   people.                                                                                                                                              Dokuzović.   in   the   setting-­‐up   of   a   global   financial   system.   It   is   an   international   mode   of   struggle  which  simultaneously  resists  the  links  between  capital  and  nation-­‐state.   39   .org/?p=612   ultrainput.  Freudman  |  Fortified  Knowledge   transnational   corporations.

 the  body  and   land.       Eduard   Freudmann   researches   and   intervenes   in   the   intersection   between   art   and   politics.  culture.  predominantly  as  a  series  of  diagrammatical  visualizations  of  theory.  analyze  the  mechanisms   of  appropriation.   He   lives   and   works   in   Vienna   and   teaches   in   the   department  for  Post-­‐Conceptual  Art  Practices  at  the  Academy  of  Fine  Arts  Vienna.         ***   Lina   Dokuzović   is   an   artist   and   theorist.                                                                                                                                         58  For  upcoming  transnational  protest  events.   extending  and  challenging  the  regime  of  fortified­‐process/.   ultrainput.  such  as  education.   strategies   of   exclusion   and   the   commodification   of   knowledge.   power   relations   and   social   contexts.   contemporary   theirstory/ourstory   and   media   mechanisms.php.   40   .                                                                                                                                              Dokuzović.   This   model   must   be   considered   in   future   summits   and   meetings.  for  example:   http://www.   to   establish   exchange   and   collaboration   on   a   translocal   level   with   resistant   forces   across   all   regions.   http://bolognaburns.58   in   order   to   expand   future   protests   beyond   the   center.  She  is  a  board  member  of  the  Austrian  Association  of  Women  Artists  (VBKÖ)  and  a  PhD  candidate   at  the  Academy  of  Fine  Arts  in  Vienna.   living   and   working   in   Vienna.euroalter.   Her   artwork   and   research.  privatization  and  militarization  of  structures.  Freudman  |  Fortified  Knowledge   actions.

  ultrainput.  its  focus  is  aimed   on  socialist  regimes  of  Eastern  Europe.  If  we  take  a  closer   look   at   the   European   Parliament   Resolution   on   European   Conscience   and   Totalitarianism   which   the   EU   parliament   adopted   on   April   2.  Staš  Kleindienst     EU  –  Some  Thoughts  on  Ideology     Originally  published  in  Reartikulacija  (Reartikulacija.   The   neoliberal   market   economy  also  exported  a  post-­‐ideological  state  of  mind  to  the  Eastern  European   countries.reartikulacija.11.13.                                                                                                                       1   Although  the  resolution  deals  with  all  totalitarian  regimes  in  European  history.  www.   And   one   way   of   keeping   the   ideological   foundations   of   the   EU   intact   is   also   to   constantly   renovate   its   relationship   towards  its  own  different  ideological  and  totalitarian  histories.   2009.                                                                                                                                                          Kleindienst  |  Some  Thoughts  on  Ideology     3.   introducing   them   to   the   end   of   great   ideologies   and   including   them   into   one   big   democratic   world   41   .org     The   process   of   expanding   the   EU   to   post-­‐socialist   countries.     Ljubljana.   towards   the   history   of   Eastern   Europe)1   that  legitimizes  Europe’s  own  processes  of  violence  and  makes  them  natural  to   the  functioning  of  the  Union.   certain   conclusions   can   be   drawn   from   it   that   can   show   us   how   the   representation   of   contemporary   European   ideology   works   by   organizing   a   matrix   of   relations   towards   its   own   history   (or   in   this   case.   with   the   biggest   mass   expansion   in   2004.12.  Artistic-­‐Political-­‐Discoursive  Platform.   which   introduced   the   neoliberal   capitalist   way   of   thinking   and   doing   to   the   then-­‐closed   markets.  2010)  Reartikulacija  #10.   can   be   seen   as   logical   consequence   of   the   fall   of   the   Berlin   Wall   and   of   the   social   and   political   changes   of   the   early   1990s.  The  Western  tendency  to  break  the  Iron  Curtain  can  be  put  in  parallel   with  the  neoliberal  project  and  can  be  seen  as  a  way  to  produce  new  territories   capable  of  embracing  free  market  ideology  rather  than  just  an  effort  to  “liberate”   the   oppressed   people   and   bring   them   human   rights.

  while   contemporary   Europe   is   a   place   of   happy   coexistence   and   by   no   means   a   place   where  ideology  happens.   we  can  remember  the  clash  between  reality  and  representation  which  occurred   before   the   opening   of   the   2008   Olympic   Games   in   Beijing   when   the   traditional   Olympic   torch   relay   (“In   the   context   of   the   modern   Games.  This   system   of   symbols   is   constructed   on   a   basis   of   appropriating   great   modern   discourses   about   freedom   and   human   dignity   and   its   institutions.  had  to  ride  in  a  bus   to  prevent  the  Olympic  fire  from  being  extinguished.   in   reality.                                                                                                                                                          Kleindienst  |  Some  Thoughts  on  Ideology   The  document  promotes  European  values  by  producing  a  diametrical  difference   between   the   violent   past.   http://www.  This  rhetoric  needs  a  system  of  symbols  on  which  the   past  (totalitarian)  regimes  can  be  classified  as  bad  examples  of  ideology  and  the   neoliberal  present  can  be  fully  extracted  out  of  discourse  about  ideologies.   and   the   peaceful   present.  What  I  mean  is  that  these  symbols  of  the  free  world   and  democracy  have  been  appropriated  so  that  they  can  serve  Western  capitalist   ideology  in  making  it  natural  and  diametrical  to  the  violent  past.  In  his  book  A  Brief  History  of  Neoliberalism.  the  ideologies  of  the   past   are   only   there   to   steal   away   the   title   of   the   big   bad   troublemaker.  sovereignty.  the  UN.  In  this  sense.  David  Harvey                                                                                                                   2   Factsheet  –  The  Olympic  Torch  Relay.  In  this  case..   the   Olympic   flame   represents   the   positive   values   that   Man   has   always   associated   with   fire.  The  rhetoric  of   this   dualist   perspective   is   simple   and   it   fits   perfectly   in   the   general   neoliberal   discourse   about   the   post-­‐ideological   democratic   political   system.  the  Nobel  Peace  Prize.   etc.   I   mean  the  discourse  of  human  in  white  sweatsuits.  the  resolution  acts  as  an  “independent”  arbitrary   mechanism  that  puts  a  dualist  perspective  on  the  EU  and  its  past.pdf   ultrainput.  Their  value  as   symbols   of   freedom   and   peace   works   only   on   the   level   of   representation.  it  produces  effects  that  are  in  opposition  to  their   42   .   making   it   the   only  natural  and  possible  option  of  governing.   With   this.  For  example.olympic.   and   also   more   popular   events   such   as   the   Olympic   Games   or   the   recent   World  Cup  in  South  Africa.   conjured   by   great   ideologies.  The  other  example  could  be   the  sovereignty  of  Iraq.   ready   to   build   on   the   idea   of   harmony   among   all   nations   that   constitute   the   European  Union.”2)   was   interrupted  by  protests  and  the  runners.

 the  orders  included  the  full  privatization  of   public   enterprises.  four  orders  were  issued  by  Paul  Bremer.europa.   Harvey   states:   “Though   Bremer’s   rules   may   have   been   illegal   when   imposed   by   an   occupying   power.  Oxford  2005.   full   repatriation   of   foreign   profits.   these   orders   were   in   violation   of   the   Geneva   and   Hague   Conventions.   The   above-­‐ mentioned   resolution   does   just   that   in   producing   an   image   of   the   people   from   Eastern   (post-­‐socialist)   countries   as   barbaric   nomads   who   need   to   be   civilized   and  taught  democracy  since  they  bear  the  burden  of  a  traumatic  totalitarian  past.  5   Ibid.  Oxford  University  Press.   The   interim   government.  the  then  head  of   the  Coalition  Provisional­‐ PRESS&reference=20090401IPR53245   ultrainput.   we   can   clearly   see   how   the   conception   of   sovereignty   changes   from   a   condition  of  political  struggle  to  that  of  an  economic  interest.’   But   it   only   had   the   power   to   confirm   the   existing   43   .  2003.   appointed   by   the   US.                                                                                                                                                          Kleindienst  |  Some  Thoughts  on  Ideology   points   out   the   way   in   which   the   Iraqi   government   was   declared   sovereign.   5   European  Parliament  Resolution  on  European  Consciousness  and  Totalitarianism   http://www.     We   could   say   that   one   of   the   more   powerful   tools   for   the   naturalization   of   an   ideology   is   the   control   over   interpretation   and   representation.”5  This  kind  of  rhetoric   only  helps  strengthen  the  internal  division  in  domestic  political  discourse  since                                                                                                                   3   4   David  Harvey.   that   took   over   at   the   end   of   June   2004   was   declared   ‘  A  Brief  History  of  Neoliberalism.   The  extract  of  the  resolution  found  on  the  web  portal  of  the  European  Parliament   in   the   Slovene   language   states   that   new   members   (those   who   came   out   of   a   totalitarian   socialist   past)   have   to   accept   the   guilt   and   have   to   go   on   a   mission   to   achieve   reconciliation   through:   “acceptance   of   responsibility.  p.  which  state  that  an  occupying  power  must  protect  and  not  sell  off   the   assets   of   an   occupied   country.   full   ownership   rights   by   foreign   firms   of   Iraqi   businesses.”4   In   this   example.   national  treatment  for  foreign  companies  and  the  elimination  of  nearly  all  trade   barriers.   the   opening   of   Iraq’s   banks   to   foreign   control.   they   would   become   legal   if   confirmed   by   ‘sovereign’   government.   Now.   an   appeal   for   forgiveness  and  the  encouragement  of  moral  renovation.3   On   September  19.

 January  2008–August  2009  [Poročilo  o  stanju  prosilcev   za   azil   v   republiki   Sloveniji.   januar   2008   –   avgust   2009]   clearly   shows   this   attitude   when.   as   such.  So  our  law  is.  on  one  side.   this   is   seen   in   the   race   to   “progress”   and   to   achieve   “a   sufficient   level   of   democracy.   not   only  without  any  reflection.  I  must   say   that.  he  answered:  “Look.   it   is   taken   care   of   in   respect   to   international   standards  for  asylum  applicants  as  well  as  for  refugees.       In   practice.  Report  on  the  Situation  of  Asylum  Seekers  in  the  Republic  of  Slovenia.                                                                                                                   6   Nika  Autor.”   where   Eastern   European   countries   become   “suckers”   for   all   the   laws.  of  course.   on   a   farcical   celebration   of   the   Day   of   Refugees.  the  collaboration  with  German  and   Italian  occupiers.   in   fact.  A  film  by   the   Slovenian   artist   Nika   Autor   entitled   Report   on   the   Situation   of   Asylum   Seekers   in  the  Republic  of  Slovenia.  the  question  of  socialism  and   revolutionary  violence  and.   it   also   shows   how   the   minds   of   our   leaders   are   colonized   by   the   EU.   decrees   and   regulatives   that   come   from   Brussels   and   embrace   them.  on  the  other  side.  but  also  with  a  high  degree  of  compliance.                                                                                                                                                          Kleindienst  |  Some  Thoughts  on  Ideology   the  majority  of  problems  concerning.   in   Slovenia.  we  act  according  to   standards   that   are   placed   in   this   segment   in   all   countries   of   the   European   Union.  is  asked  by   the   author   how   would   he   comment   on   the   situation   that   the   individuals   who   jeered  at  him  during  the  speech  were  in  fact  the  applicants  for  asylum  and  that  it   was  they  who  didn’t  agree  with  the   44   .”6   While   this   statement   clearly   shows   the   monstrous   gap   between   the   real   problematics  of  asylum  seekers  in  Slovenia  (which  Nika  Autor’s  film  is  exposing)   and   the   bureaucratic   way   of   governing   and   solving   things   in   democratic   countries.  Bojan  Trnovšek.  In  such  cases.  January  2008– August  2009.   an   official   representative  of  the  Ministry  of  Internal  Affairs.   but   not   much   more   than   that.  2010.   ultrainput.  about  this.   But   on   the   other   hand.   in  check  with  the  law  of  the  European  Union.   this   kind   of   rhetoric   also   produces   (on   the   level   of   discourse)   a   certain   subordination  of  new  European  countries  that  have  no  other  option  but  to  fully   accept  a  new  democratic  regime  which  was  so  generously  given  to  them  by  the   big  Western  European  powers.  Mr.  are  very  present  in  daily  political  chit-­‐chat  and  are  only  there   to   help   score   political   points.  experimental  film.

 So  if.   And   this   is   the   precise   point   through   which   we   can   link   historical   colonization   with   contemporary   forms   of   subjugation   through   capital   that   today’s   West   is   leading.   Some   may   argue   that   the   resolution   is   focused   on   totalitarian  regimes  and  that  colonial  violence  has  no  place  in  such  a  document.  So  while.   but   only   its   absence   can   produce   a   moral   perspective   which   makes   present   a   peaceful   era.  on  the  one  hand.   The   non-­‐ideological   framework   makes   colonization   an   economic  paradigm  rather  than  a  political  one.   colonialism   naturalizes   itself   through   supra-­‐national   institutions   such   as   Christianity   and   Humanism.  because  the  resolution  completely  bypasses  the  colonial  violence  of  the   so-­‐called   “old   Europe”.  but  that  this  can  serve  as  an   excuse  for  not  doing  anything  to  overcome  real  problems.  on  one  hand.   with   the   difference  being  that  totalitarianism  functions  as  a  political  form  and  colonialism   as  an  economic  one.   as   opposed   to   totalitarianism.     But   the   true   power   of   the   European   Parliament   Resolution   on   European   Conscience  and  Totalitarianism  is  hidden  not  in  its  content.                                                                                                                                                          Kleindienst  |  Some  Thoughts  on  Ideology   not  only  that  they  obey  such  regulatives  completely.   but   can   still   identify   totalitarianism  as  such.  but  in  the  absence  of   content.   It   is   this   elimination   of   externality   that   can   make   the   imperial-­‐colonial   regime   spread   around   the   globe   and   work   endlessly.  we  have  a  clear  reflection  and  distance   (in   a   democratic   regime   of   representation.   of   course)   toward   today’s   closed   societies  such  as  North  Korea  or  toward  radical  Islamic  groups.  and  through   45   .   Why   is   that?   The   answer   lies   in   the   discursive   difference   between   totalitarianism   (ideology)   and   colonialism   (religion)   as   historical   forms   of   governing.   the   unquestionable   act   of   exporting   civilization’s   greatest   achievements   (from   scientific  to  spiritual  and  governmental)  to  underdeveloped  countries  and  those   in   need.  internalizes  its   political  discourse  so  that  no  external  reflection  on  its  violent  processes  can  be   made.  a  civilizing  mission.   Both   formations   can   be   seen   as   a   consequence   of   European   history.  totalitarianism  represents  itself   as   a   series   of   symbols   which   derive   directly   from   ideology   and   its   institutions   within   the   state.   where   externality   is   criminalized.   diametrically   different   from   totalitarianisms   of   the   past.   that   can   make   overseas   expansion  (and  consequent  exploitation)  a  universal  project.  being  portrayed   ultrainput.

 The  people  of  Kosovo  and  of  the  Balkans  in  general  are   portrayed   as   an   excessively   violent.   subjugation   and   even   death   as   inherent   elements   to   the   normal   functioning   of   democratic   regimes   and   as   necessary   consequences   of   expansion  through  democratization.   under  the  guise  of  bringing  stability  to  the  region.  So                                                                                                                   7    Agon  Hamza.   sustainable  development.  institutions  such  as  EULEX  and   K-­‐FOR  (NATO  mission  in  Kosovo)  are  overseeing  almost  all  local  institutions  and   enterprises.  p.   46   .   So   this   optic   of   representation   enables   processes   of   privatization.  education..  Ljubljana.   cultural.  Agon   Hamza  states:  “The  civil  society  of  Kosovo  was  created  from  outside.   ultrainput.   which   oppose   democratic   values   of   human   rights.   traumatized   subjects.  from  security.  etc.   the   internationals   (a   word  used  to  describe  the  official  staff  of  the  intervention)  are  there  to  stay.   and   racial   groups.     A  clear  example  of  this  is  seen  in  the  EU  intervention  in  today’s  Kosovo.                                                                                                                                                          Kleindienst  |  Some  Thoughts  on  Ideology   as   origins   of   terrorism.   But   even   more.  5.”7       The  reality  is  that.  2009.  and  our  demands.  etc.  8.   etc.  The  so-­‐called  needs  of  Kosovo’s  society  are  being   designed   (mostly)   by   EU   bureaucrats   in   Brussels.  it  is  only  on  the  condition  that  the  latter  are  represented  as   universal   ethical   values   not   to   be   judged.  even  though  the  intervention  was  supposed  to  be  temporary.  “The  Specter  of  Ideological  Apparatuses.”  Reartikulacija  no.   It   was   created   based   on   funding   programs/projects   from   abroad.   mobile   telephony   and   construction.  where.  health  care  and  media  to  businesses  such   as   power   supply.   multiculturalism.   our   future.  it  was  one   of   the   neoliberal   projects.   co-­‐existence   between   different   ethnical.   they   design   our   needs.   only   to   enable   the   normal   functioning   of   the   new   state.   human   rights.   criminalized   society.   democratization.  one  that  needs  to  be  civilized  and  prepared  to  embrace  a  depoliticized.   their   intervention   also   serves   as   a   platform   to   construct   a   new   ideological   subject   in   Kosovo.   such   as   multicultural   tolerance.   consumerist  way  of  life  and  become  an  obedient  part  of  market  ideology.   and   not   as   clear   political   and   ideological   paradigms.

com   47   .   on   the   other   hand.                                                                                                                                                          Kleindienst  |  Some  Thoughts  on  Ideology   the   state   of   Kosovo   is   left   in   a   permanent   state   of   exception.   inherent   to   the   working   of   neoliberal   ideology.   an   heir   to   imperialism   and   colonialism.  respect  for  cultural.  written  on  the  official  web  page  of  the  EU:  “Europeans   cherish   their   rich   heritage   of   values.”8   which                                                                                                                   8   “Europe  in  12  Lessons:  Lesson  1.   and.   uses   those   same   terms   as   ideological   discursive   apparatuses   to   naturalize   processes   of   violence   as   side   effects   of   expansion.   parliamentary   democracy.   natural   or   ecologic   catastrophe   or   even   an   economic   crisis   produced   from   within   the   strongest   financial   centers.   human   rights.   we   could   say   that   we   live   in   an   imposed   capitalist   orthodoxy.   economic   and   social   levels   and   uses   a   form   of   crisis   as   a   launching   point   to   deploy   its   mechanisms   of   control.   economic   and   social   relations   in   a   way   to   introduce   the   logic   of   the   free   market   as   a   necessary   component   of   Western   democratic   and   humanitarian   intervention.   We   could   identify   this   as   a   contemporary   form   of   colonization   that   works   on   different   political.   multiculturalism.   Be   it   an   unstable   political   situation   such   as   Kosovo.  In  the  case  of  Greece.  where   the  only  solution  given  by  the  big  powers  was  giving  more  financial  support  to   multinational   corporations   so   that   they   could   put   their   production   back   to   normal  standards.   where   everything   is   controlled   by   international   institutions   and   serves   only   for   Western   interests.   free   enterprise.”  http://europa.   an   unfriendly   political   regime..   the   neoliberal   logic   of   expansion   finds   a   way   to   rearrange   political.  We  could  see  this  in  the  case  of  the  recent  economic  crisis.   I   would   like   now   to   propose  a  flourish  quote.   a   fair   distribution   of   the   fruits   of   economic   growth.   which   includes   a   belief   in   human   rights.   the   possibility   of   choice.  the  situation  is  even  worse.  the  EU.  linguistic  and   religious   diversity   and   a   harmonious   blend   of   tradition   and   progress.   social   solidarity.  Solving  the   financial   collapse   of   a   state   by   giving   it   financial   support   can   do   nothing   in   the   direction  of  preventing  the  collapse  from  happening  again  and  only  puts  a  state   into  dependency  on  the  generous  helper  –  in  the  case  of  Greece.  the  right  to  a  protected   which   integrates   pluralism.htm   ultrainput.       So   as   opposed   to   the   imposed   ideological   orthodoxy   characteristic   for   totalitarian   regimes.   etc.

                                                                                                                                                         Kleindienst  |  Some  Thoughts  on  Ideology   clearly  shows  the  moral  standpoints  on  which  the  idea  of  united  Europe  stands.  speaking  from  the  “other  side.  I  don’t  think  we  have  any  lesson  to  learn  from   48   .  Personal  Quotes.                                                                                                                           9   Ousmane  Sembene.   Or   to   put   it   in   the   words   of   renowned   Senegalese   writer   and   director  Ousmane  Sembene.  who.”  once  said:  “At  a   moral  level.   which  constituted  those  same  moral  standpoints  on  foundations  of  exploitation   and   subjugation.”9     ***     Staš  Kleindienst  is  an  artist  living  in  Ljubljana.   we   cannot   go   over   its   imperial   and   colonial   histories.   but   on   the   other   ultrainput.

  Addressing  the  consumers  as  brainless  crowds  must  be  grounded  in  precise   market  analysis  and  thoughtful  strategic  planning.   what   about   girls.  In   April   2010.   the   slogan   is   tuned   to   a   specific   state   of   mind   of   targeted   consumers’   49   .  Quite  the  opposite:  why  does  the  church   maliciously   replaced   pedophilia   with   homosexuality?   For   the   same   reason   ultrainput.   Cardinal's   outrageous   comparison  between  pedophilia  and  homosexuality.   Moreover.  One  way  of  showing  its   pride  and  gratitude  is  to  deny  human  rights.   free   movement   of   capital   and   non-­‐free   movement   of   people.  and  that   gays   caused   the   church   pedophilia   scandals.  Millions  of  untaxed  Euros  flow  first   to  dioceses  and  from  there  directly  to  Vatican.     A   smart   e-­‐mail   post   was   circulating   a   while   ago   displaying   the   money   flow   of   Slovenian   roman-­‐catholic   church.  this  »donation«  to  Vatican  is  30-­‐times  higher  than  Slovenia’s   population.   presumably   swallowed   by   a   neoliberal   free   market.  presented  to  Urbi  et  Orbi   by  referring  to  unnamed  »specialized  psychological  and  medical  literature«.   Cardinal   Tarcisio   Bertone  claimed  that  homosexuality  is  a  root  cause  of  paedophilia.   who   were   victims   of   church   pedophilia?   This   rotten   maneuver   of   Vatican   to   wash   away   its   historic   guilt   is   maybe   transparent   but   certainly  not  naive  or  coincidental.   Obviously.  Tatjana  Greif     Catatonic  Harmony  or  Let’s  Blame  Homos     “BE   STUPID”   is   the   latest   illuminating   marketing   solution   of   Diesel   corporation.   Vatican   blamed   gays   for   child   sex   abuse.  I  suppose.     Vatican  must  be  proud  of  such  loyalty  and  devotion.   is   a   global   humiliation.                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Greif  |  Catatonic  Harmony     4.  to  discriminate  human  race.  Bearing  in  mind  that  Slovenia   is   among   the   smallest   European   countries   with   a   population   of   just   two   million  people.   by   attacking   its   own   gay   men   priests   Vatican   declares   pedophilia   as   something   that   involves   only   male   children.   A   simple   calculation   demonstrated   how   eight   hundred   priests   easily   collected   at   least   60   million   Euros   in   one   year   only  with  cash  collection  during  a  mass.

  not   the   papal   secrecy.  The   general   claimed   in   the   United   States   Congress   that   the   presence   of   openly   gay   Dutch   soldiers   was   the   cause   of   Srebrenica   massacre   in   1995.  who  served  in  Bosnia  for  the  genocide  in  Srebrenica.  and  protection  of  human  rights  of  sexual   ultrainput.   not   the   pay-­‐offs   to   silence   the   victims.   Was   Vatican   inspired  by  NATO’s  discovery  of  suitable  scapegoats?  It  seems  that  gays  are  to   be  blamed  for  all  the  bad  in  the  world.  I  wonder  how  the   European   Parliament   -­‐   according   to   its   own   resolution   adopted   in   2009   -­‐   is   going  to  monitor  the  implementation  of  this  law.   a   member   of   the   extremist   party   Order   and   Justice   Petras   Gražulis   gathered   over   fifty   signatures   from   parliamentarians   under   his   petition   addressed   to   the   national   prosecution   office.  gays  are  also  guilty  for   the  decay  of  heterosexual  marriage  and  family.   And   by  the  way.   not   the   Opus   Dei.  For  example.  the  Slovenian  catholic  church  press   officer   stated   in   his   media-­‐statement   that   the   victims   of   pedophilia   are   “negligible”.                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Greif  |  Catatonic  Harmony     they   prohibited   abortion   and   the   use   of   condoms   –   feudal.   and   surely  not  the  blaming  of  gays.   bisexual   and   transgender   pride-­‐march   due   to   take   place   in   Vilnius  in  May  2010.   gay.  which  at  the  first  place  the   parliament   itself   couldn’t   stop   on   time.  Inspired  by  the  discriminatory  Law  on  the  Protection  of   Minors   (banning   minors   from   accessing   information   about   “non-­‐traditional”   forms   of   family)   enacted   in   Lithuania   in   March.  and  with  the  aim  to  prevent  the  homosexual  event.  Strategic  partnership  between  the  EU  and  the  holy  throne?  But   nothing   can   help   this   derailed   oligarchic   freemason   lounge   any   more.   patriarchal   violence   out   of   the   book.   and   despite   it’s   clearly   against   the   fundamental  principles  of  the  Union.     Only   a   few   weeks   earlier   American   NATO   general   John   Sheehan   blamed   Dutch  gay  soldiers.     Members   of   the   Lithuanian   parliament   seeked   to   ban   an   international   lesbian.     The   eruption   of   Icelandic   volcano   prevented   the   European   parliament   president  Jerzy  Buzek  from  a  wacky  meeting  with  the  pope.  President  Buzek   wanted   to   meet   him   in   Rome   in   order   to   give   him   a   political   solance   and   maybe   50   .

 the  parliamentarian   Committee  for  family.                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Greif  |  Catatonic  Harmony     and  gender  minorities  in  Lithuania.   bisexual   and   transsexual   associations.   marriage   and   family   also   in   other   European   countries.   the   catholic   Pro-­life   forum.   pentecostal   faith   church.   Before   submitting   the   draft   to   the  parliament.     Gays   and   lesbians   are   “undermining”   the   moral   ground   of   public   health.       Slovenia   is   currently   discussing   a   draft   Family   Code.  If  this  opposition  –  manifested  in  painfully  primitive  parliamentarian   hate-­‐speech   -­‐   is   to   some   extent   51   .   they   invited   only   one.   which   did   not   include   sexual   orientation   among   twenty   prohibited   grounds   of   discrimination.       An   EU   candidate   country   Former   Yugoslav   Republic   of   Macedonia   adopted   a   new   anti-­‐discrimination   law.  bisexual  and  transsexual  associations.   There   is   a   strong   opposition   from   catholic   church   and   political   parties   under   the   influence   of   Vatican.   which   is   to   bring   legal   equality   between   different   and   same-­‐sex   marriages.   In   Hungary   not   less   than  nine  petitions  were  delivered  to  the  Constitutional  court  by  conservative   actors   including   the   Christian   democratic   people’s   party.   The   president   requested  from  the  Constitutional  court  to  establish  whether  the  law.   Portuguese   president   Anibal   Cavaco   Silva   refused   to   sign   the   Law   on   same-­sex   marriage.  which   allowed   civil   matrimony   between   members   of   the   same   gender.   is   constitutional.   and   several   pro-­‐life   catholic   ultrainput.  Also.   the   Society   for   christian   physicians.  social  affairs  and  disability  has  a  peculiar  understanding   of   civic   dialogue   –   instead   of   including   all   gay.   and   others.  Macedonian  government  deleted  sexual  orientation.   lesbian.   nor   understandable  that  the  Ministry  of  Family  drafted  the  bill  without  consulting   gay.  lesbian.     Recently   the   Italian   court   considered   the   request   of   three   same-­‐sex   couples   for   the   right   to   marry   as   unconstitutional.   The   Court   rejected   the   petitions  declaring  that  the  Act  is  in  line  with  constitutional  requirements.   They   all   asked   the   court   for   opinion   on   the   Act   on   Registered   Partnership   that   entered   into   force   in   July   2009.   it   is   less   expectable.

 violence   and  intolerance  on  the  ground  of  sexual  orientation.  although   also   in   several   parts   of   the   United   States.  The  verdict  of   the  court  said  that  the  three  convicted  men  were  instigating  hatred.   It   seems   that   the   throwing   of   burning   torches   into   the   bar   full   of   people   and   beating   a   gay   activist   are   not   considered   to   be   violence   by   the   court.     Three   young   men.   Today   homosexual   acts   are   still   illegal   in   85   countries  in  the  world.   for   the   eruption   of   volcano   and   the   earthquakes.   for   Vatican   pedophilia   and   the   tragedy   in   Srebrenica.   It  was  interesting  how  even  some  gay  and  lesbian  activists  were  not  able  to   keep   a   dissent   political   distance   with   regard   to   airplane   accident   of   Polish   president  Kaczynski.   ultrainput.  This  is  the  first  case  in   the   history   of   Slovenian   juridical   practice   that   a   judgment   has   been   passed   with   the   sentence   of   imprisonment   for   breaking   the   law   on   the   ground   of   sexual  orientation.   the   gay   and   lesbian   migrants   and   refugees   are   assumed   guilty   for   stealing   jobs   and  bright  future  from  European  citizens.  Most  obviously  this  phenomenon  is   reflected   in   the   European   Union   asylum   policy.  predominantly  in  Muslim  and  African  states.  but  went  with  the  flow.   and   punishable   by   death   in   Iran.                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Greif  |  Catatonic  Harmony     family   organizations.  who  was  known  as  one  of  the  most  sworn  homophobe   in  Europe.     While   gays   and   lesbians   all   over   Europe   are   being   blamed   for   moral   decay.  However.   And   what   is   the   most   peculiar   they   invited   representatives   of   Slovenian   bishops’   council.   For   strengthening   of   territorial   cohesion   and   keeping   solid   internal   integration   of   the   Union   is   keeping   the   gates   closed.  were  sentenced  to  one  and  a  half  year  of  imprisonment.  After  the  judgment.  they  were  not  recognized  guilty  of  violence  and   causing   public   danger.   destruction   of   “holy”   family   and   marriage.  expressing  words  of  admiration.   who   attacked   lesbian   bar   Café   Open   in   Ljubljana   in   June   2009.   The   lawyers   of   the   three   convicted   men   already   filed   a   52   .  so  the  verdict  is  not  in  full  power  yet  and  all  three  convicted  men   are  still  walking  around  free.   which   is   even   against   the   principle  of  constitutional  separation  between  the  state  and  the  church.  the  neo-­‐Nazi  Patriotic  youth   organized  a  protest  in  front  of  the  court  building  against  what  they  called  an   “unjust  verdict”.

  the   European   Commission   signed   a   trade   deal   with   countries   that   jail   and   kill   gays   and   lesbians.  Some  European  states   shamefully  demand  from  asylum  seekers  the  “proof  of  their  homosexuality”.   bisexual  and  transgender  people  in  the  ACP  region  the  Commission  agreed  to                                                                                                                   1  http://www.  in  June.  Out  of  79  ACP  states.  torture.     European   Commission   failed   to   mention   the   mutual   recognition   of   same-­‐sex   unions   across   EU   borders   in   the   Stockholm   Programme1.     In   March.  Sudan  and  Yemen.   others   reject   the   right   to   asylum   and   advice   them   to   hide   their   sexual   orientation.   Switzerland   has   rejected   the   initiative   for   legal   definition   of   refugee   to   be   53   .  It  was  first  signed  in  2000  in  Cotonou.  death  penalty  or  murder.   bisexuals   and   transsexuals   from   European   countries   to   their   states   of   origin   where   they   face  imprisonment.   which   delineates   political   and   trade   relations   between   the   European   Union   and  African.   gay.  is  due  to  be  formally  signed   in  Ouagadougou.1965   ultrainput.  Nigeria.   bisexual  and  transgender  people  with  death.   and   up   to   5   punish   lesbian.  Saudi  Arabia.   A   motion   to   give   legal   recognition   to   people   who   are   persecuted   because   of   their   sexual   orientation   has   been   rejected  by  the  House  of  Representatives.   security.   lesbians.       And   yet   we   face   daily   deportations   of   gays.   Recently.   asylum   and   immigration  policies  for  the  next  five  years.  49  states  criminalize   homosexuality   with   up   to   14   years   in   jail.     Despite   evident   increases   in   state-­‐supported   violence   against   lesbian.  and  revised  five  years  ago.   The   revised   so-­‐called   Cotonou   Agreement.  Qatar.  Burkina  Faso.   Benin.   gay.                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Greif  |  Catatonic  Harmony     Mauritania.  The  persecution   of   people   because   of   their   sexual   orientation   and   gender   identity   is   an   everyday  reality.  Caribbean  and  Pacific  (ACP)  states.  which  ought  to  ensure  freedom   of  movement  for  EU  citizens.   a   comprehensive   framework   for   EU   actions   on   citizenship.

    Paradoxically.   lesbian   and   transsexual   rights.  such  as  gender.   In   their   anti-­‐gay   rhetoric   they   don’t   hesitate   to   use   the   argument   of   catholic   church   connecting   homosexuality   and   pedophilia.   Most   manifestly   these   states   rejected   exactly   gay.  publicist  and  editor  of   book  edition  Vizibilija  and  the  Journal  for  Critique  of  Science.  Ljubljana.   here  we  are  –  back  to   ultrainput.   which   explicitly   dealt   with   discrimination  solely  on  few  grounds.  Maybe  the  slogan  “BE  STUPID”  is  not   so  useless  after  all.   So.   Instead.  She  is  a  LGBT  human  rights  activst.europa.   *** Tatjana  Greif  holds  a  PhD  in  Archaeology.  back  to  vicious  circle  of  eternal  love  between   politics  and  the  clergy.  most  poor  countries  resist  the  European  Union  -­‐  that  dictates   upon  them  its  economic  power  and  financial  aid  -­‐  by  rejecting  human  rights   agenda.   the   European   commissioner   for   Development2   Andris   Piebalgs   agreed   to   include   a   reference   to   universal   human   rights   declaration.                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Greif  |  Catatonic  Harmony     conclude   a   deal   with   ACP   states   without   mentioning   the   human   rights   of   lesbians.   54   .                                                                                                                               2  http://ec.   bisexuals   and   transgender   people.  race  or  belief.  a  priest  and  a  merchant.  Ordinary  citizens  should  be  made  to  believe  the  words   of  a  politician.

  although   it   had   profoundly   influenced   the   way   the   relation   among   the   state   and   supranational   capital  began  to  realize.   as   it   was   generally   conceived.   modernist   and   “human”  progression.  economic  and  military  power  that  resides  in  European  Union   is   the   power   of   particular   states.   either   the   justification   of   that   logic   in   accordance   to   Eurocentric  epistemic  grounds.   capitalist   free   market   democracy.   “Rather   than   marking   the   death   of   the   nation-­‐state  as  some  theorists  of  globalization  like  to  argue.   or   mostly   single   model   of   political   and   economic   rule.     However.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Tatlić  |  Racist  Core     5.   seemed   to   have   reflected   a  wider  agenda  in  relation  to  institutional  and  epistemological  mechanisms  that   managed  to  expand  the  territories  for  exploitation  as  well  as  to  justify  its  social.  the  global  economy   ultrainput.  the  expansion  of  the  Union  (as  the  expansion  of  capitalism  through  its   currently   dominant   model.   The  Demise  of  the  Political  State   The  expansion  of  the  EU  in  the  last  30  years  or  so  was  clearly  marked  with  the   simultaneous   expansion   of   a   single.   free   market   neoliberalism).     The  nature  of  these  mechanisms  therefore  pointed  to  the  contemporary  forms  of   neo-­‐colonial   strategy   that   managed   to   convert   or   represent   a   dictate   as   a   democratic   mechanism   that   would   allow   the   new   hierarchies   of   exploitation   to   be   established   under   the   guise   of   establishment   of   universal.   it   is   hard   to   see   the   Union   as   a   collective   institutionalization  of  some  mutual  agenda  that  would  have  surpassed  either  the   logic   of   the   market.   political  and  economic  effects.  Šefik  Tatlić   Racist  Core  of  EU’s  Structural  Design   De-­‐Politicization  of  Colonialism  and  its  Ideological  Implications     Given  that  political.   mark   the   end   of   the   nation-­‐state.   The   same   model   did   not.   since   “free   market   agenda”   probably   sounds   too   general   as   the   55   .     As   Subharatta   Bobby   Banerjee   noticed.

  World  Bank.  “Old  patterns  of  imperialism  can  be  seen  in  the  dominance   of   neoliberal   policies   in   today’s   global   political   economy.   corporations   are   able   to   extract   from   impoverished   and   often   corrupt   Third   World   governments   tax   concessions.   The   nation-­‐state   then   is   a   fundamental   building   block   of   globalization.   by   resortibg   to   power   nation-­‐states   acquired   through  colonialism.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Tatlić  |  Racist  Core   is   premised   precisely   on   a   system   of   nation-­‐states.   In   return   for   foreign   investments   and       2   56   .   in   the   working   of   transnational   corporations.  managed  to  sustain  the  control  of  the  same  states  over  the   flow  of  now  international  spread  of  capital.  IMF.  http://www.reartikulacija.  in  the  institution  of  policies  that  determine  the  mobility   of  labor.   Transnational   corporations   often   wield   power   over   Third   World   countries   through   their   enticements  of  foreign  investment  and  their  threats  to  withhold  or  relocate  their   investments.   energy   and   water   subsidies.   in   the   setting-­‐up   of   a   global  financial  system.  and  in  the  creation  of  the  multi-­‐state  institutions  such  as  the  UN.”2   The   “state   of   exception”   means   not   only   that   procedures   that   allowed   an   exception  to  the  constitutional  dimension  of  the  law  to  be  exercised.   minerals   and   natural   resources.”1   It  seems  that  dichotomy.   Neoliberal   globalization   can   be   seen   as   a   marker   for   the   final   hegemonic   triumph   of   the   state   mode   of   production.  or  alleged  dichotomy  among  supranational  and  national   state   realized   in   the   formula   that.                                                                                                                     1 Subhabrata  Bobby  Banerjee.   ultrainput.  NAFTA  and  WTO.   minimal   environmental   legislation.   a   compliant   labor   force   and   the   creation   of   Special   Economic   Zones   (SEZ)   which   are   essentially   states   of   exception   where   the   law   is   suspended   in   order   for   the   business   of   economic   extraction   to   continue.     As  Banerjee  noticed.  Histories  of  Opression  and  Voices  of  Resistence:  towards  a  Theory  of   the  Translocal.  but  it  also   means   that   the   expansion   of   the   capital   (along   with   the   expansion   of   the   Eu)   had   to  be  contextualized  as  something  more  then  mere  corporate  agenda.

 the  super  narrative  of  this  procedure  was  found  in  the  most  generally   comprehended   notion   of   democracy.  On  the  one  hand.  Two  consequences  of  this  process  merit  mention.   or   is   interpreted   as   some   uncanny   guarantee   that   the   “freedoms”   are   equaled   to   freedom   as   “material”   integration   into   the   free   market   through   conditions   set   by   debt   economy   and   freedom   of   “joining”   the   modernism  as  defined  by  Euro-­‐Atlantic  axis  of  power.   57   ultrainput.  the  extension   of   the   role   of   the   state   was   thus   not   automatically   achieved   through   the   disruption   of   old   social   ties.   state   domination   –   or   the   etatisation  of  society  –  was  achieved  through  old  hierarchies  and  old  patronage   networks.   but   it   also   functions.   which   was   converted   into   a   perverse   redundancy  platform  that  would  utilize  populist  sentiment  as  an  instrument  that   would   create   an   aureole   of   legitimacy   that   allowed   to   populist   and   bourgeois   elites   of   newly   colonized   countries   to   represent   their   own   subjugation   as   progress   toward   further   integrations   as   well   as   re-­‐confirm   the   control   populist   and   bourgeois   elites   in   colonizing   countries   to   retain   their     monopoly   on   definition  of  progress.   World   Bank   and   International   Monetary  Fund  and  markets  to  do  much  of  the  imperial  work.    a  buzz  word  “Euro-­‐Atlantic  integrations.”3   Clearly.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Tatlić  |  Racist  Core   In  case  of  Eastern  Europe  for  instance.  it                                                                                                                   3  Ibid.”   in   this   sense   presented   a   cluster   of   meanings   in   relation   to   the   expansion   of   .   and   the   structural   power   of   supranational   institutions   like   the   World   Trade   Organization.  “Imperial  formations  in  the  contemporary  political  economy  are   more   “efficient”   in   the   sense   that   formal   colonies   no   longer   need   to   be   governed.       Banerjee  stated.     In  a  way.   the   lack   of   need   for   governing   from   outside   pointed   to   the   auto-­‐ colonialism   as   the   epistemic   and   institutional   procedure   in   which   complicity   to   one’s   own   subjugation   meant   that   the   political   imaginary   and   interpretation   of   the  function  of  the  state  was  also  subjected  to  this  servile  sentiment.   In   a   number   of   cases.   Imperialism  has  learned  to  manage  things  better  by  using  the  elites  of  the  former   colonies   to   do   the   governing.   Achille  Mbembe  noticed  that  “Unlike  certain  Western  experiences  .

 exactly  on  the  opposite.   was   marked   by   the   infiltration   of   the   state   institutions   exactly   by   (in   most   of   the   cases   reactionary)   partonage   networks   (functioning   as   58   .   more   then   occured   in   other   parts   of   the   world.   nepotist   or   merely   criminal   agents)   who   progressively   degraded   the   prerogatives   of   the   state   to   that   level   on   which   privatization   (of   public   property)   was   represented   as   salvation   (by   capital)   and.   perversly   enough.  but  also  the  correlative  socialization  of  arbitrariness.  32   4  Achille  Mbembe.  auto-­‐colonial  rule  in  the  number  of   Eastern   and   Southeastern   European   states.   but   the   principles   behind   these   procedures   might   be   clearly   seen   in   the   context   of   their   specific   application   in   the  expansion  of  the  EU  (in  Europe).   Berlusconi's   rule   installed   patronage   as   the   precondition   of   assendence   within   the   hierarchy   of   the   state.”         Mbembe's  “socialization  of  arbitrariness”  in  both  western  and  otherwise  Europe.”     For   instance.”4   Mbembe   though   of   postcolonial   African   states.   had   not   therefore   led   to   the   “socialization”   of   the   state   in   the   sense   that   would   evoke  emergence  of  the  “social  state”  but.)   ultrainput.   Hungary's   right-­‐turn   almost   institutionlized                                                                                                                   pg..  Berkley  –  Los  Angeles  –  London.   Kaczynski   brothers   rule   in   Poland   opened   the   state   for   free   market   while   simuoltaneoulsy   segregated   sexual   minorities.   Sarkozy's   neo-­‐Vichy   racist   government  in  similar  fashion  engaged  it  self  to  liberalize  the  state  prerogatives   while   it   deported   Roma   communities   and   segregated   religious   minorities   of   Muslim   origin   as   the   means   of   sustainment   of   populist   diversion   from   political   issues.   it   not   only   allowed  a  degree  of  socialization  of  state  power  generally  poorly  understood  by   analysts  .   On   the   other.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Tatlić  |  Racist  Core   paved   the   way.  it  lead    to  the   subjugation   of   the   state   to   the   populist   majority   that   found   a   resolution   to   its   own   class   predicament   (created   by   capital)   in   racial   cleansing   of   the   labor   market   all   motivated   by   old-­‐fashion   Eurocentric   racist   matrix   that   became   the   epistemic  subtext  of  the  “European  ontological  unity.  2001.  On  the  Postcolony  (University  of  California  Press.   whether   public   institutions   were   nominally   privatized   or   not.  Hence.   to   an   unprecedented   privatization   of   public   prerogatives..   as   the   “fight   against   the   old   corrupted   patronage   networks”   whose   current  influence  is  more  perversely  ascribed  to  ex  “socialist  regime.

”   a   procedure   that   legitimized   arbitrariness  in  formating  of  the  state  as  pacifier  of  patronage  and  privatization   of  the  public  prerogatives.   whose   post-­‐socialist   democratization  led  to  rehabilitation  of  populist  state.  actually  contribute  to  the  commodification   of   the   bodies   of   the   subjectivities.   by   stripping   of   a   political  context  of  the  predicament.  reforming  at  the  same  time  the  hierarchies  of  rule  as   those   hierarchies   that   would   “elevate”   various   populists   into   the   position   of   power.  this  “dislocating”  tendency  should  not  be  read  as  a  guise  of  an  ideology.   The   civil   society   in   colonial   peripheries   or   semi-­‐peripheries   therefore   became   a   sector   of   social   reflection   that  tends  to  dislocate  the  origin  of  various  social  predicaments  into  the  field  of   mere   “dysfunctions”   of   market   democracies.   This   “dislocation”   of   the   origin   of   effect  of  capital  by  the  civil  sector  means  that  the  origin  of  social  predicaments   was  interpreted  as  if  it  was  deprived  of  its  ideological  and  political  background.   slandering  and  denying  the  history  of  (European)  revolutionary  struggles.   health   and   biological   “protection.     “Socialization  of  the  state”  therefore  meant  that  the  state  institutions.   being   a   dislocating   procedure   of   the   class   struggle   from   political   to   a   context   of   social.   not   to   mention   various   racist   immigration   policies   propriatory   to   the   EU   as   a   whole.  as  well  as   great   majority   of   non-­‐government   institutions   of   civil   sector   started   to   play   a   role   in   creation   of   new   exploitation   hierarchies.   but   it   should   be   read   as   de-­‐ideological   procedure   that   is.  began   to   perceive   Europe   or   the   West   in   general   as   a   symbolical   contingency   and   institutional  embodiment  of  dogmatic  reactionary  values.”   59   .   the   EU   (as   a   political   conglomerate)  is  increasingly  being  referred  to  as  the  “community  of  its  people.  completely  neglecting.   EU   aspirants   such   as   Croatia   or   Serbia.   However.”       It   is   noticeable   that   in   the   European   public   discourse.     The   procedures   underlying   the   narrative   of   “integration   into   the   EU”   resulted   therefore   in   “socialization   of   the   state.  ultimately  fascism.   Of   course.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Tatlić  |  Racist  Core   anti-­‐semitic   and   anti-­‐Roma   stance   as   normative.   Hence.   at   the   same   time.  This  was  done  in  order  that  exploitation  and/or  auto-­‐exploitation  could   be   justified   through   simultaneous   deprivation   of   the   state   as   public   agent   and   promotion  of  such  socialization  as  an  alleged  answer  to  impotent  political  state.

 Hence.   while   the   free   market   economy   got   out   to   be   mere   international   dimension   of   such   a   state.  but  in  the  known  disposition   thereto  during  all  the  time  there  is  no  assurance  to  the  contrary.  it  could  be  said  that  the  role  of  the  state  in  European  Union  has  become  the   role   of   production   of   “extra-­‐economic”   measures   that   would   justify   measures   against  the  others  who  were  designated  as  those  subjectivities  who  should  serve   as  a  focal  point  of  diversion  of  the  dissent  away  from  capital  and-­‐or  its  colonial                                                                                                                   Translocal.  and  especially  military.   As   Banerjee   stated.  while  necropolitics  as  “politicization  of   biopolitics”  (Gržinić)  is  being  deployed  in  foreign  affairs  and  colonial  extraction   operations.   “Thus.˝   a   Hobbesian   ˝state   of   war˝   which   to  quote  Hobbes  ˝consisteth  not  in  actual  fighting.   coercion˝   (Wood.reartikulacija.  this  is  important  because  the  imposition   of  the  biological  pretext  to  the  interpretation  of  the  function  of  the  state  lead  to   formation   (or   political   perception)   of   a   community   as   biological.   ethnic   community.   This   disposition   should   be   seen   as   differentially   employed   because   it   is   clear   that   the   oppressive   apparatus   (of   the   state)   in   Europe   is   in   internal   affairs   being   deployed   against   non-­‐European   biological   entities.   this   biopolitical   -­‐   necropolitical   relation   ultimately   produced   proper   European   union   as   the   rudimentary.   not   political   contingencies.   white   (Christian)   conglomerate   of   interests.   culturally   or   politically   distinctive  community  capable  of  politically  reflecting  its  predicament.  http://www.˝   globalization   as   capitalist   imperialism   is   dependent   on   a   system   of   multiple   states  which  required  a  new  doctrine  of  ˝extra-­‐economic.  while  in  foreign  affairs  it  is  being  used  for  colonial  resource  extraction   under  the  guise  of  help  to  those  who  are  already  discriminated  in   60   .                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Tatlić  |  Racist  Core   not   political   subjects.   biopolitics.   The   ability   to   deploy   extra-­‐economic   coercive   power   is   analogous   to   ˝Operation   Infinite   War.   not   socially.   biological.   In   the   context  of  demise  of  the  political  state.   2003:   151).org/?p=612   5  Subhabrata  Bobby  Banerjee.   In   this   context.˝5     So.  Histories  of  Opression  and  Voices  of  Resistence:  towards  a  Theory  of  the   ultrainput.   rather   than   marking   the   ˝death   of   the   nation   state.   which   implied   that   citizen   subjectivities   are   increasingly   being   perceived   by   institutions   as   biological.   as   model   of   control   through   de-­‐politicization   of   class   struggle   could   be  seen  as  reserved  for  internal  agenda’s.

  which   consequently   means   that   the   production   of   society   was   delegated  to  the  regime  of  circulation  of  capital.  since  its  inception.  the  role  of  the  state  in  the  EU  seems  to  have  become  the  role   of   administration   of   new   geo-­‐racial   demarcation   lines   within   the   EU   and   administration  and  production  of  peripheries  “outside”  fortress  Europe.   coloniality  is  constitutive  of   61   .  the  rhetoric  of  salvation:  by   conversion   (Spanish   and   Portuguese   mendicant   orders).   “There   is   no   modernity   without   coloniality.   “socialization   of   the   state”   should   be   seen   as   a   procedure   that   deprives  the  political  rule  (as  central  part  of  political  mechanism)  of  its  ability  to   produce   society.   incubator   of   reactionary   response   to   the   effect   of   capital   and   as   an   political   impetus   only   in   regard   to   the   expansion   of   capitalist.  Modernity  is  not  a  historical  period.   The   rhetoric  of  modernity  has  been.     Also.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Tatlić  |  Racist  Core   nature.  it  would  be  false  to  say  that  EU  failed  in  an  attempt  to  construct  the  state   that   would   surpass   market   or   racist   logic   –   it   actually   produced   its   “state”   as   a   pacifier   of   class   dissent.   Additionaly.   this   does   not   mean   that   the   European   democratic  discourse  (in  general)  failed.   ultimately   neocolonial   interests.  http://www.  and  salvation  through  market  democracy  and  consumerism.”6                                                                                                                   6  Walter  Mignolo.   Between  Zero  and  Infinity     Walter   Mignolo   noticed   that.  It  this  sense.     Thus.  De-­‐Linking  Epistemology  from  capital  and  Pluri-­‐Versality  –  A  conversation  with  Walter   Mignolo  by  Marina  Gržinić.  but   it  is  a  rhetoric  grounded  on  the  idea  of  salvation  by  the  agents  telling  the  story   and   placing   themselves   at   the   last   moment   of   a   global   historical   development   and   carrying   the   flag   and   the   torch   toward   the   bright   future   of   humanity.  by  development  and  modernization  (US  experts  in   economy   and   politics   guiding   the   Third   World   towards   the   same   standards   as   the  First).  it  means  that  the  European  democratic   discourse   (at   least   in   a   big   measure)   became   a   part   of   the   apparatus   that   managed   to   combine   capitalist   calculus   and   the   Eurocentric   fascism   and   to   situate   it   as   the   core   of   allegedly   universal   modernist   progress   defined   by   that   same  apparatus.reartikulacija.  part  1.   by   civilizing   missions   (British  and  French  agents).

  the   control   of   gender   and   sexuality   (control   of   family   life   and   reproduction   of   the   species   based   on   the   Christian/bourgeois   family)   and   the  control  of  knowledge  and  subjectivity  (epistemology.     Hence.  “7   Regarding   the   economic   control.  aesthesis).   it   is   clear   that   integration   into   the   “European   project”   subsumed   (more   precisely   required)   the   adoption   of   market   democracy   (with   all   of   its   constituent   and   ideological   parts)   as   dominant   model   of   rule.”8  Of                                                                                                                     7  Ibid.   the   tutelage   of   international   creditors   was   considerably   strenghtened   and   now   involves  a  range  of  direct  interventions  in  domestic  economic  management.     This..).   accommodation.   resistance.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Tatlić  |  Racist  Core   In   accordance   to   this.   it   could   be   said   the   concept   of   “salvation”   could   also   be   deemed   as   “canonized   aggression”   that   produced   the   contemporary   colonial   epistemological   discourse   that   had   not   just   ascribed   the   license   of   interpretation   of  modernity  to  Eurocentric  agents.  In  practice.   pg.   ultrainput.  with  the  issues  ultimately   in  regard  to  the  nature  of  sovereignty.  relied  to  the  notion  of.   “In   four   interrelated   domains   in   which   the   struggle   for   control.  neoliberalism.   the   control   of   economy   was   delegated   to   market   agents   and   local   neoliberal   62   .  On  the  Postcolony  (University  of  California  Press..  but  had  also  imposed  a  monopoly  over  the   definition   of   civilization   to   those   who   are   bringing   the   “salvation”   through   currently  dominant  model  of  colonial  capitalism.  natural  resources).  2001.  the  control  of  authority   (government.  Mignolo  saw  neoliberal  capitalism  as  current  historical  model  of  colonial   matrix   of   power   he   described.   which   was   an   operation   that   was   interlaced   with  the  control  of  government  and  the  army.   takes   place:   the  control  of  economy  (labor.   etc.  land.   army).     Hence.   and   private   and   public   lenders   was   no   longer   limited   to   imposing  respect  for  broad  principles  and  macro-­‐economic  balances.   8  Achille  Mbembe.   International   Monetary   Fund.  Berkley  –  Los  Angeles  –  London.   re-­‐existence.  “fractioned  sovereignty”  as  Mbembe  called  it.  74.  that  is.   which   as   such   was   proclaimed   to   be   a   necessary   pretext   to   the   adoption   of   so-­‐ called   European   values.  as  he   stated   “The   tutelary   government   exercised   by   the   World   Bank.

 the  logics  underlying  the  building  of  coalitions  and  clienteles  have   been   upset   (without   being   positively   restructured).   but   is   in   relation   to   de-­‐mobilization   of   the   state   in   favor   of   sustainment   of   a   spectrum   of   organizations   and/or   agencies   that   would   substitute  the  state  in  protection  of  rights  deemed  not  as  citizens.   positive   functions. ultrainput.   in   this   sense.   and   the   way   has   been   open   for   it   to   wither   .  what  happened  to  the  state  that  fosters  “fractioned  sovereignty”  is   that   it   was   formatted   (from   outside   and   by   its   elites)   as   an   impotent   set   of   institutions   whose   function   became   potent   mostly   in   production   of   conditions   for  legitimization  of  the  racial  subtext  of  “salvation”  through  neoliberalism.     As   Mbembe   continued   “By   doing   everything   possible   to   dismantle   state   intervention   in   the   economy   (such   as   controls.   its   capacities   for   reproduction   have   been   reduced.  but  also  rights  against  it.   protection).                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Tatlić  |  Racist  Core   course.  is  not  in  relation  to  dissent   that  would  have  addressed  the  state  for  the  lack  of  protection  of  rights  as  citizens   prerogatives.   subsidies.   this   notion   relies   primarily   and   is   most   agressively   applied   in   the   non-­‐ European  colonies.  but  consumer   rights.     Since   it   is   obvious   that   the   supranational-­‐national   state   dichotomy   in   capital   is   the  fake  one.  which  as  them  selves  are  increasingly  receiving  the  status  of  (luxurious)   commodities.  “9     The  notion  of  “rights”  in  market  economy.   Mbembe   stated.   became   the   role   of   disruption   of   its   own   coercive   aspect   that   would   have   tackled   social   inconsistencies   without   relying   exclusively   to   the   market   logic.”10                                                                                                                   9  Ibid.  pg  75.   the   emasculation   of   the   interplay   of   rights   and   claims   enabling   people   to   have   not  only  duties  and  obligations  toward  the  state.  however.   the   result   has   been   that   the   state’s   (already   very   fragile)   material   base   has   been   undermined.       The   role   of   the   state.  not  citizens  prerogatives.     63   10  Ibid.   without   making   the   state   more   efficient   and   without   giving   it   new.   “The   shift   to   market   economy   required   the   suspension   of   individuals’   role   in   politics   and   as   citizens   –   that   is.

 itself.  this  is  a  question  of  how  an  interchange  between  normative   and   incidental   attributes   of   some   social   predicament   has   been   equaled.   Let’s   understand   this   as   stating   that   the   quantitative   One   is   the   being   of   the   pure   One.  Being  and  Event  (Continuum  Books.   without   other.   schizophrenic   interpretative   context   that   completely   distorted   the  notion  of  purpose  or  “quality”  of  some  content.   by   being   the   indiscernible   of   the   One.     Alain  Badiou   stated   that  “The   qualitative  ‘something’  is.                                                                                                                   11  Alain  Badiou.   The   quantitative   ‘something’   is   on   the   other   hand.   “positive”   or   otherwise   were   pushed   into   indifferent.   normalized  as  parts  of  reproduction  of  capital  that  ultimately  received  a  form  of   distortion   of   the   link   between   the   power   and   its   effect   –   where   this   distorted   relation   was   eventually   institutionalized   as   the   order.   what   discerns   it.   Of   course.   and   consequently   its   determinateness   is   indifferent.   the   anonymous  One.”11   So.   but   it   also   pacified   the   “resolution”   to   those   predicament   by   locating   the   interpretation   of   any   predicament  within  the  institutional  and  epistemic  limits  provided  by  the  regime   -­‐  consequently  implying  that  there  is  a  consensus  among  all  social  protagonists   on   the   adequacy   of   the   regime   as   well   as   on   the   “resolution”   to   the   regime’s   inconsistencies.   This   means   that   the   distinctive   marks   of   certain   predicament.   For   64   .                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Tatlić  |  Racist  Core   This   is   not   a   question   whether   some   inconsistency   was   an   incident   or   had   a   normative  property.   but   of   political   power   in   general.  discernible  insofar   as   it   has   its   other   in   itself.   not   just   the   state.   verbalization   of   global   financial   crisis   as   “our   crisis”   shows   that   collectivization   of   the   guilt   serves   as   mere   part   of   the   reproduction  of  the  Anonymous  One  of  capital.  if  the  “Anonymous  One”  is  seen  as  a  “content”  that  stands  in  the  core  of  the   indifferent   normative.   this   procedure   pointed   to   the   general   disqualification   of   the   prerogatives   of.   In   that   sense.   What   founds   quantity.  2005.)  p  167.   ultrainput.   is   literally   the   indifference   of   difference.   It   is   not   that   it   is   indiscernible:   it   is   discernible   amidst   everything.  London  –  New  York.   which   does   not   differ   from   anything.   such   a   normative   had   not   only   de-­‐politicized   the   interpretation   of   origins   of   social   predicaments.

  Hence.   the   colonial   model   was.     However.  a  great  deal  of  discussions  (in  the  European  public  discourse)  that   accompanied  occupation  of  Iraq  and  Afghanistan  in  majority  of  cases  (critically)   regarded   only   small   aspects   of   the   methodology   of   conduct   of   those   wars.  and  inflation  of.   For   instance.  in  no  connection  to   the   political   power   that   defined   those   terms   and   imposed   it   self   as   a   master   who   classifies  those  “worthy”  of  “receiving”  human  rights.   state   sovereignty   as   a   colony   combined   weakness   of.  the  notion  of  right:  weakness  of  right  in  that.   apolitical   rhetoric   of   human   rights   as   actual   procurement   of   rights   for   all.   paraphrasing.  but  as  the  instrument  that  actually   freed   the   democratic   subjugates   to   resent   only   as   long   as   their   resentment   reflected   their   desires   for   transgression   of   the   limits   to   consumption.   while   on   the   other  side  it  serves  as  a  mask  of  racial  classfication  of  those  “worthy”  of  having   any   rights   at   all.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Tatlić  |  Racist  Core   it   means   that   the   key   prerogative   of   political   power   –   the   production   of   society   –   has  been  exchanged  for  non-­‐specific  indulgence  to  the  wishes  of  the  demos  that   were  in  the  first  place  produced  by  capital.   former   French   foreign   minister   Michèle   Alliot-­‐ ultrainput.  as  an  exchange   for   rejection   of   the   notion   of   right   in   political   discourse.   not   the   transgression  of  the  “values”  sustained  by  capitalist  democratic  regime.   Mbembe   stated.   For   65   .  except  when  deployed  in  the  form  of  arbitrariness  and  the  right  of  conquest.   a   void   (as   a   break   in   connection   of   power   and   its   effect)   was   produced   and   “filled”   with   a   myriad   of   non-­‐specific  agendas  of  human  right  protection.     The   emphasis   here   is   on   the   procedure   of   filling   of   the   void.”  In  other  words.  in  the  relation  of   power   and   authority.   which   repetitive   property   on   one   side   manages   to   represent   constant   de-­‐ideologized.   in   such   a   way.   articulations  and  representations  related  only  to  the  phantom-­‐like  significance  of   “procurement  of  democracy  and  the  free  market.   the  very  concept  of  right  often  stood  revealed  as  a  void.  disqualification  of  the  prerogatives  of  political  power  does  not  function   as  the  reduction.  inflation  of  right  in   that.  liberty  etc.   not   their   colonial   nature.  prohibition  or  as  a  dictate.   “inflation”   of   the   notion   of   right   dislocated   the   political   calculus   into   the   context   of   non-­‐specific   reasoning.  not  political  ideology.   in   both   theory   and   practice.  liberties  and  so  on.   the   exact  opposite  of  the  liberal  model  of  debate  and  discussion..

  Advocacy  of  rights  of  Jews  (and/or  Israel)  by  the  representative  of­‐alliotmarie-­‐frenc_n_812156.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Tatlić  |  Racist  Core   Marie  recently  paid  a  visit  to  Gaza.huffingtonpost.  actually.12     Let’s   not   forget   that   European   support   of   Israel   was   possible   only   after   Jews   (those   “integrated”   and   otherwise)   were   biologically   exterminated   in   Europe.  In  a  similar  fashion.   as   long   as   it   does   not   tackle   them   selves  as  self-­‐proclaimed  masters.html   13  One  of  the  first  reactions  of  German’s  chancellor  Merkel  to  the  demise  of  Mubarak  in  Egypt  was   expressed  through  her  hope  that  Egypt  would  respect  the  peace  treaty  with   66   .   http://www.  EU’s  tolerance  of  Serbian   and   (in   “slighter”   measure)   Croatian   aggression   and   genocide   of   the   Bosnian   Muslims   in   the   nineties   was   clearly   influenced   by   racial   classifications   that   formatted   EU’s   stance   toward   the   situation.  by  discarding  the  ideological  prefix  and  the   need  of  political  articulation  of  any  rights.   Any   how.  simultaneously  tolerates  increasing  number  of  anti-­‐semitic  regime's  back   in   Europe.   only   to   be   exchanged   for   political   condemnation   of   the   victim’s   resistance   to   genocide   under   the   guise   of   condemnation   of     “radicalization”   of   the   victims   along   the   religious   “Islamic   fundamentalist”   lines.   this   bluntly   fascist   classifications   of   those   worthy   and   non-­‐worthy   of   having   rights   actually   pointed   to   the   logic   that   structured   the   imaginary   of   the   proper  European  subjectivity  -­‐  who.   The   message   of   the   EU   to   the   victims   was  that  they  should  have  die  happy  knowing  that  the  EU  “supported”  them.  in  accordance  to  the  market   logic.   but   exactly   reflects   Eurocentric   racist   ability   to   sustain  heterogenic  property  of  a  racist  scale  (favoring  Israel  slightly  more  then   Arabs.   while   the   application   of   the   same   rights   in   the   Third   world   means   that   somebody   classified   as     “non-­‐commodifiable”   could   and   should   (try   to)   become  “almost  commodifiable”  thing.  which  as   a  state.  to  ask  for  the  release  of  a  single  Israeli  soldier   held  by  Hamas  in  spite  of  thousands  of  Palestinians  in  Israeli  prisons.aspx?id=207865   ultrainput.   is   not   paradoxicall.   but   in   principle   loathing   them   both).com/International/Article.                                                                                                                     12  http://www.   That   stance   basically   provided   rhetorical   support   to   the   victims   while   the   genocide   was   going   on.jpost.   deemed   the   notion   of   “rights”   only   in   a   binary   mode.   This   is   a   mode   that   deems  the  application  of  “rights”  in  the  First  world  as  those  rights  that  guarantee   to   the   proper   subjectivity   he/she   can   and   should   become   an   apolitical   commodity.

reartikulacija.  The  global   era   oscillates   this   distance   between   zero   and   infinity.  manages  to  emulate  social   dynamics  in  general.  transcendence  (having-­‐to-­‐be)  representation.  good  and  bad.   and   on   the   other   provides   an   abundance   of   events   that   saturate   everyday   experience.  whose  political  realization  got  out  to  be  nothing   else  but  a  redundant  (extra-­‐economic)  pattern  of  self-­‐realization  as  a  commodity   to   whom   a   dimension   of   significance   is   being   ascribed   on   the   basis   of   racial   classification.”14   Regarding   the   notion   of   infinity.  The  good  infinity  relates  to  subjective   15  Badiou  distinguishes  two  kinds  of  infinities.   but   only   confirms   homogenization   of   the   world   under   the   rule   of   modernist  or  postmodernist  meaning  defined  by  colonial  capitalism.Repetition.   a   contraction   named   ‘infinity’  on  the  basis  of  the  void  in  which  the  repetition  exhausts  itself.   “Postmodernism   abolishes   the   distance   and   situates   man  inside  the  world  that  is  made  of  signs  and  ahistorical  languages.  New  York.     The   ascription   of   purpose   to   experience   of   being   a   commodity   through   racism   is   therefore   an   epistemic   operation.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Tatlić  |  Racist  Core   This   logic   comprised   a   subtext   to   otherwise   empty   experience   of   life   in   market   democracy  (in  the  First  world).   which   by   constant   reinvention   of   forms   of   subjugation  and  repetition  of  ascribing  of  such   67   .  in  this  context.   That   is   why   there   is   the   feeling   of   the   absence   of   the   world   and   at   the   same   time   we   witness   its   over   abundance.     As   Marina   Gržinić   noted.   ultrainput.  unpresentable  -­‐  Alain  Badiou.   “The   contraction   in   virtuality   of   repetition   in   the   presence   of   that   which   repeats   itself.  The  bad  infinity  relates  to  the  objective   process.  but  does  not  confirm  the  heterogeneity  of  the  world  and  possibility   of   politics.  http://www.   immancence.  2005.)  p  166-­‐ 167.       The   repetition   of   this   operation   (colloquially   experienced   as   the   lack   of   radical   changes)   on   one   side   negates   political   experience   of   the   world.”15     So.   or   the   world   it   self.  Capital.  if  the  “void  where  the  repetition  exhausts  it  self”  is  the  place   where   the   link   between   the   colonial   power   (exploitation)   and   its   effect                                                                                                                   14  Marina  Gržinić.   it   would   be   productive   to   resort   to   what   Badiou   noted   on   that   notion   when   he   said   that.  Being  and  Event  (Continuum  Books.

  On   the   other   hand.   utilization   of   the   issues   of   gender   and   sexuality   could   be   seen   as   politically   deployed   only   (or   in   majority   of   cases)   when   a   need   arose   to   slander   certain   “splinter”   regime.   the   control   of   gender   and   sexuality   pointed   to   the   aspect   of   the   colonial   epistemology   in   regard   to   the   specific  notion  of  conversions  from  Christian  to  liberal  heterosexual  normative.   increased   number   of   emerging   Iranian   “free   thinking”   (female   authors)   published   and   endorsed   in   the   West   that   coincided   ultrainput..   Of  course.   Hence.   In   regard   to   Gržinić’s   thesis.   then   what   the   regime   “dislocates”   or   subverts   is   exactly   the   infinite   property   of   a   link   between   the   power   and   its   effect.   while   the   zero   is   the   value   ascribed   to   the   political   interpretation   of   infinity   of   that  exploitation.  while   being   in   consensus   on   fundamental   ideological   issues   that   created   those   problems  in  the  first  place.  Antagonisation  of  the  abortion  issues.   Paraphrasing   Mignolo.     On   the   other   hand.  control  over   the   body   68   .  secularization  of  patriarchal  control  of  gender  and  sexuality.     Additionally.   exploitation   and   purpose   found   in   racism.  fancy  antagonistic  tool  that  allowed  to  complict  political   subjects  in  the  West  to  emulate  “political  adversity”  in  front  of  the  public.”   Christian.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Tatlić  |  Racist  Core   (subjugation)   is   being   achieved   and   visible.   The   “salvation”   of   the   women   in   Afghanistan   used  as  a  pretext  to  (post  9/11)  invasion  did  nothing  for  women  rights  after  the   invasion.   through   the   invention   of   the   concept   of   “woman.  implied   that   secularization   of   subjectivities   is   being   done   as   their   conversion   into   the   commodity.   this   procedure   provided   an   apolitical   basis   of   differentiation   various   political   subjects   of   different   political   inclinations   might   use  as  emulation  of  politics.   as   for   Mignolo’s   dimensions   of   control.   if   deprived   of   their   political   and   ideological   origins   therefore   provided  a  convinient.   and   later   liberal   heterosexual   normativity   implied   envisioning   a   world   in   which   gender   distinction   and   sexual   preferences   are   determined   by   a   moral   code   dictated   by   the   truth   of   a   transcendental   behavior   or   by   the   needs   of   the   market.   what   is   infinite   is   the   abundance   of   social   realizations   based   on   subjugation.

 which  have  endorsed  various  queer   or   LGBTQ   activities   (rights)   only   when   they   proven   them   selves   as   politically   aseptic   cultural   events.   The   69   .   and   16  Walter  Mignolo.  although  it   was  created  and  enacted  in  one  region  (Western  Christianity)  and  by  a  particular   community   of   bodies   (White   Males   publicly   assuming   the   rightfulness   of   heterosexuality).                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Tatlić  |  Racist  Core   with   rising   tensions   around   Iranian   nuclear   program   all   pointed   out   to   specific   utilization  of  human  rights  agenda  for  particular  colonial  goals.  American-­‐Indians  or  Arabic  Muslims.  they  were  classified.  part  1.   Eurocentric   hypocrisy   regarding   these   questions   showed   it   self   through  public  and  institutional  discourses.   Hence.  knowledge  was  cast  as  uni-­‐versal.   was   invented   and   implemented   by   Western   Christian   theologians.   were   classified   as   “lesser.  but  had   no   say   in   the   classification.   certain   regions   of   the   world.  a  country  that  pathetically  deems  it  self  as  “Home   of   Human   Rights”)   which   had   deported   whole   Roma   communities   in   straight   neo-­‐Nazi  fashion.reartikulacija.   and   later   on.   “Since   the   sixteenth   century   and   the   modern/colonial   foundation   of   racism.   it   is   extremely   important   to   tackle   that   issue   and   its   connotations   in   regard   to   the   exact   opposite   of   what   it   should   have   been   in   a   political   society.  De-­‐Linking  Epistemology  from  capital  and  Pluri-­‐Versality  –  A  conversation  with  Walter   ultrainput.   by   secular   philosophers  and  scientists.”16   Since  the  issue  of  secularization  enjoys  a  status  of  universal  “affirmative”  value  in   the   EU.       The  Telos  of  a  Fascist  Democracy   According   to   Mignolo.  http://www.  while  being  proud  for  having  a  gay  mayor  of  Paris.   if   comprehended   as   a   pretense   to   the   rule   of   civil   society   in   Europe.   Consequently.   which   consequently   provided   contemporary   European   fascist   democracies   with   a   “liberal”   angle   -­‐   as   it   was   in   the   case   of   France  (speaking  of  hypocrisy.   secularization   in   the   context   of   contemporary   colonialism   does   not   serve   as   a   political   instrument   that   would   “politicize”   social   antagonisms   by   discarding   of                                                                                                                   Mignolo  by  Marina  Gržinić.   and   people   dwelling   within   it.   this   has   produced   specific   public   sensitivity   for   such   hypocrisy.     Otherwise.  Thus.  No.”   Who   was   in   the   position   to   classify?   Not   Black   Africans.

)  there  is  but  to  divinize  the   contemporary  slavery.asp?action=open&documentId=883171&portal=hbkm&source= ultrainput.echr.  as   well  as  it  functions  as  perverse  epistemic  instrument  which  allows  to  the  clerical   or  generally  non-­‐secular  structures  to  emulate  their  “opposition”  to  “big”  capital   which  they  profoundly  support  and  rationalize.   what   better   way   to   rationalize   the   effect   of   capital  (slavery.  The  fact  that  Vatican  (and  its  chief.  ex-­‐Hitler  Jugend  member.   but   it   functions   as   typical   colonial   instrument   that   discards   political  and  ideological  angle  of  the  social  predicament  in  favor  of  the      Its  symbolical                                                                                                                   externalbydocnumber&table=F69A27FD8FB86142BF01C1166DEA398649.  while  the  crucifix  was  above  all  a   religious  symbol.  the  Pope)  is   allowed  to  determine  who  is  and  who  is  not  eligible  for  joining  the  Union  (as  in   case   of   Turkey   which   is   being   rejected   by   EU   on   racist   grounds)   and/or   to   determine   what   kind   of   “roots”   (allegedly)   secular   EU   has   is   nothing   less   then   ludicrous.   there   was   a   recent   decision   brought   by   the   European   Court   of   Human   Rights   that   legitimized   the   crucifix   in   Italian   public   schools.  Since  (such)  secularization  in  the   EU   presumes   commodification.  there  was  no  evidence  before  the  Court  that  the  display  of  such   a  symbol  on  classroom  walls  might  have  an  influence  on  pupils.  class   70   .   or   reinterpret   very   real   influence   Vatican   and   western   Christian  theology  in  general  have  on  the  conduct  of  (both  internal  and  foreign)   policy.  March  2011.”17   How   can   one   have   proof   that   some   symbolical   contingency   has   made   tangible   influence?     Of   course   that   crucifix   as   an   object   of   wood   and   metal   does   not   make   any   influence  what  so  ever.  it  is  obvious  that  the  influence  old  (patriarchal)  social  ties  execute  on   subjective   logic   of   emancipation   (that   should   allegedly   be   posited   between   “Christian  roots  of  Europe”  and  consumerist  roots  in  the  malls)  is  being  used  as  a   tool   that   should   mask.coe.  commodification  etc.  but  it  is  unbelievable  the  Human  Rights  Court  is  bluntly   neglecting  a  simple  fact  that  the  symbol  as  it  self  is  an  influence.   17http://cmiskp.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Tatlić  |  Racist  Core   apolitical   values.       For   instance.   stating   (in   the  courts  decision)  that  “The  Court  found  that.     As  a  result.

com   71   .     According   to   Achille   Mbembe.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Tatlić  |  Racist  Core   disposition   in   the   public   school   therefore   clearly   implies   that   Christianity   should   be  seen  as  the  core  of  western  civilization  as  well  as  it  represents  typical  colonial   style  cynicism  in  regard  to  that.   “To   be   sure..  however.   transformed.   It   is   not.   while   serving   as   an   ontological   platform   able   to   simultaneously   depoliticize   society   as   politically   adversarial   potential   and   to   amplify   it   as   an   ethnic-­‐community   (Volkgemeinschaft)   that   should   (after   multiculturalism   has   so   conveniantly   failed)   continue   to   be   a   constitutive   basis   of   a   state   whose   hierarchies   of   emancipation  and  forms  of  pluralism  would  be  based  on  racist  logic.  according  to  this  insane  logic.   “Christian   roots   of   Europe”   seems   to   have   been   adopted   as   a   core   value   that   should   make   rational   brutal   inconsistencies   various   EU   countries   adopt   as   their   policy.   Of   course.  pictures  of  Hitler   or   pictures   of   Nazis   as   well   could   be   posited   in   the   classrooms   Europewide   because   there   is   no   evidence   that   those   pictures   as   such   killed   anyone   and   because  there  is  no  evidence  that  the  pictures  of  Nazis  commited  genocide.   The   postcolony   is   characterized   by   a   distinctive   style   of   political   improvisation.  it  was  also  stated  by  the  Court  that  “There   was   nothing   to   suggest   that   the   authorities   were   intolerant   of   pupils   who   believed   in   other   religions.  Hence.”18   But.  as  there  should  be  no  religious  symbols  in  a  secular  country  at  all  or   there  should  be  all  of  them.   by   a   tendency   to   excess   and   lack   of   proportion.   ultrainput.   and   put   into                                                                                                                   18  Ibid.   a   particular   way   of   fabricating   simulacra   or   re-­‐forming   stereotypes.   it   has   nonetheless   an   internal   coherence.   it   is   only   the   crucifix   that   hangs   in   the   classroom.  just  an  economy  of  signs  in  which  power  is  mirrored  and  imagined   self-­‐reflectively.   as   well   as   by   distinctive   ways   identities   are   multiplied.   the   popular   fundamentalist   buzz-­‐word.   were   non-­‐believers   or   who   held   non-­‐religious   philosophical   convictions.  only  if   they   had   tiny   death   rays   or   gas   conteiners   hidden   in   the   canvas   which   contained   special   gas   able   to   differentiate   “genetic   propeties”   of   Arian   and   non-­‐Arian   pupils..   It   is   a   specific   system   of   signs.   the   postcolony   is   chaotically   pluralistic.    So.

  or   even   him/her   as   long   as   it   “situates”   him/her  higher  in  accordance  to  the  racist  matrix  then  Muslims.  ends   by   governing.   Mbembe   noticed   how   in   postcolony.   political   power   is.   proper   Eurocentric   subjectivity   does   not   have   a   problem   with   the   exploitaton   when   it   exploits   the   other.   through   administrative   and   bureaucratic   practices.”     None  the  less.   his   notes   very   well  apply  to  the  specific  way  societies  of  colonizers   are  being  “formatted.       Bluntly   said.   “the   eternal   Jew”   who   is   tolerated   only   if   (politically)  dwelling  outside  Europe.  Berkley  –  Los  Angeles  –  London.   perhaps   pardoxically   the   logics   that   underlie   all   other   meanings   within  that  society.   ultrainput.  102   19  Achille  Mbembe.   its   own   world   of   meanings  –  a  master  code  that.   Latinos   .   imagined  as  the  power  that  allowed  the  concept  of  “rights”  to  be  contextualized   as   non-­‐separable   from   axiomatic   values   determined   by   biological.   and   of   course.   ultimately   barbaric  perception  of  the  state  that  de-­‐politicizes  struggle  for  power  in  favor  of   struggle   for   positioning   within   the   hierarchy   of   (economic.  non-­‐Christians.   state   power   creates.     The  power  imagined  self-­‐reflectively  therefore  means  that  the  political  power  is   being   imagined   by   proper   European   democrat   only   in   terms   that   would   determine   how   power   would   react   to   specific   wishes   and   desires   in   relation   to   that  subjectivities  thrive  to  improve  distinctivness  of  its  identity.  Mbembe’s  notion  of  power  imagined  self-­‐reflectively  in  the  context   of   the   contemporary   nomos   of   Europe   could   be   seen   as   a   relation   which   had   allowed  to  the  demos  to  deem  its  own  predicament  in  relation  to  the  market.  while  becoming  the  societies  central  code.   by   proper   European   democratic   subjectivity.).                                                                                                                     2001.   but   as   a   possibillity   of   that   subjectivity   to   realize   his/her   identity   through   distinctive.   blacks.   multiple   ways   provided  by  the  same  regime.  On  the  Postcolony  (University  of  California   72   .  pg.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Tatlić  |  Racist  Core   circulation”19   Although   Mbembe   was   referring   to   actual   Third   world’s   postcolony.   political   and   racial)   oppression.       Consequently.   paraphrasing.  not   as   a   method   of   regime's   control   over   him/her.

  according   to   Mbembe   “The   signs.   ultrainput.   succeed   only   in   addressing   of   and   exchange   of   specific   executioners   of   power.”   As   Walter   Mignolo   stated   by   referring   to   Santiago   Castro-­‐Gómez  who  saw  colonial  epistemology  as  “’the  hubris  of  the  zero-­‐point’:   the  knowledge  of  the  observer  who  cannot  be  observed.  they  are  officially   invested   with   a   surplus   of   meanings   that   are   not   negotiable   and   that   one   is   officially  forbidden  to  depart  from  or  challenge.  a  notion  of  “democratic  dissent”  (not  the  dissent  in  general  terms  of   course)   could   be   seen   as   “unchallengeable”   concept   because   it   provided   a   surplus   of   meaning   to   otherwise   banal   political   experience   of   the   regime   –   an   experience   compensated   only   by   the   sustainment   of   racial   hierarchies   and   biological  classifications  in  production  of.   not   the   epistemic.   as   a   colonizer.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Tatlić  |  Racist  Core   But.   what   is   officially   “forbidden”   to   challenge   or   depart   from   in   the   EU   (or   in   First   world   in   general)   is   not   only   the   complicity   of   its   moral   majority  to  the  colonial  epistemology.  a  sub-­‐ narrative   of   complicity.   a   “master   code”   actually   represents   the   whole   system  of  meanings  about  such  a  state  in  the  role  of  extra-­‐economic  simulation  of   ideology   and   politics.  but  it  represents  the  enforcement  of   neoliberal   racist   administration.     Thus   preventing   the   unmasking   of   constitutive   inconsistencies   standing   behind   the   regime  under  the  guise  of  constant  changes  within  that  regime.  through  its  repetition  (of  constant  trail  and  constant   error).  but  it  is  its  specific  notion  of  dissent.   does   not   represent   the   enforcement  of  a  particular  political  agenda.   Otherwise.”  20       Aside   other   things.   which   is   utilized   in   the   political   imaginary   as   a   “fail   safe”   heuristic  device  that  would.       Additionally.  pg  103.   and   narratives   that   the   commandement  produces  are  meant  not  merely  to  be  symbols.   material   and   ideological   basis   of   that   power.”   Hence.   since   the   “state   power”   in   Europe.   vocabulary.                                                                                                                   20   73   .   what   posits   European   Union   in   its   role   of   racist   colonial   agent   is   its   own   epistemic   monopoly   on   definition   of   it   self   as   the   one   that   “can   not   be   judged.  nothing  less  but  the  “human  condition”   defined  through  free  market  economy  and  racism.

 more  so   than  class-­‐thinking  (the  ideology  that  defines  history  as  an  economic  struggle  of   classes).”21                                                                                                                     Durham.  race  has  been  the  ever  present  shadow  in  Western  political  thought  and   practice.  or  more  general   “resentment”   in   Europe   (that   allies   it   self   with   the   neo-­‐fascists   and   fundamentalist   Christian   dogmas)   does   not   lie   in   its   complete   failure   to   recognize   the   social   and   political   effect   of   capital.   contemporary   European   colonial   epistemology   could   be   seen   as   mere   proto-­‐ideological  discourse  or  ideological  excurse  that  exchanges  political  basis   of  differentiation  in  favor  of  racist  basis  of  differentiation.  if  the  logic  of  resentment  is  in  accordance  to  the  logic  of  colonial   matrix   of   power.   ultrainput.   Arendt   locates   their   roots   in   the   shattering   experience   of   otherness  and  suggests  that  the  politics  of  race  is  ultimately  linked  to  the  politics   of  death.  or  rule  over.   foreign  peoples.   Consequently.  the  problem  with  the  European  left  (in  general).   Therefore.  “   74   .   “That   race   (or   for   that   matter   racism)   figures   so   prominently  in  the  calculus  of  biopower  is  entirely  justifiable.   what   influenced   this   self-­‐sufficient   sentiment   is   the   notion   of   being  in  the  final  stage  of  history  where  allegedly  no  radical  political  moves  are   needed  no  more.  After  all.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Tatlić  |  Racist  Core         In  that  sense.  2003.       The   consequent   banishment   of   political   ideology   resulted   in   that   kind   of   democratic  telos.     As   Achille   Mbembe   noticed.  Duke  University  Press.   the   problem   lies   in   its   interpretation  of  that  effect  as  separate  from  the  monopoly  over  the  definition  of   the   universal   truth   hijacked   by   contemporary   Western   capitalist   democracies.  Referring  to  both  this  ever-­‐presence  and  the  phantomlike  world   of   race   in   general.  especially  when  it  comes  to  imagining  the  inhumanity  of.  which  is  based  on  distortion  of  the  adversarial  link  between  the   basic   binary   in   the   cosmology   of   power   –   the   dominator   and   the   dominated.   self-­‐indulgent   sentiment  of  merely  being  an  anti-­‐establishment  of  that  kind  that  addresses  only   the   temporal   position   of   executive   power.  17   21Achille  Mbembe.  no.  1.   not   the   system   as   a   whole.  Libby  Meintjes.  pg.  in:  Public  Culture  15.   Consequently.   it   then   corresponds   only   to   a   self-­‐sufficient.”  trans..

 104   ultrainput.  Berkley  –  Los  Angeles  –  London.  pg.   “Postcolonial   relationship   is   not   primarily   a   relationship   of   resistance   or   of   collaboration   but   can   best   be   characterized   as   convivial.   And.   which   is   number.   in   parallel   to   the   proper   democratic   telos   (based   on   “worship”   of   the   distortion   between   the   domination   and   subjugation)   the   exercise.     The  only  coherent  experience  this  logic  provides  is  the  experience  of  repetition   of   discriminatory   worldview   in   subjective   sense   and   in   an   experience   of   a   “debt”   to  the  system  that  produced  such  a  basis  of  differentiation  in  collective  sense.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Tatlić  |  Racist  Core   Shattering   experience   of   otherness   European   Union   experiences   represents   therefore  a  shattering  experience  of  non-­‐existence  of  (political  kind  of)  ideology   that   would   have   surpassed   utter   vulgarity   of   infinite   consumption   and   the   consequential   eradication   of   the   political   state   in   favor   of   installment   of   racist   and/or   market   dogmas   to   serve   as   further   compensation   or   addendum   to   the   hollowness  of  consumerist  vulgarity  and  political  idiotism.   is   also   multiple-­‐   75   .   This   logic   has   resulted   in   the   mutual   “zombification”   of   both   the   dominant   and   those   apparently   dominated.  On  the  Postcolony  (University  of  California  Press.   2001.       As   Mbembe   stated.).   it   could   be   said   that   the   function   of   political   power   in   the   First   world   of   capital   in   general   ruptured   exactly   along   the   lines   where   particular   democratic   dissent   in   no   regard   to   struggle   for   rule   (as   struggle   for   political   ideology)   became   elevated   (by   complicit   demos   and   the   regime)   to   a   level   of   utmost   political   significance.   “The   quantitative   one.”22   This   notion   requires   an   additional   angle   of   approach.   a   relationship  fraught  by  the  fact  of  the  commandement  and  its  “subjects”  having   to   share   the   same   living   space.   the   indifferent   One.   So.   representation   and   divinization   of   European   values   could   be   seen   as   an   art   of   “pimping   up”   of   the   oppressive   regime   in   exchange   for   the   “gifts”   regime   provides   by   sustainment   and   embellishment   of   the   role   of   those   who   foster   European  value  on  the  racist  or  market  scale.   This   zombification   means   that   each   has   robbed   the   other   of   vitality   and   left   both   impotent  (impouvoir).   because   its   in-­‐difference   is   also   that   of   proliferating   the   same-­‐as-­‐self                                                                                                                   22  Achille  Mbembe.   Alain   Badiou   noted   that.

 London  -­‐  New  York.  Hence.  whose  limit  is  immediately  non-­‐limit.  by  production  of  social  relationship   that   is   either   immersed   into   a   financial   slavery   divinized   by   the   culture   deprived   of  the  political  (and  adversarial)  reflections  of  the  order.   but   also   could   represent   an   intensification   of   the   possibility   of   dogmatic   interpretations   to   be   infinitely   reconfirmed   as   being   a   part.)  p  166-­‐167   76   ultrainput.   while   it   is   an   utmost   limitation   to   intepretation   of   the   nature   of   certain   discernability   that   concerned  the  lack  of  political  production  of  society.   The   only   “validity”   assigned   to   this   cognitive   operation   is   the   one   that   have   “resolved”   the   ambiguity   about   the   functions   of   political   power   by   erasure   of   political  bases  of  differentiation  at   .  “non-­‐limitation”  of  contemporary  European  nomos  (represented   as  non-­‐specific  democratic  liberty)  is  actually  non-­‐limitation  of  consumption  and   non-­‐limitation   in   sustainment   of   racial   basis   of   differentiation.  It  might  be  said  that  the  sensibility  of  proper  democratic  subjectivity  in   Europe   could   be   verbalized   as   if   it   “belongs   to   impossibility.     Mbembe's  “zombification”  in  this  sense  shed  a  light  on  the  nature  of    procedure   of   “socialization   of   capital”   (or   its   “collectivization)   which   had   already   reached   that   level   of   realization   in   which   the   function   of   power   and   the   method   of   its   legitimization   got   mixed   to   such   a   degree   where   it   became   impossible   to   differentiate   proper   democratic   demos   apart   from   the   effect   of   capital   or   its   violent  colonial  expansions  –  therefore  forming  a  pure  biopolitical/necropolitical   bond.  realizes  it  self  ‘in   the  multiplicity  external  to  self.   of   the   notion   of   “purpose”   which   is   objectively  impossible  to  validate.   The   whole   transaction   of   values   between   the   constituency   and   the   position   of   power  within  European  market  democracies  as  well  as  between  that  power  and                                                                                                                   23  Alain  Badiou.”23   In  other  words.  2005.  which  has  as  its  principle  or  unity  the  indifferent   One.”   where   this   impossibility   subsumes   political   impossibility.   indifferent   articulations   in   general.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Tatlić  |  Racist  Core   outside  of  self:  the  One.   or   a   variable.  Being  and  Event  (Continuum  Books.  This  is  a  lack  compensated   by   quantification   and   hybridisation   of   apolitical.

  social   adequacy   of   economic   models   and   production   of   society   and   especially   in   the   matters   of   social   equality.  He  is  enrolled  in  PhD  program  at  the  Faculty  of   Sociology.     ***   Šefik  Šeki  Tatlić  is  a  theoretician  from  Bosnia  Herzegovina.   in   matters   of   political   art   of   rule.   freedom   and   fostering   of   civilized   values   should   be   deemed   as   equal   to   zero   as   well   as   it   should   be   deemed   as   a   mere  contemporary  “upgrade”  of  colonial  system  of  rule.   Radical   class   divisions.   the   credibility   of   the   European   Union   as   a   whole.   77   .         So.   ultrainput.  that  is  necropolitics)  through  political   de-­ideologization   of   the   social   reality   generally   only   to   produce   deeper.  Croatia.  University  of  Zagreb.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Tatlić  |  Racist  Core   its  “geo-­‐racial”  inner  and  outer  peripheries  (zones)  was  therefore  realized  as  the   necropolitical   relation   that   compensates   for   its   inconsistencies   by   colonial   murder  and  by  the  imposition  of  death  as  the  core  of  “salvation”  by  democracy   and  the  free  market.   allegedly   apolitical   inconsistencies   perversely   ascribed   to   inadequate   functions   of   that   very  colonial  matrix.   segregation   are   therefore   deemed   as   progress  by  a  colonial-­‐racist  interpretative  matrix  that  managed  to  impose  it  self   to  the  populous  in  the  countries  of  colonizers  (as  method  of  control)  and  to  those   colonized  (as  a  method  of  dying  or  slavery.

transitmigration.  I  will  have  as  well   a   case   with   which   to   conceptualize   my   thesis.  “Notes  on  migration  management  and  citizenship  in   the  area  of  ex-­‐Yugoslavia.   2010.  I  would  like   to  consider  two  concepts  together.  retrieved  on  March   78   .  Rutvica  Andrijasević.”  2004.                                                                                                                                                                                                Marjanović  |  The  Racist  Regime     6.   http://trinity.  Ivana  Marjanović     The  Racist  Regime  of  the  (White)  EU  Schengen  Border  Regime   This   text   was   originally   published   in   Volume   3.   Center   for   Global   Studies   and   Humanities.  Manuela  Bojadž­‐3-­‐dossier-­‐2-­‐on-­‐europe-­‐education-­‐global-­‐capitalism-­‐and-­‐ ideology-­‐2.  The  first  is  the  concept  of  European  Apartheid   proposed  by  French  philosopher  Étienne  Balibar  in  the  1990s  and  beginning  of   2000s   and   the   other   is   the   concept   of   Exception   to   Neoliberalism   proposed   in   recent   years   by   the   Chinese   anthropologist   and   theoretician   Aihwa   Ong   (along   with   the   concept   of   Neoliberalism   as   Exception)   who   is   researching   and   writing   about   the   transformation   of   citizenship   and   sovereignty   in   South   East   and   East   Asia.   Global   Capitalism   and   Ideology.  2011.  or  the  neocolonial  appropriation  of  Eastern  Europe   as  part  of  the  European  unification  project.duke.     European  Apartheid  and  Exception  to  Neoliberalism   This  text  is  a  critical  analysis  of  the  processes  that  have  been  unfolding  in  Europe   since   1989   –   processes   related   to   European   integration   and   the   creation   of   the   European   Union   citizenship.   http://www.   Dossier   2:   On   Europe.   Duke   University.  Within  this  framework.    Along  these  theoretical  lines  that  I  will  elaborate  further.   Education.   Marina   Gržinić   (ed.).  retreived  January  15.   I   will   analyze   the   semi-­‐ documentary  film  trilogy  “Kenedi”  by  the  Serbian  film  director  Želimir  Žilnik  that   presents   a   critique   in   its   film   format   of   the   neoliberal   migration   regime   under   global  biopolitical  conditions.  2010.1                                                                                                                     1    Cf.php?inhaltID=116.   as   well   as   with   the   implementation   of   neoliberal   capitalism  in  Eastern  Europe.

 but  that  it  is.  http://eipcp.   He   maintains   that   European   citizenship   created   as   part   of   the                                                                                                                   2    Cf.   but   divisions   of   subjectivities.  2009.  .  We  can  see  it  working  when  witness  to  atrocious   segregation  of  migrants  in  the  EU  but  also  in  the  process  of    EU  unification  which   enforces  the  cleansing  of  the  Western  Europe  of  refugees.  Aihwa  Ong.  Mutations  in  Citizenship  and  Sovereignty.  Princeton  University  Press.  in  these  zones  the  binary  division  of  the  world  into   two  (as  it  was  the  case  in  the  time  of  the  Cold  War)  is  no  longer  functional  but   instead  there  exists  a  very  complicated  network  of  zones  spread  throughout  the   world  –  in  its  every  corner  there  exists  a  zone  of  prosperity  and  life  and  a  zone  of   poverty   and   death.   As   an   outcome   of   this   relation.   (MUMOK).   seem   paradoxical.  We.  Vienna.  extremely  violent  measurements   in  governing  the  zones  of  poverty  have  to  be  introduced.   These   zones   represent   not   only   simple   geographical   divisions.   ultrainput.  on   the   79   .  Étienne  Balibar.  2010.   as   well.  Duke   University  Press.   at   first.   zones  of  rights  and  zones  of  non-­‐rights  that  are  created  through  the  processes  of   globalization  of  capital.                                                                                                                                                                                                Marjanović  |  The  Racist  Regime   I   would   propose   something   that   may.  organization  and  administration  of  the  borders  in  Europe  (and   in   other   parts   of   the   world)   after   1989   has   to   do   with   the   creation   of   world   regions  or  zones  of  growth  and  zones  of  poverty.  2006.  retrieved   on  March  31.  functional  in  the  new  Europe  and  in  the  First  capitalist  world  today   as   well.   knowledge   etc.     Namely.  the  People  of  Europe?  Reflections  on  Transnational  Citizenship   (Translation/Transnation).     European   Apartheid   has   been   brought   into  existence  and   my   thesis   in   this   text   is   that   Exception   to   Neoliberalism   is   not   just   functioning  outside  of  the  First  capitalist  world  as  Ong  argues.  2004.       The  construction.  Thus.  zones  of  life  and  zones  of  death.  Marina  Gržinić.   2   In   order   to   produce  and  maintain  the  zones  of  prosperity.    Neoliberalism  as  Exception.  November  2009/February  2010”.  “Analysis  of  the  exhibition   ‘Gender  Check  –  Femininity  and  Masculinity  in  the  Art  of  Eastern  Europe’  Museum  of  Modern  Art.   but   is   not.  asylum  seekers  and  so-­‐ called  illegal  immigrants  through  brutal  deportations  to  their  countries  of  origin   or  countries  that  are  (potential)  candidates  for  EU  membership.     Balibar   wrote   extensively   on   the   issue   of   European   citizenship   and   its   (im)possibility.

      He   argues:   “European   citizenship   within   the   limits   of   the   currently   existing   union.                                                                                                                                                                                                Marjanović  |  The  Racist  Regime   European   integration   process   and   as   an   exclusive   citizenship.  meaning  that  all  those  having  a   citizenship   of   one   of   the   member   countries   automatically   have   EU   citizenship   (entailing   the   right   to   vote   in   the   EU   elections.e.  but  as  a  postcolonial  isolation   of  “native”  and  “nonnative”  populations.   in   emerging   countries                                                                                                                    Cf.  Most  of  the  migrants  who  are  living  in  European  space  are   overexploited.  following  the   model   of   mutual   reinforcement   of   exclusions   and   communitarianisms   (including   “national”.   not   open   to   all   living  in  Europe.   living   in   a   constantly   precarious   situation   and   vulnerable   regarding  social  and  political  rights.   and   “republican”   communitarianisms)   promoted   by   globalization”.  is  the  main  blockage  to  democracy  in  the  new  Europe.  European   citizenship  is  grounded  in  national  citizenships.   ultrainput.  etc).   advancing   concurrently   with   the   formal   institutions   of   European  citizenship  and.  This  situation  leads  him  to  see  “the  current  development  of  true   European   apartheid.   address   the   Court   of   Justice   of   the   European  Union.  This  exposes  the  European  community   to  the  reactive  development  of  all  sorts  of  identitarian  obsessions.   “secular”.3       The   other   concept   that   I   want   to   consider   here   is   the   concept   of   Exception   to   Neoliberalism   that   Aihwa   Ong   proposed   (along   with   the   concept   of   Neoliberalism   as  Exception).  170.  constituting  an  essential  element  of   the  blockage  of  European  unification  as  a  democratic  constitution”.  p.  in  the  long  term.  Princeton  University  Press.  Bringing  together  two  concepts  otherwise  discussed  separately  –   the   concept   of   neoliberalism   and   the   concept   of   exception   –   she   researches   contemporary  mutations  in  citizenship  and  sovereignty  in  Asian  countries  whose   governments   have   selectively   adopted   neoliberal   forms   in   creating   economic   zones   and   imposing   market   criteria   on   citizenship   i.  2004.  Étienne  Balibar.  We.  is  not  conceived  of  as  a  recognition  of  the  rights  and  contributions  of  all   the  communities  present  upon  the  European   80   3   .  and  are  excluded  from  that  citizenship.  the  People  of  Europe?  Reflections  on  Transnational  Citizenship   (Translation/Transnation).

4       What  she  finds  distinctive  about  Asian  postdevelopmentalism  and  what  is  for  us   significant  is  “a  checkered  geography  of  governing  resulting  not  from  an  anemic   state   apparatus   but   from   a   deliberative   neoliberal   calculation   as   to   which   populations  are  advantageous  or  not  advantageous  in  appealing  global  markets.  whose  concept  of  bare  life  and  bios  Ong  criticizes  because  of   its   binary   logic.  efficiency.  2006.       In  that  context  Ong  argues  that  “Neoliberalism  as  exception  is  introduced  in  sites   of  transformation  where  market-­‐driven  calculations  are  being  introduced  in  the   management  of  populations  and  the  administration  of  special  spaces  (…)    At  the   same  time.  to   exclude  populations  and  places  from  neoliberal  calculations  and  choices”  .  Ong  discusses  neoliberalism  not  as  an  economic  doctrine  but  as  a   governmentality   or   technology   of   governing   that   is   a   profoundly   active   way   of   rationalizing  governing  and  self-­‐governing  in  order  to  “optimize”  it.       On  one  hand.  Mutations  in  Citizenship  and  Sovereignty.  As  she  puts   it:   “In   contemporary   times.   ultrainput.   The   development   of   such   postdevelopmental   logic   in   effect   produces   a   postdevelopmental   geography   –   the     multiplication   of   differentiated   zones   of                                                                                                                   4                            Cf.  in  political  decisions.  3–5.  in  contrast  to   Giorgio  Agamben.  Aihwa  Ong.                                                                                                                                                                                                Marjanović  |  The  Racist  Regime   where   neoliberalism   itself   is   not   the   general   characteristic   of   technologies   of   governing.  pp.   as   an   extraordinary   departure   in   policy   that   can   be   deployed   to   include   as   well   as   to   exclude.  Neoliberalism  as  Exception.  exceptions  to  neoliberalism  are  also  invoked.   neoliberal   rationality   informs   action   by   many   regimes   and   furnishes   the   concepts   that   inform   the   government   of   free   individuals  who  are  then  induced  to  self-­‐manage  according  to  market  principles   of  discipline.   she   conceptualizes   the   exception   more   81   .    On  the  other  hand.  Duke   University  Press.  and  competitiveness”.

                                                                                                                                                                                               Marjanović  |  The  Racist  Regime   governing   across   the   national   territory   –   that   has   specific   political   effect.”5     Furthermore,  she  points  out:  “...the  neoliberal  stress  on  economic  borderlessness   has   induced   the   creation   of   multiple   political   spaces   and   techniques   for   differentiated   governing   within   the   national   terrain.   Especially   in   emerging,   postcolonial   contexts,   varied   techniques   of   government   rely   on   controlling   and   regulating   populations   in   relationship   to   differentiated   spaces   of   governance,   with  a  graduated  effect  on  sovereignty,  and  on  citizenship.”6  Thus,  she  recognizes   diverse   modes   of   government   –   disciplinary,   regulatory   or   pastoral   –   that   administer  populations  in  terms  of  their  relevance  to  global  capital.  Precisely  this   is  what  she  calls  graduated  or  variegated  sovereignty.  7       How   this   differentiated   administration   of   populations   operates   in   the   case   of   the   EU  integration  project,  we  can  see  in  the  post-­‐Yugoslavian  space,  particularly  in   the  case  of  Serbia.       The  Kenedi  Trilogy      I  am  here  using  as  an  example,  a  film  trilogy  titled  “Kenedi  Trilogy”  by  Želimir   Žilnik,   a   film   director   from   Novi   Sad.   The   trilogy   is   named   after   the   main   character   Kenedi,   a     Roma   person   who   is   coercively   deported   from   a   EU   country   (in   this   case   Germany)   back   to   Serbia.   In   2002   Žilnik   was   confronted   with   the   absurd  situation  that  in  the  city  of  Novi  Sad,  many  of  his  neighbors  were,  all  of  a   sudden,  fluently  German  speaking  persons.  This  was  a  result  of  the  “Readmission   Agreement”   that   the   Serbian   government   signed   with   Germany   as   part   of   the   process   of   EU   integration   and   that   allowed   Germany   numerous   instantaneous   brutal  deportations  of  refugees,  asylum  seekers  and  so  called  illegal  immigrants                                                                                                                  
5     6     7  

Ibid,    pp.  77  –  78.   Ibid.    Ibid.  


                                                                                                                                                                                               Marjanović  |  The  Racist  Regime   originating  from  Serbia    back  to  Serbia.  Having  himself    experienced  migration  in   Germany   and   being   sensitive   to   marginalized   social   groups,   Žilnik   became   interested  in  this  paradoxical  social  and  political  situation  in  which,  on  the  one   hand,   the   EU   lays   claims   to   democracy   and   human   rights   while,   on   the   other   hand,  treats  some  of  the  people  living  on  “its”  territory  as  non-­‐humans.    

The  outcome  of  Žilnik’s  interest  was  the  “Kenedi  Trilogy”  which  consists  of  the   following   semi-­‐documentary/semi-­‐feature   films:   “Kenedi   Goes   Back   Home”   (2003),  “Kenedi  Lost  and  Found”  (2005)  and  “Kenedi  is  Getting  Married”  (2007).       In   the   first   part   Kenedi   is   introduced.   He   is   a   real   character   and   presents   himself   with  his  real  name  –  Kenedi.  He  is  a  young  Roma  from  Kosovo  whose  family  has   been  living  in  Germany  for  48  years.  Unexpectedly,  in  the  middle  of  the  night  in   the   2000s,   German   special   police   brutally   arrested   him,   beating   him   up   and   handcuffing   him   as   if   he   was   a   criminal.   Shortly   after   this,   he   was   deported   to   Serbia.   Having   nobody   and   nothing   in   Serbia   (his   family   originated   from   Kosovo,   where   during   the   war   they   lost   all   belongings   and   property)   and   separated   from   his   family,   Kenedi   starts   his   struggle   for   survival   in   the   extremely   anti-­‐Roma   surroundings   of   Serbia,   where,   due   to   racial   discriminations   and   society   divisions,   Roma   are   forced   to   live   in   slums,   humiliated,   expelled,   violently   attacked   and   even   killed.8   Thus,   Kenedi   is   compelled   to   work   in   clandestine   employment   doing   the   worst   and   hardest   jobs.   Having   no   place   to   sleep,   he   lives   in  his  car.  He  drives  two-­‐three  times  a  week  to  the  airport  expecting  his  family   members   to   be   deported   as   well.   In   the   airport,   he   meets   other   expelled   Roma   families  or  individuals  whom  he  offers  a  ride  as  if  he  was  a  taxi  driver.       These   families   or   individuals,   who   were   war   refuges   or   asylum   seekers   in   Germany,  though,  as  migrants  they  lived  in  constant  fear  of  being  thrown  out  of                                                                                                                  
8    About  anti-­‐Romaism  in  Serbia  and  Europe  see  my  text:  “Contention  of  Antiromaism  as  a  Part  of   the  Process  of  Decoloniality  of  Europe,”  in  Reartikulacija,  no.    7,  Ljubljana  2009,,  retrieved  on  March  31,  2010.  


                                                                                                                                                                                               Marjanović  |  The  Racist  Regime   the   country,   they   nevertheless   share   their   experiences   about   the   good   life   in   Germany   on   one   side   and   the   brutality   of   the   coercive   deportations   from   Germany   that   always   happened   in   the   middle   of   the   night   without   any   prior   announcement   on   the   other.   They   were   virtually   forced   to   pack   and   leave   in   thirty   minutes.   At   the   airport,   they   were   robbed   by   the   German   police   (all   the   money   that   they   possessed   was   taken   away   from   them!).   Arriving   in   Belgrade   airport   most   of   them   are   immediately   transformed   into   homeless,   having   no   money   and   no   place   to   stay   and   being   offered   no   state   assistance.   Hence,   they   end   up   in   some   of   the   numerous   slums   in   Serbia.9   Their   children   are   not   accepted  in  Serbian  schools  as  their  parents  mostly  didn’t  manage  to  bring  with   them   all   the   necessary   documents   and   prepare   for   their   new   “life”   or   simply   because  they  don’t  understand  a  word  of  Serbian  as  they  were  born  and  grew  up   in  Germany.  Having  the  legal  stigma  of  being  expelled  from  the  EU  they  have  no   chance   of   going   back   legally   to   the   country   where   they   had   lived   for   decade(s).10   But,   in   spite   of   this   desperate   and   humiliating   situation,   the   film   illustrates   the   conflictual   side   of   migration,   and   what   happens   when   subjects   refuse   to   accept   the  control  and  confinement  imposed  upon  them.       The  second  and  third  parts  of  the  film  trilogy  reveal  Kenedi’s  persistence  in  his   struggle  to  migrate  back  to  the  EU,  a  struggle  that  subverts  the  politics  of  identity   inherent  to  neo-­‐liberalism.  “Travel  becomes  the  law,  becoming  becomes  the  code   (…)   Becoming   imperceptible   is   the   most   precise   and   effective   tool   migrants   employ   to   oppose   the   individualizing,   quantifying,   and   representational   pressures   of   the   settled,   constituted   geopolitical   power.”11   Thus,   Kenedi   is                                                                                                                    More  about  Belgrade  slums  see  above  footnote  and  Lorenc  Agerman,  Eduard  Frojdman,  Djan   Gildji,  Beograd  Gazela  –  Vodič  kroz  sirotinjsko  naselje  [Belgrade  Gazela:  Travel  Guide  to  a  Slum],  RENDE,   Belgrade,  2009;  Lorenz  Aggermann,  Eduard  Freudmann,  Can  Gülcü,  Beograd  Gazela    –    Reiseführer  in  eine   Elendssiedlung,  Drava  Verlag,  Klagenfurt,  2008.  
10    Similar  reports  appear  in  scientific  research:  Rutvica  Andrijasević,  Manuela  Bojadžijev,  “Notes  on   migration  management  and  citizenship  in  the  area  of  ex-­‐Yugoslavia”,  Ibid;  About  conditions  upon  arrival   see:  Ivan  Zlatić,  “Ponovo  zajedno!”[Together  again!],  Z  Magazin  Balkan,  no.    3,  Belgrade,  2007;  


11                            Dimitris  Papadopoulos,  Vassilis  Tsianos,  “The  Autonomy  of  Migration:  The  Animals  of   Undocumented  Mobility”,  in:  Anna  Hickey-­‐Moody,  Peta  Malins,  eds.,  Deleuzian  Encounters.  Studies  in   Contemporary  Social  Issues,  Palgrave  Macmillan,  Basingstoke,  2007;­‐strands01en,  retrieved  on  March  31,  2010.  


com   85   .  namely  the   Western   European   biopolitical   bureaucracy   and   the   local.”13     What   interests   us   here   is   how   the   ideological   mechanism   that   produces   the   fiction  of  race/ethnicity  (in  our  example  “Gipsies”)  functions  in  the  context  of  EU   integration.   13    Cf.   But   Žilnik’s   film   also   shows   that   the   Roma   protagonists  keep  their  dignity.   absorbs   and   reshapes   the   sovereign   dynamics   targeting   its   control.   illiterate.   becoming   gay…   “Migration   adapts   differently   to   each   particular   context.  Hito  Steyerl  remarked  that  this  film  “shows  the  co-­‐ production  of  the  figure  of  the  “Gypsy”  by  two  complementary  forces.                                                                                                                                                                                                Marjanović  |  The  Racist  Regime   constantly  in  a  state  of  becoming:  becoming  a  construction  worker.  “An  Interview  with  Žilnik  by  Marina  Gržinić.mi2.  even  against  all  odds.   retrieved  on  March  31.  becoming  a   sex   worker.   Migration   is   arbitrary   in   its  Because.  Berlin.   ultrainput.   In   order   to   fully   understand   it   I   would   make   a   detour   into   recent   developments  in  the  relationship  between  the  EU  and  Serbia.”12     In  an  interview  with  Žilnik.   menwomen.htm.  no.  strategies  of  resistance.  3.   changes   its   faces.  http://artefact.”  in  ART-­ e-­FACT.  2004.   poor   and   completely   depraved.  Ljubljana/Vienna  and  Hito  Steyerl.   links   unexpected   social   actors   together.   in   this   case   Serbian.   This   film   also   depicts   a   process   that   documents   how   common   workers   and   schoolchildren   are   being   transformed  into  “Gypsies”  by  forcefully  uprooting  them  from  their  environment   and   making   them   homeless.  and  constitutive  of  new  transnational  spaces  which   exceed  and  neutralize  sovereign  politics  (…)  Migration  is  the  sister  of  transience.  de-­‐individualised.  you  must  be  everyone  in  order  to  be  everywhere.   elites   —   both   depict   and   give   food   to   our   imagination   about   the   Roma   as   homeless.   produces   mixed   forms.                                                                                                                           12                          Ibid.  2010.   new   species   (…)   Dis-­‐identification=being   everyone.

                                                                                                                                                                                               Marjanović  |  The  Racist  Regime   Producing  Race/Ethnicity  in  the  EU     In   December   2009.01.   14   ultrainput.   16    In  media  Bosnia  and  Albania  were  addressed  as  the  countries  that  didn’t  make  their  homework   and  thus  could  not  enter  the  “White  Schengen  List”.net/info/vesti/index.   it   represents   one   step   further   for   Serbia   in   the   EU   integration   process.  Governing  Europe:  Discourse.   Governmentality  and  European  Integration.   as   well   as   an   analysis   of   the   integration   regime   excluding   from   the   “White   Schengen   List”   all   those   Western   Balkans   countries                                                                                                                    Cf.­‐Ukidanje-­‐viza-­‐-­‐poklon-­‐za-­‐Bozic.  This  is.  as  in  former­‐ Montenegriner-­‐und-­‐Mazedonier-­‐duerfen-­‐visafrei-­‐in-­‐EU-­‐einreisen.  a  Christmas  present  for  Serbia!14     Serbian   membership   on   the   “White   Schengen   List”   is   the   outcome   of   a   set   of   reforms   and   regulations   called   the   “Road   map   to   Visa   liberalization”.  2010.  At  the  same  time.   breaking   news   appeared:   The   EU   is   going   to   award   Serbia   (along   with   two   more   former   Yugoslavian   republics   –   Macedonia   and   Montenegro)  with    membership  of  the  “White  Schengen  List”  two  weeks  earlier   than  was  planned.   The   agreement   was   supposed   to   start   from   86   .php?yyyy=2009&mm=11&dd=30&nav_category=11&nav_id=39540.  On  the  construction  of  new  forms  of  insecurity  in  EU   in  relation  to  its  outer  borders  see:    William  Walters  &  Jens  Henrik  Haahr.   http://www.  EU  officials  decided  to  give  a  Christmas  present  to  Serbia  stating  that   the  agreement  is  going  to  start  from  19.b92..   as   was   said   in   the  media.vesti-­‐online.  pp  91–  114.  http://www.  retrieved  on  March  31.   set   up   with   the   aim   of   achieving   a   visa   free   regime   for   Serbian   citizens   traveling   to   the   Schengen   Area.   15    Schengen  is  a  name  for  an  agreement  that  provides  for  the  removal  of  border  controls  between   the  EU  countries  while  constructing  a  Fortress  Europe.  said  EU  officials.  http://derstandard.15   This   means   that   Serbian   citizens   are   now   free   to   travel   to   Schengen   countries   without   being   exposed   to   the   complicated   procedure   (that   is   not  affordable  for  everybody)  of  issuing  visa.2009  so  that  Serbian  citizens  can  visit   their   families   in   the   Diaspora   to   spend   the   Christmas   holidays   together   (as   if   those   religious   Serbs   were   celebrating   Christmas   according   to   the   Gregorian   calendar?!).2010   but   abruptly.   retrieved  on  March  31.  London:  Routledge.   It   would   be   challenging   to   make   an   additional   analysis   of   this   infantilization  of  Serbia  (and  other  countries  from  the  region16)  which  is  given  a   Christmas   present   by   the   EU.  2010.

 11.       In   order   for   some   to   be   granted   the   right   of   “freedom”   of   movement   in   Europe   (they  can  stay  only  a  limited  amount  of  days  in  the  EU!)  a  price  had  to  be  paid.18  It  was   repeatedly   said   in  the  media   for   the   last   few   years   that  the  key   conditions   for   the   “White   Schengen   List.   asylum   seekers   and   so   called   illegal   immigrants  living  in  the  EU  holding  a  Yugoslav  passport21  but  also  readmission   of   all   those   coming   from   a   third   country   who   entered   EU   territory   illegally   via   Serbia.  which  are                                                                                                                   17                    In  the  moment  when  this  text  was  written  Albania  and  Bosnia  and  Herzegovina  were  not  members   of  the  the  “White  Schengen  List.   87   .”   homeless.  Stanford  University    Press.”  However.  The  one   with  EU  was  signed  in  2008.   21    Though  Yugoslavia  doesn’t  exist  anymore.  their  later  acceptance  on  8.     19   ultrainput.  Giorgio  Agamben.  2009.   Stanford.  HOMO  SACER.  1998.  for  membership  of  the  “White  Schengen  List”  other  processes   were  imposed  by  the  EU.  is  going  on.  but  were   effectively  activated  after  the  war  in  Kosovo  and  after  the  change  of  the  regime  in  Serbia  in  2000.opstina-­‐negotin.   19  These  agreements  imply  deporting  to   Serbia   not   only   150   00020   refugees.   17Such   an   analysis   would   reveal   the   deeply   and   fundamentally   conservative   Christian   and   nationalist   character   of   the   EU   that   must   be   seen   in   relation   to   colonial   appropriation   by   Christian   western   European   countries.yu/article.”   “Strategy   for   the   Suppression   of   Illegal   Migration”   and   “Migration   Management   Strategy”   in   accordance   with   EU   standards  and  requirements.  Moreover.   into   bare  life.  The  whole  procedure  was  the  demand  of  the  EU  and  its  security   apparatus  –  therefore  biometric  passports.   Unfortunately.  retrieved  on   December  18.  most  of  Serbs  still  hold  the  passports  with  the  old  name   of  the  state.php?lg=sr&id_article=980.   meaning   that   others   had   to   be   transformed   into   “Gypsies.e.  there  is  not  enough  space  in  this  paper  for  that.  2010  doesn't  bring  into  question   the  analysis  I  made  here.   20    Source:  http://www.  New  racist  laws  and  strategies  were  implemented  such   as   (besides   many   others):   “Border   Strategy.  Sovereign  Power  and  Bare  Life.    Some  of  these  agreements  were  signed  as  early  as  in  1996  in  the  time  of  Milošević  rule.                                                                                                                                                                                                Marjanović  |  The  Racist  Regime   where  Islam  is  the  predominant  religion  thus  establishing  new  hierarchies  in  the   region.  At  the  moment  the  procedure  of  changing  them  for  the  new  biometric  (!)  passports  where   “Republic  Serbia”  is   18    Cf.  One  of  the  outcomes  of  these  new  laws.”   were   numerous   bilateral   readmission   agreements  between  the  EU  countries  and  Serbia  and  one  common  readmission   agreement  between  the  EU  and  Serbia.

 a  process  that  other  countries  of  Eastern  Europe  that  are   now   members   of   the   EU   already   passed   through   (for   instance   the   former   Yugoslav  republic  Slovenia).b92.   Therefore.     22   ultrainput.  society  and  politics  expected  from  the  side  of  the  EU  are  being  made.   23    Serbia  doesn’t  have  yet  the  official  status  of  the  EU  candidate  country.   Serbia   (and   the   Western   Balkans)   is   being   transformed   into   the   outer   security   zone   of   the   EU   (the   inner   is   the   border   of   the   Schengen   Area).  2010.  after  2000  we  have  been  mostly  coping  European   Union  laws.”  http://www.  Minister  of  Economy  and  Regional  Development  and  as  a  Deputy  Prime  Minister   stated  that  “Serbia  has  never  been  writing  its  own  laws.   is   actually   working   hand   in   hand   with   the   brutality   and   violence   imposed   by   its   potential   candidate23   for   admission   –   the   country   of   Serbia.                                                                                                                                                                                                Marjanović  |  The  Racist  Regime   mainly   just   copy-­‐pasted   from   the   EU   (like   all   other   new   laws   in   Serbia   after   200022)  will  be  that  the  so  called  illegal  immigrants  who  are  caught  by  police  in   Serbia   on   their   trajectory   to   the   EU   and   who   then   decide   to   seek   asylum   must   stay   in   Serbia   and   cannot   legally   migrate   to   the   EU.”   Serbia  (and  the  non-­‐Islamic  part  of  the  Western  Balkans)  had  to  be  transformed   into   a   disastrous   filtering   zone   imposing   an   enormous   security   and   legally   repressive  apparatus.   which   is   ready   to   do   everything   that   the   EU   88   .   retrieved  on  March  31.       The   brutality   and   violence   imposed   by   the   EU   and   Germany   as   the   member   country   that   we   see   in   Žilnik’s   film.   in   order  to  become  a  member.php?yyyy=2007&mm=04&nav_id=240657.  One  of  the  main  reasons  is   that  Serbia  didn’t  deliver  major  war  criminals  to  the  United  Nations  International  Tribunal  for  the  former   Yugoslavia  in  The  Hague.  BUT  Serbia  behaves  as  if  it  is  a  candidate  meaning  that  all  structural  changes  in   economy.   meaning   that   Serbia   will   become   not   just   a   transit   zone   on   their   way   to   the   EU   but   a   non-­‐chosen   destination.   in   order   to   be   a   privileged   member   of   the   “White   Schengen   List.   In   the   last   few   years   new   camps   (called   “centers”)   for   illegal   immigrants   and   asylum   seekers   have   been   opened   and   are   operating   in   Serbia.       The   negotiations   for   the   “Stabilization   and   Association   Agreement”   that   started   between   the   Serbian   government   and   the   EU   as   early   as   in   2005   but   were   prepared   for   intensively   after   2000   (when   the   Milošević   regime   was                                                                                                                    Mlađan  Dinkić.

  standards   and   values   that   Serbia   (and   other   countries   in   the   region)   has   to   meet.   an   artist   and   theorist   from   Macedonia  recently  analyzed  the  condition  in  which  the  countries  of  the  Western   Balkans   are   the   subjects   of   the   panoptical   perspective   of   the   European   Union   (Serbia  is  part  of  the  constructed  zone  named  “Western  Balkans”)  whose  aim  is   to   turn   these   countries   into   a   replica   of   the   EU.  The  title  of  the   lecture  was:  “Returning  the  Gaze:  Gender  and  Power  in  Kosovo.   when   Serbia     proves   that   it   is   “mature”   and   when   the   EU   has   earned   enough     profit   from   the   difference   in   life   standard   and   salaries   in   this   region.   this   region  is  put  under  the  tutorship  of  the  European  Union  in  order  to  create  real   political  values  in  the  region  for  the  future.  all  rules  and  conditions  are  set  in  advance  with  treaties   such   as   The   Treaty   of   Rome.”     ultrainput.  Those                                                                                                                    An  excellent  analysis  of  much  more  extreme  relation  of  this  kind  (between  Kosovo  and  the   international  administration)  was  given  by  Vjollca  Krasniqi  at  the  symposium  “Reading  Gender.  in  MUMOK.   Practicing   the   political   values   that   are   valid   for   the   European   Union   is   a   process   of   insemination.   The   EU   is   enforcing   a   set   of   requirements.   is   permanently   supervising   the   Western   89   24   .24     Referring   to   Foucault.  13  November  2009.   The   Maastricht   Treaty   etc.  Vienna.  As  an  illustration.   through   the   distribution   of   knowledge   markers   that   enable   the   functioning   of   expert   teams.   From  the  side  of  the  EU.  the  entire  program   created  for  this  region  is  a  therapy  prescribed  by  an  instance  of  experts.   One   day   (nobody   knows   when).  Art.   Tihomir   Topuzovksi.   it   is   monitoring   the   processes  that  should  be  a  kind  of  training  and  preparation  for  participation  in   the   European   Union   (from   the   execution   of   reforms   to   a   whole   range   of   regulations   which   aim   at   reshaping   the   region).  economical  and  cultural)  with  economics  and  new   market  exploitation  opportunities  as  the  main  factor  of  interest  of  the  EU  in  the   region   and   as   the   main   engine   of   integration.   Now.   implement   and   demonstrate.   “The   European   Union.  social.   Serbia  can  probably  become  a  part  of    Fortress  Europe.   Serbia   and   other   countries   that   are   in   the   process   of   joining   the   EU   are   not   in   a   position   to   negotiate   anything!   They   are   turned   into   pure   objects   of   neocolonial   EU   intervention  (political.  Power   and  Politics  of  Representation  in  Eastern  Europe”.                                                                                                                                                                                                Marjanović  |  The  Racist  Regime   overthrown)   are   actually   not   at   all   negotiations   in   the   real   sense   of   the   word.

 retrieved  on  March   31.                                                                                                                     25                          Cf.  we  see  that  the  EU’s   directives  are  not  always  in  the  imperative  form  of  speech  but  they  are  actually   suggestions   that   are   given   to   Serbia   by   the   EU.   26  Cf.  Furthermore.   But.   Kažiprst  Radio  Show.”25     Apparently.  “Kašnjenje  Srbije”  [Delay  of  Serbia].   Serbia   takes   these   prescriptions   deadly   seriously.b92.  making  no  demands  or  conditions  that  could  be  understood  as  shifting  the   costs  of  supporting  these  people  onto  the  EU.  2009.  this  relation  is  not  reciprocal.   actually.   Serbia   shows   a   willingness   to   momentarily   accept   them.   sometime   ago   one   local   politician   and   university   professor   stated   that.  Reartikulacija.  Tihomir  Topuzovski.  who  defines  it  as  homeostatic:  i.  Topuzovksi  describes  the   punishment  mechanism  of  the  EU  Panopticon:  “The  Panopticon  model  has  been   used  particularly  by  Foucault.   Apparently.   a   relation   of   difference   and   imbalance   that   includes  the  imperative  form  of  speech.       ultrainput.  if  you  don’t  act   in   compliance   with   the   apparatus   that   is   imposed   on   you.   since   the   states   of   the   Western   Balkans   are  in  an  unequal  position  in  relation  to  the  EU.  Talk  between  Ivo  Visković  (head  of  the  Department  of   International  Relations  at  the  Faculty  of  Political  Sciences)  in  Belgrade  and  Klara  Kranjc  (journalist).   wanting   to   prove   that   it   is   a   good   pupil.   doing   extra  homework.   while   causing   no   pain   to   itself.                                                                                                                                                                                                Marjanović  |  The  Racist  Regime   implants   must   be   necessarily   accepted.  Radio  B92.   http://www.  2010.   then   you   provoke   pain   on  yourself.php?yyyy=2006&mm=10&   90   .  6.e.   Serbia.  Ljubljana.   was   advancing   in   its   preparation  for  participation  in  the  European  Union  and  was  awarded  with  the   membership   on   the   “White   Schengen   List”   for   its   progress.  no.  but  that  the  EU   expected  a  cooperative  attitude  from  Serbia  so  that  when  the  EU  deports  the  so   called   illegal   immigrants.  It   is   a   relation   with   no   exchange.26  Therefore.  16th  October   the   above   mentioned   readmission   agreement   is   not   a   condition   for   the   “White   Schengen   List”!  He  said  that  these  two  issues  were      negotiated  in  parallel.  "From  the  imagining  of  the  Balkans  to  the  Invention  of  the  Western   Balkans".

 Aihwa  Ong.   This   particularity  informs  us  of  the  character  of  that  integration  and  its  logic.   self-­‐governing   in   order   to   “optimize”  in  regard  to  neoliberal  calculations.  14.  In  our  example  of  neoliberal  self-­‐governance  we   don’t   have   a   good   citizen   but   a   whole   region.   the   agency   or   the   self-­‐ governance   that   is   argued   by   scholars   to   be   one   of   the   key   instruments   in   neoliberal   govenmentality.  Neoliberalism  as  Exception.  p.   authoritarianism.   besides   other   things.   a   zone   that   is   as   good   “subject”   governing   itself   in   an   optimal   way   regarding   neoliberal   calculations   and   allocation  of  capital  in  this  region.   91   27   .   artistic   and   activist                                                                                                                    Cf.                                                                                                                                                                                                Marjanović  |  The  Racist  Regime     Neoliberal  Calculus     What   is   here   at   play   is   the   technology   of   the   self.  This  means  that  we.  are  governed  in  such  a  way  that  we  comply  with  the  expectations   of   those   that   are   governing   us:   we   are   expected   to   act   in   an   optimal   way   in   relation  to  neoliberal  capitalism.  as  allegedly   free  subjects.       Ong   discusses   the   concepts   of   Neoliberalism   as   Exception   and   Exceptions   to   Neoliberalism   in   the   frame   of   postcolonialism.   As   Aihwa   Ong   pointed   out.  deported  to  Serbia  and  transformed  into  bare  life  –  leads   us  to  conclude  that  we  can  find  in  these  processes  a  specificity  of  the  European   Union   governance   mechanism   generated   within   European   integration.   what   we   see   in   Žilnik’s   film   –   Roma   being   expelled  from  the  EU.  what  we  can  argue  on  the  basis  of  the  above  argumentation   related   to   the   mentioned   film   (and   many   other   scientific.  Mutations  in  Citizenship  and  Sovereignty.         But   while   the   whole   zone   of   the   Western   Balkan   is   transformed   into   a   self-­‐ governing   neoliberal   “subjectivity”.   and   postsocialism.  Duke   University  Press.27  But.  2006.   neoliberal   governmentality   means.

     Cf.31   “today.    Cf.  is  that  exceptions  to  neoliberalism  are  also   functional   in   neoliberalism’s   core   space   that   is   the   space   of   the   First   world   or   Western   Europe   (and   of   course.  Mutations  in  Citizenship  and  Sovereignty.   31  Cf.  Duke   University  Press.  In  our  paradigmatic  example.  “Ex-­‐Yugoslav  Avant-­‐garde  Film  Production  and  its  Early  Works  seen  through   Biopolitics  and  Necropolitics”.   we   can   conclude   that   it   is   the   exceptions   to   neoliberalism   that   is   the   key   logic  in  power  in  the  European  integration  process.  Marina  Gržinić.  p.   the   USA).   Exceptions   to   neoliberalism   are   employed   in   managing   and   governing   migrant   populations   in   the   European   Union   today   depending   on   their   relevance   to   global   capital.   we   don’t   have   the   form   of   governance   that   is   normally   in   force   in   EU   –   where                                                                                                                   28    For  example  Tanja  Ostojić's  video  Naked  Life  (2004–08).”   92   .   30   29   32          Ibid.   all   those   expelled   people   we   talk   about   here.     ultrainput.   to   be   brought  into  existence  and  maintained  in  present  day  Europe.  Étienne  Balibar.  We.  it  is  precisely  the   exceptions   to   neoliberalism   that   are   the   condition   which   allow   something   like   European   Apartheid.  Aihwa  Ong.  77.   Some   of   these   populations  are  “not  likely  to  be  productively  used  or  exploited”29  meaning  that   some   of   these   populations   “are   not   advantageous   in   appealing   global   markets.  in  For  an  Idea  –  Against  the  Status  Quo.  the  People  of  Europe?  Reflections  on  Transnational  Citizenship   (Translation/Transnation)  Princeton  University  Press.  Playground  produkcija.   it  is  precisely  the  exceptions  to  neoliberalism  that  have  as  the  outcome  the  fact   that   “The   EU   is   transformed   into   one   giant   concentration   camp”   as   Marina   Gržinić  stated  in  an  analysis  of  another  film  by  Žilnik.                                                                                                                                                                                                Marjanović  |  The  Racist  Regime   works  dealing  with  the  same  issue28).  2006.  Novi  Sad.  Hence.  28.  p.  Analysis  and  Systematization  of  Želimir   Žilnik’s  Artistic  Practice.32       Thus.   Therefore.  They  are  governed  through  violence  in  contrast  to   other  populations  that  are  allowed  to  be  self-­‐governed.  Or  in  other  words.   the   neoliberal   capitalist   ideology   (…)   ‘cleans   the   terrain’   against   those   who   are   perceived   by   the   same   ideology   as   a   non-­‐productive   part   of   the   First   world   matrix.   are   excluded   from   neoliberal   calculations   and   choices   in   a   certain   space.  2004.”30   As   Marina   Gržinić   pointed   out.  Neoliberalism  as  Exception.  2009.   a   different   mode   of   governing   is   employed   to   administer  these  populations.   created   along   with   European   citizenship   after   1989.

 That  is  exactly  the  background  upon  which  Agamben  can   state  that  the  camp  is  a  biopolitical  paradigm  of  modernity.  HOMO   Free-­‐lance   cultural   worker   in   the   field   of   contemporary   arts   and   theory.   ultrainput.   subjects   that   are   brutally   expelled.   decision-­‐making.   Vienna.   PhD   candidate   at   Academy   of   Fine   Arts.   On   the   contrary.   Born   in   1979.  Stanford  University    Press.   entrepreneurial.   Published   articles   in   books.   we   have   subjects   that   are  not  considered  to  be  (useful)  subjects  or  subjects  of  no  use.     Co-­‐founded   Kontekst   Gallery   in   Belgrade   (www.  subjects  against   whom   exceptional   measures   such   as   violence   and   coercion   are   employed   in   order   to   govern.  Mute.   33      Cf.  Giorgio  Agamben.   risks-­‐ taking.   Serbia.  Stanford.   owners   of   their   own   bodies   etc.  eipcp.  etc.   international  magazines  and  online  artistic  and  theoretical  platforms  such  as  Reartikulacija.   Belgrade.   through   interactions   of   exceptions   of   These   zones   are   intertwined   throughout   the   new   Europe  and  the  globe.  Sovereign  Power  and  Bare  Life.   subjects   that   the   EU   wants   to   get   rid   of   as   soon   as   possible.  Lives  and  works  in  Vienna.   93   .33         ***   Ivana   Marjanović.   BA   in   Art   History.                                                                                                                       1998.                                                                                                                                                                                                Marjanović  |  The  Racist  Regime   subjects   are   expected   to   be   responsible.   Kulturisse.   exhibition   catalogues.   European   Apartheid   produces   what   Ong   terms   as   zones   of   differentiated   governance   –   zones   of   neoliberal   self-­‐governance   and   zones   of   governance   through   violence.   Therefore.

 which  we  can  see  everywhere  around  us   these   days.   A   major   trend   nowadays   by   artists   is   to   repeat   their   own   performances   from   the   past.   Different   than   previous   historical   forms   of     When  I  was  asked  to  talk  about  time  and  space  as  artistic  media  in  the  1960s  and   1970s.   The   latter   is   best   illustrated   with   the   reusing   of   the   word   “former”   from   former   Eastern   Europe   (that   describes   a   precise   geopolitical   condition)  for  an  empty  performative  but  fully  ideological  move  of  de-­‐re-­‐framing   of  what  is  functioning  today  powerfully  as  Western  Europe.  The  latter  wants  us   to  think  that  is  “reborn”  presently  as  former  Western  Europe.   remains  the  logic  of  repetition.   which   is   the   unrestrainment  of  capital  (in  Spanish  des(z)boc(ka)amiento).  But  more  about  this   in  the  final  part  of  the  text.   from   art   works   to   discourses.     Nevertheless.   The   performances   from   that   period   were   those   where   time   and   space   (mostly   in   relation   to   or   with   the   help   of   video   recordings)   were   used   as   a   material   for   construction   of   Western   subjectivity.   7.  www.reartikulacija.  which  can  be  more   colloquially   grasped   as   the   “unrestraining”   or   “unleashing”   of   capital.   as   global   capitalism   is   nothing   else   but   the   repetition   of   one   single   event.  As  already  developed  in  my  previous  texts  for  Reartikulacija.   at   the   center   of   all   these   cases.  2010)  Reartikulacija  #10.   that   global   capitalism   is   an   event   and   not   a   process.  being  as  well  the  logic  of  the  functioning  of  global   capitalism.13.  Artistic-­‐Political-­‐Discoursive  Platform.  Santiago   López   Petit   claims   in   his   book   Global   Mobilization:   Brief   Treatise   for   Attacking   Reality   (2009).12.   But   I   am   interested   in   thinking   about   performance  through  its  reenactment.     Ljubljana.   or   to   reenact   some   other   performances   from   the   past   as   a   core   of   their   art   works.   global   capitalism   requires   two   ultrainput.   this   meant   to   talk   about   performance   art   from   that   94   .  Marina  Gržinić Decoloniality  of  Time  and  Space     Originally  published  in  Reartikulacija  (Reartikulacija.   or   to   engage   in   a   performative   repetition   of   paradigmatic   terms.

 Cold  War  –  functioning  with  the  dividing  of  the  world   into   two.   and   not  unifying.   it   was   unthinkable   that   this   clown.   an   entanglement   of   time   and   space.  it  is  a  situation   that   does   not   allow   for   any   kind   of   division.”   as   what   they   see   (as   the   French   would   say)   is   “multiplicité.  This   is   why.   French   colonialism.   that   of   an   entanglement.   “Oh.  the  system   of   hierarchy   is   being   constantly   reestablished.  and  accept  the   “benefits”  of  colonialism.   but   it   was   not   so   horrible.   These   two   repetitions   are   the   founding   repetition   and   the   de-­‐foundational   repetition.   a   term   also   used   by   Achille   Mbembe   when   writing   about   the   postcolony   –   on   Africa   –   in   2001.   But  from  time  to  time.  This  is  why  instead  of  the  global  world.   stating   that   power   and   capital   are   acquiring   a   new   dimension.   talks   about   a   center  and  periphery.   when   hundreds   of   ultrainput.   you   talk   about   colonialism.  In  the  end.   could   come   to   Africa  today  and  claim  that  Africans  have  to  stop  living  in  the  past.   you   Africans.  On  the  contrary.   as   we   are   the   model   of   servitude   to   global   capitalism).  the  police  come.   They   both   create   a   rather   paradoxical   time   and   space.   But   today   is   about   two   repetitions.   multi-­‐réalité…”   This   was   precisely   the   narration   of   Sarkozy   that   stated   in   his   infamous   Dakar   speech.   the   de-­‐ foundational   repetition   presents   itself   as   the   erosion   of   hierarchies.  with  the  founding  repetition.     In   the   1960s   and   1970s.   producing   dispersion.   when   somebody   from   let’s   say   Ukraine   or   Moldavia   (I   cannot   say   Slovenia.  it  is  a  situation  of  co-­‐propriety  of  power  and  capital.  political  and  economical.   Entanglement   means   95   .  amidst  this  multiplicity  and  multi-­‐reality.  as  often  stated.   This   entanglement   is   not   a   plural   space   of   the   social.   So   what  is  this  all  about?  On  the  one  side.   or   in   France.   in   the   meantime.  we  would  talk  about   the  cold  world  –  whoops.   leading   to   a   constant   reconstruction   of   a   center   and   of   a   periphery.   repetitions   working   at   once.  without  any  “openness”   towards   the   multiplicity   of   the   students’   multi-­‐reality.   the   product   of   the   horrendous   West   European.   as  they  did  in  Greece  when  the  students  protested.   we   only   had   the   repetition   of   the   center   and  the  periphery.   that   entangle   the   world.   unlike   today.  and.   and   on   the   other   side.   imprisoned   hundreds   of   them   at   the   university   campus.   repeated   at   any   moment   and   in   any   place.  the  well-­‐educated  Westerners  laugh  about  what  they  term   “the   old   division.   and   today   you   have   all   these   opportunities…”   As   argued   by   Mbembe.  multiplicity  and  multi-­‐reality.   when   visiting   Senegal   in   2007.

  that   of   Fordism   and   that   of   post-­‐Fordism.   and   look   –   we   could   see   the   foundational   repetition   working   quite   mercilessly.”   but   the   point   is   that   precisely   out   of   the   EU’s   multiplicity   of   hegemonic   directions.   hiding   the   internal   logic   of   global   capitalism   that   has   a   tendency   to   reestablish   slavery   as   the   mode   of   labour   in   order   to   make   more   profit   (graspable   in   the   recent   months.   yes.   In   case   of   France   the   EU   “protested.  Austrian   performer   of   the   new   generation.   the   one   that   repeats   the   center   and   periphery.   in   fact.”  periphery  of  EU.).     The   first   performance   I   want   to   analyze   is   from   2009.   which   are   also   two   periods   in   capitalism   that   mark   the   radical   change   in   the   way   in   which   the   processes   of   exploitation   are   conducted   and   the   possibilities   of   resistance   conceived.   already   at   work   a   repetition.   when   in   global   capitalism   the   two   repetitions   repeat   at   once.   has   a   title   “Movement.   This   is   a   provocative   statement   as   the   Western   performance   art   from   the   1970s   was   always   seen   as   something   “non-­‐mediated”   and   therefore   an   “original.     To   understand   the   difference   of   the   logic   of   the   repetition   in   contemporary   art   and   culture   in   the   1970s.   is.  The  1970s  are  important  as  they  are  seen  as  a  line  of  division  between  two   forms   of   labor.   precisely   the   foundational   one.   that   support   and   reinforce   the   EU   institutional  racism.   to   Romania.   that   is.   as   something   original.   Roma   families   were   sent   back   to   the   periphery   of   the   European   Union.   hundreds   of   the   EU   laws   that   from   Brussels   “democratically”   advise   the   EU   member   states.   and   today.   which   is   presented   as   an   antithesis   to   contemporary   reenactments.     At   this   point.   and   even   more   being   backed   up   by.   and   the   self-­‐ sufficiency   of   the   Western   Institution   of   Art.  etc.   I   will   make   a   detour   to   contemporary   performative   arts.”   being   on   the   other   side   of   today’s   reenactments.   as  it  is  termed  “non-­‐  existent.   with   the   EU   imposing   the   lifelong   working   period   until   death.   It   starts   with   the   reenactment   of   a   video   performance   by   the   American   artist   Bruce   Nauman   from   1967–1968   entitled   ultrainput.   and   with   the   EU   policy   “proposing”   pensions   below  the  guaranteed  minimum  for  life.Privatized”  and  was  conceived  and  realized  by  Ana  Hoffner.   Post-­‐Fordist   mobility   and   precarity   presently   redefine   migration   processes.  was  France  able  to  deport  hundreds  of  Roma  families  to  the.   so   to   speak.   our   main   thesis   is   that   in   the   performance   art   from   the   96   .

 there  was   no   evidence   of   the   world   surrounding   Nauman   in   his   performance   from   the   1970s.”   Hoffner’s   performance  begins  with  her  crying  and.  and  it  is  maintained  through  its  continuous  proclamation  of  itself  as   the  centre  that  absorbs  all   97   .  as  work.  from  that  moment  on.  while  repeating  it.   elegant.   as   pointed   out   by   Hoffner’s   interpretation.   Bosnian   Girl”   by   Ana   Hoffner.  as  she  states.   the   analysis   she   points   out   while   reenacting   Nauman’s   work   is   her   work.   Like   many   artists  from  that  period.   I   would   say.   Hoffner’s   crying   repeats   the   performance   by   Bas   Jan  Ader.  2009).  she   records   her   live   performance.  a  nonexistent  entity.   like   a   master   in   his   house.  and  filmed  his  tears   in   1971.  I  will  expose  some  of  the  points  brought  up  by  Hoffner.     The   second   reference   comes   from   another   reenactment   by   Ana   Hoffner.”  (Presented  in   Reartikulacija.  a  citizen  in  his  country.   explains   it.  differently  from  Nauman.   performed   in   2010.”   You   can   find.  just  like  mine”  –  Hoffner  states  in   her   performance   –   “in   order   to   be   accessible   to   the   audience.   and   perhaps   even   existential.   entitling   his   work   “I’m   Too   Sad   to   Tell   You.  9.   the   original   online   on   YouTube.  Nauman  shows  art  as  a  process.   but   it   also   marks   the   mode   of   functioning   of   capitalism.  was  recorded  by  a  camera.   His   walk   is   exaggerated   –   it   is   excessive.  too.   The   “Other”  in  this  situation  is  a  total  periphery.”     Nauman   is.   you   will   have  to  invite  her  and  pay  her!     ultrainput.   as   with   Nauman.   “Walking  in  an  exaggerated  manner  in  the  perimeters  of  a  square.   If   you   want   to   get   the   whole   performance   “I’m   Too   Sad   to   Tell   You.   in   the   privacy   of   his   studio.   entitled   “I’m   Too   Sad   to   Tell   You.   exploring   the   relationship   between   the   body  and  the  space.  It  functions.  as  an  activity.   Bruce   Nauman’s   walk   within   the   perimeters   of   the   square   can   be   art   as   well.  a  Dutch  video  artist.  repeating  the   center   of   Western   capitalism   as   being   completely   self-­‐sufficient   to   itself.   completely  self-­‐sufficient  just  as  is  the  art  system  that  supported  him.   is   not   just   a   representation   of   the   so-­‐called   reality.  I  quote:  “Nauman’s   movement.   Art   is   something   that   is   going   on.   Hoffner   stated   that   the   square   has   to   be   specifically   emphasized   as   a   symbol  of  abstraction  and  erasure  in  modernity.  I  would  argue.  Hoffner.   Bosnian   Girl.   This   work.   therefore.   The   artist   walks   in   his   studio.  No.  She  explains  that  the  square  not   only   forms   a   part   of   an   art   work.   however.  who  cried  for  the  camera.  a  desert.

 However.  on  the  contrary.   as   this   articulation   opens   the   question   of   the   place   of   art   in   politics.   as  stated  by  Alenka  Zupančič.  3.  No.  etc.   “Bas   Jan   Ader   puts   the   observation   of   himself   into   the   contents  of  an  artistic  work.   there   should   be   no   further   explanation.”   the   Other.   eliminating  competition.   Instead.  it  is  not  a  secret  that  no  one  was  /is  interested  in  the  reasons.  he  hammers  at  the   intensity   of   emotions.  they  all  serve  the   re/production   of   the   Western   subject.     For  us.  this  is  enough.   The   remainder   can   thus   also   be   read   as   the   work   that   seems  to  be  wasted  and  that  nobody  knows  what  to  do  with  except  for.  2008).  explains  this  accurately.   The   remainder   does   not   count.   at   their   justification   as   emotions.   there   are   no   words   that   can   describe   his   sadness.”     If  Jan  Bas  Ader  was  crying  because  of  the  bloody  colonial  past  of  the  Netherlands.  the  social  link.   ‘I’m   Too   Sad   to   Tell   You’   –   the   title   suggests  that  the  reason  for  Bas  Jan  Ader’s  tears  is  secondary.  no   matter  why.  killing  others  –   this  we  cannot  know.  building   strategic  alliances.   does   not   need   any   historical   explanation.  enslaving.   Hoffner   explains:   “Bas   Jan   Ader   is   so   sad   he   can’t   even   say   why.   for   Bas   Jan   Ader.  when  there  is  an  attempt  to  regulate  it  through  the   science  of  ethics.  He  talks   about   the   Dutch   East   Indies   Company   practices   of   conquering   markets.   which   is   what   is   put   at   its   center.   of  its  history  of  colonizing  other  territories.   the   rest   of   the   Dutch   social   bond.   the   former   colonized.  the  sorrow  of  the  Western  artist.   ultrainput.  “the  thing.  in  his  essay  entitled   “Live   and   Let   Die:   Colonial   Sovereignties   and   the   Death   Worlds   of   Necrocapitalism”  (Reartikulacija.     But  let’s  be  clear.   Their   form   becomes   the   content   of   an   artistic   work.     What   I   want   to   say   is   that.   As   commented   by   Hoffner.  the  way  in  which  the  remainder.  mutilating.  Subhabrata  Bobby  Banerjee.   in   the   1970s.   is   just   an   insignificant   product.”  “the  object.  securing  cheap  sources  of  raw  material  supply.   independent   of   the   context  of  their  emergence.  in  the  1970s.   since  the  whole  structure.   and   therefore.  the  time  and  space.  maybe.   the   Other.  the  Other.  the  remainder.   like   the   migrant   today.”  In  his  work.   the   98   .   will   be   articulated   is   of   vital   importance.   the   emotions   themselves   hold   the   validity.   since  the  crying  is  sufficient.   This   is   why   the   title   of   Hoffner’s   performance  has  the  addendum  “Bosnian  girl”  –  it  says:  I’m  too  sad  to  tell  you.

 contrary  to  common  thinking  that  we  have  to  do  with  an  original  art   work.  as  its  non-­‐existent  periphery.  but  it  is  now  hidden   beneath  its  form.   the   institution  of  art  and  the  society  makes  a  surplus  enjoyment.  but  his  knowledge.  as  includes  in  its  reenactment  the  traumatic  remainder   of  contemporary  Europe.   the   reenactment   repeats   again   the   foundational  repetition  of  the  center  and  of  the  periphery.   in   the   2000s.  and  the  war  in  BiH.     Therefore.   On  the  other  side  of  psychoanalysis.   If  we  return  to  Bas  Jan  Ader.  In   Bas  Jan  Ader’s  case.  in  the  book  XVII.  we  have  the  knowledge  that  “does  not  know  itself”  to  such   an   extent   that   it   can   actually   be   prescribed   in   the   manual   for   contemporary   reenactments.”   presented   now  in  the  form  of  a  game  or  joke  to  which  is  given  a  life  of  its  own.  comes  out  with  a  rather  surprising  claim  (as   emphasized   by   Zupančič)   “that   what   is   being   stolen   from   the   slave   (and   appropriated  by  the  master)  is  not  the  slave’s  work.  What  we  get  today  is  not  just  an  upside  (turned)  down  (the   supposedly  “original”  performance  content  being  reenacted  as  an  empty  stylish   form).  in  his  seminar  from  1969-­‐70.   the   foundational   repetition   that   left   the   content   so   to   speak   “untouched.”     That   is   why   the   content   of   the   1970s’   western   performances   is   seen   as   an   “original.   as   we   have   no   clue   why   he   was   crying.   but   what   we   get   is   the   contemporary   performative   reenacted   Western   ideology   (of   autonomy   of   art)   made   again   so   to   say   “   99   .   already   a   singular   repetition   is   at   stake.  what  a  waste  of  tears  for  “the  loss”  that  is  only  for   himself.  This  form  is  today  only  an  aesthetical  style.  to  such  an  extent   that  is  more  and  more  prescribed  in  manuals  for  contemporary  reenactments  of   past  performances.  –  the  Srebrenica  genocide  in  1995.  the  two  major  points  are:  in  the  performances  by  Western  artists  of   the  1970s.  This  is  why  Lacan.   reproducing   as   well   the   “simple”   logic   of   the   Cold   War   division   between   the   West.  a  profit  for  itself.   and   everything  else.”   as   what   is   repeated   is   the   Western   art’s   ideology   of   its   “autonomy”.”   while   what   is   in   fact   being   repeated   under   this   “originality”   is   the   western   art   autonomy   (not   being   capable   to   think   of   anything   else   than   of   its   empty   institutional   autonomy   as   its   key   ideology).   as   the   center.   though   from   this   waste.  and  I  will  say  of   the  new  Europe  as  well.   ultrainput.   Bosnian   Girl!   That   gives   us   a   precise   point   of   the   possible   radical   political   rearticulation  of  time  and  space  of  contemporary  Dutch  society.

  Maria   Hlavajova   and   Kathrin  Rhombergn  (http://www.   as   the   key   logic   of   the   global   capitalism   of   today.   as   it   was   proclaimed   by   Germany   in   2009..   This   is   of   course   abundantly   financially   supported  by  new  European  cultural  financial  institutions.   What   the   project   does?   It   claims   today   a   perverse   demand   of   equal   redistribution   of   “responsibility”  and  “positions”  between  the  East  and  West  of  Europe.     In  the  case  of  Eastern  Europe.  the  word  former  in  front  of  West   presents   a   speculative   matrix   that   gives   the   West   the   possibility   to   not   be   conscious  of  its  own  historical  and  present  hegemonic  power  –  and  therefore  not   responsible  for  it.     This  speculative  character  of  the  former  Western  Europe  resembles  with  perfect   accuracy  the  speculative  character  of  financial  capitalism  at  the  present.     How   does   this   reenactment   work   in   the   context   of   the   so-­‐called   relation   in   between   East   and   West   of   Europe?   Former   Eastern   Europe   and   present   Western   Europe   are   no   longer   in   opposition   today.  That  is.   but   in   relation   of   repetition.  speculative  gesture.  although  it  could  be  seen  as  such.  etc.   But   in   the   case   of   the   “former”   (as   it   should   be   at   least   written)   Western   Europe   it   implies   a   purely   performative.formerwest.  but  is  a  perfect   logic   of   repetition.   empty.   abstraction.   celebrating   its   20th   anniversary   of   the   fall   of   the   Berlin   Wall   with   the   slogan:   “Come.  as  it  comes   in  a  time  when  we  talk  about  financialization.   for   the   period   2009–2012.  the  West  is  just  performing  it.   it   wants   us   to   think   that   its   roots   of   power  and  capital  are  fictional!  But  this  is  not  a  strange  move  today.   come   in   the   country   without   borders”   (and   I   will   say   without   memory   as   well).  knowledge.  memory.   curated   by   Charles   Esche.  the  former  means  that  the  processes  of  evacuation.   It   plays   with   a   speculative   format   of   An   excellent  case  of  such  a  repetition  is  the  project   Former  West  that  was  started  in   The  Netherlands  as  an  International  Research.  as  well   ultrainput.   expropriation   imposed   by   the   West   are   actually   “over”.  it   is   answering   as   well   specifically   to   the   demand   urgently   imposed   by   Germany   after   the   fall   of   the   Berlin   wall   claiming   that   East   Germany   and   West   Germany   are   to   become   “equally”   outdated.  While  the  East  is  excluded  more  and  more  from  the   materiality  of  its  history.     Former  West  is  not  at  all  a   100   .  Publishing  and  Exhibition  Project.

  the   old   colonial   power.   of   histories   and   strategies   into   imaginary   levels.   as   what   we   see   in   the   European   Union   “fictive”   decolonization   is   decolonization   without   contesting   its   structural   racism.  as  it’s  all  just   a   pure   process   of   performativity   anyway.   more   accurately   they   are   reinforced.   what   is   forgotten   is   that   this   was   produced  by  the  First  Capitalist  World).  but.  France.   as   we   are   all   in   the   same   “merde.   what   was   important   at   the   level   of   content   (the   materiality   of   a   certain   history)   is   now   made   simply   obsolete.”   As   Mbembe   explains   “fictive”   decolonization   is   decolonization   without   101   .   Similarly  to  financialization  this  new  decolonization  is  a  “fictive  decolonization.   as  the  former  West  does  not  imply  not  even  quotation  marks.   etc.  Netherlands.  Former  West  is  presented  as  an  unquestionable  fact.   it   transforms   the   materiality   of   past   knowledge.”   or   simply   put   crisis   shit   (however.     Former  Eastern  Europe  is  not  an  adjective.   as   its   crisis.   emptying.  Britain.   What   was   once   political   is   transformed   through  the  perfomative  repetition  into  pure  a  ideological  knowledge.   ridiculous.   making  profit  at  any  cost  and  privatization.   extracting.   the   consequences   are   disastrous. ultrainput.   The   structures  of  exploitation.  without  self-­‐decolonizing  itself.  to  talk  about  “former”  Western  Europe   in   the   same   way   as   we   talked   about   the   former   Eastern   Europe   in   the   last   20   years.   eschewing   are   going   on.   All   these   projects   imply   that   it   is   possible   today.  but  with  a   proviso  saying  that  therefore  we  should  not  be  preoccupied  with  it.  as  stated  by  Achille  Mbembe.   symposia   and   statements  in  which  the  imperial  colonizing  forces.   Be   sure   that   in   the   future   we   can   expect   projects.   the   now   reborn   former   West.  inequality  and  racism  stay  in  such  a  way  untouched  in   the   EU.   wants   to   convince   us   that   it   is   capable   for   a   process   of   decolonization.  not  even  as  a  thesis.  but  a  placeholder  in  the  time  that  is   accelerated   to   such   a   degree   that   the   politics   of   memory   presents   itself   as   a   memory   of   what   was   once   political.   the   processes   of   voiding.   or.   Or.   The   former   Western  Europe  makes  imaginary  what  has  already  been  identified  as  material  in   the   former   Eastern   Europe..   With   the   performative   repetition.   To   put   it   differently.  will  try  to  prove  how  they  were  also  colonized  in  the  past.  and  that  what  is   happening   to   them   in   the   present   is   the   result   of   some   strange   forces   having   nothing   to   do   with   the   internal   logic   of   capitalism   itself   that   has   two   drives   only.   102   .  ultrainput.  2011.  Ultra.  All   rights  dependent  on  the  copyright  policy  of  the  original  source  of  the  text  and  the  ultrainput.   “The  European  Union  between  Free  Market  and  Fascism”  -­‐  A  copyright   policy.

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