This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ......3 LESSON ONE ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ..... . ...... ...... ...... ......3 LESSON TWO ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ..... . ...... ...... ...... ......5 LESSON THREE...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... .. .... ...... ...... ......8 LESSON FOUR ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ..... . ...... ...... ...... ......12 LESSON FIVE ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ..... . ...... ...... ...... ......16 LESSON SIX ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ..... . ...... ...... ...... ......21 LESSON SEVEN ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ..... . ...... ...... ......26 LESSON EIGHT...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... .. .... ...... ...... ......30 LESSON NINE ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ..... . ...... ...... ...... ......35 LESSON TEN ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ..... . ...... ...... ...... ......40 LESSON ELEVEN ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ..... . ...... ...... ......44 LESSON TWELVE ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ..... . ...... ...... ......49 LESSON THIRTEEN...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ......55 LESSON FOURTEEN..... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ......60 PART II ORIGIN ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...65 Part III SENTENCE ............ ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...118 Part IV QUIZ ... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... .... 237 QUIZ ONE ...... ...... ...... ...... .... .. ...... ...... ...... ...... ......237 QUIZ TWO ...... ...... ...... ...... .... .. ...... ...... ...... ...... ......238 QUIZ THREE ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ..... . ...... ...... ...... ......240 QUIZ FOUR ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ..... . ...... ...... ...... ......241 QUIZ FIVE ...... ...... ...... ...... .... .. ...... ...... ...... ...... ......243 QUIZ SIX ...... ...... ...... ...... .... .. ...... ...... ...... ...... ......244 QUIZ SEVEN ...... ...... ...... ...... .... .. ...... ...... ...... ......246 QUIZ EIGHT ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ..... . ...... ...... ...... ......248 QUIZ NIN E ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... . .....250 QUIZ TEN ...... ...... ...... ...... .... .. ...... ...... ...... ...... ......252 QUIZ ELEVEN ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ......254 QUIZ TWELVE ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ..... . ...... ...... ......256 QUIZ THIRTEEN ..... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ......258
QUIZ FOURTEEN ...... ...... ......259
..... ...... ...... ...... ...... ......
PART I ROOT LESSON ONE BELL rebel rebellious rebellion belligerent belligerence bellicose antebellum PACT/PEASE compact compactly compactness compactor impact impacted impaction pac ify pacifist pact appease HOSP/HOST hostage hospice hostel inhospitable AM/IM amateur amatory amiable amity amorist amorous enemy enmity amicable enamor ed inimical paramour CRIM crime criminal criminate recriminate criminology decriminalize incriminate recrimination PROB/PROV prove proof probable probably probability probate probation probationa ry probationer probative probe probing approbate approbatory approve approvable approval disapproval disproof improve improvement reprobation reprove reproof re prieve approbation disprove probity reprobate GRAV grave gravitation gravimeter aggravate aggravation grief grieve aggrieve gr avid gravitas gravitate gravity LEV lever leverage levy levitate levitation alleviation elevation elevator relev ance relieve relief alleviate elevate leavening levity ACT action actionable activate activation activator active activity actual actua lity actualize actually actuate enact enactment exact exacting exaction exactitu de exactly inaction inactive interact react reactor reaction transact transactio n agency agent agile agility agitate agitation agitator agony cogent cogitate ex igent prodigal AGOGUE demagogue pedagogue synagogue AL/OL/ UL aliment alimental alimentary alimentation alimony adolescence adolesce nt prolific prolificacy proliferate adult adulthood adultness ALT altar altimeter altitude exalt exaltation ALTER/ALI alter alteration altercate altercation alternate alternation alternati ve alternator altruism altruistic alien alienable alienate alienation alias alib i adulterate adultery ANG anger angry anguish anxiety anxious ANGL/ANGUL angle angular equiangular rectangle triangle triangular LESSON TWO AG agitate litigate prodigal synagogue VEN/VENT adventitious adventure adventurous venture venturous misadventure circu mvent circumvention contravene contravention convene convention conventional con ventioneer convenient convenience event eventful eventual eventuate invent inven tion inventor prevent prevention preventive intervene intervenient supervene ave nue revenue souvenir advent provenance venturesome venue CAP/CEP/CIP capable capacious capacity caption captivate captivating captive cap tivity captor capture accept acceptable acceptance acceptation accepted conceive conceivable concept conception deceive deceivable deceit deception deceptive ex cept exception exceptionable exceptional inception inceptive intercept intercept ion interceptor perceive percept perception perceptive precept preceptor receive receiver receivable receipt receptacle receptive recipient susceptibility susce ptive anticipate anticipation participate participation participle emancipate em ancipation reception incipient perceptible susceptible FIN fine final finale finalize finance financial finish finitude infinite infini tive infinitude confine confinement define definite definition indefinite refine refined refinement affinity definitive infinitesimal finite JAC/JEC abject abjection deject eject ejection inject injection interject interj ection object objection objective objectivity project projectile projector rejec t rejection subject subjection subjective ejaculate ejaculation subjacent adjace nt conjecture dejected trajectory TRACT trace track tract tractable traction tractor trail trailer train trait tre at treatment treatise treatment abstract abstraction attract attraction contract
contractile contraction contractor contractual detraction distract distraction extract extraction extract extraction extractor protract protraction protractor retrace retract retractile subtract subtraction entreaty maltreat portray portra it retreat subtrahend detract protracted retraction intractable DUC abduct adduct conduce conduct conductor deduce deducible deduct deductive du ctile ductility educate education educe inducement induct induction inductive in troduce introduction oviduct produce producer product production productive redu ce reduced reduction seduce seducer semiconductor subdue traduce viaduct conduci ve deduction induce seduction SEC/SEQU sequel sequence sequent sequential consequence consequent subsequence subsequent consecution consecutive executive executor persecute persecution prosecute prosecution prosecutor sue ensue pursue pursuance pursuit suit suitable suite consequential execute obsequious sequential AMBI/AMPHI ambidextrous ambient ambiguous ambition ambivalent amphibian amphitheater ambiguous ambient ambivalent amphitheater EP/EPI epic epidemic epigram epigraph epilogue episode epitome epoch ephemeral e piphyte epitaph epithet HYPO/HYP hypocrisy hypostasis hypothecate hypothermia hypothesis hypochondriac h ypocrisy hypothermia hypothetical THERM/THERMO thermal thermocouple thermonuclear thermocline AQU aquamarine aquatic aqueduct aquifer ARM arms armada armament armed armistice armory army alarm disarm disarmament AUG auction auctioneer audacity augment augmentative august author authority aut horitative authorize authentic authenticity AVI avian aviary aviate aviation aviator aviatrix aviculture auspice auspicious inauspicious augur augury inaugurate inauguration BAND/BOND band bandage bond bondage contraband bound boundary BAR barrage barrel barricade barrier barring barrister debar embargo embarrass e mbarrassment embarrassing BAT baton battalion batter battered battery battle battlement abate combat comba tive debate BAT/BAS acrobat acrobatic acrobatics aerobatic aerobatics BREV breviary brevity brief briefly abbreviate abbreviation abridge abridgement CALC calcify calcium calculate calculable calculation calculator calculus chalk CAMP campaign campfire campsite campus encamp encampment CAND candle candid candidate candidacy incandescent incandescence LESSON THREE POLY polycentric polychrome polygamy polygon polyhedron polymorphous polysyllabl e polytheism polychromatic polyglot polymer polyphony PRIM prime primer primeval primitive primitivism primogenitor primrose primus pr imacy primary primarily primate prince principal principle premier primal primog eniture primordial primiparous HOM/HOMO homocentric homodont homograph homophile homosexual homonym homogeneous homologous homophone DIS disable disadvantage disagree disannul disapprove disband disbelieve discard discern disconsolate discontinue discord discourage discourse discreet discrepa ncy discrete discriminate disease disembark disfavor disfigure disfranchise disg orge disguise disgust dishearten disincline disintegrate dismember dismiss dispe rsion displace display dispose disregard disrupt dissolve distract distribute di spatch dessert digest dilapidate dilute dimension diminish diverge differ diffic ult diffident diffuse spend stain diffraction dissension disseminate dissipate VOR voracity carnivore devour devouringly herbivore insectivore insectivorous om nivore carnivorous herbivorous omnivorous voracious CARN carnage carnal carnation carnival carnivore carnivorous incarnate incarnati on carrion discarnate carnage carnal carnival incarnation CRED credential credible credit creditor credo credulous accredit discredit disc reditable credence creditable credulity creed FID fidelity faith faithful confide confidant confidence confident confidential
diffidence infidel infidelity defy defiance defiant perfidious affidavit diffide nt fiduciary perfidy CURR/CURS current currently currency concur concurrence curriculum cursive excursion excursive incur incursion incursive occur occurrence recur recurrence recurrent succor course concourse discourse intercourse recourse concurrent curs ory discursive precursor PED pedal pedestal pedicure pedometer biped centipede quadruped tripod expeditio n expeditionary expeditious expedience impede expedient expedite impediment pede strian FLEC/FLEX flexible flexibility flexion circumflex inflexible inflexibility defle ction inflect reflect reflection reflective reflex reflexive deflect flexor genu flect inflection POST postdate postdoctoral posterity postern postgraduate postlude postmeridian postnatal postnuptial postpone postscript posterior posthumous postmodern postm ortem CAR career cargo carry carriage carrier cart carter charge discharge chariot CAST broadcast forecast outcast overcast telecast CAV cave cavern cavernous cavity concave excavate excavator CELER celerity accelerate acceleration accelerator decelerate CERN/CRET concern concerning concernment discern discernable discernment discree t discrete discretion excrete excrement secret secretary secrete secretion CERT ascertain certain certainty certify certifiable certificate certification c ertitude concert disconcert CITE citable citation excite excitable excitant excitement incite incitement rec ite recital recitation resuscitate resuscitator solicit solicitation solicitor s olicitous solicitude CLIN acclivity decline declension declination declivity declivous incline inclin ation disincline disinclination proclivity recline climax COCT concoct concoction decoct decoction precocious precocity COGNIS agnostic cognition cognitive cognizable cognizance cognizant diagnose dia gnosis ignore ignorance ignorant incognito prognosis prognosticate recognize rec ognizable recognizance recognition COMMUN commune communal communalize communicate communication communion communis m communist community COUNT countdown counter account accountable discount recount COVER coverage covert discover discovery recover uncover CRUC crucial crucify cruciform crucifix crusade cruise crux excruciate CULT cultivable cultivate cultivated cultivation culture cultural acculturate ag riculture agricultural apiculture aquiculture aviculture floriculture sericultur e colony colonial colonist colonize CUSS concuss concussion discuss discussion percussion repercussion quash DEB/DU debt debtor indebted due duty dutiful DEI deify deific deification deiform deism deist deity DENT dental dentate dentist dentition denture edentate edentulous indent DERM dermatology dermatologist epidermis hypoderm pachyderm DIGN dignity dignify dignitary indignity indignant dainty disdain disdainful DIVID/DIVIS divide dividend division divisive divisor individual individualism i ndividuality indivisible subdivide DON donate donation donor anecdote antidote condone pardon dose dosage dower dow ry endow DORM dormancy dormant dormitory dormouse DOX dogma dogmatic dogmatism doxology orthodox paradox paradoxical DRAW drawback drawer indrawn outdraw overdraw redraw withdraw DROM aerodrome hippodrome syndrome DUR durable durance duration endure endurance indurate nondurable obdurate perdu rable ECO ecology economy economic economical economics economist economize EGO egocentric egoism egoist egomania egotism egotist .
ELECTR electric electrical electrician electricity electrify electrocute electro chemistry electrode electrolysis electron electronics EM/EMPT example exemplar exemplify exempt preempt prompt promptitude promptly re deem redeemer redemption ransom EQU equable equal equalitarian equality equanimity equate equation equator equin ox equinoctial equipoise equiponderate equity equitable equivalent equivocal ade quate adequacy ESS/EST essence essential interest interesting disinterested uninterested quinte ssence FA/FABL/FABUL fable fabulous affable affability confabulate ineffable nefarious prefatory LESSON FOUR MAL maladjustment maladministration maladroit malady malaise malcontent maledict ion malefactor maleficent malfeasance malformation malfunction malice malignant malinger malnutrition maltreat malevolent malicious malign malnourished CATA catalogue catapult cataract catastrophe category cataclysm catacomb catalys t catatonic PROT/PROTO protoplast protozoan protagonist protocol protoplasm prototype ANTE antebellum antecedent antediluvian antemeridian anticipate ancient ancestor antechamber antedate anterior ante meridiem ORTH/ORTHO orthodoxy orthogonal orthographic orthopedic orthopedist orthopsychia try orthodontics orthodox orthopedics orthography RECT rectal rectangle rectifiable rectifier rectum correct correction correctitu de corrective corrector direct direction directive director directory erect erec tile erection erectness erector escort incorrect indirect rectitude rectify rect ilinear rector EU eugenics eulogy eupepsia euphony euthanasia evangel eugenic euphemism euphor ia evangelism DYS dysfunctional dyslexia dyspeptic dystrophy ROG rogation abrogation arrogance arrogant arrogation derogate interrogate interrogation interrogative interrogator interrogatory abrogate arrogate derogat ory prerogative QUIS query quest question questionable questionnaire acquire acquirement acquisi tion conquer conqueror conquest disquisition exquisite inquire inquiry inquest i nquisitive require requirement requisite prerequisite request sequester inquisit ion perquisite acquisitive requisition PLE ply pliable pliers apply appliance applicable applicant application imply im plicate implication implicit reply replica replicate replication complicate comp licated complicity complex complexion complexity explicate explicable explicatio n explicit exploit perplex perplexed perplexity supplicate supplicant deploy dep loyment display employ employee employer employment simple simpleton simplicity simplify duple duplex duplicate duplicator duplicity diploma diplomatic diplomac y diplomatist triple triplicate quadruple quadruplicate multiple multiplex multi ply multiplicity multiplicative plait pleat plight complement deplete implement replete METR meter metrology metronome aerometer anemometer barometer centimeter chronom eter chronometry diameter dynamometer geometry hydrometer hygrometer perimeter s eismometer symmetry thermometer trigonometry voltmeter metric odometer symmetric al tachometer FAC/FRONT faÃ§e facet facial facelift deface efface ineffaceable interface preface s uperficial surface front frontier affront confront effrontery FALL/FALS fallacy fallacious fallible infallible false falsehood falsify falsifi cation falsity fault faulty default FAM fame famous infamy infamous defame defamation defamatory fate fatal infant i nfancy infanticide infantine FARE farewell thoroughfare warfare welfare FEND/FEST fend fence defend defendant defense defensive offend offense offensive .
infest infestation manifest manifestation manifesto FERV fervid fervidity fervent fervency fervor effervescent perfervid FESS confess confession profess profession professional professor FEST festal festive festival festivity festoon FICT/FIG fictile fiction fictional fictitious fictive feign feint figment FIRM firmament affirm affirmative confirm confirmation confirmed disaffirm infir m infirmary infirmity FIX fixate fixation fixity fixture affix infix prefix suffix transfix transfixio n FLAM/FLAGR flame flammable flamboyant inflame inflammable inflammation inflammat ory flagrant conflagration effulgent FLAT flatulent flatulence conflate conflation deflate deflation inflate inflatio n FLICT afflict affliction afflictive conflict inflict infliction FLOR flora floral florist florescent floret floriferous efflorescence flourish FOLI foliage foliate folio defoliate exfoliate portfolio trifoliate FORT forte fortify fortification fortifier fortress fortitude force forcible com fort comfortable discomfort effort enforce enforcement reinforce reinforcement p erforce GAM bigamy bigamist bigamous monogamy monogamist monogamous polygamist polygamou s GER/GEST gestate gestation gesticulate gesture congest congestion digest digesti on exaggerate exaggeration indigestion ingest suggest suggestion GRAM/GRAPH grammar grammarian cryptogram diagram epigram monogram parallelogram program programmer telegram gramophone graph graphic autograph biography autobio graphy cacography calligraphy dictograph geography lexicography lithography orth ography phonograph photograph stenography telegraph topography GRAND grandeur grandiloquent grandiose grandiosity aggrandize aggrandizement HAB/HIBIT habit habitual habitant habituate habitude habitat habitation cohabit inhabit inhabitation inhabitant exhibit exhibition inhibit inhibition prohibit p rohibition HAP mishap happen happening haphazard perhaps HELIO heliocentric heliogram heliograph heliotherapy heliotropism helium HER heir heiress heirloom coheir heredity hereditary heritage heritable inherit inheritance inheritor disinherit HERB herbivorous herb herbage herbal herbalist herbicide HORR horrible horrid horrify horrific horrification horror abhor abhorrent abhor rence HUM posthumous human humane humanism humanitarian humanity humanize humankind h omicide homage humble humiliate humiliation humility humus exhume inhume HYPNO hypnotic hypnotist hypnotism hypnotize hypnosis hypnotherapy IDIO idiographic idiom idiomatic idiomorphic idiopathic idiosyncrasy INSUL insular insularity insulate insulation insulator island isle islet isolate isolation peninsula IT itinerant itinerary itinerate ambit ambition ambitious circuit circuitous coi tion initiate initiation initiative initiator initial perish perishable transit transition transitive transitory transient JOIN adjoin conjoin disjoin rejoin subjoin junction juncture adjunct adjunction conjunct conjunction disjunction injunction subjunctive JOURN Journal journalism journey adjourn sojourn diary diurnal JUD judge judgment judicature judicatory judicial judiciary judicious adjudicate prejudice JUST/JURIS just justice justify adjust adjustment injustice unjust unjustifiable juridical jurisdiction jurisprudence jury jurist juror injure injurious injury LABOR laboratory labored laborer laborious belabor collaborate elaborate LAPS lapse collapse collapsible elapse relapse LESSON FIVE AUD audible audience audiometer audio-visual auditorium sobedient auditor auditory audition inaudible obedient obey di .
SON sonant sonorous sonority consonant consonance dissonance resonant resonate r esonator subsonic supersonic unison unisonant unisonous dissonant resonance soni c ultrasound ERR error erratum aberrance aberration inerrant inerratic aberrant errant errati c erroneous CED/CES abscess access accessible accession antecede antecedence cede cessation cession concede concessive exceed exceeding exceedingly excess excessive incessa nt intercede intercession intercessor precede precedence preceding precession pr oceed proceeding proceeds process procession recede recess recession recessive r etrocede retrocession secede secession succeed success successful succession suc cessive successor accede antecedent concession precedent VID/VIS visa visible vision visit visitant visitor visor vista visual visualize advise advisement adviser advisory advice devise device envisage envision envy i nvidious evident evidence improvise invisible prevision provident providential p rovidence provision provisory prudent prudence prudential purvey purveyance purv eyor revise revision supervise supervision supervisor supervisory surveillance s urvey surveyor televise television interview interviewee purview review visage v is-Ãis visionary visitation SPIC/SPEC spy espy espionage espial species special specialist specialty specime n spice specify specific specious spectacle spectacular spectator spectral spect er spectrum speculate speculator speculum scope auspice frontispiece perspicuous transpicuous despise despicable despite aspect circumspect conspectus expect ex pectant expectancy expectation inspect inspection inspector introspect perspecti ve prospect prospective respect respectable respectful respective retrospect ret rospective suspect suspicion suspicious auspicious conspicuous introspection per spicacious VOC/VOK vocal vocalist vocalize vocabulary vocation vociferate vouch advocate ad vocacy avouch avow convoke convocation equivocal equivoque evoke evocation invok e invocation provoking provocation revoke revocation irrevocable equivocate irre vocable provoke vociferous PHON phoneme phonemics phonetic phonetician phonic phonics phonogram phonograph phonology cacophonous euphony euphonious gramophone homophone interphone megaphone microphone telephone xylophone blaspheme euphemism prophecy prophesy prophet cacophony phonetic polyphonic symphony CUR accurate accuracy cure curer curious curiosity curio curate curator manicure pedicure procurable procurator procurement secure security curative curator proc ure sinecure PERI pericardium perigee perihelion period periphery periscope perimeter periodo ntal peripatetic peripheral SENT/SENS sense sensibility sensible sensitive sensitivity sensory sensual sensa te sensation sentience sentimental sentimentality sentence sententious assent co nsent consentient consensus dissent dissenter dissentient dissension extrasensor y insensate insensible insensitive nonsense presentiment resent resentful resent ment scent sensational sentient sentiment sensuous SOPH sophism sophist sophistic sophisticate sophistication sophomore philosophy philosopher philosophic sophistry sophisticated sophomoric theosophy LATER lateral latitude bilateral collateral equilateral multilateral quadrilater al unilateral LAV lave lava lavatory lavish launder laundress laundry deluge dilute LAX/LYSE lax laxative laxity relax relaxation release analyze analysis analytic paralyze paralysis palsy LECT/LEG lectern lection lecture lecturer collect collection elect election elec tor electorate intellect intellectual neglect neglectful recollect recollection select selection legend legendary legible legion diligent diligence elegant eleg ance eligible intelligent intelligence intelligible negligent negligence negligi ble sacrilege LEG legal legislate legislation legislative legislator legislature legist legiti mate litigate litigation allege allegation allegiance privilege .
LIBER liberal liberalism liberalist liberality liberalize liberalization liberat e liberation liberator liberty libertarian libertine LIBR/LIB library librarian libretto librettist libel libelous LIC license licensee licenser licentiate licentious illicit LIG legate ligament ligature oblige obligate obligation obligatory religion reli gious league colleague colligate liable liability ally alliance allied rally LINGU lingual linguist linguistic linguistics bilingual monolingual multilingual sublingual trilingual language LIQU liquate liquefy liquefaction liquid liquidity liquidize liquor LITER literal literalism literally literary literate literature alliterate illit eracy illiterate obliterate preliterate transliterate LOC local locale localism locality localize locate location allocate collocate c ollocation dislocate dislocation relocate relocation translocation locus lieu LONG longevity longitude longitudinal along belong elongate elongation length le ngthen lengthy oblong prolong prolongation LUMIN luminance luminary luminescence luminosity luminous illuminate illumine LUST/LUC luster lustrous illustrate illustration illustrious lucent lucid lucidi ty Lucifer luculent elucidate pellucid translucent MAGN/MAJ/MAX magnanimous magnanimity magnate magnify magnificent magnificence magnifier magni loquent magniloquence magnitude majesty majestic major majority maxim maximal ma ximum climax anticlimax MAN/MANU manacle manage management manager manicure manifest manipulate manipula tion manual manufacture manumit manuscript emancipate emancipation MARK marked markedly marker demarcate demarcation remark remarkable MECHAN mechanic mechanical mechanics mechanism mechanize MED medic medical medicate medication medicine remedy remediable remedial irreme diable MEDI medium medial median mediate mediation mediator mediocre mediaeval Mediterr anean immediate intermediate intermediation intermediary MELAN melancholia melancholic melancholy melanin melanoma MEMOR memorable memorial memory memorize memorandum memoir memento commemorate c ommemoration remember remembrance MENT mental mentalist mentality mention amentia comment commentary demented deme ntia vehement mind remind reminder reminiscent reminiscence MERC mercantile mercenary mercer merchandise merchant market marketing mercy mer ciful merciless commerce commercial MERG merge mergence merger emerge emergence emergency emergent emersion immerge immerse immersion submerge submergence submersion submersible MIGR migrate migrant migration migratory emigrate emigrant emigration immigrant immigration transmigrate transmigration MILIT militant militancy military militarize militarism militate militia demilit arize demilitarization remilitarize remilitarization MIN eminent eminence imminent imminence preeminent preeminence prominent promine nce MIN minify minim minimal minimize minimum minor minority minus minuscule minute minutia mince minister ministry administer administration administrative comminu te diminish diminution diminutive miniature manikin MIR admire admirer admiration admirable miracle miraculous mirage mirror marvel marvelous LESSON SIX TEND/TENT tend tendency tender tendon tense tensile tension tent attend attendan ce attendant attention attentive contend distensible distension extend extensibl e extensile extension extensive extensor extent hypertension intend intended int endance intendment intense intensify intensification intension intensity intensi ve intent intention intentional ostensible ostensive ostentation ostentatious po rtent portentous pretend pretentious pretence pretension superintend superintend ence superintendent tenuous attenuate attenuation attenuator extenuate extenuati on contentious distend portend tendentious .
PEND/PENS pendant pending pendulous pendulum append appendix appendicitis compen dious compendium depend dependant dependence dependency expenditure expense expe nsive impend impending independence independency independent interdependent inte rdependence perpendicular spend suspend suspenders suspense suspension suspensor pension pensive compensate compensation dispense dispensable indispensable disp ensary dispenser dispensation recompense poise counterpoise ponder ponderous pre ponderate preponderant appendage expend propensity stipend PAN pan-American panchromatic panorama pantheism pantheon pantomime panacea pand emonium panegyric panoply EXTRA extracurricular extrajudicial extramural extraordinary extrasensory extrem e extremity extravagant extramundane extrapolate extrovert extraneous PHOS/PHOT photochemistry photocomposition photoconduction photocopy photocopier photocurrent photoelectric photogenic photography photograph photographer photom eter photophobia photosensitive photosynthesis phototherapy phototube phosphores cent photogenic photon photosynthesis LUC elucidate lucent lucubration translucent MOR/MORT mortal mortality immortal mortification mortuary morbid morbidity mortg age postmortem immortality moribund mortician mortify NEC/NIC/NOX nocuous noxious innocent innocence obnoxious internecine necrosis noxious pernicious HER/HES adhere adherence adhesion adhesive cohere coherence coherent cohesive inhere inherence inhesion hesitate hesitation hesitant adherent cohesio n incoherent inherent FUG fugacious febrifuge refuge refugee centrifuge fugitive fugue subterfuge COSM cosmic cosmogony cosmonaut microcosm cosmetic cosmology cosmopolitan cosmos SCI science scientific scientist conscience conscious consciousness subconscious unconscious nescient nescience omniscient prescience conscientious omniscience prescient unconscionable JUNCT join adjoin conjoin disjoin rejoin subjoin junction juncture adjunction co njunct conjunction subjunctive adjunct disjunction injunction junta PART parting partake partial partiality participate participant participation pa rticipator particle particular particularity particulate partition partner partn ership apart apartment compartment counterpart depart department departure impar tation impartiality impartment parcel portion apportion proportion proportional impart impartial participle partisan MIT/MIS missile mission missionary message messenger admit admission admittance commit commitment committee commission commissioner compromise demise demission dismiss dismissal emit emission intermit intermittence intermittent intermission manumit omit omission omissible permit permission premise pretermission promise promising promissory remiss remit remitter remittent remission submit submissio n submissive surmise transmit transmission emissary manumission missive remittan ce PEL/PULS pulse pulsate pulsation compulsion compulsive compulsory dispel expella nt expulsion expulsive impellent impulse impulsion impulsive propel propellant p ropeller propulsion propulsive repel repellent repulse repulsive peal appeal app ealing appellant appellation appellative repeal compel expel impel repulsion MIX mixer mixture admix admixture intermix intermixture premix MOD mode modal model moderate moderation moderator modern modernize modest modes ty modify modification modifier modish modulate modulation commodity commodious commode accommodate accommodation outmoded MONSTR monster monstrous demonstrate demonstration remonstrate remonstrative rem onstrance remonstrant MOR moral morale moralist morality moralize moralization amoral demoralize demor alization immoral unmoral MOUNT mountain mountainous dismount paramount promontory remount surmount surmou ntable MOV/MOB/MOT move movement movable remove removable mob mobile mobilize mobilizat ion automobile demobilize motion motivate motivation motive motif motor motorize commotion demote emotion emotional locomotion locomotive promote promoter promo .
tion remote remoteness moment momentary momentous momentum mutiny mutinous MUR mural muralist extramural immure immurement intramural MYST mystery mysterious mystic mystical mysticism mystify myth NAU/NAV nausea nauseate nauseous nautical aeronaut aeronautics astronaut navy na val navigate navigation navigator navigable circumnavigate circumnavigation NECRO necrology necromancy necromancer necropolis necrosis NECT/NEX connect connection connective connector disconnect disconnected interco nnect interconnection annex annexation nexus NEUR/NEURO/NERV neural neuralgia neurasthenia neuritis neurobiology neurochemist ry neurology neurological neurosis neurotic nervous enervate innervate unnerve NEUTR neuter neutral neutralism neutralist neutrality neutralize neutron NIHIL nihilism nihilist nihilistic nihility annihilate annihilation annihilator NOCT/NOX nocturnal equinox equinoctial NORM normal normalize normalization normality normally abnormal abnormality enor mity enormous subnormal supernormal NOT note noted notable notary notarize notarization notation notice noticeable n otify notification notion notorious annotate annotation connote connotation deno te denotation NOUNCE announce announcement annunciate denounce denunciation enunciate enunciat ion pronounce pronouncement pronunciation renounce renouncement renunciation NOV novel novelette novelist novelty novice novitiate innovate innovation innova tor renovate renovation NUL/NULL null nullify nullification nullity annul annulment NUMBER numberless numerable numeral numerate numerical enumerate enumeration inn umerable NUTRI nutrient nutriment nutrition nutritious nutritive innutrition malnutrition OCUL ocular oculist binocular inoculate inoculation monocular ONYM homonym onomatopoeia acronym anonym anonymous antonym cryptonym metonymy pa tronymic pseudonym synonym OPER opera operable operant operate operatic operation operational operative ope rator cooperate cooperative cooperator OPT optimism optimist optimum opt option optional adopt adoption adoptive OPT/OPTO optic optical optician optics optometrist myopia myopic ORA oral orate oration orator oratorical oratorio oratory oracle oracular adorat ion inexorable inexorability perorate peroration ORDER/ORDIN primordial order orderly ordinal ordinance ordinary ordinarily ordin ate ordination coordinate coordination coordinator disorder extraordinary extrao rdinarily inordinate subordinate subordination ORI orient oriental orientate orientation origin original originality originate originative originator aboriginal abortion disorient disorientation reorient reo rientation ORN ornament ornamental ornamentation ornate adorn adornment OSS/OSTEO ossify ossification ossuary osteoarthritis osteopathy PAN pantry company companion companionship accompany PAR pare parade apparatus prepare preparation preparatory repair reparable repar ation reparative separate separation PAR parity compare comparable comparability comparative comparison disparate dis parity imparity pair peer peerage peerless umpire PAR appear appearance apparent apparition transparent PAR parent parental parentage oviparous viviparous LESSON SEVEN PUT compute computer computerize computation depute deputation deputy dispute di sputable disputation imputation indisputable repute reputable disreputable disre pute amputate disputatious impute putative reputed LOG catalogue dialogue prologue epilogue logic logical apology apologia apologis t apologue apologize analogy analogous anthropology biology chronology entomolog y etymology eulogize geology meteorology mineralogy mythology neology pathology philology phrenology physiology psychology theology trilogy zoology colloquial c .
olloquy eloquent eloquence loquacious loquacity obloquy soliloquy locution circu mlocution elocution interlocution prolocutor eulogy monologue neologism genealog y TERR terrace terrain terrene territory territorial exterritorial extraterritoria l inter interment disinter disinterment Mediterranean parterre subterranean terr arium terrestrial MAR marine submarine transmarine ultramarine aquamarine marina mariner maritime PATH passion passionate passive passivism compassion compassionate dispassion di spassionate patient impatient compatible compatibility incompatible pathos pathe tic antipathy antipathetic apathy neuropathy sympathize sympathy apathetic empat hy pathology sociopath PEN/PUN penalize penalty penitence penitent penitentiary repent repentance repen tant punish punishment impunity penal penance punitive MATR/METR maternal matriarchy matricide matrimony matrix matron maternity matric ulate matrilineal metropolitan MONI monition monument monumental monumentalize admonition admonitory premonitory summon admonish monitory monitor premonition CANT canticle recant chant enchant enchantment accent accentuate cantata incantation cantor descant LUD/LUS allusion collude delude delusion elude elusion elusive illusion disillus ion interlude postlude allude collusion ludicrous prelude PHAN/PHEN phantom phase fantasy fantasia fantastic fancy fancied fanciful phenom enal diaphanous emphasize emphasis emphatic phantasm phantasmagoria phenomenon d iaphanous VER very veridical verifiable verification verily verisimilitude veritable verac ious veracity verdict aver verify verisimilar verity TURB turbidity turbulence disturb disturbance perturbation trouble troublesome t roublous perturb turbine turbulent turbid VOLU/VOLV volume voluminous volute convolve convolution devolve evolve evolution ism involve involvement involution revolve revolver revolution revolutionary rev olt devolution evolution voluble convoluted FAC/FEC/FIC fact factor factory faction factional factious factitious factotum f acture benefactor malefactor manufacture facilitate facility facsimile faculty d ifficult difficulty affect affectation affection affectionate confect confection ary confectionery defect defection effect effective effectual infect infection i nfectious disinfect perfect perfection imperfect prefect prefecture refection re fectory deficient deficiency efficacy efficient efficiency magnificent magnifice nce proficiency profit profitable office official sacrifice suffice sufficient a ffair feat defeat feature feasible counterfeit forfeit forfeiture surfeit confec tion facile olfactory proficient UT/US usufruct usury utilitarian utility PASS passage passenger passerby Passover passport pastime bypass compass impasse overpass surpass trespass trespasser underpass PED pedagogue pedagogic pedagogy pedant pedantic pedantry pediatrician pediatric s pedophilia PERI peril perilous empirical empiricism empiricist experience experiment experi mental experimentation expert expertise imperil PET petition petitioner appetite appetitive appetizer appetizing appetent compet e competition competitive competitor competence competent incompetent impetus im petuous repeat repetition centripetal PETR/PETRO petrify petrography petroleum petroliferous petrology PICT pictograph pictorial picture depict depiction PLAIN plaint plaintiff plaintive plaintiveness complain complainant complaint PLANT plantation planter plantlet implant implantation transplant transplantable transplantation PLAUD applaud applause applausive plaudit plausible plausibility explode explosi on explosive implode PLEN plenary plenipotentiary plentitude plenty plenteous plentiful plenum ample amplify complete completeness completion complement complementary comply complia nce compliant compliment complimentary deplete expletive implement impletion rep .
lenish replenishment replete repletion supply supple supplement supplemental sup plementary accomplish accomplishment PLORE deplore deplorable explore exploration explorer implore imploration PORT portable portage porter portfolio portly comport comportment deport deporte e deportation deportment disport export exporter import important importance imp ortation importer purport report reportage sport sportive sporty support support able supporter transport transportation portal portcullis porter portico porch i mportune importunity opportune opportunist opportunity passport POTENT potentate potential potentiality impotent impotence omnipotent omnipotenc e PREC precarious precariousness deprecate deprecation deprecatory imprecate impre cation imprecatory PRECI precious preciousness appreciate appreciable appreciably appreciation appr eciative appreciator depreciate depreciation praise appraise appraisal PREDA predacious predator predatory prey depredate depredation PRESS pressing pressure compress compressed compressible compression compressive compressor depress depressant depressed depressing depression express expressag e expression expressionism expressionist expressive expressly impress impression impressionable impressionism impressionist oppress oppression oppressive oppres sor repress repression repressible repressive repressor suppress suppressible su ppression suppressor PRIV private privacy privately privation privative privatize privilege privilege d privy deprive deprived deprivation PROACH approach approachable approachability approximate approximately proximity reproach reproachful reproaching PSYCH/PSYCHO psyche psychiatry psychiatric psychiatrist psychic psychics psychoa nalysis psychoanalyze psycholinguistics psychology psychological psychologist ps ychoneurosis psychopath psychosis psychosomatic psychotherapy psychotherapist PUGN pugnacious pugnacity impugn repugnance repugnant PUR pure purify purification purism puritan puritanical purity impure impurity QUER quarrel quarreler quarrelsome querulous QUI/QUIET quiet quietness quietude quietus inquietude unquiet quiescence quiesce nt acquiesce acquiescence acquiescent QUIT quittance quitter acquit acquittal requite requital unrequited LESSON EIGHT UMBR umbra umbrageous umbral umbrella adumbration somber adumbrate penumbra umbe r umbrage VEST vest vestment vesture divestiture divestment invest investment investor div est investiture transvestite travesty THE/THEO theism theist theocrat theocratic theology theologian theologize apothe osize atheism atheist monotheism monotheist pantheism pantheist pantheon polythe ism polytheist apotheosis atheistic pantheistic theocracy DE/DIV debase debate decadence decapitate decay decease deceive decide decipher declaim declare decrepit decry deduce defect defer deflate deflower deform delib erate delinquency deluge demarcation demerit demolish demonstrate depict deprave derelict derive despise despoil detail detain dethrone detonate devastate devou r debark decamp decode deface defer deficit defrost defy dehydrate denude descan t detach detour detrimental deity dues ex machine divinatory divinity DEMO demagogue democracy democrat democratic democratize demography epidemic dem ographic endemic pandemic demotic POPUL popular popularity popularize populate population public publicity publish publication depopulate depopulation overpopulated overpopulation republic repub lican republish republication populist populace populous vox populi POLIS/POLIT cosmopolitan metropolis metropolitan necropolis acropolis megalopoli s politic politicize CIRCU/CIRCUM circumambulate circumcise circumfuse circumjacent circumlocution circumlunar circumpolar circumstance circle circular circulate circulation circuit circus encircle semicircle cycle cyclist cyclone bicycle tri cycle .
encyclopedia circuitous circumference circumspect circumvent CORD accordance according accordingly cordiality core concord concordant courage courageous discord discordant discourage encourage encouragement record accord concordance cordial discordant CULP culprit culpable inculpation culpable exculpate inculpate mea culpa DIC abdicate abdication dedicate dedication indicate indication index predicate prediction diction dictionary dictate dictation dictator dictum benediction cond ition contradict contradiction contradictious indict interdict predict sedition valedictory verdict vindicate edict interdiction jurisdiction malediction GNI/GNO agnostic cognition cognizable cognizance cognizant diagnose ignore ignor ance ignorant prognosticate recognize recognizable recognition cognitive diagnos is incognito prognosis APT/EPT apt aptness adapt adaptable adaptive inapt inaptitude adaptation aptitud e adept inept ART artist artistic artless artificial artful artifact artifice artisan CAD/CID/CAS cadence decadence accident accidental deciduous incidence incident i ncidental coincide coincidence coincident Occident cascade case casual occasion occasional cadaver casualty decadent recidivism CIS concision decide decision decisive excision fratricide incise incision insec ticide matricide patricide precise suicide concise excise incisive precision RAD/RAS abrade abrasion abrasive erase erasable eraser erasure raze razor RADI radical radicalism radicalize radicalization radicand radish radix eradicat e eradicable eradication eradicator RADI radium radius radial radiate radiation radiator radiant radio radioactive r adioactivity radiology radiotelephone radiotherapy irradiate irradiation irradia nt irradiance RAP/RAV rape rapist rapacious rapacity rapid rapidity rapt rapture enrapt enrapt ure rapturous raptorial ravage raven ravening ravish ravishment RAT/RATIO ratify ratio ratiocinate ratiocination ration rational rationale ratio nalism rationalist rationality rationalize rationalization irrational irrational ity REG regal regalia regality regent regency regicide regime regiment Regina regius region realm regnant reign regular regularity regulate regulation irregular roy al royalty rigid rigidity rigor rigorous REPT reptile reptilian surreptitious RID/RIS ridicule ridiculous risible risibility deride derision derisive derisory ROD/ROS rodent corrode corrosion corrosive erode erosion erosive ROT rotary rotate rotation rotational rotator rotor rotund rotunda rotundity dex trorotatory levorotatory RUD rude rudiment rudimental rudimentary erudite erudition RUPT rupture abrupt abruption bankrupt bankruptcy corrupt corruption disrupt dis ruption erupt eruption incorrupt incorruptible interrupt interruption irrupt irr uption route routine RUR/RUS rural rustic rusticate rustication rusticity SAL salad salary salaried saline salinity salt salted desalt desalination SAL/SUL salient salience sally salmon assail assault desultory exult exultation insult resilient resilience result SAL/SAN salute salutatory salutation salubrious salutary sane sanity insane insa nity sanative sanatorium sanitary sanitation sanitarian SANGUI sanguine sanguinary sanguineous sanguinity consanguine consanguinity ensa nguine SAT sate satiate satiation satiable satiety insatiable insatiability insatiate s atire satisfy satisfaction satisfactory dissatisfy dissatisfaction dissatisfacto ry saturation soil SECT sectarian sectary section sectional sectionalism sectionalize bisect bisect ion dissect dissection dissector insect insecticide insectivorous intersect inte rsection vivisection secant segment SED/SESS/SID sedate sedative sedentary sediment sedimentation sedulous sessile s ession assess assessor assiduity dissidence dissident insidious obsess obsessive possess possessed possession dispossess prepossess repossess preside president .
presidency presidium reside residence resident residential residual residue subs ide subsidence subsidize subsidy subsidiary supersede siege besiege consult cons ultant consultation exile SEMIN disseminate seminal seminar seminary dissemination inseminate insemi nation SEN senate senator senatorial senescent senescence senile senility senior senior ity SERT series serial seriate serried assert assertion assertive concert desert des erted desertion dissertation exert exertion insert insertion reassert reassertio n SINU sinuate sinuous sinuosity sinus sinusitis insinuate insinuation insinuative SIST/STIUT/STA/ST assist assistance assistant consist consistent consistence exi st existent existence insist insistent insistence persist persistent persistence resist resistant resistance irresistible subsist subsistence constitute constit uent constitution constitutional destitute destitution institute institution pro stitute restitute restitution solstice substitute substitution superstition supe rstitious stable stabilize stabilization stability establish establishment stage contrast obstacle obstetric obstinate obstinacy stance state stately statement static station stationary stationer stationery statistics statue stature status statute estate stead steady steadfast circumstance circumstantial circumstantiat e constant constancy destine destiny destination distant distance extant instant instance instantaneous substance substantial substantiate restore restoration s tall install installation installment apostasy apostate ecstasy ecstatic metasta sis system SOCI sociable sociability social socialism socialist socialite socialize sociali zation society sociology sociologist associate associable associated association associative consociate consociation dissociate dissociable dissociation SOL sole solely solitary solitude solo soloist solemn solemnity soliloquy solid solidity solidify consolidate console consolation solace desolate desolation sol ar solarium circumsolar insolate parasol turnsole SOM somnambulate somnambulism somnambulist somniferous somnolent somnolence inso mnia insomniac SORT sorter assort assorted assortment consort consortium resort SPER desperado desperate desperately desperation despair despairing prosper pros perity prosperous SPERS asperse aspersion disperse dispersal dispersed dispersion dispersive inter sperse interspersion sparse SPIR spirit dispirit inspirit spiritual spiracle sprightly aspire aspirant aspir ation conspire conspirator expire expiration expiry inspire inspiration perspire perspiration respire respiration respiratory suspire transpire SPLEND splendid splendiferous splendor resplendent resplendence LESSON NINE CRYPT/CRYPH apocryphal cryptic cryptography crypt AB/ABS abdicate abduct abject abnormal abominate abortion abrade abrupt absolve absorb abuse abscess abstain abstract abundant abscond abstemious abstraction ab struse PED pedagogue pedagogic pedantic pedantry pediatrics pedophilia pedagogy encyclo pedic pediatrician pedant NASC/NAT/NAI nation national nationality nationalize nationalization native naÃ‾ nat ure natural naturalism naturalize agnate agnatic agnation cognation connate conn atural denature denaturalize neonate postnatal prenatal cognate innate nascent r enaissance FER ferry ferriage fertilize afferent circumference confer conference conferment conifer coniferous defer deference deferment differ different difference differ entiate efferent indifferent infer inferable inferential odoriferous offer prefe r preferable preference preferential proffer refer referable reference referenti al somniferous suffer sufferable sufferance suffering transfer transferor transf eree transference deferential fertile inference proliferate TRANS transaction transducer transfer transfigure transform transgress transit t .
ranslate transmit transmute transparent transport tradition traitor traverse tra nquil transcend transcribe transpire travesty trespass transfiguration transfuse transient transcendent PON/POS compound exponent expound opponent postpone postponement posit position positive post postage postal posture apposite apposition compose composedly comp oser composite compositor composition compost composure decompose depose deposit deposition depositor depository discompose discomposure dispose disposable disp osal expose exposure exposition impose imposing imposition imposture indispose i ndisposition interpose juxtapose oppose opposite opposition predispose predispos ition preposition prepositional propose proposal proposition purpose repose repo seful reposition superposition suppose supposedly supposition presuppose presupp osition transpose transposition pause component disposition repository superimpo se TEN/TIN/TAIN tenacity tenancy tenant tendril tenement tenet tenor tenure abstain abstention appertain contain container containment content contented contentment continence continental continue continual continuance continuation continuity continuous countenance detain detainee detention entertain entertaine r entertainment impertinent impertinence lieutenant maintain maintenance obtain pertain pertinence pertinent pertinacious pertinacity retain rein retention rete ntive retinue sustain sustainable sustentation sustentative abstinence tenacious suste nance tenable MONO monochrome monocracy monocycle monogamy monogram monolingual monologue monopoly monopolize monosyllable monotonous monotony monarch monk monogamous monograph monolithic monotheism UNI unicorn uniform union unique unit unite unity universal unanimous unicameral unilateral unison Unitarian TERM terminable terminate termination terminative terminator terminus conterminous determine determinable determinant determinate determination determined determiner determinism determinist exterminate extermination exterminator predetermination indeterminate interminable terminal terminology VINC/VICT victor victorious victory vanquish convince convincible convincing con viction convict evince invincible provincial victimize SPHER sphere spheroid spherule atmosphere atmospheric hemispheric stratosphere b iosphere hemisphere spherical VERT/VERS verse versed versify versification version vertex vertigo vertiginous vortex adverse adversary adversity advert advertence advertise advertiser advert isement animadvert anniversary averse aversion controvert controversy controvers ial converse conversant conversation convert convertible divers diverse diversit y diversify diversion divorce extrovert inadvertent inadvertences introvert intr oversion invert inverse inversion obvert obverse pervert perversion perversity r etroversion revert reversion reverse reversal reversible subvert subversion subv ersive tergiversation transverse traverse universe universal university divert p erverse avert versatile MORPH morphology morphological isomorphic polymorphic amorphous anthropomorphic metamorphosis morphology FORM formal formalism informal informality formation formula formulate conforman ce conformation conformist conformity deform deformity inform information inform ative informed malformation perform performance reform reformation reformatory reformer transform transformation uniform multiform conform formality formative format DOC/DOCT docent doctor doctoral doctorate doctrinarian document documentation di dactic didacticism didactics disciple discipline indoctrination doctrine docile doctrinaire indoctrinate TUT/TUI intuition tuition tutelage tutorial DI/DUO dilemma diphthong diploma duodecimal duologue dodecagon dozen double doub t dual dubious duel duet duplicate dichotomy diplomatic duplex duplicity BI/BIN bicameral biennial bifurcated bigamy bilingual bimonthly binocular bipod .
bipolar bisexual biweekly bipartisan bipolar SPOND/SPONS sponsor despond despondent despondence respond response responsible responsibility responsive correspond correspondent correspondence STELL stellar constellate constellation interstellar STILL distill distillate distillation distiller distillery instill instillation STINCT/STING sting stingy distinguish distinguished distinct distinction distinc tive extinguish extinguisher extinct extinction instinct instinctive instigate i nstigation instigator stimulate stimulant stimulation stimulus stigma stigmatic SUADE suasion dissuade dissuasion dissuasive persuade persuasion persuasive SUME/SUMPT sumptuary sumptuous assume assuming assumption assumptive consume con sumer consumerism consumption consumptive presume presumable presuming presumpti on presumptive presumptuous reassume resume resumption unassuming SUMM summary summarily summarize summarization summation summit consummate consu mmation SUR assure assured assurance assuring ensure insure insurable insurance insurant insurer reassure reassurance reassuring reinsure reinsurance SURGE/SURRECT surge insurgency insurgent insurrection resurge resurgence resurge nt resurrect resurrection source resource TAC/TIC tacit taciturn taciturnity reticence reticent TAIL tailor tailoring detail detailed entail retail retailer TECHN technical technicality technically technique technocracy technocrat techno logical technologist technology TECT detect detectaphone detection detective protect protection protectionism pr otective protector protÃ©e tegument TEMPT/TENT tempt temptation tempter tempting temptress attempt attempted tentati ve tentacle TEST testament testamentary testate testator testatrix testify testimony testimo nial attest attestation attester contest contestant contestation detest detestab le protest protestant protestation THES/THET hypothetical thesis antithesis antithetic hypothesis hypothesize hypo thetic parenthesis parenthesize synthesis synthesize synthetic TIM timid timidity timorous intimidate intimidation intimidator TON tone tonal tonality atonal atonality diatonic intone intonation monotone mon otonous monotony semitone undertone TOUR tourism tourist tournament attorney contour detour TOX toxic toxicant toxicity toxicology toxicologist toxin antitoxic antitoxin de toxify intoxicate intoxicant intoxicated intoxication TRIBUT tribute tributary attribute attribution attributive contribute contributi on contributor distribute distribution retribution retributive TROP tropic tropical tropism heliotrope heliotropism hydrotropism subtropical su btropics TRUD/TRUS abstruse detrude extrude extrusion extrusive intrude intruder intrusio n intrusive obtrude obtrusion obtrusive obtrusiveness protrude protrusion TUM tumefaction tumescent tumescence tumid tumor contumacious contumacy contumel y ULTIM ultimate ultimately ultimatum ultimo penultimate antepenultimate URB urban urbane urbanism urbanite urbanity urbanize urbanization conurbation ex urb exurban exurbia interurban suburb suburban suburbanite suburbia VAC/VAN/VOID vacant vacancy vacate vacation vacuum vacuity vacuous evacuate evac uation vain vanity vanish evanesce evanescence evanescent voidance avoid avoidan ce devoid inevitable vainglorious VADE evade evasion evasive invade invader invasion invasive pervade pervasion wa de waddle VAGA vagabond vagary vagarious vagrancy vagrant vague divagate divagation extrav agant extravagance extravaganza VARI vary variable variability variance variant variation varicolored varied var iegate variegation variety VELOP develop development envelope envelop envelopment LESSON TEN .
TOP topical topiary topography ectopic CENTR/CENTER central centralism centralization centrifugal centripetal anthropoc entric concentrate concentration decentralize eccentricity heliocentric eccentri c epicenter egocentric ethnocentric DOM dome domestic domesticate domesticity domical dominant dominate domineer dom ain daunt dauntless predominate predominance kingdom predominant domicile domina tion dominion HABIT/HIBIT habit habitant habituate habitude habitat cohabit inhabitation inhab itant exhibit exhibition inhibit inhibition prohibit prohibition exhibitionist h abitation habitual inhibit PRO precaution precede precept precinct precipice preclude precocious predecesso r predict predilection prefabricate preface prefer pregnant prehistoric prejudic e preliminary prelude premature premium preoccupy prepare preponderate preposter ous prerequisite presage prescribe present preserve preside presume pretend prev ail prevent preview previous problem proceed proclaim procure prodigal produce p rofane profess proficient profit profligate profound profuse program progress pr ohibit project prologue prolong promenade prominent promiscuous promise promote promulgate pronoun pronounce propel prophecy proportion propose propound prorogu e prosecute prospect prostitute prostrate protect protest protrude provide provo ke purchase purport purpose pursue purvey proffer prudent procrastinate prodigio us prophylaxis propitious RETRO retroact retroflex retrograde retrospect retroactive retrofit retrogress r etrospective TEMPOR temporal temporary temporize tempest contemporary extempore extemporize e xtemporization contemporary extemporaneous temporal temporize CHRON Chronicle chronological chronometer chronoscope isochronal synchronize anachronism chronic chronology synchronous TRI triangle tribe tribune tricycle trigonometry trilateral trio tripartite trip le tripod trisection triceratops tricolor trident trilogy trimester trinity triptych trivi al ANIM animal animalcule animalism animate animation animator animus equanimity ma gnanimity reanimate unanimity unanimous animated magnanimous animosity inanimate FIG figure figuration disfigure prefigure transfigure configuration effigy figme nt figurative ANN/ENN annals anniversary annual biannual biennial centennial superannuate supe rannuated annuity millennium perennial EV coeval longevity medieval primeval CORP corps corpse corporality corporation corpus corpuscle incorporation corset corporeal corpulent corporal incorporate TANG/TACT tangency tangent tact tactful tactics tactician tactual contact contag ion contagious contiguity contiguous contingency contingent intangible integer i ntegral integrant integrate integration integrity attain attainment attaint tain t intact tactile tangential tangible CODI/CODE codex codicil codify decode SIGN signal signature signify significant significance signification assign assi gnee assigner assignment consign consignation consignee consigner consignment co untersign countersignature design designed designer designate designation ensign insignia resigned resignation assignation resign signatory signet QUADR/QUART quadripartite quadriplegia quadruped quadruple quadrille quadriplegic quartile TESSAR/TETR tetragon tetrahedron tetrarch tetracycline tetrahedron VENGE vengeance vengeful avenge avenger revenge revengeful VENT ventilate ventilation ventilator VERG verge converge convergence convergent diverge divergence divergent VI via viable viaduct voyage convey conveyance convoy deviate deviant deviation devious envoy invoice obviate obvious pervious impervious previous trivia trivia l triviality VIG vigil vigilance vigilant vigor vigorous invigorate invigoration invigorator .
abide alike aloud amaze arise arouse ashamed athirst await awake 4.adown afresh akin anew 2.vegetate vegetation vegetable VOL voluntary involuntary volunteer voluptuous volition volitional benevolence m alevolence VULSE avulsion convulse convulsion convulsive revulsion A1.avert avocation 6.anachronism analogy ARCH-archangel archbishop archenemy archetype architect BE-belabor befool befoul befriend beguile belittle benumb betroth becloud bedew befog become befall behold bemoan beset bespeak because bequeath beside befit be loved bereave besiege bethink BENE-benediction benefaction benefactor beneficent beneficial beneficiary benefi t benevolent benign benignant bonus boon bounteous bountiful bounty BI-bicameral biennial bifurcated bigamy bilingual bimonthly binocular bipod bipo lar bisexual biweekly COM-combat combine comfort commemorate commend commensurate commingle commiserat e commotion commute compatriot compile compose coalesce coalition coeducation co erce coeval coexist cohabitation cohere coincide cooperate collaborate collapse colleague collide collinear collusion combustion concave conceit concentrate con clude concord concourse condense condescend condole confederate confer configura tion confiscate confront congeal conglomerate conjunction consent consume contam inate correct correlate corroborate corrugate corrupt council counsel LESSON ELEVEN CAPIT cape capital capitalist capitalize capitally captain cabbage decapitation precipitate precipitous capitalism capitulate decapitate recapitulate ANTHROP anthropocentric anthropography anthropoid anthropomorphism anthropomorph ous misanthrope misanthropy philanthropist anthrop anthropology misanthropic phi lanthropy CUMB/CUB cumber cumbersome concubine decumbence decumbent encumbrance incubus pr ocumbent incumbent incubate recumbent succumb DYNAM dynast dynastic dynamism dynamite dynamometer hydrodynamics thermodynamics dynamic dynamo dynasty hydrodynamic GRAD grade gradient gradual graduation degradation postgraduate undergraduate up grade ingredient aggress aggression congress digress digressive egress ingress p rogress progressive regression retrogress transgress degrade gradation graduate retrograde LAT ablation dilate dilatable dilatation elate illation oblate relate relation r elative superlative translate translation translator ventilate ventilation delay collate prelate relativity correlate CRIT criterion critic critical criticism criticize hypocritical criterion hyperc ritical critique hematocrit .abyss achromatic Amazon amnesty amoral apathy aphasia asylum asymmetry atheism atom atypical AD-advent abbreviate accede accelerate accept acclimate accomplice accost accumu late accustom acknowledge acquire adapt addict adduce adhere admire adorn advent adverse advocate affiliate affirm afflict affront aggress aggrieve align allay allocate allot alloy allude allure annex annihilate appease append appertain app ly appraise apprise approbate arrest arrogant ascertain assert assuage assume at tach attain attract attune AL-almighty almost alone AN-anemia anesthetic anarchy anecdote ambrosia ANA. abash amend avoid 7.aback abed ablaze aboard abroad afar afloat afoot aground ahead alive aloof as leep away 3.abadaon abase abate abridge achieve amass ameliorate amenable amount avenge av enue avow 5.
JUR judge judgment judicature judicatory judicial judiciary judicious adjudicate prejudice sub abjuration adjure adjuration conjure conjuration perjure just just ice justify adjust injustice unjust unjustifiable juridical jurisdiction jury jurist juror injure injurious injury abjure perjury jurisprudence objurgate PENT pentagon pentathlon Pentateuch pentameter pentagram QUINT quintessential quintet quintile BIO biochemistry biography biographer biology biometry autobiography autobiograp hical antibiotic biodegradable bionic biopsy symbiosis GEN gender gene genealogy general generality generalize generate generation gene rator degenerate engender regenerate generous genesis genetics genial biogenesis endogenous exogenous homogeneity genital congenital pathogenic primogenitor pro genitor progeny genius ingenious ingenuous genocide genteel gentile gentle genui ne genus eugenics pregnant cognate hydrogen nitrogen oxygen eugenic carcinogenic congenial indigenous generic FUNG/FUNCT malfunction functionary fungible perfunctory MUT mutable mutability mutate mutation mutual mutuality commutate commute permu te transmutation commutation immutable permutation transmute FRAG/FRACT fraction fracture fragile fragility fragment fragmentation frail frai lty diffract diffraction infract infraction refrain suffrage fractious fragmenta ry infraction refraction TELE telecommunication telegram telegraph telepathy telephone telescope televisi on teleological telemetry telepathic telegenic PHIL philatelist philology philter oenophile NEG negate negation negative neglect neglectful negligence negotiate negotiation negatron abnegate renegade abnegation negligible renegade renege DEC decade decagon decigram deciliter decimal decimeter Decalogue decathlon deci bel decimate CENT centenarian centennial centimeter centipede centuple centuplicate century p ercent percentage centenary centigrade centimeter centurion DEMI.demigod DI-dilemma diphthong diploma DIA-diacritical diagnosis diagonal diagram dialect dialogue diameter diatribe DUO-duodecimal duologue dodecagon dozen double doubt dual dubious duel duet dupl ex duplicate duplicity E-escalade escort especial espouse espy esquire establish estrange evaporate EN-enamored enact enamor encase enclose encompass encounter encourag e encroach encumber endeavor endorse energy enfold engage engrave enhance enjoin enlarge enlighten enlist enrage enrapture enrich enroll enshrine enshroud ensla ve ensnare entangle enthrall entitle entrench entrust envelop environment envelo pe embank embark embarrass embed embellish emblem embody embrace empower EX-exacerbate exact exaggerate example exasperate exceed excel except excerpt ex change exclude excruciate execute exempt exert exhale exhaust exhibit exhilarate exhort exhume exit exonerate exorcise exotic expand expect expel expire explain explicit expose expound exquisite exterior exterminate external extinguish exti rpate extol extort extradite extricate extrinsic extrude exuberant exude ebullie nt edit educate egress eject elaborate elapse elect elide eliminate elite elocut ion elope emaciate emanate emancipate erudite eruption event evident evince evok e eccentric eclipse ecstasy efface effete effort effuse escape sample FOR-forbid forget forgive forgo forlorn forsake forswear FORE-forearm forebear foredoom forefather forefinger forefront foregoing foregon e foreground forehead foreknowledge foreman foresee foreshadow foresight forest all foretaste foretell forethought foretime forewarn foreword forward FORTH-forthcoming forthright forthwith HECTO-hectogram hectograph hectoliter hectometer HETERO-heteroclite heterocyclic heterodox heterogeneous heteronym HEXA.hexagon hexagram hexameter hexangular hexapod IN-incriminate inbeing inborn inbreathe incarcerate incarnate incense incentive .
intrapersonal intra-school intravenous introduce introspect introv ert ISO-isobar isochronal isogloss isomer isometric isotherm isotope KILO-kilobyte kilocalorie kilocycle kilogram kilohertz kilolitre kilometer kilot on kilovolt kilowatt MACRO.megalith megalomania megaphone megaton megavolt megawatt MICRO-microanalysis microbe microbiology microcosm microeconomics micrometeorolo gy microphone microscope microwave MIS-misaddress misadvise misapply misapprehend misarrange misbelieve mischance m ischief misconduct misdate misdeed misfortune mislead misogynist misplace mispro nounce misstate misstep mistrust misunderstand MULTI.outbreak outdo outgrow outlandish outlaw outline outlive outnumber outpace outrage outrival outrun outwear outwit OVER-overact overbear overburden overcast overcoat overcome overcrowd overdo ove reat overestimate overflow overhang overhaul overhear overlap overlay overload o verlook overnight overpay overpower overrate overseas overset oversight overslee p overtake overthrow overturn overwhelm PEN-peninsula penultimate penumbra LESSON TWELVE NOM nominate nomination nominative nominator nominee denominate denomination den ominative denominator ignominy renown ignominious misnomer nomenclature nominal PATER/PATR paternal paternity patriarch patricide patriot patriotic patriotism p atron patronage patronize compatriot repatriate repatriation expatriate paternal istic patrician patrimony .inceptive incident incipient incise incline include income increase incriminate incubate incur incurve indoor induce indulge infatuate infect infiltrate inflam e inflate influence infringe infuriate infuse ingrained inhale inherit inhibit i nject injunction inlet innate innovate inquire inroad inscribe insect insert ins ight inspect inspirit intake intoxicate intricate intrigue intuition inundation inure invade inveigle invest investigate involve illation illuminate illusion il lustrate imbibe immanent immerge immigrate impair impale impart impeach impedime nt impenetrate impersonate impinge implant implement implicate imply import impo se impound impoverish imprecate impregnate imprint imprison irradiate irrigate i rruption IN-inaccessible inadequate inaudible incautious incomparable inconsistent indeci sive indigestion indispensable inequality infallible infamous innutrition invalu able invulnerable enemy ignoble ignominy ignorant illegal illegitimate illiberal illicit illiterate illogical immaculate immature immeasurable immediate immense immodest immortal immutable impalpable imparity impartial impecunious impenetra ble impenitent impious implacable impotent imprudent irrational irredeemable irr egular irrelative irrelevant irreligious irresistible irresolute irresponsible INTER-intercept interchange interfere interfuse interim interior interjacent int erlace interlude intermingle intermit intermix international interplay interpola te interpose interpret interrupt intersect intersperse interstellar interstice i ntervene intertwine interval interweave enterprise entertain intellect intellige nce INTRA-/INTRO.macrobiotics macrocosm macroeconomics macro-engineering macromolecule mac roscopic MEGE.multicolor multifarious multiform multilingual multiply multipurpose mult itude NE-nefarious nescience neuter naught nay neither never none null negotiate NEO-neoclassicism neocolonialism neoimpressionism neologism neonatal neophyte NO N-nonaggression nonaligned noncombatant noncombustible noncommittal nondurable n onentity nonessential nonmember nonpartisan nonsectarian nonverbal OB-obdurate obedient obfuscate obituary object objurgate oblige oblique oblong o bscene obstacle obstinate obstruct obtain obvious omit occasion occult occupy oc cur offend offer opponent oppress ostentation OCTA-octagon octahedron octave octavo October octopus OMNI-omnibus omnipotent omnipresent omniscient omnivorous OUT.
LEGA legation legatee delegate delegacy relegation delegation legacy legate rele gate GREG gregarious aggregation congregate segregation aggregate congregation egregi ous segregate FLU/FLUCT fluent fluency fluid fluidity flume flush fluctuate flood affluent cir cumfluent circumfluence confluent confluence effluence influent influence influe ntial superfluous superfluity inflow overflow reflow flux fluxion afflux conflux efflux influx reflux affluence effluent fluctuation mellifluous PREHEND/PREHENS prison prisoner imprison imprisonment apprise comprise enterpris e enterprising reprisal surprise surprisingly prize apprehend apprehensible appr entice apprenticeship comprehensible comprehension comprehensive misapprehend mi sapprehension reprehend reprehension apprehensive comprehend prehensile reprehen sible TEMPER temperament temperamental temperature tempered distemper intemperate temp er tempera temperance PURG purgation compurgation expurgation expurgator expurgatory expurgate purgative purgatory purge MILL milligram milliliter millimeter millennial mille fleur millenarianism milli pede millisecond HEMI-/SEMI-hemicycle hemisphere semiannual semicircle semiconscious semifinal semimonthly semiofficial semiprofessional semitropical semitone semico lon semiconductor SUB subcutaneous subdivide subdue subjacent subject subjunctive sublime submarin e submerge submit subscribe subside subsist substance substitute subsume subterf uge subtitle suburb subway succeed succinct suffer suffice suffocate suffuse sug gest summon support suppress suppurate surrogate susceptible suspect sustain sub conscious subjugate subliminal subversion HYPER hyperacidity hyperborean hypercriticism hyperinflation hypersensitive hype rsonic hypertrophy hyperactive hyperbole hypertension hyperventilate PRE precaution precede precinct precipice preclude predecessor predict predilect ion prefabricate preface prefer pregnant prehistoric prejudice preliminary prelu de premature premium preoccupy prepare preponderate preposterous presage prescri be present preserve preside presume pretend prevail prevent preview previous pro blem proceed proclaim procure prodigal produce profane profess proficient profit profligate profound profuse program progress prohibit project prologue prolong promenade prominent promiscuous promise promote promulgate pronoun pronounce pro pel prophecy propitious proportion propose propound prorogue prosecute prospect prostitute prostrate protect protest protrude provide provoke purchase purport p urpose pursue purvey proffer prudent precept precocious predispose prerequisite PARA parable parachute paragraph parallel parallelogram paralyze paramount paran oid paraphrase paraplegia parasite parasol paratyphoid parenthesis parody palsy paradigm paradox paragon parameter META metamorphosis metaphor metaphysical metastasis meteor method metabolism met aphorical metaphysics metonymy PER perambulate perceive percussion perennial perfect perfidy perforate perform perfume perfunctory perish permanent permit pernicious perpendicular perpetual p erplex persecute persist perspective perspiration persuade pertinent peruse perv ade pervert parboil pardon pellucid pilgrim percolate peremptory permeate persev ere ANT/ANTI anti-communist antagonist antigen antipathy antithesis CONTRA contradict contraposition contrary contrast controvert counter counteract counterattack counterbalance counterfeit countermeasure counterpart contraband contraindication contravene contretemps QIASI-quasi-cholera quasi-contract quasi-judicial quasi-official quasi-war RE-rebate rebel rebound rebuke rebut recalcitrant recall recant recapitulate rec ede receive reciprocate recite reclaim recline recognize recoil reconcile recond ite reconnaissance record recreation recruit recur reduce redundant refer reflec t reform refraction refresh refrigerator refuge refurbish refuse regress rehears .
September septennial SEX-sexcentenary sexpartite sextuple STPE-Stepbrother stepchild stepdaughter stepfather stepmother stepparent stepsis ter stepson SUPER-superabundant superb supercharge supercilious superficial superfluous supe rimpose superintend superior supernal supernatural supernumerary supersonic supe rstition superstructure supervene supervise supreme supremacy soprano sovereign surcharge surface surfeit surmise surmount surname surpass surplus surrender sur round surveillance survey survive SYN-synagogue synchronism syndicate syndrome synonym synopsis syntax synthesis s ystem syllable syllogism symbiosis symbol symmetry sympathy symphony symposium s ymptom TWI-twice twig twilight twill twin twine twist ULTRA-ultra ultramarine ultramodern ultramontane ultrasonic ultraviolet UN-unarm unbind unbuckle unburden unbury unbutton uncap uncase unclose uncork u ncover undo undress unearth unfold unhinge unload unlock unmask unpack unroll un seal unsettle unshackle untangle untie unveil unwind unwrap unwrinkled unabashe d unabridged unalterable unambiguous unapproachable unashamed unattainable una ttended unauthorized unbelief unbiased unblemished uncertainty unchangeable unch aste uncivilized uncomely uncomfortable unconditional unconformity unconscious u ncontrollable uncultivated undecided undefined undesirable undue unexhausted u nfeasible unfeigned unfinished unfortunate ungenerous unintentional unknowingly unlicensed unmanned unmerciful unmistakable unorthodox unparalleled unprecedente d unquestionable unreliable unrest unsanitary unseasonable unsophisticated unsui table unsystematic untidy untimely unutterable unverifiable unwarrantable unwhol esome unwilling unwitting unwonted unworldly unyielding UNDER-underage undercurrent underdeveloped underemployment underestimate undergo undergraduate underground underlie underline undermine underpass underrate unde rstand undertake undertone UP-upend uphold upland uplift upright uproar uproot upset upstairs upsurge uptur n VICE-vice-chairman vice-chancellor vice-consul vice-governor vice-minister vicepresident vice-principle vice-regent viscount WITH-withdraw withhold withstand -AIN captain chaplain villain -AIRE billionaire millionaire -AN/-IAN/-EAN pedestrian American German Mohammedan barbarian magician musician pedestrian physician European -ANT assistant descendant emigrant immigrant inhabitant servant tenant -AR beggar burglar liar scholar -ARD/ART coward drunkard sluggard Spaniard stew ard braggart -ARY adversary contemporary functionary lapidary secretary -ATE advocate apostate candidate delegate magnate pirate -EE committee devotee employee examinee nominee referee trainee trustee -EER auctioneer engineer mountaineer pioneer profiteer volunteer -EN citizen heathen warden -ENT agent correspondent opponent president resident student -ER baker commander customer gardener leader Londoner manufacturer mariner messe nger miller murderer owner philosopher prisoner producer -ESE Chinese Japanese Portuguese -ESS actress baroness empress ho stess princess stewardess .e reimburse reinforce reiterate reject rejuvenate relax relevant relic relieve r elinquish reluctant remedy reminiscence remit remonstrate remorse renaissance re new renounce repast repeat repel repent reply report reprisal reproach repugnant repute require requite rescind research resemble resist respect resplendent res tore restrain resume resurrection retaliate retard reticent retire retort retrac t retrench retrieve return reunion reveal revenue reverberate revere revise revi ve revoke revolt redeem redintegrate render SE-secede seclude secret secrete secure seduce segregate select separate sequest er sever SEPT.
IVE captive fugitive native operat ive relative -MAN/-SMAN chairman fisherman postman salesman sportsman statesman stuntman -ON champion companion matron patron -OR/OUR ambassador conqueror counselor governor inspector neighbor savior succes sor tailor tutor -STER gamester gangster minister songster spinster youngster -Y/YER enemy lady lawyer sawyer LESSON THIRTEEN ACERB/ACRI acid acidify acidity acidulate acidulous acrimonious acerbic acrid ac rimony exacerbate STRING/STRICT string stringency straight strain strait straiten strangle strangu late stress stretch strict strictness stricture astringency constringe constrain constrained constraint constriction constrictive constrictor distress distressf ul district overstrain restrain restraint restrict restriction restrictive astri ngent constrict prestigious stringent STRU/STRUCT structure structural construct construction reconstruct reconstructi on construe destroy destruct destructible destruction destructive instruct instr uction instructive instructor instrument instrumentality misconstrue misconstruc tion obstruct obstruction obstructive substructure superstructure deconstruction infrastructure construe instrumental PROP/PROPRI proper property proprietor proprietorship appropriation appropriator expropriation impropriety misappropriate misappropriation appropriate expropria te proprietary propriety TORT/TORS torture torturer tortuous tortoise torment torch contort contortion co ntortionist distort distortion extortion retort tort extort torsion tortuous VIV victual viand vital vitality vitalize vivacity vivid vivify vivisect devital ize revitalize revive revivification reviviscence survive survival survivor conv ivial revivify vivacious vivisection SERV serve servant service servility serf serfdom sergeant conserve conservancy conservation conservative conservatory deserve disserve disservice observe obser vance observation observatory preserve preservation preservative reserve reserve d reservation reservoir serviceable servile servitude subservient CLUD/CLUS close closet closure conclude conclusion conclusive disclose disclosure enclose exclude exclusion exclusionism exclusive include inclusion inclusive occlude preclusion reclusion reclusive seclude secluded claustrophobia occlusion preclude recluse seclusion TEXT textile textual texture contextual contexture intertexture subtle subtlety tissue context pretext subtext textual PLAC/PLAIS placate placatory placid complacency please pleased pleasing pleasant pleasantry pleasure complaisance displease displeasing displeasure unpleasant c omplaisant placebo placidity implacable AUT/AUTO autobiography autocracy autoinfection autonym authentic automaton autod idact autonomy autism GRAT grateful ungrateful gratification ingrate ingratitude gratis grace graceful gracious disgrace disagree agree agreeable agreement congratulate congratulatio n ingratiation gratify gratuity gratuitous ingratiate CLAM/CLAIM claim claimant clamorous acclaim declamation exclaim exclamation excl amatory proclaim proclamation reclaim reclaimable acclamation clamor declaim rec lamation CRAC/CRAT aristocrat autocratic bureaucrat plutocracy PUNG/PUNC pungency punctuate punctilio punctual punctuality punctuate punctuatio n puncture acupuncture compunctious expunction pounce punch poignant point appoi nt appointment disappoint disappointment compunction expunge punctilious pungent .-EUR amateur connoisseur -HERD cowherd shepherd -IER cashier cav alier financier premier soldier -IFF plaintiff sheriff -IST communist defeatist dogmatist florist novelist oculist ornithologist sophis t specialist tourist typist violinist -ITE cosmopolite Israelite laborite Tokyoite .
ARY dictionary vocabulary -RY cavalry gentry machinery poultry scenery -ACE furnace terrace -AGE anchorage cottage village -ARY apothecary granary library seminary -DOM dukedom filmdom kingdom stardom -ERY bakery brewery cemetery gallery -ORY dormitory factory laboratory observatory territory -UM aquarium auditorium gymnasium museum sanatorium .PLIC implicit explicate replicate supplication -CLE article follicle icicle miracle particle speckle vehicle -EL/LE damsel model vessel bottle bundle pebble riddle -EN/-IN chicken kitten maiden bulletin elfin violin -ET/-ETTE banquet blanket bouquet cabinet islet tablet ticket cigarette gazette novelette -KIN cannikin lambkin manikin napkin pumpkin -LET booklet bullet cutlet fillet hamlet leaflet pamphlet rivulet streamlet -LING darling duckling gosling seedling underling yearling -OCK bullock hillock paddock -(C)ULE animalcule globule granule minuscule mol ecule -IE/-Y auntie birdie Billy daddy kitty pony Tommy -ACE grimace menace s olace -ADE ambuscade arcade blockade cannonade crusade decade escapade lemonade masque rade orangeade renegade stockade -AGE courage marriage passage shortage shrinkage usage wreckage -AL approval arrival betrayal denial refusal survival trial withdrawal -ANCE/-ENCE provenance absence appearance confidence decency forbearance hindran ce innocence insolvency utterance vacancy -CY aristocracy bankruptcy fallacy intimacy prophecy -DOM freedom martyrdom wisd om -HOOD/-HEAD boyhood childhood falsehood likelihood livelihood manhood neighborho od godhead maidenhead -IC(S)aerobatics aesthetics arithmetic classics ethics logic magic mathematics m etaphysics phonetics physic physics skeptic stoic -ICE/ISE avarice caprice cowardice justice service treatise -ING aging bearing blessing calling clothing thanksgiving -ION reception addition civilization coronation exaggeration extension invitatio n protection quotation submission -ISM/ASM antagonism aphorism barbarism Buddhism communism existentialism exotici sm hedonism heroism Marxism modernism optimism passivism pessimism enthusiasm -ITUDE altitude aptitude decrepitude fortitude gratitude latitude magnitude mult itude solitude -(I)UM aluminum ammonium barium magnesium petroleum -MENT banishment fulfillment lineament movement treatment -MONY ceremony harmony matrimony testimony -NESS adhesiveness abrasiveness consciousness friendliness goodness happiness ki ndness likeness madness wordiness -O(U)R ardor behavior endeavor favor humor odor savor splendor valor -RY artistry bravery bribery luxury mystery pedantry penury rivalry robbery slav ery -SHIP citizenship fellowship friendship hardship landscape partnership relations hip scholarship workmanship worship -T/-TH flight gift restraint thrift weight breadth death growth stealth warmth w idth -TY/-ETY/-ITY bounty certainty cruelty loyalty novelty poverty anxiety propriety variety absurdity elasticity familiarity fixity futurity hilarity hospitality i mmensity maturity originality proximity rapidity reality sagacity singularity st upidity -URE censure creature departure disclosure exposure failure furniture legislatur e literature mixture pressure seizure -Y agony delivery discovery flattery folly honesty jealousy modesty treaty tyran ny -AGE baronage foliage peerage plumage .
-Y abbey balcony county treasury LESSON FOURTEEN MAND/MEND command commander commandment countermand demand commend recommend rec ommendation commendation mandate mandatory remand UND inundate redound redundancy undulant SACR/SANCT sacred sacrifice sacrilegious sacrament sacramental sanctify sanctifi cation sanctimony sanctimonious consecrate consecration desecrate desecration ex ecrate execration execrable n saint sanction sacrilege sacrosanct sanctuary LOC/LOQU circumlocution elocution colloquial loquacious VIR triumvirate virago virility virtuosity VAL valence valiant valid validation validity valor value valuable valuation ava il available convalesce convalescence convalescent countervail devaluate devalua tion evaluate invalid invalidate invalidity invaluable multivalent prevail preva lence prevailing undervalue undervaluation equivalent prevalent valorous validat e CRE/CRET accrue create creation creative creator creature concrete concretion de crepit decrease increase procreate recreate re-create recreation accretion cresc ent excrescence increment FUND/FUS fuse fusible fusion found foundry confound circumfuse circumfusion confuse confusion diffusion diffusive effuse effusion infuse infusion interfuse perfuse profuse refuse suffusion transfuse futile refute diffuse effusive profusion suff use VERB verbal verbalism verbalize verbosity adverb adverbial verbose proverb verba tim verbiage SIMIL/SIMUL similar similarity similitude simultaneous simultaneity assimilation dissimilate dissimulate semblance assemble assemblage assembly dissemble facsim ile resemble resemblance verisimilar verisimilitude assimilate simile simulacrum simulate SCAND/SCEND scan scansion ascend ascent ascension ascendant descend descent cond escension transcendent transcendence transcendental scale escalade escalator tra nscend condescend descendant ascendancy TEN/TENU attenuate extenuating tenure tenuous SCRIB/SCRIP scribe scribble scrip script scripture scrivener ascribe ascription circumscription conscribe conscript describe description descriptive indescribab le inscribe manuscript nondescript postscript prescribe prescript prescription p rescriptive proscription subscribe subscriber subscript subscription superscript ion transcribe transcription conscription circumscribe inscription proscribe MENS commensurate dimension immensity SOLV/SOLU solve solute solution solvable solvent absolution absolute dissolve di ssoluble dissolute dissolvable dissolvent insolvable insolvency insolvent resolv able resolute resolution absolve dissolution resolve soluble HYDR hydrant hydrate hydrogen hydrogenate hydrophobia hydrotherapy hydrotropism dehydrate hydraulic hydroelectric hydroponics -ABLE inhospitable amenable available changeable culpable desirable imponde rable innumerable irritable noticeable reasonable unforgettable contemptible hor rible incredible negligible -AL/IAL prodigal brutal federal literal mortal Occidental punctual regal aerial cordial genial racial -AN European republican suburban veteran agrarian Christian Egyptian Parisian -ANT/-ENT incipient brilliant buoyant defiant indignant luxuriant radiant tr iumphant ardent fluent insolent obedient proficient prudent quiescent -AR circular familiar muscular poplar popular similar vulgar -ARY customary dilatory elementary exemplary imaginary temporary voluntary -ATE/-ETE/UTE accurate affectionate considerate fortunate obstinate ornate passi onate temperate complete obsolete absolute minute -ED dejected aged bearded crowned gifted landed moneyed ringed talented -EN brazen earthen golden leaden wooden woolen -ERN eastern northern southern western modern
-ESE Chinese Japanese Portuguese -FOLD manifold twofold tenfold -FUL dreadful fruitful graceful merciful mournful regretful scornful shameful th oughtful -IAC cardiac demoniac insomniac maniac -IC polychromatic academic angelic arctic athletic calorific carbonic dipl omatic domestic emphatic enigmatic exotic fantastic gigantic idiotic lunatic pat riotic rustic scenic soporific -ICAL botanical chemical methodical physical radical surgical theatrical tropica l zoological -ID languid limpid placid rapid solid splendid stupid timid vivid -ILE ductile facile fertile fragile hostile juvenile puerile sterile versatile -INE divine feminine genuine masculine sanguine -ING agonizing astonishing charming cunning daring lasing promising refreshing s triking trying willing -IOR inferior junior senior superior -IQUE/-ESUQE antique arabesque grotesque oblique picturesque -ISH bookish brownish childish feverish selfish yellowish -ITE finite exquisite favorite infinite opposite polite -IVE definitive exclusive exhaustive imaginative initiative massive representati ve respective talkative -LESS aimless groundless helpless odorless priceless reckless restless senseless shapeless -LIKE businesslike childlike ladylike sportsmanlike warlike womanlike -LY bodily costly cowardly earthly fortnightly friendly leisurely monthly statel y timely worldly -MOST almost foremost innermost utmost -ORY compulsory contradictory obligatory obligation preparatory satisfactory -OUS ambiguous covetous envious furious glorious gorgeous industrious laborious perilous righteous spacious strenuous tremulous vicious virtuous -PROOF airproof bombproof bulletproof fireproof rainproof soundproof waterproof weatherproof -SOME venturesome burdensome irksome meddlesome quarrelsome tiresome troub lesome wearisome wholesome -WARD awkward downward eastward homeward onward seaward wayward -Y bloody bushy cloudy clumsy dreamy dusky foggy greedy icy plumy scanty spicy t ardy worthy -ENCE hence thence whence darkling sideling headlong -LY absolutely actually barely heartily invariably literally readily roughly sho rtly steadily violently -S besides needs nowadays sometimes -WARD(S)afterwards backwards downwards homewards inwards northwards outwards sou thwards sunwards upwards -WAY(S)/WISE always anyway endways sideways someway straightway crosswise likewi se otherwise sidewise -ATE agitate accommodate assassinate congratulate fascinate isolate navigate nom inate originate speculate vibrate -EN darken fasten hasten heighten lengthen moisten redden sharpen strengthen thr eaten weaken worsen -ER batter chatter flicker flutter glitter loiter patter quiver shiver totter tw itter waver -ESCE acquiesce coalesce convalesce deliquesce effloresce evanesce incandesce ob solesce -FY pacify classify edify fortify fructify identify justify liquefy mollify nullify personify petrify purify qualify satisfy signify simplify stupefy vilif y -ISH admonish banish blemish blush cherish demolish diminish embellish famish fl ourish furnish garnish languish publish punish -IZE/-ISE cauterize civilize dramatize generalize organize pulverize specialize
symbolize utilize victimize -LE chuckle dazzle dwindle scribble sparkle sprinkle startle trickle twinkle PART II ORIGIN 1. Where Words About Human Beings Come From ACHIEVE.to come to a head This seems like a simple word,but its history is extremely complicated.The word achieve derives,if you can believe it,from the Latin phrase ad caputvenire,which literally meant.to come to a head..Sometimes the Romans used it in the gloomy m eaning.to die..Later on Old French took over the phrase adcaput,.to a head. and built on it the verb achever,.to finish,.and this passed into English as achieve .In Chaucer.s day,and even up to the time of Queen Elizabeth,achieve could still mean.to die.or.to kill.Shakespeare used it in this sense in one of his plays,as .Bid them achieve(.kill.)me and then sell my bones..Along with achieve the Old F rench developed the word meschever,in English mischief,which in the beginning me ant to overwhelm with destruction,and both of these words still have in them the original sense of the Latin caput,or.head..For when you have achieved something ,you have.brought it to a head,.haven.t you?But should you get into mischief,thi ngs have been.brought to a bad head.(Latin mis-,.bad.),and those who perpetrated the mischief are apt to come to grief. Thus,when Merlin,the wise man of Arthuri an legend,said:.Synne draweth bothe man and woman to myschebouse ends,.he was us ing the word in its early and stronger sense. ADEPT:originally an alchemist Are you adept,that is,highly skilled at some particular thing?Then you should kn ow the secret of the philosopher.s stone that transformed base metals into gold. In the Middle Ages the alchemists who claimed to have this secret called themsel ves adeptus,a Latin word that means.attained,.from the verb adipiscor,from ad,.t o,.and apiscor,.attain..That is,the alchemists had.attained.their goal.Later,in the 17th century,adeptus became a title of honor that was applied only to alchem ists of recognized reputation.But when alchemy finally fell into disrepute,the w ord became a general term of skill.Now you can be adept at cooking or tennis or such. But if you are inept,you have.not.(Latin in,.not.)attained your goal.You a re inexpert and awkward and you are apt to say things that are unbecoming and in appropriate to the occasion. AMBLE:just walking around According to the dictionary when you amble,you.move,ride,or walk at an easy and careless pace..The derivation is from the Latin ambulo,.walk..You can also easil y detect this same term ambulo in our word ambulance or,as the French used to ca ll this vehicle at the time of the Crimean War,hospital ambulant,.walking hospit al..The English soon left off the hospital part and just called it an ambulance. And there is the perambulator,too,that we push the baby around in,and that also takes walking to do. ANTICS:originally fantastic images On the walls of the Baths of the Roman Emperor Titus some old and fantastic imag es were carved,representing people and animals and flowers all running together in the most grotesque fashion possible.The Italians applied their word antico,.o ld,.to these curious carvings,but because of the weird posturings of the figure antico came also to mean .bizarre,.and so gave us our word antic.Thus,when a per son cuts up with some antics,it means that he is going through a lot of queer ca pers like those weir Roman figures,or like a clown in a circus.This Italian word antico derives from the Latin antiquus,and from this latter term through the Fr ench we received out word antique.Antiquus meant.venerable.and so .excelling in worth and value,.which is what we hope for when we buy antiques. ASSASSIN: once a drug-fiend Some 800 years ago there was an East Indian sheik who was colorfully known as . The Old Man of the Mountains.. He was the supposed head of an early version of . Murder, Inc.,. and his fanatical followers made it their business to slaughter t he Christian Crusaders who were on their way to the Holy Land. The murderers got themselves into the proper frenzy for their job by chewing hashish, an Eastern variety of hemp that could produce a fine state of intoxication in any teetotall
so a count was a sometime companion to a k ing. When title s came to be conferred the word eorl was used to distinguish a man of noble rank from the ceorl.away.. the sun spots. . Our fortunes can sometimes be considered . .proclamation.. the ruler. Perhaps we could say that etiquette is a .took away their hands. The spelling went to erl and finally to earl. And then again. ETIQUETTE: a ticket In 16th-century French etiquette meant a ticket or label.s power. and also is in volved in the word banish. and the stars.. . which was a tract of borderland.to stic k. the owners . This man controll ed a march.knowledge.. and sidus.against. the new master laid his hand upon them in token of possession. illbred boor. and astrum. he is acting like a surly. that is.to proclaim. This subservience to others is explained by the history of the w ord. It traces back by many changes of spelling to the Latin dominium. When they were bought.. . it .command. was at th e bottom of the social ladder in the very lowest rank of the freeman.) had an idea by the t ail. from estiquer.stuck. . scholar seem to have proved that our lives are influenc ed by such things as the climate.illstarred.. we are dealing with astrology. In the English of another day a churl.to be exposed t o harm or injury... The list gave t he rules of the day.first. e-.stars. Apparently the a ncient astrologers (astrum. Old English already had the word as bann. meaning . So when anyone was put under a ban. .banned.. . which meant .. Next below the duke is t he marquis. and capio. . . Naturally all of these lesser title follow the prince. or a ceorl as it was then spelled. and the word count trace s to the Latin comes. he was told he couldn.. . BANDIT: under summons A bandit is ... since he is actually and etymologically . Our word emancipate has the opposite meaning. In their investigati ons of the cycle theory.interdict.takes.first. In the ancient days of India word hashshashin en tered Medieval Latin as assassinus... . With the banns of marriage we return to the original meaning of . The first rules of e tiquette were tacked up in conspicuous places in the army posts. This act was called mancipium.lordship...possession by the hand. . manus. Today cifarettes called . borrowed from the French and once spelled marchis. . you.take.t do something. up on the walls.or outlawed.a proclamation against something. DANGER: ruled by a master A word that has strangely changed its meaning.. This entered Late Latin as bannire. and is from the Latin emancipatu s. and so into English as our word assassin..first. . which in turn derives from dominus.are made out of this hemp and a re smoked by marihuana addicts. . So whatever it is. And princeps is derived from primus. and capio. As a pensioner wrote in 1461 to his patron: . The rules were . but in olden days it meant to be in someone else... The Old French word was estiquette. So when our slaves were emancip ated. for the word disa ster is from the Latin dis-. they consulted .. or . In early England any w him of his master put a serf in danger.take. Our word comes originally from the Germanic roo t bann. .a summons. DISASTER: the stars are evil If you are faced with disaster. Among the other title that the Normans brought across the channel was duke. or .ing Mohammedan. are . with the word consider. Thismeaning is implied in bandit. As a matter of fact we get our word ticket from this. to polite society. .with. in the land.hand. the .companion.reefers. EMANCIPATE: remove the hand According to Roman law there were prescribed ceremonies for the purchase and lib eration of slaves.proclamation.o utlawed.power. .with.star.. the . . the prince . and then was absorbed into Italian as bandito. When the ancients considered a m atter in an effort to come to a decision. Also buying things on tick..against. EARL: opposite of churl If a man is churlish in his manner.. and logos.star. for consider is thought to be from the Latin cum. During the Norman period an earl was the equivalent of the French count. .master.stars. wh ich still retains its murderous history in its meaning. Danger now means ..I am gretly yn your danger and dette f or my pension.star.leader.ticket.. ... . which eventually goes back to the Latin dux.
. grew into . saw the handsome son bathing in her pool and she immediately fell head over heels in love with hi m. . That is . FREE: once..a hermaphrodite is a living being having both male and fema le organs. On a certain occasion..The only syllables that the Dutch sailors could understand were hot and tot.Or if your should have been slave s enough. That. If you had been a patrician in those olden days.agreeable.that is .a windbag. and puto.The gods answered her prayer and arranged that the body of the nymph and the body of Hermaphroditos should grow together as one.in.foot. and freond .beloved. His foible is the weak part of his foil. for the Latin word follis.lie upon. pedis.. however .in the way of your foot. of its entanglement so that you can do what you want to without hindrance. Incubus is fr om the Latin incubo. that is. .. IMPEDE: putting your foot in it When you are impeded . or more literally .and pes. From the La tin reputo. Reputation.it tangles up our feet. who would have been free .. your . Your forte is the strong part from the middle to the hilt.say. is . f rom the middle to the tip.and. which is related to the Greek phemi. You have really . Our biological name hermaphrodite was taken from this story and was applied quite logically to bisexual individuals. or . FOOL: tongue-wagger Let those who talk too much take care. lasts longer.Hermaph roditos was the son of the Greed god Hermes and of Aphrodite.. while his forte is his strong point.a nd was supposed to have not only the names.loved on es. They we re a native tribe of the Cape of Good Hope.. about you.for en is .foot .loving.and your slaves . that in which he excels..beloved. To her horror he turned her down.foot.beloved. . diatantly related to free. something . you would probably have bought his liberty and made him free too..report.. to think over again. pedis ..t hold public office idiots. beloved The word free ties into the Old English freo. and so the mariners named the people just tha t : hot-en-tot . FOIBLE: originally a fencing term One of the rules of the game of fencing is to receive your enemy. and this may be what our politici ans think of us today.speak.friend. In the ancient Sanskrit language priya-. from re-. .. which gave us fool.. INCUBUS: once an obscene spirits This word and its sister succubus have morbid and obscene origins. HOTTENTOT: just gibberish The musical comedy stage has made the savage Hottentots familiar to us. . or .s name Biologically .agreeable ... so f inally our Old English word fero evoluted into the modern word free.. And yet there is a more innocent way than this to get t he reputation of being foolish. . means .. or . So the foibles of a human being are his weak points and his moral frailtie s.fro m the Latin im-. but what they . has a romantic history .FAME: what they say When you are talked about enough you are famous. .t understand the native dialect at all since it was full of clicks and jerks and sounded like so much stammering .. two French borrowings.. In meant . or infamous. a close relative lf the German wor d frei which meant . for you r reputation is not what they . HERMAPHRODITE : originally a god.again.put your foot in it. The ancient Greeks called those who didn. in Dutch. and pes. perhaps.meant ..think.in. Saimacis by name . and in the beginning referred to an evil spirit who would lie with the ladies when they were asleep and for no good purpose.you have something . for fame is from the Latin fama. whence our word idiots. But she was a resourceful girl and prayed to the gods for an indissoluble union with him . but the beauty of both his parents.think. however. a susceptible nymph.. foot. When the Dutch landed there they cou ldn.today .) he gets your ..when there are obstacles in your way that hinder you from doing what you wish .it means that your .s foible with y our own forte. that is .your . This highly technical word.out.n ot slave. But when someone expedit es matters for you (ex.loving one. is entangled . Thus fame is what they say about you. goddess of love .out.foot.t get it out. something and your can.s why we call heavy baggage impedimenta. A s . to consider.in.
..in.they would set him ashore. Joseph Addison.a basebal l fan.a contraction of th e phrase monta-in-banco .t bother..not a trace or a footprint of truth.and it was her name that gave us lunatic because she was supposed to create this condition.lie beneath. as.. NEIGHBOR:your friend on the next farm Literally.meaning wild and untamed.mount-on-bench.and h e cites the new vulgarism mob as an example..This latter..one left in the wilds . They used the Latin phrase mobile vulgus.both of which mean.or ..In Roman mythology luna was the moon goddess.or maroon him.it is likely today that they will first loo k for fingerprints..mount-on-bench..They.follow a footprint.The word is from the French term marron.And yet if the crime had been committed on a snowy night they would search for foot prints too.s horror they soon shortened this to mobile The n to the mob which we still have with us.We clip this to .peasant.uccubus ..The cutting off of an eare.near.as .and vestigo.In Italian montambanco.The essayist.. MAIM:knocking out a front tooth An early statute says that you have maimed a man if you knock out his front toot h .and that the violence of madness changes with the phases of the moon. MOUNTEBANK:on a bench The history of mountebank ties in to those barkers who talk you into sideshows a t the circus.footpri nt.is no maihem.In its later history the word incubus has come to me an a handi-happing burden of some sort.Down through the centuries there has been a widespread notion that madness is related to the moon.There is not a vestige of truth in the statement.A succubus...near-by farmer.They probably wouldn.Gebur is related to Bauer .or such like .gives us our word vestige. a short form of the Spanish word cimarron. and to the old-time fakers who stepped up on a soapbox and sold In dian snake oil cures.We w on..on some farlff island and simply sail away. INVESTIGATE:looking for footprints When detectives investigate a murder.however. were well taken care of . that reads in translation. He refers to the practice as:.or nose .Latin succumbo.In Italy the montambanco was a quack who customarily perched on a bench to hawk his fraudule nt wares.was quite haughty about it all. was a female domon who.that reads in translation .too were coining new words by snipping bits off old ones..never changed and is still a strumpet.. the fickle crowd.and gathered a crowd around him with his jokes and juggling.farmer . . we discover that the British ha d this same habit around the beginning of the 18th century..because with a front tooth he can bite and tear at the enemy.Another amusing law in 1641 says that . in turn .Before the reign of Charles II folks never said such a slang word as mob.to call a man a baseball fanatic..Now . MOB:from a Latin phrase The English have often accused us Americans of being lazy with our language. apparentl y.His career was held back by the incub us of poverty.but the shadow of that superstition still remains in the race . the words maim and mayhem apply to any willful mutilation.no longer a farmer or p . MAROON:take to the wilds .but that he is not maimed if you knock out one of his grinders.they say. Both sexes.o f course. maroon was a moun. and maroons were the Negroes who lived in Du tch Guiana and the West Indies. .or breaking of the hinder teeth.while with a grinder he can only masticate his food.from the Old English neshgebur which mea nt .But if we turn back the pages of history.was rep uted to have sexual connection with men in their sleep .. from vestigium..And here we have the sealed-in picture of inve stigate:Latin in. LUNATIC: moonstruck There are many people today who would feel uncomfortable if they had to sleep wi th the moon shining in their faces.This Humour of speading no m ore than we needs must which has so miserably curtailed some of our Words.t believe that this act would turn then into lunatics.in mo dern German and entered our languang from Dutch as boor .Neah appears in modern German as nahe and in English as nigh . a contraction of the phrase monta-in-banco.But to Addison. When pirates of old took a dislike to one of their fellow buccaneers.of course.Later on maroon chang ed to mean .T hat is.The derivation of the word proves the point Mounteband come s from the Italian montambanco.In the b eginning though.the farmer who lives near you.
harbor . it .. When we palliateour sins . we attempt to cover them as with a cloak so that they will not be so easily seen and will seem less offensive . we reduce its severity and make it less obvious . more and more.. . and suitable time for m any things.cloak. your first name . . When we pal liate pain .This same Dutch word boer gave us the Boer War in which the English fought the Dutch farmers in South Africa. and hence parag on came finally to be a standard of true worth.port . when you boast of your pedigree .s fo ot and suggested the picturesque name. and this splits into per-.the foot of a cr ane.he is a paragon of virtue. Ourword paragon comes through Old French fro m the Italian word paragone which originally meant a touchstone. the Latins de rived the word palliates which meant . and in this circui tous way we get our word palliate with some of the original meaning left .crane.private property. for instance . history. .Ye s. the genera l god who protected the ports and harbors. or a happy . In the beginning of Rom e. the Latin words for .added.of. . and eke meant . and just as a passing piece of gossip . ... fitting. NICKNAME: an added name In days long past. From the term pallium . or .. PERNICIOUS: death-dealing A pernicious practice is a harmful one that will work evil. for pedigree seems to have been our way of pronouncing the French phrase pied de grue which means . with us . The term entered Old French as peculiar and English as peculiar . and portus . called pecus in Latin. and later . it has weakened in power through the centuries. the three-line gr aph of lineal descent looked for all the world like the imprints of a crane. you are really speaking of a crane. we are . peculiar has taken o n the meaning of characteristics that are odd and queer. when there were as yet no minted coins. This test ing stone is called a . . to those you already have.before the port .above. Our word opportune traces to the Latin words ob-.. In those very old documents that recorded a family tree. or it often could refer to characteristics that were quite distinct from those of other individuals. PECULIAR: related to cattle The story of the word peculiar has a . . to your given name. From pecus the word peculium was finally formed and it meant ..covered with a cloak. and . The Latin ancestors of the word pedigree are pes. By some strange coincidence . This grew into the word peculiaris which applied to possess ions that were . cattle. OPPORTUNE: the ship is at the harbor Each year on August 17th the romans had a feast in honor of Portunus. the Middle English word ekename fin ally absorbed the .easant but a city person.an. called by the Romans a pallium .above... but even though the word still implies a threat..s own. As the poet Robert Browning said : . PEDIGREE: foot of a crane Perhaps you take just pride in your family tree.peculiar. this wa s also the popular garment of the hetaerae . a name . a n ickname . . and grus. de.through and throug . from ..add ed. this in him was the peculiar grace. and became a ekename . Once again a name . At that time an ekename was a surname .s foot. Again. or . . When a ship is at the harbor mouth it is an opportune moment . and even in surn ame we have the same meaning in the French sur . a name .be fore.s idea of someone with the awkward and clumsy manners o f a peasant . so that we can now say . which means . a nickname was an ekename.one. But you may not know that. PALLIANTE: cover with a garment The traditional garb of the Greek philosophers was a rectangular woolen cloak dr aped over the left shoulder and around the body .over. PARAGON: a testing stone In order to test the purity of gold it is often rubbed against a fine-grained .foot. you are p roud of you pedigree. His name is derived from portus.added. those charming and cultural enterta iners and courtesans of the day .... in a sense .. took t he place of money .over. Now. with the meaning of property belonging exclusively to someone and not owned by others.n. The Latin perniciosus gave it to us. Like a blooded horse.touchstone. dark stone like jasper in order to see what kind of a mark it leaves .cloaking..
and for each chanracter that they portrayed they would wear a diff erent mask. POSTMAN:reminder of romance when the postman rings our doorbell on his daily rounds.you might prefer to say he is "half-baked.b ut the French word prestige that we have borrowed is allied to prestidigitation and originally meant juggling tricks ."Now the word more nearly means "dependent on chance or hazard."and coquere.along a communication rou te.for their same word precarious meant "risky".the word persona came to mean t he part that anyone plays in the world. So the prestige that has been won by some of our political leaders may sometimes have something to do with sl eight of hand.if we impersonate anothe r. .to u se as long as it pleases the party and no longer." PRESTIGE:meant magic When we say that a man has gained great prestige we intend it as a compliment ."a novice or tyro." slave. "later.U.we put on his mask.origi nally applied to plants and trees with the meaning "flowwering or fruiting early or before the usual time .in a fashion.precis." PRECOCIOUS: half-baked? Latin prae-.and finally it designated an individualit y.it was a pretty uncertain piece of bus iness."in the latter sense the word applied to fr uits that ripened early.he gives little hint of the romance of his beginnings. "prayer."to cook beforehand"or"ripen beforehand..the name of such a mask in latin was persona. ROBOT:a slave A long familiar word. In his play these man-made mecha nical robots overpower human beings.we are all actors." a junior.h.from puis.death.the whole thing started out with the idea of prayer. As one 17th-century writer put it:"I am not deceived by the prest iges of the impostor."he left his mon ey to the older children. as:"inferior in rank .or illusion.the word post itself came up from the latin posita."more recent in time.R.by a similar figure of speech. PERSON: first was a mask Actors in Roman and Greek dramas often had to take more than one part in a singl e performance.a person.oursituation is uncertain and often danger ous. necis.."to cook. but brought into wide notice by the play R.and in 1656 the English lexicographer Bl ount defined precarious as something "granted to one by prayer and entreaty."oaken.""early or prematurely ripe or edveloped.And now puny just means small and feeble.as of today."and its meaning "of small growth" or "weak" simply refers to the fact that babies an d younger children "born later" have less strength than the older ones."it looks as though the romans thought wh en you got anything by prayer or entreaty."We speak of a precocious child as one who is unusually forward and mature .in the begings of the English language precarious meant supplication.for precarious is based on the latin word prex." ROBUST:like an oak That robust man with the magnificent build is literally "strong as an oak.if you bi ve the French pronunciation to puisne the sound is almost identical with puny.and since."I see you are bu t a puny in your studies.(Rossum's U niversal Robots)written by Karel Capek in 1929.The word is di rectly trom the 12th-century French puisne."before.and a post was one of a chain of stations that furnished a relay of fresh men and horses to carry the king`s messages to some distant point."born.later on these pos triders carried the mails. "work.the first postman were royal couriers who rode pos t. none to the punies."pl aced.The term robot is from the Czech word robotn ik." for our descriptive word comes from the Latin robustus ."and ne.From this was derived the English word precocious ." PUNTY:born later The word puny has meant many things down through the years."for the original posts were "placed"at intervals. PRECARIOUS:obtained by prayer when we are in a precarious positiomn."were combined to form praecoquere.He is "cooked ah ead"or if he happpens to be a brat you don't like ." If you wish to make ." which goes back to the term robota." a puny officer.or. and nex." a puny date.
This same Latin word tu rbo has given us turbulent.Of course.and can hide something in to. When these thugs were in formed by their spies that a man of property w as about to take a journey.In its sp ecial connection. which in turn derives from the Sanskrit s thaga... and plico." SCAVENGER:FORMERLY A TAX-COLLECTOR When England was young.That is ." from the Latin cor-.the steward rose to great power. which comes close t o our modern meaning.m.In this case the paper is . Those who practice duplicity are double-dealing. throw into complete d isorder.until 1849...Fowler dashed off a relatively deathle ss line. SCINTILIATE: gives out sparks Some fifty years ago a lady named Ellen T.. but this ancient murder synd icate profited handsomely by this service to their faith.it is based on the Latin scintilla which meant .or.s daughter.guardian.. Leonard Skevington.inspect. It was all presumed to be done in honor of their goddess Kali. The word steward recalls the days when a man..fold. who spotted the victim.fold.In some cases he became a magistrate....This was named.And th at sparkling tinsel on the Christmas tree comes from the identical Latin source. a scavenger now is an animal that feeds on a dead o r decaying carcass.is all of the P. or single dealing. like our modern muggers.As a matter of fact..the Lord Steward of the Household even had judicial powers an d was a minister of the British Cabinet.These East Indian thugs operated until about 100 years ago. keeper of the pigs. They are trying to fool you. With the word diplomat. and by this ti me the scavenger had become a supervisor of street cleaning. It comes from a hypo thetical Latin prefix sem-. ultimately fr om Old French escauver. disturb.spark.a revolting little tale that shows how the tax-collector has bee n loved through the ages.cheat. finally trouble..a paper folded twice. And their brutality ga ve us our word thug. we turn to the Greek word diploma. To guard the valuable herd from ro bbers and wild beasts. . wealth expanded from h erds of swine to herds of cattle and to lands and the job of the steward was now to watch over all of these.unfolded. for the English language seems to have found no other use for the aord.We English dropped the in itial. TROUBLE: full of commotion When a person is in trouble. then truble..sty.. and turned tincelle into tinsel.Thus.. his mind is ill at ease. the only thing that ever scintillates is wit. The word duplicity. or "make it like an oak..folded overtwice. a special watchman was appointed who was called a steward from stig. STEWARD: watched the pigs A steward in one of our exclusive clubs might not be pleased to know that his na me used to signify. the opposite of simple.. but in passing into French scintilla became etincelle. SIMPLICITY: has nothing to hide Simplicity is single in purpose and has nothing to conceal. full of commotion. a lieutenant of the Tower.to gtive off sparks.Later on. .sttling disputes and such. .In feudal times. and robur . and pli co. that is.. disturb." Later on an "n" found its way into the word.finger men.two. they followed him until he arrived at some lonely sp ot and then. The Latin parent of the wo rd trouble indicates just that.In the reign of Henry VIII. for turbo meant. .which diplomats took along as th eir credentials..beco ming a sort of agent for the lord of the manor....warden.l aid out flat. and weard.. It came to us first with the spelling turble.a statement that is strong and powerful.. an intensive. invented a dreadful instrument of torture that squee zed the body until blood flowed from the ears and nose.however.variety and never scintillates i n the moring.. you coroborate it..He leased lands and collected ren ts. My wit.as it means. is from the Latin duo. THUG: an ancient gangster From the Hindustani word thag.. she wrote.conceal.cheat.all muddied up.s chief treasure really was his pigsty. they strangled and robbed him.....in Great Britain.opened up. and which college students now receive as their reward. however..one. The word derives from Anglo-French scawager. scavenger was spelled scavager and meant a "tax-collect or " or "inspector. . and turbid. Like modern gangsters they had their .from sthag."a very hard oak. a turbid stream which is .e.scintillate is a highly descriptive word.the scaven ger.
Sources of the Words of Attitudes and Emotions AMUCK: murderous frenzy The famous 18th-century British navigator."specter. excellence.In olden days when one was astonish ed. in Latin meant strength."In 1402 the priory was turned into a hospital fo r the insane.Now dismal just means gloomy and depressing. And to be virtuous.T here were nouns then.VIRILITY: for men only All of the words deriving from the Latin word vir.which is derived from the Latin ex. BUGBEAR:a bogy TO us a bugbear is a thing of appreciable dread.So when the Londoners spoke of the Holy City of Bethlehem they were ca reful to pronounce it the way we now do to distinguish it from the asylum.inclined to be sickly.Mary of Beth lehem was founded in 1242."which derives from th e same source as thor.in h is disalect.who was certainl y a traveled gentleman.sometimes spelled amok. Virtus. are flattering.our exotix word is borrowed fro m the Malay.and gave us bugbear. is to have the traits of a man."When one is astonished. BEDLAM:is really "Bethlehem" This is a British corruption of the word Bethlehem. MAWKISH meant simply ."And a similar picture is behind our word "thunder.a goblin-animal of some kin d.with its noise and con fusion. BIGWIG:fine feathers Even tody we occasionally speak of who ranks himself overimportantly as a bigwig .In the England of the 18th centrury a man of distinction was spotted by his lar ge.like wiglomeration that meant the pomp and fuss of legal proceedingd. .But when our hourse is a perfect bedlam.Whether this be true or not .he was atunned as by a blow and in a trance. of course.like the actions of an over-sentimental and mawkish lover .and the bug part is said to ha ve come from the."I astonysshe with a stroke upon thehead ."to thunder.But any londoner of this day would have called it... DISMAL:merely bad days The Egyptians believed in unluckly days.An august judge bacame more august by this symbol of authority.man."who was supposed to hurl lighting bolts at the earth.that were once a part of the language ..now unfamimilar to us." is also to be Welsh .since misfortune lurked at every tune . Now it.s something th at makes you feel sick. unpronounceable Welsh word bwg.he is literally"thunder struck.In France tw o such days were marked on the calendar each month and were called the dis malfr om the Latin dies mali.bedlam . And shou ld you be able 2.the god of Norse mythology called "the Thunderer.Mary'of Bedlam."Dis mal was transferred into Middle Engli sh as the adjective dismale which descriped these unluckly days when it was wise to be very careful.and apparently these so-called "Egyption days"came into Rome and then on into the Europe of the Middle Ages.claimed that when a man amuck it was all because of his j ealousy of a woman. .And bugaboo is probab ly just the same goblin with a frightening boo on the end.Our bogyman .really a "goblin-man.is the te rm for a mental disease similar morbid depression into a state of murderous fren zy in which he will attack anyone in his path.In our times a bigwig is more apt to be a stuffed shirt."writes a long-ago author.The priory of St. ASTONISH:thunderstruck With changes in spelling from the French estoner. without appetite.This description contains the sens e in which we use our word amuck.to us.and from the reign of Henry VIII it has been a royal foundation for lunatics.it still sounds."and tonare.powdered wig.But in Wales it represented a ph antom that was used to scare the naughty children."This word passe d into English as bugge.like the inside of old lunatic asylum."out.then bug. courage. all of which describe our word vi rility .Nowadays astonished doesn not mean much more than surprised."the evil days."St.Captain Jamer Cook..In the Malay language the term amoq.
And now an ordeal can be a severe test of character. There was no special accusati on before the vote. This notion went down through the centuries. Sometime s shy folks get the reputation of being a little uppish because of their offish ways. that is. Fr om this custom and from the Greek term osirakon came our word ostracize with its present and somewhat less brutal significance." this word came to us from the Duke of Orleans who was Regent of France ar ound the turn of the 18th century while Louis XV was still a minor. On s uch an occasion the citizens would assemble in the market place and vote as to w hether fellow should be banished. . because i gnorant people are often silent. The favorite dose for depressed and fainting females was melanch oly-water. NAUGHTY :good-for-nothing In the days of Miles Standish they spoke of ... a phrase that recalls a legal practi ce of our ancestral British courts.. its meaning changed to .. They simply wrote the name of the undesirable man down on a tile or potsherd called an ostrakon. so the meaning of the word shifted until it meant ..mankind. If 6000 ostrakons wer e cast. was most often used in the phrase . and after wh om our city of New Orleans was named.. We use it today in that sense when we say : .. again miso-.. . ORDEAL: first with boiling water When a girl says that her day of shopping was quite an ordeal. The Elizabethans thought that sullen and gloomy people we re suffering from this disease which was very fashionable at that time among the ultra-refined.hard to please. Later on naught y came to signify evil or corrupt. he was innocent. . . . . no redress after the votes were taken. that caused the blues. If a degendant in this original ordeal could carry a red-hot iron without being burned. Not until fairly modern times did naughty come to describe a child. And quite as i n these days when a man will affectionately call another. and gamos... Whi le the word misanthrope comes from the Greek word for hate plus anthropos which means . Then . and scio.the black bile that produces temperament. and a misanthrope. . NICE : formerly meant ignorant In the Middle Ages nice meant foolish or ignorant . or . "you old bastard. In the England of anothe r day this term.a woman of bad c haracter.thoug h the tests varied from time to time.. or just a trying experience. exacting.so this chap hates everybody. the victim just kept out of the state for 5 or 10 year. Again in Greek.a misogynist. and chole. This was merely a stronger way of saying naught which is derive d from the Old English nawiht.trial by ordeal. The Duke liked ribaldry and revelry. black.. ROUÃ once a criminal From the French word rouer that meant "to break on the wheel or "torture on the rack.s mischief as it does now.such as people of good taste and disposition. That is a nice ( exacting) problem. for it comes from the Latin word nescio which is made up of ne.coy. spelled ordal in Old English and meaning . . MISOGAMIST: the hater Many an old bachelor is a misogamist.love..hating. . she is using the word in a somewhat softer sense than it originally had. and so a philanthropist for his part loves all people. he was guilty. It was as simple as that. and gyne.no whit . or just good-for-naught. Finally it became general in its meaning and is now applied to many things .woman. of bad quality. A misogynist is a hater of women. The inspir ation for the word misogamist is the Greek miso-.. . you. If he flinched at p lunging his hand in boiling water.not. That was all.MELANCHOLY: black bile The Greeks defined melancholia as ..shy.to know. OSTRACIZE: reminiscent of Greek democracy When society ostracizes a person today it is recalling one of the quainter aspec ts of Greek democracy. philo means .nothing.and this gives an idea of the original meaning of the word :worthless.bile-. ..judgment .preci se. that is. .. as a naughty pack.hate. From time to time the Athenians would make up their minds that the influnence of a certain public man was dangerous and unwholesome. .marriage . and s o surrounded himself with dissolute and most disreputable people.the naughty canoes. a nd they believed that it was the presence of too much black bile in the system-m elas... . or .
from. When the officials stigmatized a petty criminal in 17th . You see it was once the custom of charlatans to h ave attendants who ate. Pyrrho felt that our physical senses were admit tedly unreliable. toads.twisting.haughtiness. our wo rd Nostril used to be spelled nosthirl..look at something carefully. The word stigma in Greek meant a brand made by a pointed instrument. . When a robber or blackmailer extorts (Latin ex. . but in modern usage it is applied to a flatterer who will do distasteful and nauseating things to please his patron. Pyrrho.forest. When you are thrilled about a pl ay. SAVAGE: forest dweller We move from the Latin silva..pl ain. for thief on the palm of the culprit. you with emotion.to pierce. ..this silly..twisted. and . or . who prefer to be supercilious and express their disda in by merely raising their eyebrows are portraying a word that is neither touche d nor tainted by slang. and lift their noses in the air are acting out a s lang word. TOADY: first a toad-eater When we use the verb toady. By the 17th century silly conveyed the notion that the person so-called was weak. Our word supercilious is a direct descendant of the Lati n supercilium. . an d winding one..pierced. the play has actually . because the M iddle English word thrillen meant. also salvaticus.foolish. the charlatan would appear to save his life by getting rid of the poison. .. The toad was regarded for ma ny years as poisonous. SUPERCILIOUS: lifted eyebrows Those who wish to be . or upon itsel f. however. . as.away. and silvaticus. we are using a word with a somewhat comic history. which splits into super." the Duke addressed these dissipated companions as his dear rouÃ© there wasn. and that we could. that is .(man) of the forest. Raise your eyebrows and there you are. He will toady to people with great names and great wealth. A tortuous road is a . notably to anyone who had doubts about the Christian religion.twisted away. Then . and cilium. THRILL: to bore a hole in The words thrill and nostril are close cousins.examine. The word torture come from the Latin tortus. or turned . and to more or less permanently suspend judgment.. While a retort (Latin re-.a hole drilled in the nose. it.men of the woods.rustic. harmless.ce ntury England. is a remark . they actually branded him with a red-hot iron. .simple. similarly. It was taken fr om the Greek word skeptomai which merely meant to . after the attendant had apparently swallowed the toad . never know the true nature of th ings. And about this date we arrived at modern meaning . The Newgate Calend ar tells of a hangman who was so ignorant that he could only burn the letter .eye lid. as .twisted with.turn.T. started a new school of thought some three or fou r centuries before Christ and he and his followers are regarded as the first ske ptics. TORTURE: to twist In the days of the Spanish Inquisition victims were tortured by twisting and str etching them on the rack.). Those. therefore..) body is .t one of them who shouldn. at first. He toadied to the wealthy.. STIGMA: literally a brand While a stigma with us is an unpleasant mark of disgrace it used to be a lot mor e painful than that.back. for example.. The dwellers in towns looked upon the . . If a face is distorted (Latin dis-.t have been jailed or stretched on the rack. so. he . SILLY: originally meant happy When silly was spelled s.above. from its normal shape.with. and a contorted (Latin con-.happy. SKEPTIC: examine carefully The Greek philosopher.lig it meant ..twist. or pretended to eat. The word toady originally stood for toadeater. the picture of disdain. and deserving pity. With this in mind he taught his pupils to look out upon the world with an unruffled indifference. through the Old French sauvage to our word savage. . or ..). up . aged k ing. or wrests it from them by physical or mental violence. and .blessed. . this being the only letter of the alphabe t he knew.consider. The epithet skeptic was innocent enough at the beginning.) money fro m persons.. a derivat ion of torqueo which means . it is . With t he passing of time the name skeptic was applied to anyone who questioned things too much..snooty. . .twists. as wild men and so the word savage g radually took on its present-day meanings of brutality and cruelty. And.back.. .innocent.
CALCULATE: suggests pebbles When a shopkeeper calculates his accounts.swelling. VILLAIN: only a farmer The villain whom we used to hiss on the stage started as a quite honest son of t he soil. When a storekeeper made up his budget in those days he opened his bag to find out his resources and counted the cash. which equals our ..John. w ick.on the challenger. By the time zany reached the English language. The Oxford English Dictionary claims that the first application of this term was in Chicago on the grain marker. The word trivial comes straight from the Lati n trivialis which means in translation . as is evidenced by a 14th-century writer who reports: . That is . Abo ut ten years later the name was transferred to a brokerage establishment that op erates illegally. .way. but they all have the idea of . Belly is a very distant relative too. ZANY: began as a nickname You have probably seen a group of people acting like fools at a cocktail party. or . His role was to mimic and make fun of his master. . Romance Behind Business Terms BUCKET SHOP: originally a bucket of beer In the 1870.little stones. . 3.. derived from boc. Board began to trade in small lots in an alley. An old French ordinance states that the bocher .000 years ago the merchant figured his profit and loss in a more pr imitive way.00 0 bushels so an .s this was applied to a low-down drinking establishment where patron s could come with a small bucket and carry away an evening. trivia. as his counters. speculating against its customers. He used what he called calcui. So the Latin term calculus. he is apt to use an adding machine..pebble. w as a person of low morals and villainy in general.of the crossroads.. members are supposed to have said.. . that is.. .twisted.. failing to execute their co mmands. half serf. and bound to the country estate or vil la of some lord. If so .. The words for this in Latin would be tri-. and hence.ll send down and get a bucketful pretty soon. BUTCHER: slaughtered the goats The original occupation of the butcher seems to have been the slaying of he-goat s. and via. although that. . the Chicago Board of Trade refused to allow transactions of less than 5. in them.A woman that was queen of Fraunce by eritage wedded a boch er for his fairness. . Arte a clowning servant was a Z ani.s supply of beer.trifles.. Of course he was of low birth. The word villa in Latin stood for a farm Or house. It was a nickname applied to porter s and other servants. nor slaughter the goats in the streets. it meant any silly person. The English word bulge comes from the same source.. B ut in Rome 2. BUDGET: just a little bag French merchants of the Middle Ages carried their money around in a bougette. In olden times t he butcher was of the very elite of tradesmen. whic h in our language means . . but after him the bad sense of the term took over. and pocketing profits thus accrued.go at.three.shall not cast the blood of goats in public ways. TRIVIAL: three ways The Romans were human and they knew that where their road crossed would be the s pot where the women would meet and gossip on the way back from market. and until that time this villain of ours was just a rustic fellow. a word that descended from the Latin bulga. Just gossip.. At its beginning the Italian word Z ani was a Venetian dialect from equivalent to Gianni..I. And even our word torch seems to have come from a . to the aristocrats.. Shakespeare employed the word villain in both its ancient and modern uses. In 1882. or .. Our word comes from the early French bocher. This entered Old Fre nch as vilein and Middle English as vyleyn. If trade on the legitimate board was slack.Open. you could properly call them zanies. a shortened form of the pr oper name Giovanni.little bag. Thus in the Commedia dell. crossroads small talk. not only gave us our word calculus which w e apply to one of most complicated forms of modern mathematics.a leather bag.s not so obvious.butcher.
.s wealth.D.coal.charge account.head.cattl e. And the word cancellarius. In a business sense.. a stamp. Around the year 1900. when a clerk i n the Post Office . which was described by the Greek philosopher Theophra stus in a script he wrote on Stones aboyt 371 B. in Latin is cancelli. But most curiously of all we inherit the word caricature from carricare which sometimes meant to . in the fi rst days of the automobile when it often was a steam-driven vehicle.. a person with the obligation of paying . .loads. among other th ings.fireman.. and up to the 16th century the English spoke of .to heat. A .to make warm by rubbing. Hence it s name from he Latin lignum. and 6 loads of peat. And the chauffeur is no l onger a . or soft coal. to the professional who drove t he car.to load on a wagon. Cancel is from the same source as the chancel of a church-originally the l attice division that separated the choir from the nave-now the part of the churc h so separated. Bey ond this the Roman chariot carrus gave other words. but now is most commonly used by us in the sense of making the skin sore or sensitive by rubbing. who was so named because he stood ad cancellos. or capital. meant at one time a piece of carbon g lowing without flame.. The Old French form chaufer went into English as chau fen. mortgage. COAL: first a glowing ember The word coal. The abbot had let some land to a certain Wulfred who was to send to the monastery in return.goods and cattals . The coal called lignite is so imperfectly formed that it still has the brown look of decayed wood. You charge or .lattice. . The Latin word for the four-wheeled baggage wagon that Julius Caesa r used in his campaigns was carrus. a mineral pitch found in Palestine and Bab ylon that was used for mortar. for i n the earliest days a man.stoker. got its name from he Latin word bitumen.at the lattice.. The type of hard coal known as anthracite owes the beginning of its name history to the Greek wor d anthrax. and this contribute d another word to English. and confusingly eno ugh. . The Latin root of caput appears in scores of English words in various fo rms depending upon whether it came to us through the French or directly from the Latin.to loa d. on a cart. or burden a man with his crime. CHARGE: from a Roman chariot When you charge a customer for a purchase you owe a debt to Rome for the term yo u are using.cancels. loaded. and so reduced to coal. Cargo is another great-grandchild of carricare.. it.. for example. The chafing-dish is the only m odern use that retains the original meaning of . the word charcoal means something that has been . One of the earliest mentions of coal is found in the Saxon Chronicle of t he abbey of Petersborough in the England of 852 A. meaning . as caricaturists are supposed to do. .to warm.and the French took this over as chargie r.. Our car came up through the North French word carre. . Later coal took on its modern meaning. instead of . And in the olden days. he makes a lattice of ink marks right acros s it. 60 loads of wood.CANCEL: a lattice of ink The word for .. CHAUFFEUR: stoked the fire A French word that used merely to mean a fireman or stoker and that eventually g oes back to the Latin calificare. your mind with a responsibility.head. which finally changed into our present word chafe which used to mean . We charge.C. and the carriage we used to ride in came through the Ol d Norman French cariage. they used to charge a musket with powd er and sot.. In the Douay Bible of 1609 we read: .wood. and we s till speak of a herd of a thousand .to make hot..charred.over-load.usher of the law court. . Bituminous. .loaded. it and when they discharged it they . They . was reckoned in cattle. 12 loads of coal. and so o exaggera te.. The term chauffeur derives from chauffer. Cargo is ...load.Thou shalt p itch it (the arke) within and without with bitumen. . the French gave the bantering name of chauffeur of . are from caput. spelled col in Old English. Ca rricare which meant.heat. A chattel mortgage is really a . of course.goods and chattels.unloaded. CAPITAL: from the human head The word capital in the sense of wealth comes ultimately from the Latin caput . COBALT: a devil .. Both of our words capital and cattle. In later Latin carrus developed the verb. ..
didn.. NASTURTIUM The pungent smell of these flowers caused them to be nicknamed .with.. and mistily comes.copper demon. then..twig.The miseln groweth . In its business use he romantic associations of the word company a re drained off. And if you chew one of the seeds the bitter taste will make the meaning of the name more obvious.. it resemb les the testicles. COMPANY: eats bread with you The term company corresponds to companion and this in turn derives from he Latin words cum. They chewed the stuff for toothache. .. . meaning a .dung.. . but the beginnings of the word are anything but romantic. ORCHID The lovely and expensive orchid holds in its name the Greek word for .twig of dung .goblin.So from this we have our word echo. The word orchis now survives in Engl ish only as a botanical and medical term.. The meaning proper has disappeared alo .twist. and panis.. A companion. and for punishment was deprived of all spech save the power to repeat such word echo.t.. orchis. said. This all grew out of the popular belief that this plant sprang from bird drop pings. The miners chose a simi lar name for nickel. She happened to offend her mistress. that the orchid was remarkable in that. made the youth fall in love with his own reflection in the wa ters of a fountain. and since such love as this could never be consummated.. We regard the plant as an invitation to a kiss. writing in 1562 in his Bulwarke of Defence A gainst All Sickness and Woundes said: . and William Bullein. this meal was regarded as the demon of the mines and was nicknamed from the German Kobalt. she fell hopelessly in love with the beautiful youth Narcissus. but he spurned her love and as a result Echo faded away until only her bone and her voice were left. In order to punish Narcissus for his crime Nemeses. steel-gray metallic element.. go ddess of vengence. being on the practical side. and usef ul in some of its compounds as a pigment. queen of the heaven s. Because of this. .nose. is one who eats bread with you. and torqueo. Roman author and naturalist. and also bec ause the arsenic and sulphur it often contains was harmful to those working over it.come onely by the mewting of birds . valuable to certain steel alloys. .these 2.. Its lustrous sheen often made the mine rs think they had discovered a more precious meal. a . and when you have company at your house they share your hospitality.nose-twisters .A tough. by the ancients.s too bad to rob the mistletoe of any of its delightful associations. the word nasturtium was made up of the Latin words nas us. we find it spelled mistiltan.. then. a variant of Kobold. Nickel. You see. in the 1st century.000 yea rs ago. . In spite of her handicap. When we trace mistletoe back to its origin. In German it used to be Kupfernickel. becau se this tricky ore looks copper and isn. sive serapias. Narc issus pined away and finally changed into a flower. . daughter of air and earth. gemina radice testiculis simili.testicle. but the American Indians. Mirabilis est orchis herba. It was the Roman naturalist Pliny who said. son of a river god. was an attendant on Gera. and tan means .t trifle with it in thi s way. In a 17th-century essay we read that mistletoe . Word Histories of Your Garden MISTLETOE It. The ancien t Druids thought that the mistletoe of the oak was a cure for the various ailmen ts of old age. of all things. the Freudian term narcissism. f rom a word meaning .received its name from tormenting the nose. and narcissus itself. however. dropping the first half of the name in transit. Echo... which feed thereupon and let it passÃ©hrough their body. So here we have a . .messmate. with its double roots. Even Pliny the Elder. upon the tree th rough the dounge of byrdes. These are his Latin words:. that this flower . . with its handsome and usually white or yellow flowers. 4. We took the word nickel from he Swedi sh kopparnickel. NARCISUS The history of this flower-name leads us into an involved love story of the Grec ian gods which eventually contrituted three useful words to the English language .bread. i s just a bit of he Old Nick.
and so takes its name from the Greek philodendros.three.rose... The cor ona is the crown of thorns.s passion. .. author . . and i t retains its stylish Latin name of salvia. PHLOX The solid and variegated colors of the phlox glow like flames. .clover. a .in good health. PHILODENDRON A tropical Amirican plant that likes to climb trees. It was while there that he became attracted to th e large. Why shouldn. by way of a drinking celebration.. the nails or wounds. SALVIA The oldsters knew something of the mystical healing powers of sage tea. authority on military science. This name is said to have been chos en because the stems of the plant were used a good deal in the manufacture of pi pes.the itch. from philos. SCABIOSA A thoroughly unromantic Latin name. heavy-headed plants so characteristic of early summer wereonce w idely used in medicine so they were named after Paion. The plant was call ed this because it used to be thought of as a cure for certain skin diseases. which meant . Union leader in the Civil War.. TRILLIUM This flower of many colors with its whorl of three green leaves derives its name from the Latin tri-. which means . . It is for this reason that it comes in order on St. means .tree-loving plant. from s cabo..little clover. o r .s day . was adistingu ished diplomat. This ide a is contained in the Latin name salvia. .reed. and so n amed it pensee. the flower. PETUNIA The botanists saw a resemblance between this small tropical plant with its white and violet flowers and the tobacco plant so they took the American Indian word petun. in Greek. among other things.scratch. South Carolina.. But the scarlet variety of sage is an ornamentai plant. The plant was used by St.Patrick to illustra te the Trinity because of its three leaves.. and dendron. flaming flowers that we now know so well. RHODODENDRON A rose tree. with its showy colors and .from the Greek rhodon. congressman. PANSY Some poetic mind fancied that this dainty flower had a thoughtful face. SYRINGA This ornamental shrub with its sweet-scented white flowers got its name from the Greek syrinx. on the end.thoughtful.to drown the shamrock. but for all that he would probably gave been forgotten had he not been appointed as a special minister to Mexico. a derivation of scabies . SHAMROCK From the Irish seamrog. which turned easily into our word pansy . French for .tobacco. .. PEONY These striking. that is.. Therefore the shamrock is a .. which is what you do when you have the itch. meaning . TULIP Again among the descriptive names is the tulip which. and put a Latin sounding . In Old French this same Latin word became sauge which eventu ally gave us sage. since phlox. He brought some of the plants back to the States and his name Poinsett gave us poinsettia.ia.Patrick . Peter and Judas were not counted.loving..s cabinet. The five sepals and five petals are the ten apostles. .t the y.tree.ng with the study of Greek from the general ken.. PASSION FLOWER So named because its parts resemble the instruments of Christ. which is from salvus. a personage of Greek myth ology who was the physician of the gods. the diminutive of seamar which means .. syringes. and dendron.flame.sound. and it became his symbol.? POINSETTIA The Honorable Joel Roberts Poinsett of Charleston.tree. Secretary of War in President Martin Van Buren.
Ceres. we are coming as near as we can to sayi ng gar aus which is the German word for . Ceres became the protector of th e crops.. and violet ..D. from tulbend. the Roman countryside was cursed by a terrible drouth .C.velvet texture. but for some reason adopted as the state flower of Indiana. but to the Romans the word verbena meant . the clerk would have understood you to have s aid .a fragment. The caretakers of her temple were the overseers of the grain market.anatomy. and to insure a good harvest the first cuttings of the corn were al ways sacrificed to her. which was a sort of take or leave i t invitation to a drink. you are paying a small tribute to an an cient goddess. has somewhat the appearance of a turban. at what was then the C ollege of Pennsylvania.of Ceres. CANDY: broken bits Until quite recent times we said. that is.completely finished. with striking. In 496 B. cypress. When a celebrant is drinking in a tavern and his glass is gar aus. midwifery. And when we d rink we are usually hob-nobbing with other people..a bread of fragments. and in the end bread and loaf took on their present meanings. VERBENA To us the verbena is a fragrant perennial with spikes of broad flat clusters of white. we are chatting soci ally and being convivial. The Latin adjective cerealis. not just candy but sugar candy. later . the Turkish way of saying. where t his cordial was originally made. turban. CAROUSE: bottoms up Sometimes a party that starts innocently and pleasantly will end in a wild carou se.a little piece. an obscure 18th-century German bot anist who seems to have no other claim to fame than this. and applied to the sacred boughs of myrtle. The name zinnia comes from that of J. but rather coarse blooms. 5. an old Carthusian monastery. It also grows in the northern states. But in the 12th century when the English cried habbannabban they were saying . .a piece of bread. however. which meant . grievances. than which nothing could have sounded sillier. and lilac flowers. pink. CEREAL: named for a goddess When you are eating your morning cereal. CHARTREUSE: from a monastery..EstrÃ© gav . our familiar sugar candy. and a ll. and what-not carried by the heralds who declared war. When we pronounce this word carouse. Native toMexic o and the Southwest.. a plant that is especially popular in Japan and in the southern United States. however. In the early 17th century the Marechal d.. the goddess controlled since it was her influence that determined the harvest. As a result of this divine consultation. it i s empty.s name The name derives from La Grande Chartreuse. and had asked for a loaf then meant bread.. Final ly. or . The priests reported that a new goddess. but southerners usually refuse to recogni ze this fact.Zinn. and if it is gar aus too often he is starting to carouse. ZINNIA A plant. and they recommended that immediate sacrifices be made to her so tha t she would bring rain to the land. WISTERIA A high-climbing shrub with flowers that run the gamut of white. must be adopted.broken bread. and their word bread meant . The word comes to us th rough the obsolete French word tulipan.G. In the end. or lump sugar. The priests of the day turned to the Sibylline oracle for help. and surgery.have not. wh ich.. red. These two words sarkara khanda are represented in Ita lian to form zucchero candi.-.have. Word Stories About Your Dining Table BREAD: merely a fragment If you had gone into an English bakery around 700 A. and the deriva tion of these words indicates that our confection must have always been on the h ard side for candy is ultimately from the Sanskrit khanda which meant a piece of something. These flowers were named wisteria in 1818 for Caspar Wistar who wa s one-time professor of .sacred bough...completely finished.. ga ve us our word cereal. So when you spoke of a loaf of bread. bread came to mean . demanded redress for wrongs. highly colored.
B ut in 1880 the Order was expelled from France and they set up their distillery i n Spain at Terragona.....This was in 1533. COFFEE: decoction of berries It is said that back somewhere in the year 850.twice-cooked.)until you.If you should concoct a story or a soup.which is similar to .Some of the faithful drank their qahwe to keep awake during the interminable religious services. Connoisseurs claim that the cordial is not right now becau se the herbs are gathered in an alien spot.Brandy as we know it seems to havebeen introduced into France from Italy at the time Henry..for instance. It is reported that the monks are us ing legal action to get back to their original spot so that the cognoscenti can have their chartreuse with the right flavor.or.and sometimes an elaborate one.and soon after cognac b ecame one of the most famous Frence brandies.e the monks a recipe for the liqueur which consisted of fine herbs and brandy.But sho uld there be discord(dis-.heart..ve made up a good one.zwieback..out of the French bi s.and minds are in harmony.a nd this gave France her cafe. The idea w as that the customer could pour the water back in when he received the stuff.andcuit.Likewise a cordialhandshake is a . and was so excited at the feeling of exhilaration he got that he rushed off to tell the other goatherds about the bush.water of life of Cognac.and with the laity.and backen.but for some reason it didn..It was a Dutchman who discovered brandy they say.The name cognac is short for Eau de Vie de Cognac...Finally in lat er days. it has long be en the custom for each fisherman to toss a bit of his catch into a common mess o f fish and biscuit that cooks in a community pot or chaudiÃ¨. The Arabs soon learned how to dry and boil the b erries..our .from coquo... Its use immediately stirred up a great r uction among the orthodox Mohammedans. He did.heart.is .a sharp businessman who was worried because more grape-wine was being produced in Cognac than they could ship out..for the word cordial comes from the Latin term cor.awayuote ).A man of cou rage is a man of .handshake. so he decided to try the berries himself. .But the derivatives from it may be worth our attention.or a light meal that was eaten on fast days in place of supper.When we are in ac cord(Latin ac-.hearts. COOK:just means cook The word cook itself holds little inerest for us. COGNAC:named for a town When guess sip their after dinner cognac.bake.you cook the i ngredients together(Latin con-.it warmed your heart. He noticed that they were nibblin g on certain berries. and they called the brew qahwe.but for that reason others thou ght that qahwe should be barred as an intoxicant.Turkey took up the brew qahwe.or lives of the saints.hearty.baked.then Duke of Orleans.cooked.from the German zwie.to.Both o f the words kitchen and cake come by different routes from coquo. a goatherd named Kaldi became pu zzled at the strange way his flock was acting.cook. and the spelling c haudiÃ¨ was restyled as chowder. .it was used to mean a meal..married Catherine de Medici.together. on the north coast of France.Sohe thought if he distilled the water from the wine t here would be less bulk and more of the product could be transported. CHOWDER: named after a pot In the little villages of Brittany. CORDIAL:close to the heart Should you ever in your life have sipped a cordial.cor dis..our hears and minds are apart.they are tasting a liquor that has been in the world for more than 400 years.for courage comes to us though French from the Latin co .t i t? And it properly should..a town in southwest France where brandy-markin g is the main industry.twice. and the name of the pot was soon applied to the contents.)with a neighbor.A biscuit. COLLATION:began with the monks In the Benedictine monasteries the monks used to gather in the evening and read aloud from the Collations.hence our word coffee.It traces back to the Latin wor d cocus or coquus.Then they would talk about the se things and eat a light meal the while .It was a good idea at that.Later this came to be called a collati on.twice.didn.. This dish was so good that its fame spread to Newfoundland and so to the east coast of the United Stat es.t work.
"The poison with which the soldiers tipped their arrow s was calld toxikon(pharmakon) which led to the Latin toxikum..hotel ofthe Waldorf was impressed with the dish.By this route the word grape came to us.and put ham and a toasted English muf fin in place of the bacon and toast.possibly because the proce ss of sealing wounds or jars hermetically seems to have to do with the mystic an d magical powers of the gods. HERMETICALLY: a god-given name When a housewife hermetically seals her jars of preserves.cordis. the date palm was common in the Mediterranean region long a go.alchemy.however.and now the words epicure and epicurus and his followers so deplored.and stilla.and so he instructed his pupils in temperance. EGGS BENEDICT:resulted from a hangover In the year1894 a certain Samuel Benedict.and christened the whole affair Eggs Benedic t in honor of the genial rake.Ou r word hermetically is formed form the name of Hermes.although the use of the word in this sense is a gross slander on the hight in your pleas ure.she would hardly guess that she was dealing with the magic of a Greek God.The Latin term distillo suggests this process when w e split the word up into de..when writing was not such a simple art..When the English-speaking p eople took over the word.the Latin term for.the vine hook wit h which they gathered the grapes.down.twopoached eggs.He knew precisely what he wanted for his breakfast.the record that is kept divides into re-.although the use of the word in t his sense is a gross slander on the original Epicureans.be that as it may. s cafe society."drop." The notion was that morid matter"dropped"from the blood an d settled about the joints. INTOXICATE:poisoned arrows The modern meaning of this word came about in a simple and logical fashion.The G reek word toxon meant"bow.Oscar.as today gout is ranked under the vague and gen eral term of rheumatism.heart.the records were often passed on by word of mouth and had to be leaned by.And when we instill the yo ung with wisdom."vine .too."berry of the vine.which really meant a cluster of fruit gro wing together. DISTILL:drop at a time When a substance is distilled it is vaporized in a retort.As all Bible readers know. DATE:like a finger The fruit of the date palm was once thought toresemble the human finger. because in former times.again.but his lords were now saying grappe.and a hooker of hollandaise.TheGreek philosopher.heart.literally.and the occult.Again.they seized upon the single idea of.. is poured.and condensed drop by drop.it would be correct to call you an epicure.Pleasure..came into the old Wal-dorf-Astoria on 34th Street with a wicked h angover.He ordered bacon butt er toast.into. taught moderation in all things.their minds.But.drop bydrop. Hermes.and als o the lusty word grapple that you use when you grapple with a problem.a more general wor ..finger.Its introduction into America was due to the efforts of Spanish missionaries in the 18th century who started seedlings in Mexico and elsewhere. EPICURE:should be moderate If you are a lover of good food and wine and if you take a fastidious and sensuo us delight in your pleasures.that. GOUT:just a drop This disease..man-about-town and member of New York.drop.In the 19th century folks had gout stools that were made to hold one foot.it would be correct to call you an epicure.gout goes back thourgh Frech to th e Latin gutta.and henc e our word date comes ultimately from dactylus.pleasureand .There may now be a medical doubt about the cause.It is true that the humble farmer went on saying winberig e.has been the honored ailment of oldgentlemen who lived high and drank large quantities of port after dinner.he advised.and cor.famous maitre d. GRAPE: a hook for gathering fruit The original Old English word for this was winberige form the Germanic win.a god of magic...."and berige.down through the years.r.is acertain quota o f pain.and this latter word ultimately comes form grape.a.passed into a receiver ." But in the 11th century Will iam of Normandy conquered England and with his victory the fancier Frech words c ame in at a great pace.and so caused them to swell and become painful. was a messenger like the Roman god Mercury.an Olympian god."berry".Epi crueans.
We then turn to the late Latin intoxicatus from the verb i ntoxico." MANHATTAN:origin unknown Of course the name Manhattan."Name your poison!" Of course in our medical word toxic we have retained the ancient meaning.and received their name because of this.And so we have taken a trip dow n through the centuries from the Greek warrior who poisoned his arrows to the in toxicated chap who says.As early as 1787 records show that the landlords of Virginia started the day at six in the morning with a julep as an eyeopener."ente red French as la melle.S.Then you needed a tremendo us linen square to mop up with.So there we are. and the junket that we feed to children.an d in this term is buried another word."noon.d covering any poison." LUNCHEON:a lump of food The origin of this common word is so old that it has become somewhat clouded. JUNKET:originally a basket We have here a strange tie-up between a rush basket and the pleasure junket tha t a group of congressmen take.and so "a little tablecloth.The term came to us by a series of absurd blunders.nape.used to be called"a nadder.In old France the custard that was made there of"cream.and b efore we know it l'alemelle is being spelled l'alemette.and later on.and th is custard soon took on the name of the basket in which it was carried and was r espelled junket.This w as borrowed into Middle English as naperon and an apron was first called a napro n.or basket of rushes.and spoons were limited.and the year 1894 is the earliest recorded use of the name.an adder."and supper is"to sup."to dine.and even in the 1890's large napkins were an import ant part of any top-drawer dinner."An d all of this finally derives from the Latin word mappa which also meant napkin or"cloth.which is an Old French word."bitten."poison.These enormous napkins were a sign of elegance lo ng after flat sliver came in.And a morsel is a"little bite"since it co mes from the Latin term morsum.and later the word was reinterpreted as l'alemelle.The Manhattan cocktail came into vogue toward the end of the last century.The Latin word lamella.Lun ch first meant"a lump"and lunshin.The history of the martini is equally obscure. The origin lies in the Arabic word julab which meant"rose-water."This innocent potion became alcoholic in the good old U.So ."High authorities claim that these two words nonschench an d lunshin blended to form the word luncheon which could then roughly mean"a lump of food with a noon drink.if you have followed through this labyrinth.In similar fashion the snake.belonged to the tribe of Indians who originally inhabited Manhattan Island."a thin plate.but by error the initial n became joined to the a and an apron took the place of a napron.These baskets suggested a picnic and the junkets the congressmen go on certainly have the character of a picnic.we'll say.But th e French already had a word alemette which meant the thin blade of a sword.meant"a lump of food.or nonexixtent.omelette.A.And while on the s .when you have breakfast." Of course. JULEP:merely rose-water Here is a name poetic as a Kentucky colonel.but as yet there is no further explanatio n of the origin."a drink.an English dialect word.and sugar"was taken to market in the jonquette."which is really to "sip"either food or drink.you will see that an omelette is re ally a thin blade and has practically nothing to do with eggs. "and schench.which once meant tablecloth.We have the word napery now for table linen. NAPKIN: first a little tablecloch The tiny paper napkins that we use at times would never have done in the old da ys when knives." But there also existed the dialect word nonschench which splits into anon.In our la nguage when we say napkin we mean a little nape."the base of our word intoxicale."Dinner is from the French diner.you merely"break the fast." OMELETTE:originally a thin blade The history of this word is just as mixed up as a modern omelette.whether applied to the drink or the city."In Old French the derivative of nape was naperon.except that this all stems from the juncus of the Romans which was their word for "rush. to the Philippines.rose water.
As the congressional Record of March. 1934. but are descended from widely different parents. or . arose and started a long. .. but in Old French it meant a lump of bread.. and finall y blackmail and bribery in the modern sense. that lies east of Mallow in Cork County. as an olden-time author said: . for his constituents in Buncombe which was a county in his district.cast. in our clubs.. a . d ull. of course. bribes means bit s. According to the Niles. . lumpe or cantill of bread given unto a begg ar.bubble. Finally the speaker apologized with the now famous statement: . Political Terms and Their Origins BALLOT: why we . the phrase .s.The grateful Greek held night festivals in his honor. . while ballot traces to the Italian ballota.ubject of omelette the word yolk comes quite understandably form its color. North Carolina. ends. odds.blackballed. Ireland When you raise a lot of ballyhoo you are making a general fuss and pother. s ays: .The Greek calle d 6.The rustics about Rome not only used the word unio to mean onion. Ireland. or. With us a ballot is sheet of paper we put a cross on and drop in a box on election day. which meant. a ballot The ballot we cast and the bullet we shoot were both balls at the beginning. BALLYHOO: from county cork. .I.. The development of bribe seems to have been along the following lines: firs t a piece of bread.And even today a cook w ill speak of "pearl onions"when she means the small.It rates its name because it consists of a number of united layers. The debunkers were first a school of historians in the years between Wars I and II who were po pular for the straightforward and outspoken ways in which they stripped some of our heroic figures.m talking for buncombe.talking to (or for) Bunku m. then begging.There is also another interesting analogy between uni on and onion. then living by beggary. and in the plural. But the anci ent Greek dropped a white ball of stone or metal or shell in a container when he favored a candidate.boss. A colorful and expressive derivativ e of this word is debunk which came into use in the early 1920.a small ball.and these often turned into drunken parties where the boys and girls danced and sang and violated all the sex laws.A peece. a debate that is without eq ual in the annals of parliamentary. BUNK: a speech for Buncombe County Around the year 1820 a debate was in progress in the House of Representatives on the complicated question of the Missouri Compromise. a word of G ermanic origin. or ordinary discussion.a little ball. then theft.bu t they also thought it a suitable desigation for a pearl.. and leavings. and from the violenc e of these debates has sprung forth a word known in the English language as ball yhoo. Others called for the question. pu blished in Philadelphia from 1811 to 1849.It is a derivative of the Middle English word yolke through Old English geolca. unless we are dealing with voting machines.slivery-white variety. In the middle of the discu ssion a member from Buncombe County.The wor d onion is derived form this Latin term.from g eolu. We clipped the word to bunk.. Weekly Register. Bribe is such a word. ORGY:meant secret rites Dionysius was a god and giver of the grape and the wine. which now means inflated and empty speech or pretentious humbuggery. Bullet comes down to us through th e French boulette. and completely irrelevant talk. Many members walked out."yellow. was well-known in 1828.The residents engage in most strenuous debate. a black ball when he was against-which explains why the un desirable are still ." ONION:related to a pearl In Latin there is a word union which is translated as "oneness"or"union". The ball we throw and bat around in our games has a closely related parentage as it comes from the same Germanic source as the Italian ballotta... In modern French.stud. from the Latin bulla. This all is thought to have grown out of a village called Ballyhooly. BRIBE: a piece of bread Many of the words that concern themselves with the idea of companionship or conc iliation (including these two words themselves) have to do with the sharing of f ood.
or one of those international combines that m akes such an agreement about the fixing of prices and output. The word came to me an anyone who waged an irregular sort of warfare for his own gain.paper.diviner. we are more accurate than we know. . .. But in olden times such important affairs were not left to chance. The augurs and prophets of those days studied the flights and habits .t too far in sound from governor. however.. for it traces back to the old Sla vic word cesare which obviously owes its beginning to Caesar. Such a redist ribution of boundaries today for the purposes of political advantages is still c alled gerrymandering. with the ax protruding. but vrijbuiter gave us another word by another route.. passed it on to the French.CANDIDATE: clad in white When a Roman politician went campaigning he took care that his toga was immacula tely white so that he could make the best impression possible. FILIBUSTER: once a freebooter The buccaneers who infested the West Indies and the SpanishAmerican Coast in the 17th century were called filibusters and freebooters.direct a ship. .free.. By the 17th century it was an agreement concerning the exchange of prisoners in a war. A cartel was originally a written challenge to a fight.booty. The Latin Word inauguratus splits up into in-. GERRYMANDER: child of a salamander Coined around 1812 and infrequently used except in politics. but later it took on the meaning that our word candidate has.a person dressed in white.sit in front of.belonging to the first rank. in the figurative sense is white and pure.ship of state. At that time the Ma ssachusetts legislature ingeniously contrived to rearrange the shape of Essex Co unty so as the better to control elections. It originated in the Latin term charta which meant . The governor of the state at that time was Elbridge Gerry and a smart newspaper editor used his surname and the last half of salamander to create gerrymander.white and glowing. then int o Spanish as filibustero.. a seeker after office. also. And now a fil ibuster is conducted by a sometimes irregular sort of congressman who speaks int erminably to delay legislation. even in those days it had the figurative meaning to . and gave us our English word chart. The Romans borrowed the word as guberno. you will see the mark of the Fascist.. The term Fascism comes from the Italian Fascismo and this in turn is bu ilt on the Latin fascis which meant a bundle. usually a bundle of sticks or rods . GOVERNOR: he directed a ship When we speak of the . we induct him into office with so lemn and suitable ceremonies. This bundle. The title Tsar was first used in Russia in the 15th century and wa s adopted as his official title by Ivan the Terrible in 1547. The Czar is another story. for a candid person. The pr esident of the United States. Benito Mussolini resurrected it ofr his o wn use. The root of candida tes can be recognized in our word incandescent which means . INAUGURATE: they studied the birds first In modern days when we inaugurate a president.. . . Kybernao isn. the name of the Ro man emperors. and augur..in. then it crossed the channel to England as governor. Then later it meant a l ibelous statement in writing. a nd in candid.protect. When they got through with their red istribution it was noticed that this county resembled a salamander. or . for the word president comes from the Latin praesideo. The Latin word ca ndidates first simply meant . was the symbol of official power that was carried before all Roman magistrates. and buit. It passed into French as filibuster. The word freebooter come from the Danish vrijbuiter. and. for to t he Greeks their word kybernao meant to . and so into English as filibuster. a nd the Premier of England should really be the first and topmost citizen of his country because Premier is from the Latin word primaries which means . vrij.direct the ship of state. is actually a presiding officer. an d therefore frank and honest. FASCISM: based on a bundle If you will look on the back of the American dime. CARTEL: originally a chart Here is a word that has gone through dramatic changes of meaning. And now it has the dignified meaning of .an agreement in restraint of trade.
heads. claiming that he believed a ruler to be justified in using any means. was an Algonquian Indian word meaning . For this reason he was forced to stop his active practice of politics... or . h is was vulgar in his humor. for the politicians of e arly 16th-century Florence.s wife shall sit at a form al dinner party.. PROTOCOL: first concerned glue We are familiar with the sharp protocol of diplomacy that determines what offici al shall call on whom first..t eat. MUGWUMP: great man In 1884 there was a split in the Republican party.. Which was the first leaf glued to the front of a manuscript with a n index of the contents written on it. In 1640 it was first applied to the anteroom of the House of Commons.his mug on one side of the political fence and his wump on the other. feverishly active in his ways. Unfair critics have mal igned him. The elements of the word are protos. declarin g: . 1936. The party leaders carry on endle ss arguments about the .passage.anteroom. was being taken. with an aquiline nose. and acidly sarcastic. and star ted to write down his theories about them instead.. and he was thought of as .flat. which meaning was modified to a . For this reason a machiavel lian policy now means a policy of craft. or even . The word protocol itself travels back finally to the Greek term protokollon.planks.head. He was thin-lipped.. to maintain his power.chief. is a .. Blaine for president. for that was the part of a person that could be seen a bove the crowd when a count of .the party line. In O ld High German lauba meant a shelter of foliage. A poll tax..s appeal to the public. Since the 18 00.Pharisees. MACHIAVELLIAN: from a stateman. and a large number of members refused to support James G. so a platform is really a .s flat In French plat means . When the sacre d birds refused to come out of their cage. there lived a famous statesman and di plomat by the name of Niccola Machiavelli.a cover ed walk. or mugquomp as it was spelled in one of the Massachusetts dialects.the idea man.. Through his book Il principe he has become known as the founder of political science. .of birds.If they won. take us right back to the broad pieces of sawed lumber that make up the f amiliar speaker.p lanks. and mugwum ps were hurled at them. although this joke is thought t o be older than Engel.s platform. We are wont to believe that Latin is always original in its contributions. Today the word is applied to anyone who takes a position inde pendent of . LOBBY: began as an arbor The word lobby that describes the operations of the political pressure groups in Washington shows us that some words have moved from German to Latin to English. Albert J.great man . however. became impatient during the Punic Wars. In Middle English the word was spelled polle and meant . cunning. Even the characteristics of his face and manner suggested his practices. and bad faith. or more particularl y. that are to be put in the platform. They were accused by the regu lars of assuming a superior attitude and such epithets as . tax. he tossed them into the sea. Machiavelli had a mind that was startling in its brilliance and keen in its ana lytical powers. the . and these .s name In the days of the wicked Lucrezia Borgia. The E mperor Claudius.flat-form. PLATFORM: it.top of the head. that a mugwump has . In modern days our presidents and gover nors receive no help from the diviners when they are inaugurated and are forced to take their own chances. and from their findings told the emperors and governors what the futu re held in store. Apparently mugwump. POLL: first a human head Poll is a term that has a meaning quite different from the one it began with.fir . and here the lobby began and the lobbyist went to work. they must drink.head. . This term entered the Latin of the Middle Ages as lobia and in the 16th century was adopted by English as lobby ..s the word platform. of course. and where the ambassador. no matter how unscrupulous. And the advice of the soothsayers was usually followed. In time he lost favor with the ruling Medici family. In this way the word cam e to mean the registering of votes. has signifi ed the basis of a party. in the political argot of the United States. Engel is reported to have said in the Hou se of Representatives in April.
"sea. ..fundamental. and kolla. he is actually asking the judge to ha ve and attack of amnesia.an old man .Now."bahr. But around the end of the 18th cen tury.which by chance I borrowed of my watchmaker today which my owne is mending. Chief Tammany was d escribed as a friend of George Washington. and may have been the Indian with who m William Penn had his famous negotiations for the land which became Penn.This word passed into English a nd was associated with the navy as early as the 13th century. a group of English politicos came to be known as radical reformers because they wanted to go right to the root of things and revamp the existing political set-up..t like change." al.t look upon old age with as much respect as the Romans did. It comes directly from the Latin radicalis from radix.The first tow parts of the Arabic word were taken into French as amiral which was later reinterpreted as admiral due to the equivalence of Old French a-and Latin ad-. and their senate."the ."commander. ALARM: to arms' If we are alarmed at any time. a nd the word radical eventually became a name of low reproach.to be up betimes by the helpe of a larum watch. i s merely a person who likes to go to the . and with i ts new power practically swung the political election to Thomas Jefferson." AMNESTY:loss of memory When a lawyer begs amnesty for his client. Therefore a radical. although it started off innocently enough.senate. TAMMANY: an Indian saint Tammany Hall was founded in New York City as a private social club in 1789.st. Later on the Delaware chief was facetiously canonized as the patron saint of the republic. bough t a meeting-place called . however. One half took out a charter as a social and benevolent outfit. thus.root..Amir."mnasthai. Then the meaning was extended to the rules of etiquett e of the diplomatic corps and others.... . In its original sen se."not."This was his official ti tle in the early days of Spain and Sicily.very often. So Tamman y split up. and so for more than 160 years New York City has often been ruled by the loyal Sons of Saint Tammany. root.1665. or Pennsylvania. of a matter. . because their special badge happene d to be a white hat.. after a hard day at the Exchequer:"And so to bed. was a revered council of elders.Later.primary. War Words and Their Histories ADMIRAL:a Saracen chief Originally an admiral was an amir. Our word protocol from which an official treaty or docum ent was eventually drawn. we should spring to arms for that is what the Ita lian cry all'arme meant.The word had even rea ched this low point at the time of Samuel Pepys who noted in his Diary on July 1 5. ."to remember")their misdeeds.The first person in history to grant amnesty was report ed to have been a Greek general who said that he would forgive his enemies and " not remember"(Greek a-. of the Supreme Court indicates tha t our young nation doesn. derived from the Latin senex. It w as said to have been sharpened into a political weapon by Aaron Burr.s wood s.root. They borrowed the name for their association from a Delaware Indian c hief of the 17th to 18th centuries called Tammany or Taminy. which also is a derivative of senex. or . The amir-al-bahr was comm ander of the sea.a flagship wa s called the Admiral which led to the word's application in modern English to a sea commander.. and rented the space to the other and polit ical half. radical meant . No one called them . This same word radix gave us the name of our homely vegetable the radish which is nothing more than an edible . 7. SENATE: a group of old men Our sometime comment about the . alarm has only to do with the warning of the morning alarm clock. We Americans are mor e apt to look upon old age as senile.nine old men.And from thi .glue. or a Saracen chief. essentially. for folks don. For their word senatus. RADICAL: to the root of things This word now is not much more than a general term of abuse.In later years the Italians combined the two word s into allarme and the meaning was extended from the military command itself to the em otion was fright that had been felt on hearing it shouted. They were soon a hated crew.The Hall.reds.. Peopl e were indignant and complained about a private club playing politics.
. and for many years after his death his pupils and followers met in this same spot for their discussions.and sess.meaning "something plundered."The word annoy was much stronger then. actually .then became basin. They took the Arabic words al jebr. These words of ours proiferate. . C astor and Pollux."In the Middle Ages."to sit.This word for this helmet was bacin .form sedeo.sid .the article bough. ALGEBRA: bone-setting The ancients had to borrow a medical term to christen this branch of mathemati cs."ultimately from the Lati n sedeo."and amnesty .The word could have been annoy-some but we reduced this to the less awkwar d word noisome. and before long we had bassinet or"little basin . .Its spelling was influenced by the Engli sh word boot which meant profit or advantage. It seems that a Spartan maiden . or in addition to."a bowl for the head. Sometimes these words were used to mean ."loss of memory .."or ju st boredom in general.Or a nice.Therefore we hav e the session of Congress during which our legislators "sit". named Helen.with out the changes incurred by passing through the French language."Th e French took the Latin word over in the derived form enuier. fat subsidy that let s you "sit" for the test of your life." that beriboned crib in which we put babies. came to us directly. but he gave us the word academy that now means a pla ce of learning. reuniting what is broken..it sits by"it until somebody sives up. ilm al .plus the English prefix be-.An attacking enemy would "annoy a town. "by. BASIN:a soldier's helmet You dont't have to tell a soldier that his helmet is often his only wsbasin or s oup bowl. The grove was called Academeia. who seems to ha ve given them some hint as to the whereabouts of the kidnapper and his victim.the. It was in this grove that the great philosopher Plato held his classe s."displease. Then there is the sediment that "sits" on the bottom and the sedentary jobs of the clerks. something besides. the knights of Charlemagne.and those sedate pa ople who "sit"gravely in their chairs. searched for t heir sister without success until they met the farmer.bone-setting .the fist meani ng "to displease"and the second. and jebr.The Lation roots sed. This word basin started in Roman days with the Late Latin term bachinu s.When bute entered our language it began to mean booty as we understand it."which is the extremity of annoya nce.something takenillegally and then sharedin the fashion of th e pirates and freebooters of those days. This we now use in such an express ion as:"He sold him his camera and then gave him a couple of films to bot"." 8.s we inherited our two English words.at least." ANNOY:once a military term In the 16th century the English had a Jury of Annoyances to deal with such publi c nuisances as the "slaughter of bestes within the cyte.meaning"disgusting.that is ."and fro m this term we inherited in English the tow words annoy and ennui. was kidnapped by the legendary hero Theseus.Or it used to . amnesia."the act of being bored by unpleasantness.But the word boot th at applies to the covring that yu wear on your foot is merely a corruption of th e Hindustani word lut. king of the F ranks wore cone-shaped metal caps or helmets."an eating lowl. Plato never did veri fy the story of the farmer. with the meanings al."When the enemy besieges a town. Terms of Science and the Professions ACADEMY: named for a Greek farmer? This is a pleasant story about a Greek farmer. A s a reward for his alertness the grove of Akademos was eternally watched over by the gods. Akademos.in the days before atomic fission. who are now in our heavens as two bright stars."This term ternm traces ba ck by changes of spelling to the Latin phrase in odio which meant "in hatred.Another useful English word comes from the same Latin pare ntage. BESIEGE:sitting by a towm This word traces through the Old French sieger." Bacin slipped into English." "offensive."a pardon for offenses. BOOTY:your share The modern word booty comes from the Middke Low German word bute which meant a d istribution or a sharing . Out of this they built a really impressive phrase for the new science. Her twin brothers.
and they called it al-iksir. it was spelled dean . it would become magnetic and begin t o draw feathers and strings and other light objects to it. But to the school-chi ld today. Late on this became a church term and was the title of the ecclesiastic who was at the head of ten monks in a monastery . .cut up. is simply a Roman rende ring of the Greek idea. and aesthesis.cut up... The word .s just a mathematical headache... i t .the beaming sun.cuts. Eastern alchemists continually tried to turn base metals into gold.the dry power. Even today elixir retains a magic meaning . which meant . it in . If we examine an ant or a similar insect. It came form the Latin in. The ancients used to make love amulets out of amber. DISSECT: cut it apart When a biologist dissects a frog he dis-.t as stupid as we thought . the Latin word for .cut up. ELIXIR: of magic powers With us an elixir is usually a panacea or life-giving potion. from an-. Since friction can make amber give off sparks .-jebr wa.. al-kimia . as: . l iterally .elixi r of life.l-mup-abalah. for in medieval times the boys were looking for an elixir vitae or . .insensibility. In geometry we bisect a circle . and seco . we will see that their bodies are indented and appear to be . Its present use dates form the time of the first inoculat .in between . and Faust searched for this imaginary cordial in his laboratory .reduction and comparison by equations.. The word is based on the G reek entomos which means . they brought with them the idea for their type of research and also introduced the name of it .The book is f ull of a veritable elixir of spiritual vitality. it.. and now he can be the head of as many as he wants . . .two .or .apart . which eventually became alchemy .plants.This Araby worde Algebra sygnifyeth as well fra ctures of bones as sometime the restauration of the same. INOCULATE: a gardening term When the doctor inoculates you. Ponce de Leon sought the elixir in F lorida ... Decanus is derived from decem .. This word into Latin as elect rum. . and the term chemistry followed .apart. and oculus. . . in to sections .cuts. In the earliest days.ten. ENTOMOLOGY: cut up This is the branch of zoology that treats of insects. that would bring eternal youth . . and guaranteed that the wearing of one would attract a lover . For instance we read in the historian Halle: .. DEAN: he led ten The dean of your university is a descendant of the Roman decanus who was a comma nder of a division of ten . By the tim e the colleges borrowed the title decanus . ANESTHESIA: no feeling Sir Humphry Davy first accomplished artificial anesthesia in 1800 and in that pe riod medical men would have had enough Greek to know that Plato used the word an aisthesia to mean . And a section is something .There was an imaginar y substance that they thought would do the trick. from elektor..not.insect.. This entered Medieval Latin as elixir.feeling. When the Arabs invaded Europe . Little more than this was known about electricity until comparatively recent times. CHEMISTRY: a search for gold The early alchemists spent most lf their time trying to find a way to turn baser metals into gold. and atomic fission is showing Us that they weren. The Italians mercifully took the second and third words of this phrase and combined them to form algebra. ELECTRICITY: the beaming sun The Greeks knew that when you rubbed amber. he . whence our electric and electric ity.. in your body a small seedling of th e virus or germ that causes the disease in order to make your immune to attack.cut. the Greeks na med it electron . was turned into the adjective electritcus.still a word of magic. or . ..eye.. . from the Latin insectum. A road that i ntersects another . The word chemist was coined by shortening alchemist . Even as late as the 17th century the word algebra kept its original Arabic meaning and still referred to surgical treatment. But at first the word inoculate was a purely horticultural term and meant to in sert an eye or bud in a plant for propagation.cut off .cut.into ..
that in those days meant seasickness. got that type of nausea that we call seasickness and that the French spea k of as mal de mer .The Greeks were the ones who inve nted the world nausia .the slave who .points out with some bitterness in his Legend of Bad Women .little man of the eye. And so pupilla contributed the word pupil to us with a second meaning . which permits the bereaved woman to live in her decease d husband.choke.The word quarantine comes eventually fro m the Latin quadraginta. PEDAGOGUE: he led the children An instructor of young people is a schoolmaster .leads the . the vehicle that produced the condition .. QUINSY: choked a dog The Greeks called a sore throat kynanche. we often see a minute image of ourself reflected there . that wives are always sea sick .child . . we have t he . the pupil of your eye ...by the way .lay. And then we have the other English word pupil . N ow it is an indulgence corresponding to such a penance. but the sons were taught by the pedagogues who were slaves in the fami lies of the rich. When we look another person in the eye. the pupil of your eye . which divides into pais .people.led. Juvenal ... and ancho.. for instance .and in the early Rome Catholic Church a quarantine was a penance or fast lasting for the same period of time. The Hebrew word for the p upil of the eye were eshon ayin.little doll. . The mythical Asclepius had a dau ghter with the happy name of Panakecia. We .t any better sailors than we are .set up. The Roman satirist . we are almost saying the same thing twice o ver.s quarantine.child. we can safely say the law was something . It would seem tha t there is a bit of religious significance in this mystic number .but years ago th e quarantine was for a flat forty days . or ..s car. In the early days of our language law was spelled lagu in the pural and lag u is so closelyrelated to the word . or .s why the word pupil came from the Latin term pupilla .. A statute. too. And it is interesting to know th at the Jews were drawn to this same figure of speech.window. LAW: something laid down When we lay down the law to someone.. laws on the books. PANACEA: named from a goddness A panacea is a cure for all ills.forty. Originally . and ago. QUARANTINE: forty days The length of time that a ship is now held in quarantine varies with the natu re of the contagious disease that is suspected of being aboard . a little doll. and they took it straight from their word naus ..laid down. on the other hand . the .forty. This word nausea.is quite the opposite. and comes by its meaning in all honesty. .set up.(demos) in other di rections. and from her name was derive our word panacea. and quite literally . . In common law. was the Medieval Latin name giben to the desert where Christ fasted for forty days ..the all-healing.dog. you will usually see a metal piece representing a serpent twined medicine .ship . and this magic number forty has several uses i n our language . The grandpare nt of this word is the Latin statutes which simply means something . .. NAUSEA: derived from a ship In the dim and distant days folks weren. They ... A demagogue .lead.. If you look at the front of a modern physician. from kyon..and the history of the word de mands that he should be . The serpent was taken to represen t medicine because he is the symbol of the renewing of youth and eternal life fr om the fact that he gets a new skin every year. .sickness of the sea . has taken on a broader meaning in English. Little attention was paid to the education of girls in ancient Gre ek days . Quarentena. for this term comes from the identical Greek word peda gogue. to school and home again by the hand. and this miniature picture also reminded the Romans of a pupilla or . PUPIL: just a doll When we see a group of young pupils sitting in a classroom.s house for a period of forty days after his death . .e against smallpox. but that a mistress remains healthy and good-tempered during the whole vo yage . and that. . they look a bit li ke little dolls . paidos.
"the fish.. the amazon. and inclined to give battle. which entered Middle English as quinesye. the early classes were t ermed schole.school. scholar. The last of the Scottish Royal Family to stay there was Margaret .we will find its ancestor in the Greek word zoion. hence the attraction. So it isn. This river was called by its d iscoverer Rio Santa Maria de la Mar Dulce. a school of fish . The Greeks invented this fable to connect the word Amazon with a . got confused with the native word vroune which meant brown. and then . he was engaged in battle by a savage tribe in which he believed that women fought beside the me n and it is the accepted story that he then techristened the mighty river Amazon as.. It comes down to us fr om the Dutch word school which is related to the Old English term scolu which me ant .for alba meant. But when the Spanish explorer Orellan a made the first descent of the river from the Andes to the sea.became The auburn-or reddish-brown-haired girls of today."the bull. and all the related words. SCOTLAND YARD: palace of the kings This place ..This word illustrates. if a wife sues for release from her bonds.literally. which.without. ..to.. AMAZONS: they had only one breast The Amazons were a race of female warriors who were alleged by the Greek histori an Herodotus to live in Scythia. These manlike women fought many battles with th e Greeks and the famous hero Achilles was presumed to have slain their queen pen thesilea when the Amazons were trying to heop the besieged Trojans.For example.. SCHOLAR: leisure to study To be a true scholar one must have leisure for reading . when philosophers such as Aristotle and Plato taught groups of young men. meditation . ZODIAC:meant animal The zodiac is that imaginary belt of animals that supposed by the ancients to en circle the heavens.breast. So the a lburnus or fair ." 9.. .The twelve parts were named for taurus. So the way the most of our divorce laws are written now.and lure. we mean that she is masculine.eating money. pow erful.. and so gave us school. But the word school as used in the phrase .a band of people. So when we call a modern woman an amazon."animal. It was from this contraption that the hawk wasd fe d during his training period."pisces. the dramatic shifts in spelling that can o ccur.of all things. ALLURING: from falconry When falconry was at its height in Englang and on the continent. she expects alimony.and mazos.t strange to find that our word scholar is from the Greek word schole which means . later quinsy.These Scythian women were responsible for the name of our south American river. This passed into Latin as schola. allure was a de vice used by hunters to call back their hawks. Later .If we follow this word zodiac back far enough ."and such .Each division is important to astrology for reading the charact er of those born under these signs... etymologically. So when a girl purposely all ures a man. In Medieval Latin kynanche became quinancia . is really. It consisted of a bunch of feathe rs with a long cord attached.made famous by detective story writers.. she is using the deceptive methods of a hunter. Romantic Stories of Words about Women ALIMONY: eating money We have in English the word aliment that menas foof. These mythic al women were said to have cut off their right breasts so that they could draw t heir bows more easily. is from an entirely different source. AUBURN: blong to red Lots of mistakes have occurred in the making of our language.haired girls of ancient rome .norish. We have inherited t he word from Old French allure.Q ueen of James VI. was so called because it st ands on the site of a palace where the Scottish kings once lived when they visit ed England . Albunus passed over into Old French and Middle English as auburne..and the Roman club-men loved thei r blondes .white. and intelligent discussions. This traces to the Latin al o. research. . a.bait.in its career.leisure. the quinsy sore throat that we have today. . the La tin word alburnus meant fair-haired. .like shite.
The word buxom. This is not at all in tune with the history of word. a pouting-room With us .to talk of being buxom. a bib does have to .bride. In the late Middle Ages a bevy was a company o f . Brydealu changed to bridale.she didn. so now a bride has married a man who takes care of horses. pleasant.s bib to our langyage. a famous le ader of London society in the 1700. later .the people usually being women . He should be called a bridegoom. and this just means . or even buxom to the pope. for . or buhsum. then bridal. By th e same path bevee seems to have entered Old English with the meaning. and drugs. seems to have come from bugan meaning .s.s ale . avoidupo is became the standard system of weights for goods other than gems.Lter on .the meaning turned to .It was customary.to the judges.roes.buxom and bonnyh.obedient.full of health and vigor. quails.a group of drinkers. BUXOM: once meant obedient When we call a girl buxom we mean that she is fat . playful antics of the male cousin . BEVY: merely a drinking copany The Latin word bibere. and kindlyl.Then. The Latin adeps..that is. and our bridal ceremony t akes its name from the traditional .So when a girl is capricious an d cuts up capers. avoirdupois is a polite way of speaking of wxcess fat ..So a lady .goat. meant. her ac tions are reminiscent of the lowly billy goat.or ladies.. ale for the word bridal is formed of two old English words. CAPRICE: liKe a goat One hundred years ago the British author. metals.t mean that she was going to put on a few extra pounds.ale.after all.But when a bitish bride of e arly times promised to be . and yet .fat. One of its derivatives came into our language as beverage.good s sold by weight.. Thomas De Quincey wrote somewhat supe rciliously:. Tht drink shou ld really be a tankard of that homely brew. is another story.gr ease:or .to her husband. or people .when a girl is capricious.. a floral esuberande of that charming willfulness which characterizes our dear human sisters. BLUESTOCKING: affectedly literary this is a word that was more familiar to Washington Irving than it is to us .. The ladi es who had a taste for such gatherings were dubbed Bluestockings by a certain Ad miral Buscawen and his epithet still lives.. in her h ome as a substitute for the frivolous card-playing parties of the day . BOUDOIR: at one time. larks.bride. She is s aid to have adopted blue stockingsdeliberately as a badge of her ideas. The Latin term bibere perhaps also contributed the baby. and a buxom girl is jus t pleasingly plump. of course . adipis.. ..blithe and gay. Ifear.bend ... It all began with Elizabeth Montagu.to pout.s boudoir is really her pouting-room..literary evenings. the United States.to drink.Adiose is another polite and pet word of the overweight. The word caprice comes through th e Itaian capriccio from the Latin caper. This became beivre in Old French. bruyd. Our word comes from the French verb bouder.that which is drunk.still later to . BRIDAL: the toast that was drunk At modern wedding receptions of the well-to-do the bride is usually toasted i n champagne. But in the middle Ages a young lady wa s sent to her boudoir to get over the sulks.But somebody down the li ne got confused and substituted groom for goom. but its derivatio n is more blunt.brideman.bend.but there are parts of the countru where an affectedly studious and literary woman is still called a bluestocking.literally a ..an elegantly furnished room to which a lady can retire to alone or to receive her intimate friends. who introduced.and nothing nicer. This lefthanded compliment ma kes women seem attractively feminine. through all the world..in English-speaking countries. animals.has gone into the curves of her figure.but its Old French ancestor aveir de peis meant.and then changed to signify a small group of birds.But now the original . The bridegroom. and ealu. is the source.. as it was then spelled..AVOIRDUPOIS: sold by weight In our weight-conscious country.such as wool. that was always drunk at the t ime.. .the moisture that the baby spills.she is imitating the frixsky.Eerywhere I observe in the feminine mind something of a beautiful ca price.and therefore pliant.in that era.imbibe.
but by the 14th-cen tury it had taken on the sense of .som eone .s. all through the a ges there has been a mystery attached to words. .s strange to find that the glamour girl of today was named after the full Lat in grammar that we thumbed our way through in school . FAINT:once meant pretend When a fencer feints. kept the art of reading and writing as a secret of the tem plem.. and t . whi ch was also named for thsyrian city of Damascus. and the people looked upon these skills with superstitious awe... This is ju st what the Victorian lady did when she would faint for these wesk sisters could always solve any dilemma by swooning away .There is a nice distinction here that was aptly pointed out by a 17th-century writer named sharpham. at that timem to bring complete social ostracism. and this special knowledge was associated with black magic..cock.of a sheep. and they came from feindri.sing.as her name implies. . Th e charm that is now courted by every woman would be sure. So when a girl faints.. but since her morals were often no better than they should be .is for euery rascal l.or. The ancient Egyptian priests.This meaning was inherited from its ancestral grandparent.But by sha kespeare. CHARM: formerly a danger word If a girl were called charming 14th-century England.. which meant . and first referred to someone who behaved l ike a barnyard cock with his strutting gait and amorous habits.. The French words faint and feint bo th meant .s duty. he makes a false motion with intent to deceibe...but your curtizan is for your courtier. Even in 16 th-century Englang the ability to read and write was regarded with a fishy eye. The term courtesan is rarely used of a prostitute . was merely a perfectly proper member of the court circle. GLAMOUR:made by word magic It.Yor see.she turned into a court mistress. . the progenitor of the innocent charm bracelet that has been worn by women since the 1860.In the earliest days of England enchant had only the sinister meaning of witchcraft.over.over.pretended.And it is entertaining to know in this connection that court plaster was sonamed because the xourtesans and other ladie s of the court cut bits of plaster into fancy shapes and wore these black patche s on the face or shoulders. Books were written in this dead speech.he says. .avoid one.the La tin incantare.The serpent stoppeth his eares with hir taile. . or . and the damask ch eeks of the English ladies to which the romantic poets paid such high tribute we re so called because they resembled the fine pink rose.cocky. usually a wicked chant or incantati on of magic power lide that of the notorious Lorelei.a frisking and fliperous minx. COURTESAN: formerly a perfect lady In the beginning this lady .feigned. to . but the girls finally took over. she cou ld be a sorceress who practiced magic and the Eeil arts. COQUETTE: once applied to men Men used to habe a share in this word....Even as late as the 16th century w e uncover the quotation:..Your whore.In that day latin was the language of the cultured few. in history. as illustrated by the phrase . you could be pretty sure th at she was headed for the torture chamber or to a horrifying trial by ordeal.to sing.ench ant to charity.. Later the word w ent completely feminine and we discover the coquette defined in 17th century dic tionary as . And there was also the cha rm that was worn to ward off evil.to your side. to the e nd that she may not heare the charmes and sorceries of the inchanter..win over.be c owardly.known as damask rose.that is.built upon in .we inherited this word from the French charme which f ound its source in the Latin Carmen. The nearest male counterpart for this word is .s time the word carried a good deal less weight and now it is a high co mpliment to tell a girl that she has charm.and cantare. DAMASK: soft as a rose This fine patterned fabric was named for the city of Damascus.song. Coquet te comes from the French coq. she may be feint ging. ENCHANT:began as sorcery An enchantress can be a bewitching and fascinating woman. fo r the sake of power ..pretend.
Everyone.But the illiterate masses accredited occult and devilish powers to those who were fluent in Latinand in L atin grammar. it would seem doubtful that the game of cards could suddenly be invented for his sake. but he had a fine alley laid out at Whitehall so that he mig ht amuse himself between executions. and fellen meant .s. Richard. meant either the ball itself or the active cast or deliver y of the ball.s game The earlier name for this was biritch. Bulla finally became . knows of the game badminton. becau se the pieces are often .t appear until 13 93.. A clar et and soda drink was named badminton after it. as . It is true.. although some writers say ..back game. was eventually altered to blindfold. England.A famous German professor was actually unfr ocked because he dared to deliver a lecture in English. however.strike blind.. the letter . but the word blindfold means nothing of the kind. The Middle English word blindfelle n meant .s buff. The story that card were invented to amuse a feeble-minded king seem not to be quite accurate. Roughly speaking. the British ar chaeologist. Ur of t he Chaldees. since his mental illness didn. at first.. Hence backgammon really means . called Badminton.game. were known throughout th e East thousands of years ago.in the mysterious word grammar changed to . .Now the meaning has been modified. an d this sounds as though a handerchief were folded around the victim. And. however.b owl. BADMINTON: named for an estate The Duke of Beaufort had a tidy bit of property ten miles in circumference in Gl oucestershire.bubble. Henry V| | | al so forbade bowling.strike. that t he first record of playing cards in Europe appears in the household accounts of Charles VI in 1392 or 1393. 10. It is originally from the Latin bulla. since the board was more or less standardized at that time. but that has long since been for gotten.200 B.he intellectuals conversed in Latin . Backgammon and its blood cousin. which was first played i n England in 1873. BOWLING: kings forbade it This game has a romantic history although the derivation of the word bowling is simple.blow. which. by the way. the lion is in the act of grabbing the stakes.sent back.I.. to reenter the board. But in spite of all this..s game as poker. ]BRIDGE: first a man. From a date far back before the time of Christ co mes a representation of a lion and an antelope at play over a draughts board.s clubs became more common than men. Other modificat ions ctept in . often does in the mutations of language.s. But. but the turn of the century changed that.s eyes. for the word glamour originally meant . Little is known of their actual beginning. The game was enthusiastically taken up by the British in the lush 1880. The game itself was imported from India by the British. As a point of information.and a new word glamour was born that first carried with it the sa me cabalistic overtones that had attached to Latin grammar. those acres t hat lie in New York.s game of blindman. that was struck during the game. the buff in blindman. checkers.r. BLINDFOLD: meant a blow In the children. This estate of his.000-yeat-old backgammon board of Queen Shub-ad was foun d in her tomb during the excavation of the ancient capital of Babylonia. but blindfelled the form of th e past tense.C. The word game n in early English meant .a spell or charm. And these same kegler s may be surprised to learn that bowling was forbidden in England by Edward | | |. and the Hollywood starlet who has glamour casts a spell over men instead of over Latin grammar. in an Egyptian tomb dating back to 5. one of the players is blindfolded.r.s buff means a .and other monarchs because it was thought to be too harmless a spor t and one that provided no training for war such as archery did. the Dutch brought a variety of this game over and taught it to us on Bowling Green. the game of backgammon as we know it is usually dated form the 10th ce ntury.. and women. Modern keglers may be interested to know that the complete equipm ent for playing their game was discovered by Sir Flinders Petrie. As the years went by. Women were at first excluded and it was as much of a man. Your Favorite Sports and Their Word Histories BACKGAMMON: back game The beautifully inlaid 5..magic.s financial district. was apparently the scene of several innovations in English living in the late 19th century.
that a Chinese by the name of Seun-ho. hence it literally meant . that the Scotch imported their best golf balls from the Dutch.baton. who lived around 1120 A. as a warning to an opponent. tapering stick that we use in billiards takes its name from the Latin cauda. he. and thus beyond the bounds of the law.imitate. that is. ..king. cups. Our own symbols came directly from the French. and laborers. into Middle English as chek. This led to the original meaning of transgression.. clergy. As Augustin Daly sai d in one of his plays back in the 8o... .. landowners. as it does in modern English.sward. Spade is from the Spanish espada.make parallel with. . and transgress. which first meant to r eject a card from your hand. An earlier spelling of this term was decard. then cue.three-leaved.. Our word queue is exactly the same term. they are really sayin g: . The majority of the scholars claim that it came from the Dutch word kolf.check-mate. But other thing can be long and tapering too.pigtai l. but the records show. . which first only signified check as it is used in a chess game.done. itself.s king hopelessly cornered. . This might indicate that golf began in Holland. devised the g ame for the amusement of his concubines. and a corns. chess is simply a ser ies of check. but when they use it in cards it identi fies what we call a diamond. and card. or . It is true that mos t of the early accounts of the game are out of Scotland. FORFEIT: originally a crime With us a forfeit is not much more than a penalty in games. across the legal line. The companion word chess entere d Middle English as ches from the Old French word eschecs. l oss. and fait. hearts. n evertheless. .. but this is natural.do ne outside. If you were discovered committing a forfait. the term for a club that was used in such games as hockey and croquet. . but its form was ad opted from the modern French spelling. Its common meaning. simply means .. When a Persian in ancient days had his opponent. Italy. or . which comes ulti mately from the Greek spathe which meant . This French word is a compound of the Old French words fors. or . but the figure is the French trefoil.outside. In card games the word discard is often used. Both the words check and chess originated i n the Far East back somewhere in the dim ages and both come from the Persian wor d shah. GOLF: named from a club It is unfortunate that the origin of the name of such a popular game cannot be t raced with absolute surety.. The term shah worked down through Arabic into Old French as e schec.. .away.. Germany was an early cen ter of card manufacturing.card. The . of course. and the name of the s tick that is used in the game passed through dozens of dialects before it emerge d as coe. representing the nobility.wooden sword.to step across. The heart is simply a conventional drawing of the h uman heart. CUE: first a tail The long. The French word carreau really means a pane of glass or a tile. he announced shah-mat that is. At the least. A sister word of forfeit is counterfei t from the French word contrefaire. like the queue that waits for the second show at the movies.check. .s: .D. In Egypt..tail.. finally to check.. is .the king is dead.s in danger. you were arrested.beyond. that is. His congregation was so stirred that they rush ed home and made a bonfire of every pack that they had. as was a forfait in Old French. but the names are a mixture. batons.. really a clover. or . from de.I wish to gracious we could have one of those old-fashion forfeit games where kissing comes in. and money.. but later logically came to mean a stop. The club is a translation of the Spanis h basto. . we know that by 1483 Europe took to playing cards wi th such a passion that the first sermon was preached against them by Saint Berna rdion of Siena at Bologna. or hindrance. If you pronounce th ose Persian words you will not be very far away from the modern chess player.. cards were connected with rel igious ideas. Now discard is used in other ways than card playing .. leaves.Mind your king. That is.s p hrase. which is merely the p lural form of eschec that gave us the word check. These cards had images of bell. The spelling form is greatly changed. But in Old English day s a forfaite was a crime. The Spanish went in for swords. CHESS: the king is dead When chess plays call .. for th e game of billiards was popular and played by all classes.
but the word now also means exposure to the chance of loss or in jury. GEYSER: a gusher In Iceland in an area of about two square miles there are approximately a hundre d hot springs that have been a source of wonder to men for centuries . at one period. as students of history will recall.The Icelan dic name for such a spring is hver.prize. Mar y Stuart. the .furh for the . as is indicated by the Arabic origi n of the word.naked. HAZARD: the die is cast At one time hazard simply meant a dice game. Now the word m arathon can 11.and in those days a furrow was reasonably constant in length because a furrow was thought of as existing in a field of ten acres.a furlong wa s just as long as a furrow. So in March. . meaning just plain . meaning . exercises were often performed in the nude by both b oys and men. The literal meaning of geysir in Iceland is gusher.. the Arabic word al-zahr came into Spanish as azar. As s side light. But since the cast of the dice is unc ertain. W hen the Olympic Games were revived for the first time in 1869. Shape. the Scottish Parliament decreed that golf be .. G olf was crowding out archery as a sport.to get to the bottom of . is so called because it is found at Bare Hills. A few years later James I forbade it entirely.utterly c ryit doun and nochtusit.we fi nally devised the abstract verb fathom which meant .Time. was a golf fiend and played a few rounds several days after the murder of her husband. and practice in archery was important t o war.fur row. . The great Greek physician Hippocrates claimed that the sun was health and soothing to the nerves of the back. MARATHON: recalls an ancient battle Nearly two and one-half millenniums ago a little band of 10.that the farmer turns with his plow. a Greek won this event. and comes from gymnos. Quite properly. HALCYON:started as a kingfisher Halcyon days are days of peace and calm when the skies are clear and the winds a re still.1457. A courageous runner brought the n ews of the thrilling victory to the city of Athens that lay some 26miles away. a long distance r ace was planned to cover the same ground that the earlier runner had traversed a lmost 2. The word athlet ics descends to us from the Greek athlon. al. and zahr. that the winning athlete r eceived.Tod ay a furlong is 220 yards.has been na med the geysir.000 Persians at the battle of Marathon.but t here was a period in England when the word was spelled furlang.long.the. the famous Olympic track meets were run off in the nude.s money was going for golf balls.gymnite.die.400 years before.That is. j ust as our passionate sunbathers do today. English as hazard.000 Athenians defeat ed 100. However.game grew to such popularity in Scotland that the government became disturbed.The largest of the group. Hazard is still a gambling game.And since sailors are primarily interested in depth.an unexpecte d accident. which means .and from this came our word geyser. This entered French as hasard. In ancient Greece. as he h ad done with bowling..and lang for . th e girl came to no good end. and. GYMNASTICS: in the nude It is easy to see the resemblance between our word gymnastics and its Greek pare nt gymnazo. Queen of Scots.These days had an actual place on the ancient calendar and were the fou . our mineral . The Greeks of the time believed that nudity was conducive to health. As an a musing side note.train naked.. yet the accounts of the Lord High Treasurer for 1503-1506 still show that the Crown..But this measure was still a little elastic for accuracy and by the 9th century the wise men decided to call a furlong an eighth of a mile and let it go at that.as of a problem or mystery.. and their Origins FATHOM Fathom is now six feet. FURLONG:as long as a furrow The modern fancier of race horses calls this measure of distance a furlong. Maryland! With us modern gymnastics are usually performed in a gymnasium while the term athletics generally applies to outdoor contests. and Size.Terms of Place.however .
and when we adjourn we have finished those things.and we correctly call all of t he far eastern countries the Orient..occidentis..it meant good fortune.now stone.In these ancient Roman augurs. JOURNEY: a day..day.or thousand paces.die.To the Europe of the early days . Th is is the handyman who fixed your bathroom pipes when they were only made of plu mbum.In forming our word milestone. and a plummet is a lead on the end of the line Since a weighted string hangs straig ht. with the hands.. PLUMB: began with lead When you try to plumb the depths of a philosopher.for the early fathers associated the setting sun with d eath and destruction..rising. which simply means . ORIENT: towards the sunrise We speak of Japan as .set .When we sojourn we spend the .falling. in a poetic sense. and a host of other spellings in between up to just plain shape as we use it.. MILESTONE: a thousand paces It seems that Augustus. we have such w ords as friendship.and that journal of yours is what you have written in a .rteen days at about the time of the winter solstice .a nother Latin word for day)..day. the term plumb itself took on the meaning of .but for the second half we adopted the simple native word stan.mille.and usually the name of the roadmaker. Middle English schap. of course. And from shape.to have a magic power to calm the winds and wave s so that her nest would be secure . With all of this.Latin for .as the s un.He is going pl umb to Hell. TAPER: grow thinner Tapering fingers are like a taper candle which is shaped so that it diminishes i ...In the Latin language the verb occido meant .She was believed. . SHAPE: it came through many spellings This simple word has appeared in many forms. of .lead.was supposed to sit on her nest as it floated in t he sea..set up a central stone in the Forum called a milliarium from which all distances were reckoned..So is a diary (from dies . . Therefore. is off the perpendicular.our meeting is adjourned indefinitely.setting.was set up with the ma ne of the emperor carved on it. anything . it was Latin occidens. the Old Norse skap.And you cou ld guess that a journeyman plumber is really a .which means .first of the Roman emperors.and a stone.This superstition was taken over by the Christians .A journey used to mean the distance covered in a . that gave to the Europeans and to us the name Occidentals in contra distinction to the Orientals. or .out of plumb.straight.or . you are going down in the most direct fashion possible..the place from which the distance was m easured.The East signified luck to the ancient soothsayers.on the Latin wor d diurnum.with several shifts of sound and derivation .If the sacred birds flew east when the pr iests released them from their cages.the roads were systematically marked off every mille passuum.Of course.It was during this period t hat the halcyon.wo rthy shape. you are.day..Or should we adjourn sine die.kingfisher..day laborer.thousand.. as.but it also meant ..Halcyon is a Latin word that came from the G rddk term. Under the imperial regime. l etting down a piece of lead on a line in an attempt to fathom his meaning.you see.the date .alcyon. This verb plumb.These old time prophets ju dged the future by the flight of birds. The mane of t his key stone was derived from the Latin word mille which meant a .shaping.orientis. comes from the Latin word plumbum which means ..for the word Orient comes from th Latin term oriens. penmanship. Also when you plumment down. And worship.lead.the sunrise represented life and the beginning of things .. Old English ges ceap.for the Roman mile was calculated as a thousand paces with each pace equalling five feet. .we t ook the first half from the Latin word . All of these words have the idea of creation in them.or kingfisher. for we live in the land of the setting sun.or milliarium..however. in the form of ship.s mileage This word is based.without a day.if the sacred birds happened to fly w est it presaged disaster.day.and it was the traditional plan of the architectu re of the early churches to place the chief altar at the eastern end of the edif ice .the land of the rising sun.belonging to the day. there is no mystery about where the name plumber come from...the Orien t was where the sun rose.horsemanship.
This may help us to understand the wide variat ion in form that often exists between the original word and its modern version. The two young men in question would run around the ci ty with the sacred thongs and give smart and .these thongs were calle d februa. and this comes directly from the Arabic nazir. Probably the most important units of time that govern our lives are the months o f the year and the days of the week.travel well. They are both derived from the Fr ench term travailler which means . In similar fashion if we taper off in eating or drinking. The word taper itself seems to come by many intermediate shifts in spell ing from the Latin word papyrus which meant taper or wick. our consumption gradually grows less and less like the narrowing cylinder of a candle.. could be bitterly uncomfortable and highly dangerous what w ith bandits. for example. TIDE AND TIME: first meant the same thing There is the old familiar phrase: . TRAVEL: was once suffering If you don. .to work hard. The word zenith deri ves from the term samt in the Arabic phrase samt arras.Time and tide wait for no man. we are actually saying .. The history o f tidy will be easier to trace if we first take a glance at tide and time.t until the 14th century that tide applied to the ebb and flow of the ocean.s Eve and December Passes into January.. This was called the festival of Lupercalia and was held in a cave by the river Tiber. .in good or der. and . and the memories of its perils are still he ld in many terms. one that gazed at the past and one that looked to the future. Once upon a time o ur word tidy meant timely. because at this time of the year the bitter cold brought wolves into the villages to forage for food. or timely.. We still preserve the first sense of tide in such an expression as Christmastide.curative. It is fitting that first month should be called January. Months of the Year JANUARY When the clock strikes twelve on New Year. FEBRUARY The middle of the month of February was marked in ancient Rome for a religious c eremony in which women were beaten for barrenness. They would speak of a tidie happening. It would seem imp ossible that the spelling samt would ever end up as zenith. thongs were cut from their hides and given to the youths. you have a historical reason for your feeling.instruments of purification. and into English as senyth.way over the head. we say farewell to the year just gone and we hail the New Y ear ahead. After the goats were sacrificed. which is .. Two youths were selecte d to play the leading role in the celebration.s the story that will show how these spellings can wander around. Origi nally these two words had almost identical meanings. However. Finally tidy came to mean . but here. When we say farewell. or . Trav el.. is from precisely the sam e source as travail which means extreme agony. which really means Christ mas time. and then in Medieval Latin days some fellow must have mistaken the form and he miscopied it as cenit.t monkeyed with much.clean. connected with time. and barbarians.neat. and should they strike a women.. The point in the celestial sphere right under your two feet is called the nadir. The stretch from senyth to zenith is easy for an imagination to cover. meaning .. and this word has as its remote ancestor.. beasts. before th e name January was adopted in English.t like to travel. And even our word peril comes f rom the Latin periculum which meant . too.wo lf-month. ZENITH: over your head We call the zenith that point in the sky directly overhead. for the Roma n god Janus who gave this month its name was always represented with two faces. . The word samt had a varia nt form semt. or . opportune. This version popped into the French of that day as cenith.the danger of going forth to travel. for the wicks in thos e days were made from the pith of the papyrus plant a plant native to Egypt. The word travel itself. whi ch is just what we mean by the word a millennium or two later.n diameter at one end. of course. this month was called Wulf-Monath. Here are their stories. for in this case its spelling wasn. she would no longer be barren.opposite. and it wasn. the Late Latin trepalium which was a device for torturing. in the old days. slaps to any barren girl ..
open. This was not only the beginning of the year but was the open spring season f or the waging of war. for this particular month had been a fortunate one in .. the Roman general and famou s lover of Cleopatra . JUNE This name is probably form Junius . The English name for June was Sere-Monath . in the long . the spelling became first Julie . the expression . I t is strange that the romantic time of May has always been considered unlucky fo r marriage. whose epithet as the goddess of fertility was Februaria. Antony suggested that this birthday month of Caius Julius Casesar be named Julius in his honor . AUGUST Octavian . that the name June came form the goddess Juno who was the protectress of women since June has been the favorite month for marriages all the way down form earliest Rome .. The Rome name was Aprilis. Also the festival of the unhappy dead fell in the month of May. base d on the Latin word aperio with means . He wanted . and wa s named sfter him. The factual English simply calle d it SProte-kalemonath because the cabbages were sprouting. MAY This is when . in Lat in. APRIL This was the month of the first flowers in ancient Italy. the god of war. beginning on their New Year.was the nephew of Julius Caesar .. comes from the fact that March is the mating season for hares. and ending on April 1st . The early Britons. the name of Latin family to which the murde rers of Julius Caesar belonged . Its Old English name was Hlyd-Monath. Some scholars believe .s Day .. The theory about this day traces the tradition back to the medieval miracle plays that used to represent the sending of Christ from Pilate to Herod. so the month was dedicated to mars. on the other ha nd. and longed to gain the fame and power of his uncle . lacked the poetry of the Mediterrancen. . then July . Febr uary had 29 days. but the Roman Senate took one away and gave it to August. as we k now it. They rather flat-footedly called Apr il Easter-Monath. however .dry -month . MARCH Before the time of Julius Caesar. or . and the name came into use the year of C aesar. they had called the month Mad -Monath . to ha ve a month named after him .mad as a March har e . the Roman New Year began with the month of Mar th. was created. since the meadows were in bloom and the cattle wer e in pasture . and from this word we took the name of our month. and this recalls the festivities held by all ancient peoples at the vernal equ inox.. or . t he cows could be milked three time between sunrise and evening . It. is believed by many to have come from Maia who was the mother of the god Hermes. His birthday was in September .Easter-month. the magic power of the thongs came from Juno. or . However this may b e. And. In English .the first Roman emperor . I t was not until the 18th century in Great Britain that April Fool. by the way .meadow-month . that is. Of course. Sir Thomas Malory called it . The Romans objected to it for the quite understandable reason that i t contained the feast in honor of Bona Dea who was the goddess of chastity. because of the winds. as it is with us. No one knows just how they knew whom to hit although the barrenness of a women would probably be common knowledge in any village.the time of the singing birds is come. They called it Thrimilce because .s a long step down from all this ro mance to the original native name for February. spring days . The native English had a less romantic but much more practical name for the month . but he selected wha t is now known as August .s assassination . and the voice of the turtle is heard in our land. among other things .boisterous-mo nth.the lusty moneth of May. and the opening spring buds gave the month its name.s Day. The name May. Maius. April brings in April Fool.s Day. and are suppo sedly full of whimsy all month. But before the English adopted the Latin name .s they saw. so t hat August would not be inferior to July. JULY The name of this month was proposed by Mark Antony . March 25th... It can be that the ancient taboos against May marriages are responsible for our mod ern June rush to the altar .
.. Tyr put his hand in Fenrir. as it was the time when the heathen Anglo-Saxons sacrificed ca ttle to their gods . . but he never got very far with his wish .. In the superstitious England of theos e times people believed that the phases of the moon affected crops and disthe po tency medicine . The prosy and downright Engli sh had called this the Weod-Monath . OUR Tuesday . Emperor of Rome toward the end of the 2nd cent ury . or .weed-month . NOVEMBER Since the Emperor Augustus had his month and Julius Caesar his .What will you do if you have eleven Caesars?. A wolf spirit called Fenrir was t roubling the world and Tyr volunteered to bind him . the roots of sto nes . the name was not altered . since December was originally the ten th month . The Senate had given Octavian the official title of Augustus in ho nor of his distinguished sercices to the state . and for a long time September was konwen as Harfest-Monath .moon day . once asked his mistress how she would like to see her name on the calendar . the Roman god of war . and the name is taken from the Latin word septem which meant .Holy-Month .. Charlemagne . The Roman general Germanicus Caesar wanted the mon th named after him .B rown October Ale . the name remained Octobe r from the Latin octo . so the month he had chosen beca me Augistus .ten. in the . . or .September was their seve nth month . although the Christians of the day called it Haligh-Monath . to October . for this month was the eighth on the list befo re the calendar was altered .nine . refused to accept the Roman name and called September the . TUESDAY In Norse mythology there was a god named Tyr . was bitten off .har vest-month .When the calendar was changed and September became the ninth month .smoky .eight . who was Emperor of the West at the beginning of the 9th century . because of birth of Christ . . SEPTEMBER Inasmush as the Roman year originally started in March .s name Tyr appea rs as Tiw .fumosus .s mouth and bound him . which we have shortened to August .. which the thirsty English promptly converted into ale .. and they were sure too that bacon killed on the old of the moon would shrivel in the pan ... which in Old English was Monandag . The common name among the English for December was Mid-Winter-Monath .wine-month ....England followed suit . the polite and politic Romans thought it only proper to propose that November be renamed for th e Emperor Tiberius ..seven .. The English first gave the name Win-Monath . yhen applied to greenery in general . and probably a little elderberry wine and such were concocted . in fairness .. the beards of women .Amazonius . OCTOBER This is the season when the smoke of burning leaves is apt to be in the air .his career . the moon was the wife of the sun . Officially though . and his name gave us the Old English word Tiwesdag .the day of Ti w . DECEMBER Lucius Aelius Aurelius Commodus . In Old English the god.The harvest then was largely barley . which is a rendering of the Latin dies martis . the word ..day of the moon .. So December went on being called by its old name from decem . but the real preoccupation was the . But Tiberius objected and said rather wittily .since the lady had once b een painted as an Amazon . the breath of fishes . So the name remained Novernber . or . or . but the Senate was not sympathetic and apparently tol d him to gao watch the gladiators and lions instead .. . for obvious reasons .weed. one very much like Mars . .day of Mars .sacrifice-month. a translation of the Latin lunae dies . because the ti me for lighting fires was at hand . Sometimes they also called it the Wind-Monath . He used a chain made of str ange substances . that we still sing about today . was the name the emperor had in mind . the footstep of a cat . Ev en the Roman poet Martial called October . or . . He was really a Germanic deity . although .. MONDAY In mythology . from the La tin novem . but his hand . or . To the forthright English November was the Blot-Monath . and so had to have her day in the week ..
Both were swift in movement and noted for their eloquence . He welcomed brave warr iors to the heaven of Valhalla and treated them to the pleasures that they most loved on earth . the lecturer had to abbreviate her speech ..Thor owned a massive hammer which the giant Thrym once stole from him and refused to give up unless Freya . and was the god of storms . non-representational * To him. 5. Friday . abscond : depart secretly and hide * The teller absconded with the bonds and was not found. or Thursday . It was the name of this same Thor that formed the Old English word thuresdag . hunger was an abstract concept. Thor dressed up in her clothes wheedled the hammer from Thrym . 2. the goddess of love . his flesh making the dry land . the day of the Norse goddess Frigg . adulterate : make impure by mixing with baser substances * It is a crime to adulterate foods without informing the buyer. SATURDAY In Old English saternesdag . certain * Although the King of Siam was an absolute monarch. we learn how falling bodies accelerate. sun.day of the sun .. 14.. was the god of thunder which he made with a chariot draw n by he-goats across the sky . abate : subside or moderate * Rather than leaving immediately. totally unlimited. or . his Mercurii dies . you see . Friday was frigedag . merely .. and corresponded in th e heavenly hierarchy to the Roman god Jupiter .. and the French took this over as Mercredi . or . 7. accessible : easy to approach. but not so the Christians since th e Crucifixion took place on Friday . a translation of the Latin dies solis . obtainable * We asked our guide whether the ruins were accessible on foot. abbreviate : shorten * Because we were running out of time.Saturn. .WEDNESDAY In Old English Wednesday was spelled Wodnesdag . he had never missed a meal. physically harmful * An abusive parent damages a child both mentally and physically. his blood the sea . who corresponded to the Roman divinity Mercury .s day .the day of Thor . The Norsemen regarded Friday as their luxky day .It was around the 4th century that the church made it a holiday and for ebade anyone to work . would marry him .day of Mercury . 8.day of Saturn . which was the day of the great Germanic god Woden . In old English it was spelled sunnandag .day of Venus .. accelerate : move faster * In our science class. and then slugged his host . he did not want to behead h is unfaithful wife without absolute evidence of her infidelity. PART III SENTENCE 1. 3. 6. not concrete. is half-translation and hal f-adoption of the Latin Saturni dies . Woden was the father of Tyr . SUNDAY Sunday replaced Saturday as the Sabbath because the Resurrection took place on a Sunday . abusive : coarsely insulting. the Roman god of sow ing . abstract : theoretical.. so Friday was assigned to her as appeasement . they waited for the storm to abate. FRIDAY In Old English . absolute : complete. wife of Woden and the goddess Venus .day of Jupiter . Thor . which equals the Roman dies jives . .s day . or . 4. was like the Latin dies Veneris .Wednesday and Thursday had been named for her husb and Woden and her son Thor . aberrant : abnormal or deviant * Given the aberrant nature of the data. 9. THURSDAY Thor was the strongest and bravest of the Norse deities . we came to doubt the validity of the en tire experiment. who also handled the lightning b olts . the . literally the .. and her day .w ho gave us the name Tuesday . or . their name for Wednesday . He also slew Chaos and created earth from his body . his bones the mountains .
absolve : pardon (an offense) * The father confessor absolved him of his sins. lacking pride * On the streets of New York the homeless live in abject poverty. I could tell she had reservations about the changes he wanted made. accord : agreement * She was in complete accord with the verdict. accrue : come about by addition * You must pay the interest that has accrued on your debt as well as the princip al sum. adjunct : something attached to but holding an inferior position . agree passively * Although she appeared to acquiesce to her employer's suggestions. huddling in do orways to find shelter from the wind. abash : embarrass * He was not at all abashed by her open admiration. abrasive: rubbing away. 35. misfortune * We must learn to meet adversity gracefully. 25. I am afraid that I will be the victi m of future demands. 43. 28. acquittal : deliverance from a charge * His acquittal by the jury surprised those who had thought him guilty. acquiesce : assent. adversity : poverty. increase * The accretion of wealth marked the family's rise in power. 36. 47. 31. abominate : loathe. 24. 38. when told to cast herself down on the ground before him. abase : lower. acclimate : adjust to climate or environment * One of the difficulties of our present air age is the need of travelers to acc limate themselves to their new and often strange environments. 18. 32. 33. hate * Moses scolded the idol worshippers in the tribe because he abominated the cust om. degrade. tending to grind down * Just as abrasive cleaning powders can wear away a shiny finish. 21. sharp.15. abrasive remar ks can wear away a listener's patience. the senator's one-time adherent quietly deserted h im. withhold from participation * After considering the effect of alcohol on his athletic performance. follower * In the wake of the scandal. abstain : refrain. caustic * James was unpopular because of his sarcastic and acidulous remarks. actuate : motivate * I fail to understand what actuated you to reply to this letter so nastily. acclivity : sharp upslope of a hill * The car could not go up the acclivity in high gear. abject : wretched. accretion : growth. however she refused to abase herself. abrogate : abolish * He intended to abrogate the decree issued by his predecessor. 26. I was frightened because I thought they we re going to attack me. 39. caustic * His tendency to utter acrimonious remarks alienated his audience. accede : agree * If I accede to this demand for blackmail. abjure : renounce upon oath * He abjured his allegiance to the king. acrimonious : stinging. acidulous : slightly sour. 42. give up * When Edward VII abdicated the British throne. 54. 40. abdicate : renounce. 53. he decide d to abstain from drinking while he trained for the race. 20. he surprised the entire world. accost : approach and speak first to a person * When the two young men accosted me. 17. 27. adherent : supporter. humiliate * Anna expected to have to curtsy to the King of Siam. 16. 45.
reprove * He admonished his listeners to change their wicked ways. alienate : make hostile. adorn : decorate * Wall paintings and carved statues adorned the temple. on their divorce he as . he was an affable individual an d could be reached by anyone with a complaint. wealth. 61. agitate : stir up. 64. 83. 87. advert : refer to * Since you advert to this matter so frequently. 65. 91. plead for * The abolitionists advocated freedom for the slaves. agility : nimbleness * The agility of the acrobat amazed and thrilled the audience. disturb * Her fiery remarks agitated the already angry mob. 92. 85. you must regard it as important . agnostic : one who is skeptical of the existence of knowability of a god or any ultimate reality * The agnostic demanded proof before she would accept the statement of the minis ter. raise in power. 55. 58. 75. admonish : warn. advent : arrival * Most Americans were unaware of the advent of the Nuclear Age until the news of Hiroshima reached them. alimony : payments make to an ex-spouse after divorce * Because Tony had supported Tina through medical school. affix : attach or add on. alimentary : supplying nourishment * The alimentary canal in our bodies is so named because digestion of foods occu rs there. adjuration : solemn urging * Her adjuration to tell the truth did not change the witnesses' testimony. adversary : opponent. casual * He found this adventitious meeting with his friend extremely fortunate. adverse : unfavorable. 93. the Joker. rank or honor * The history of the past quarter century illustrates how a President may aggran dize his power to act aggressively in international affairs without considering the wishes of Congress. 84. hostile * adverse circumstances compelled him to close his business. 68. agrarian : pertaining to land or its cultivation * As a result of its recent industrialization. 57. the country is gradually losing i ts agrarian traditions. 76. enemy * Batman struggled to save Gotham City from the machinations of his wicked adver sary. 63. offend * Accustomed to being treated with respect. affront : insult. 74. 81. 80. aggregate : sum. adventitious : accidental.* I will entertain this concept as an adjunct to the main proposal. separate * Her attempts to alienate the two friends failed because they had complete fait h in each other. Miss Challoner was affronted by Vidal's offensive behavior. alias : an assumed name * John Smith's alias was Bob Jones. 66. total * The aggregate wealth of this country is staggering to the imagination. aggrandize : increase or intensify. 62. affable : courteous * Although he held a position of responsibility. affluence : abundance. then he had to affix his official seal. fasten * First the registrar had to affix his signature to the license. wealth * Foreigners are amazed by the affluence and luxury of the American way of life. advocate : urge. 94.
allusion: indirect reference * the allusions to mythological characters in Milton's poems bewilder the reader who has not studied Latin. we did not know which road to take.ked the court to award him $500 a month in alimony. pacify * The crew tried to allay the fears of the passengers by announcing that the fir e had been controlled. the helmsman steered the ship toward the re ef. 98. 107. 121. altercation : noisy quarrel * Throughout the altercation. amalgamate : combine. amend : correct. we shall have to use stronger drugs. 120. if it does not. amoral : non-moral . 96. 111. 128. 110. ameliorate : improve * Many social workers have attempted to ameliorate the conditions of people livi ng in the slums. Amazon : female warrior * Ever since the days of Greek mythology we refer to strong and aggressive women as amazons. allure : entice. 126. aloof : apart. allude : refer indirectly * Try not to allude to this matter in his presence because the topic annoys him. 108. ambrosia : food of the gods * ambrosia was supposed to give immortality to any human who ate it. altruistic : unselfishly generous. 119. 112. 109. alleviate : relieve * This should alleviate the pain. amnesty : pardon * When his first child was born. concerned for others * In providing tutorial assistance and college scholarships to hundreds of econo mically disadvantaged youths. the police could not get the young gir l to identify herself. 95. 105. 102. allege : state without proof * It is alleged that she had worked for the enemy. amity : friendship * Student exchange programs such as the Experiment in International Living were established to promote international amity. 103. amass : collect * The miser's aim is to amass and hoard as much gold as possible. 127. 101. change. he re sented advice from his inferiors. 129. unite in one body * The unions will attempt to amalgamate their groups into one national body. 100. 114. amiable : agreeable. the king granted amnesty to all in prison. Eugene Lang performed a truly altruistic deed. alloy : mixture as of metals * alloy of gold are used more frequently than the pure metal. not one sensible word was uttered. amenable : readily managed. reserved * Shy by nature. 123. generally for the better * Hoping to amend his condition. amnesia : loss of memory * Because she was suffering from amnesia. 124. ambidextrous : capable of using either hand with equal ease * A switch-hitter in baseball should be naturally ambidextrous. amicable : friendly * The dispute was settled in an amicable manner with no harsh words. ambiguous : unclear or doubtful in meaning * His ambiguous instructions misled us. attract * allured by the song of the sirens. he left Vietnam for the United States. 117. willing to be led * He was amenable to any suggestions that came from those he looked up to. she remained aloof while all the rest conversed. allay : calm. lovable * His amiable disposition pleased all who had dealings with him.
163. 156. 152. amok : in a state of rage * The police had to be called in to restrain him after he ran amok in the depart ment store. 136. state of disorder * The assassination of the leaders led to a period of anarchy. anguish : acute pain. 134.* The amoral individual lacks a code of ethics. animus : hostile feeling or intent * The animus of the speaker became obvious to all when he began to indulge in sa rcastic and insulting remarks. amphibian : able to live both on land and in water * Frogs are classified as amphibian. annul : make void * The parents of the eloped couple tried to annul the marriage. 137. antecede : precede * The invention of the radiotelegraph anteceded the development of television by a quarter of a century. 172. antediluvian : antiquated. 157. but could neither define nor explain the cause of hi s terror. he did not let the loss of his leg keep him from participating in sports. 131. President Raegan told anecdotes about poor people who became wealthy despite their impoverished backgr ounds. 139. he should not be classified as i mmoral. 132. 153. 142. Premier Gorbachev wept to see the anguish of t he victims and their families. annuity : yearly allowance * The annuity he set up with the insurance company supplements his social securi ty benefits so that he can live very comfortably without working. parallelism * Your analogy is not a good one because the two situations are not similar. anachronism : something or someone misplaced in time * Shakespeare's reference to clocks in Julius Caesar is an anachronism. 149. indeterminate * John was subject to panic attacks that left him prey to vague. amorphous fears : he knew he was terrified. amorphous : shapeless. 162. were curiously attractive. 133. 141. analogous : comparable * She called our attention to the things that had been done in an analogous situ ation and recommended that we do the same. 144. 158. 170. anarchy : absence of governing body. history * In the annals of this period. amputate : cut off part of body. amplify : enlarge * Her attempts to amplify her remarks were drowned out by the jeers of the audie nce. vague. stiff in manner * His features. annals : records. amorous : moved by sexual love. analogy : similarity. anecdote : short account of an amusing or interesting event * Rather than make concrete proposals for welfare reform. prune * When the doctors had to amputate Ted Kennedy's leg to prevent the spread of ca ncer. though angular. we find no mention of democratic movements. ancient . 135. no clock s existed in Caesar's time. ample : abundant * He had ample opportunity to dispose of his loot before his police caught up wi th him. loving * Don Juan was known for his amorous adventures. amphitheater : oval building with tiers of seats * The spectators in the amphitheater cheered the gladiators. extreme suffering * Visiting the site of explosion. 130. angular : sharp-cornered. animosity : active enmity * He incurred the animosity of the ruling class because he advocated limitations of their power.
it is easier to call them priceless . the correct expression for eve ry occasion. 193. we encourage them to make additional demands. 188. 205. phantom * Hamlet was uncertain about the identity of the apparition that had appeared an d spoken to him. the rest of the play was an antic limax. dislike * His extreme antipathy to dispute caused him to avoid argumentative discussions with his friends. apathy : lack of caring. 200. . appease : pacify. she could not understand the apathy of people who never bothered to vote. too. 198. his former friends shunned him as an apostate. 201. w hose value appreciated considerably over the years. apostate : one who abandons his religious faith or political beliefs * Because he switched from one party to another. apogee : highest point * When the moon in its orbit is furthest away from the earth. 187. she hopedthat on her death she. 207. 196. title * He was amazed when the witches hailed him with his correct appellation. would be exalted to the rank of a god. 176. soothe * We have discovered that. anthropoid : manlike * The gorilla is the strongest of the anthropoid animals. glorification * The Roman empress Livia envied the late emperor his apotheosis. antiseptic : substance that prevents infection * It is advisable to apply an antiseptic to any wound. direct opposite of or to * This tyranny was the antithesis of all that he had hoped for. apposite : appropriate. 179. 203. and he fought it with all his strength. antipathy : aversion. increase in worth. appreciate : be thankful for. aphorism : pithy maxim * An aphorism differs from an adage in that it is more philosophical or scientif ic. apparition : ghost. apathetic : indifferent * He felt apathetic about the conditions he had observed and did not care to fig ht against them. fitting * He was always able to find the apposite phrase. apothecary : druggist * In Holland. application : diligent attention. indifference * A firm believer in democratic government. when we try to appease our enemies. aphasia : loss of speech due to injury or illness * After the automobile accident. be thoroughly conscious of * Little Orphan Annie truly appreciated the stocks Daddy Warbucks ave her. 182. appraise : estimate the value of * It is difficult to appraise old paintings. apotheosis : deification. anticlimax : letdown in thought or emotion * After the fine performance in the first act. (secondary meaning) apply * Pleased with how well Tom had whitewashed the fence. antithesis : contrast. it is at its apoge e. 206. 195. no matter how slight or i nsignificant. Aunt Polly praised him fo r his application. 204. 202. 177. 180. appellation : name. apothecaries still sell spices as well as ointments and pills. append : attach * I shall append this chart to my report. the victim had periods of aphasia when he could not speak at all or could only mumble incoherently.* The antediluvian customs had apparently not changed for thousands of years 173. 183.
arrogance : pride. assent : agree. 246. 241. 251. passion. appropriate : acquire. 248. haughtiness * The arrogance of the nobility was resented by the middle class. 260. artisan : a manually skilled worker * Artists and artisans alike are necessary to the development of a culture. aria : operatic solo * At her Metropolitan Opera audition. perceive * The police will apprehend the culprit and convict him before long. soon all her fellow demonstrators were busily ma king posters and handing out flyers. 226. aptitude : fitness. approbation : approval * Wanting her parents' regard. aristocracy : hereditary nobility. arcane : secret. \Grandma. 234. zeal * Katya's ardor was contagious. aspirant : seeker after position or status * Although I am as aspirant for public office. 215. 209. ascribe : refer. aspiration : noble ambition * Youth's aspirations should be as lofty as the stars. 247. what big eyes you have!\ indicate s the child's innocent surprises at her \grandmother's\ changed appearance. 229. ardor : heat. talent * The counselor evaluated his aptitudes before advising him about the careerhe s hould follow. discerning * His apprehensive glances at the people who were walking in the street revealed his nervousness. ascendancy : controlling influence * President Marcos failed to maintain his ascendency over Philippines. inspired by her ardent enthusiasm for the c ause. usually lined with shops * The arcade was popular with shoppers because it gave them protection from the summer sun and the winter rain. I am not willing to accept the di ctates of the party bosses. he decided to postpo ne his trip. aspersion : slanderous remark * Do not cast aspersions on her character.208. barren * The cactus had adapted to survive in an arid environment. aromatic : fragrant * Medieval sailing vessels brought aromatic herbs from China to Europe. 222. open and honest * Red Riding Hood's artless comment. 232. assail : assault * He was assailed with questions after his lecture. take possession of for one's own use * The ranch owners appropriated the lands that had originally been set aside for the Indians' use. 211. 210. artless : without guile. archetype : prototype. mysterious * What was arcane to us was clear to the psychologist. apprise : inform * When he was apprised of the dangerous weather conditions. 259. accept . apprehensive : fearful. primitive pattern * The Brooklyn Bridge was the archetype of the many spans that now connect Manha ttan with Long Island and New Jersey. dread. Marian Anderson sang an aria from Norma. privileged class * Americans have mixed feelings about hereditary aristocracy: 235. apprehend : arrest ( a criminal). 258. 263. 223. 261. she looked for some sign of their approbation 212. assign * I can ascribe no motive for her acts. attribute. arid : dry. arcade : a covered passageway. 236. 233. armada : fleet of warships * Queen Elizabeth's navy was able to defeat the mighty armada that threatened th e English coast.
attest : testify. 285. prophecy * He interpreted the departures of the birds as an augury of evil. * When Jill asserted that nobody else in the junior class had such an early curf ew. 281. assiduous : diligent * It took Rembrandt weeks of assiduous labor before he was satisfied with his po rtrait of his son. 266. dictatorial * We accepted her analysis of the situation as authoritative. 310. 286. majestic * Visiting the palace at Versailes. assimilate : absorb. self-confidence * When Gutherie gave Guiness his assurance that rehearsals were going well. assert : state strongly or positively. cause to become homogenous * The manner in which the United States was able to assimilate the hordes of imm igrants during the nineteenth and early part of the twentieth centuries will alw ays be a source of pride. bear witness * Having served as a member of a grand jury. 287. 297. . aversion : firm dislike * Their mutual aversion was so great that they refused to speak to one another. avarice : greed for wealth * King Midas's avarice has been famous for centuries. insist on or demand recognition of ( rights. augment : increase * How can we hope to augment our forces when our allies are deserting us? 293.* It gives me great pleasure to assent to your request. attenuate : make thin. telling her that if she didn't get home by nine o'clock she would be grounded for the week. averse : reluctant * He was averse to revealing the sources of his information. asymmetric : not identical on both sides of a dividing central line * Because one eyebrow was set markedly higher than the other. her parents Asserted themselves. augury : omen. weaken * By withdrawing their forces. etc). assurance : promise or pledge. 292. assumption : something taken for granted. explain * I attribute her success in science to the encouragement she received from her parents. atheistic : denying the existence of God * His atheistic remarks shocked the religious worshippers. assuage : ease. asylum : place of refuge or shelter. lessen(pain) * Your messages of cheer should assuage her suffering. 270. 269. 288. I can attest that our system of ind icting individuals is in need of improvement. William's face had a particularly asymmetric appearance. 267. 308. 294. auspicious : favoring success * With favorable weather conditions. 309. 278. attribute : essential quality * His outstanding attribute was his kindness. 274. certainty. attribute : ascribe. 279. authoritative : having the weight of authority. 311. causing contraction. astringent : binding. protection * The refugees sought asylum from religious persecution in a new land.claims. 268. august : impressive.he sp oke with such assurance that Guiness was convinced. the taking over or taking possess ion of * The young princess made the foolish assumption that the regent would not objec t to her Assumption of power. the generals hoped to attenuate the enemy lines. she was impressed by the august surroundings in which she found herself. aver : state confidently * I wish to aver that I am certain of success. it was an auspicious moment to set sail 302. harsh or severe * The astringent quality of unsweetened lemon juice made swallowing difficult. 264.
belligerent : quarrelsome * Whenever he had too much to drink. bequeath : leave to someone by means of a will. betroth : become engaged to marry * The announcement that they had become betrothed surprised their friends who ha d not suspected any romance. 343. 375. as a legislative body . barrister : counselor-at-law * Galsworthy started as a barrister. doing good * The overgenerous philanthropist had to curb his beneficent impulses before he gave away all his money and left himself with nothing. hand down * In his will. favorable. assail verbally * The debate coach warned her student not to bore the audience by belaboring his point. depreciate * Parents should not belittle their children's early attempts at drawing. 316. avocation : secondary or minor occupation * His hobby proved to be so fascinating and profitable that gradually he abandon ed his regular occupation and concentrated on his avocation. bellicose : warlike * His bellicose disposition alienated his friends. benevolent : generous. beguile : amuse. 358. bantering : good-naturedly ridiculing * They resented his bantering remarks because they misinterpreted his teasing as sarcasm. 370. cheat * I beguiled himself during the long hours by playing solitaire. 344. patron * Scrooge later became Tiny Tim's benefactor and gave him a benediction. but sh ould encourage their efforts. 373. they found the flamboyance of baroque architecture amusing. she relaxed so completely that she fell asleep. avow : declare openly * I must avow that I am innocent. belabor : explain or go over excessively or to a ridiculous degree. but when he found the practice of law borin g. 315. the bequest meant a great deal to the boy. belittle : disparage. benign : kindly. take pleasure in warmth * basking on the beach. delude. charitable * His benevolent nature prevented him from refusing any beggar who accosted him. trouble * Many problems beset the American public school system. 374. not malignant * The old man was well liked because of his benign attitude toward friend and st ranger alike. turn away * She averted her eyes from the dead cat on the highway. beset : harass. 346. 313. 389. 383. bask : luxuriate. beneficent : kindly. angular lines of modern skyscrapers. 378. benefactor : gift giver. 338.312. overwhelming profusion * The company was forced to retreat through the barrage of heavy canyons. he became belligerent and tried to pick fig hts with strangers. 372. avert : prevent. baroque : highly ornate * Accustomed to the severe. 368. beneficiary : person entitled to benefits or proceeds of an insurance polic y * You may change your beneficiary as often as you wish. barrage : barrier laid down by artillery fire. benediction : blessing * The appearance of the sun after the many rainy days was like a benediction 371. 367. 342. bicameral : two-chambered. Father bequeathed his watch to Phillip. 362. 366. 387. aviary : enclosure for birds * The aviary at the zoo held nearly 300 birds. turned to writing.
bountiful : generous. breadth : width. beat * Marching down the road. bifurcated : divided into two branches. candor : frankness * The candor and simplicity of his speech impressed all. cant : pious phraseology. jargon of criminals * Angry that the president had slashed the education budget. 489. 430. catalyst : agent that brings about a chemical change while it remains unaff . 484. 421. showing bounty * She distributed gifts in a bountiful and gracious manner. 418. boon : blessing. 459. following the cadence set by the sergeant. 474. 469. we dismissed his sp eech on the importance of education as mere cant. carnage : destruction of life * The carnage that can be caused by atomic warfare adds to the responsibilities of our statesmen. 487. cascade : small waterfall * We could not appreciate the beauty of the many cascades as we made detours aro und each of them to avoid getting wet. 462. chapter heading. cadence : rhythmic rise and fall (of words or sounds). she was no braggart. 392. 509. 427.* The United States Congress is a bicameral body. extent * We were impressed by the breadth of her knowledge. acting on caprice. 432. 506. forked * With a bifurcated branch and a piece of elastic rubber. they eat the carrion left behind by other pr edators. cacophony : discord * Some people seem to enjoy the cacophony of an orchestra that is tuning up. 391. braggart : boaster * Modest by nature. casualty : serious or fatal accident * The number of automotive casualties on this holiday weekend was high. you are charged fo r every word. never taking thought of the consequences. brevity : conciseness * brevity is essential when you send a telegram or cablegram. preferring to let her accomplishments s peak for themselves. 510. he made a crude but ef fective slingshot. carrion : rotting flesh of a dead body * Buzzards are nature's scavengers. capacious : spacious * In the capacious areas of the railroad terminal. thousands of travelers linger ed while waiting for their train. upheaval * A cataclysm such as the French Revolution affects all countries. the troops sang out. brazen : insolent * Her brazen contempt for authority angered the officials. 500. it was all clear he hel d nothing back. 504. biennial : every two years * The group held biennial meetings instead of annual ones. benefit * The recent rains that filled our empty reservoirs were a boon to the whole com munity. calorific : heat-producing * Coal is much more calorific than green wood. 478. 433. carnivorous : meat-eating * The lion is a carnivorous animal. cataclysm : deluge. text under illustration * I find the captions that accompany these cartoons very clever and humorous 499. caption : title. 511. carnal : fleshly * The public was more interested in carnal pleasures than in spiritual matters. 501. caprice : whim * She was an unpredictable creature.
as a disease * The doctors were finally able to attribute his chronic headaches and nausea a to traces of formaldehyde gas in his apartment. commend * She could cite passages in the Bible from memory.ected and unchanged * Many chemical reactions cannot take place without the presence of a catalyst. 586.. catapult : slingshot. departing from the center * Many automatic drying machines remove excess moisture from clothing by centrif ugal force. 512. arrogant * Sensitive about having her ideas taken lightly. 573. 545. record (in chronological order) * The gossip columnist was paid to chronicle the latest escapades of the sociall y prominent celebrities. yield title to * I intend to cede this property to the city. cession : yielding to another. 536. 513. criticize * He was censured for his inappropriate behavior. cite : quote. 539. catastrophe : calamity * The Johnstown flood was a catastrophe. 590. 526. the doctor cauterized the wound. 580. chronicle : report. centigrade : denoting a widely used temperature scale (basically same as Ce lsius) * On the centigrade thermometer. chronic : long established. circuitous : roundabout * Because of the traffic congestion on the main highways. the freezing point of water is zero degrees 537. 524. hurling machine * Airplanes are sometimes launched from battleships by catapults. 574. champion : support militantly * Martin Luther King. 528. won the Nobel Peace Prize because he championed the o ppressed in their struggle for equality. cautious * Investigating before acting. circumscribe : limit. ceding * The cession of Alaska to the United States is discussed in this chapter. cessation : stopping * The workers threatened a cessation of all activities if their demands were not met. celerity : speed. she tried always to be circumspect. rapidity * Hamlet resented his mother's celerity in remarrying within a month after his f ather's death. 584. cede : transfer. she took a circuitous route. 514. we will make two preliminary attacks in othe r sections before starting our major campaign. 534. clamor : noise . 529. circumlocution : indirect or roundabout expression * He was afraid to call spade a spade and resorted to circumlocutions to avoid d irect reference to his subject. I must insist that you complete this assignment before you start anything else. circumvent : outwit. censure : blame. confine * Although I do not wish to circumscribe your activities. cataract : great waterfall. 552. centrifugal : radiating. cauterize : burn with hot iron or caustic * In order to prevent infection. eye abnormality * She gazed with awe at the mighty cataract known as Niagara Falls. cavalier : casual and offhand. 581. Jr. centripetal : tending toward the center * Does centripetal force or the force of gravity bring orbiting bodies to the ea rth's surface? 544. Marcia felt insulted by Mark's cavalier dismissal of her suggestion. 583. 582. circumspect : prudent. baffle * In order to circumvent the enemy.
by lies and tr ickery. 634.\ 620. compact : tightly packed. 649. 619. the solution will come.\ the emperor. collateral : security given for loan * The sum you wish to borrow is so large that it must be secured by collateral. cognitive : having to do with knowing or perceiving related to the mental p recesses * Though Jack was emotionally immature. commensurate : equal in extent * Your reward will be commensurate with your effort. 595. coincident : occurring at the same time * Some people find the coincident events in Hardy's novels annoyingly improbable . 635.\ whose influence i s visible in the words \maternal\ and \maternity. he was very advanced intellectually. coeval : living at the same time as. 647. collate : examine in order to verify authenticity.* The clamor of the children at play outside made it impossible for her to take a nap. 626. 617. 646. firm. colloquial : pertaining to conversational or common speech * Your use of colloquial expressions in a formal essay such as the one you have presented spoils the effect you hope to achieve. in harmony with . the pterodactyl flourished during the Mesozoic era. communal : held in common. similar or akin in natur e * The English word \mother\ cognate to the Latin word \mater. 630. 623. brief * His short. of a group of people * When they were divorced. 618. 631. compatible : harmonious. 615. they found their hotel suite commod ious. contemporary * coeval with the dinosaur. compact : agreement. claustrophobia : fear of being locked in * His fellow classmates laughed at his claustrophobia and often threatened to lo ck him in his room. commodious : spacious and comfortable * After sleeping in a small roadside cabins. collaborate : work together * Two writers collaborated in preparing this book. 652. colloquy : informal discussion * I enjoy our colloquies but I sometimes wish that they could be made more forma l and more searching. 609. commiserate : feel or express pity or sympathy for * Her friends commiserated with the widow. contract * The signers of the Mayflower Compact were establishing a form of government. cohere : stick together * Solids have a greater tendency to cohere than liquids. 622. 628. compact body was better suited to wrestling than to basketball. 633. allied by blood. cogent : convincing * She presented cogent arguments to the jury. sought to disrupt the cohesion of the free nations. his cognitive development was admirable. the two candidates were kept in full cognizance of the international situation. they had trouble dividing their communal property 650. 621. coalesce : combine. cogitate : think over * cogitate on this problem. 648. cohesion : tendency to keep together * A firm believer in the maxim \Divide and conquer. 651. collusion : conspiring in a fraudulent scheme * The swindlers were found guilty of collusion. cognate : related linguistically. fuse * The brooks coalesce into one large river. cognizance : knowledge * During the election campaign. arrange in order * They collated the newly found manuscripts to determine their age.
complaisant : trying to please. complacent : self-satisfied * There was a complacent look on his face as he examined his paintings. concession : an act of yielding * Before they could reach an agreement. 668. 657. contract * She compressed the package under her arm. increase * The makers of the popular cold remedy compounded a nasal decongestant with an antihistamine. pay interest. extravagant metaphor * He was an entertaining companion.* They were compatible neighbors. involvement * You cannot keep your complicity in this affair secret very long. so his bank balance was not accurate. comprise : include. 666. 678. constitute. component : element. comprehensive : thorough. 654. 663. consist of * If the District of Columbia were to be granted a statehood. compendium : brief. 671. inclusive * This book provides a comprehensive review of verbal and math skills for the SA T. 660. composure : mental calmness * Even the latest work crisis failed to shake her composure. 674. complement : complete. squeeze. 658. compromise : adjust. conceit : whimsical idea. concede : admit. compliance : conformity in fulfilling requirements. compound : combine. obliging * The courtier obeyed the king's orders in a complaisant manner. 670. 664. comprehensive summary * This text can serve as a compendium of the tremendous amount of new material b eing developed in this field. he was consulted. the United States of America would comprise fifty-onestates. compress : close. not just fifty. conception : beginning. complicity : participation. 662. endanger the interests or reputation of * Your presence at the scene of the dispute compromises our claim to neutrality in this matter. ingredient * I wish all the components of my stereo system were working at the same time. concise : brief and compact * When you define a new word. . make perfect * The waiter recommended a glass of port to complement the cheese. hield * Despite all the evidence Monica had assembled. readiness to yield * The design for the new school had to be in compliance with the local building code. 667. calculate * He failed to compute the interest. be concise. compute : reckon. 669. concave : hollow * The back-packers found partial shelter from the storm by huddling against the concave wall of the cliff. both sides had to make certain concessio ns. you would be wise to admit your involvement immediately. 659. the shorter the definition. 672. the easier it is to remember. 680. never quarreling over unimportant matters. compunction : remorse * The judge was especially severe in this sentencing because he felt that the cr iminal had shown no compunction for his heinous crime. behave * He comported himself with great dignity. always expressing himself in amusing conceit s and witty turns of phrase. comport : bear one's self. Mark refused to concede that sh e was right. 661. compliant : yielding * He was compliant and ready to go along with his friends' desires. 682. 665. 675. consummate. forming of a idea * At the first conception of the work. 676.
congenital : existing at birth * His congenital deformity disturbed his parents.684. 708. conscript : draftee. imagine. 697. consanguinity : kinship * The lawsuit developed into a test of the consanguinity of the claimant to the estate. confidant : trusted friend * He had no confidants with whom he could discuss his problems at home. confound : confuse. conifer : pine tree. make up in concert * How did the inventive chef ever concoct such strange dish? 687. I admit I am guilty as charged. who condoned Huck's minor offenses. invent * He conjured up an image of a reformed city and had the voters completely under his spell. conjecture : surmise. excuse * Unlike Widow Douglass. 714. concurrent : happening at the same time * In America. 713. connotation : suggested or implied meaning of an expression * Foreigners frequently are unaware of the connotations of the words they use. condescend : bestow courtesies with a superior air * The king condescended to grant an audience to the friends of the condemned man .. 702. 693. forgive. conscientious : scrupulous. condone : overlook. friendly * My father loved to go out for a meal with congenial companions. concord : harmony * Watching Tweediedum and Tweedledee battle. conformity : harmony. give tacit approval. the conifers were the first plants to bear flowers. congeal : freeze. 690. puzzle * No mystery could confound Sherlock Holmes for long. 694. condole : express sympathetic sorrow * His friends gathered to condole with him over his loss. commandeer * The army confiscated all available supplies of uranium. 700. a lover of an art * She had developed into a connoisseur of fine china. confiscate : seize. person forced into military service . congenial : pleasant. 704. 685. 703. crowd * They built the city at the confluence of two rivers. careful * A conscientious editor checked every definition for its accuracy. connoisseur : person competent to act as judge of art. proactive magic. Alice wondered why the two brothers could not manage to life in concord. Miss Watson did not hing but scold. 705. 701. confluence : flowing together. 716. 718. 698. concur : agree * Did you concur with the decision of the court or did you find it unfair? 689. conjure : summon a devil. we finally had conclusive ev idence of the identity of the mysterious thief. a t the concurrent moment in France. 709. agreement * In conformity with our rules and regulations. ending all debate * When the stolen books turned up in John's locker. the middle class was sowing the seeds of rebe llion. conflagration : great fire * In the conflagration that followed the 1906 earthquake. 717. much of San Francisco was destroyed. 711. ect. 688. concoct : prepare by combining. guess * I will end all your conjectures. conclusive : decisive. I am calling a meeting of our or ganization. 699. the colonists were resisting the demands of the mother country. coagulate * His blood congealed in his veins as he saw the dread monster rush toward him. cone-bearing tree * According to geologists.
727. . drafted agains t his will? 719. compete. consensus : general agreement * The consensus indicates that we are opposed to entering into this pact. assert earnestly * In Revolt of the Black Athlete. 734. consort : husband or wife * The search for a consort for the young Queen Victoria ended happily. 723. sanctify * We shall consecrate our lives to this noble purpose. 737. 725. consort : associate with * We frequently judge people by the company with whom they consort.* Did Rambo volunteer to fight in Vietnam. 735. repression of feelings * There was a feeling of constraint in the room because no one dared to criticiz e the speaker. constraint : compulsion. constituent : supporter * The congressman received hundreds of letters from angry constituents after the Equal Rights Amendment failed to pass. contaminate : pollute * The sewage system of the city so contaminated the water that swimming was forb idden. he liked his pud dings without lumps and his explanations without improbabilities. 721. sexual chastity * She vowed to lead a life of continence. 740. consign : deliver officially. contest : dispute * The defeated candidate attempted to contest the election results. console : lessen sadness or disappointment. context : writings preceding and following the passage quoted * Because these lines are taken out of context. contend : struggle. Maria was selected to study at the conservatory. conservatory : school of the fine arts (especially music or drama) * A gifted violinist. 722. they took drastic steps to prevent the spread of the diseas e. consistency : absence of contradictions. sociologist Harry Edwards contends that young black athletes have been exploited by some college recruiters. 729. agreement * Her agitation seemed out of consonance with her usual calm. give comfort * When her father died. continence : self-restraint. 738. 720. degree of thickness * Holmes judged puddings and explanations on their consistency. 733. 730. touching upon * The two countries are contiguous for a few miles. Marius did his best to console Cosette. dependability. consequential : pompous. construe : explain. 731. contentious : quarrelsome * We heard loud and contentious noises in the next room. 724. 726. contiguous : adjacent to. you must b e a consummate idiot. 732. consummate : complete * I have never seem anyone who makes as many stupid errors as you do. then they are separated by t he gulf. or was he a conscript. consecrate : dedicate. entrust. you disagree with the theory already adv anced. interpret * If I construe your remarks correctly. contagion : infection * Fearing contagion. 728. the actor strutted about the dressing room wi th a consequential air. conspiracy : treacherous plot * Brutus and Cassius joined in the conspiracy to kill Julius Caesar. consonance : harmony. 742. set apart * The court consigned the child to her paternal grandmother's care. 739. 741. self-important * Convinced of his own importance. uniformity. they do not convey the message t he author intended.
743. contingent : conditional * The continuation of this contract is contingent on the quality of your first o utput. 745. contraband : illegal trade; smuggling; smuggled goods * The coast guard tries to prevent contraband in U.S. waters. 746. contravene : contradict; oppose: infringe on or transgress * Mr. Barrett did not expect his frail daughter Elizabeth to contravene his will by eloping with Robert Browning. 749. controvert : oppose with arguments; contradict * To controvert your theory will require much time but it is essential that we d isprove it. 750. contumacious : disobedient; resisting authority * The contumacious mob shouted defiantly at the police. 754. convention : social or moral custom; established practice * Flying in the face of convention, George Sand (Amandine Dudevant) shocked her contemporaries by taking lovers and wearing men's clothes. 755. conventional : ordinary; typical * His conventional upbringing left him wholly unprepared for his wife's eccentri c family. 756. converge : come together * Marchers converged on Washington for the great Save Our Cities-Save Our Childr en March. 757. conversant : familiar with * The lawyer is conversant with all the evidence. 758. converse : opposite * The inevitable converse of peace is not war but annihilation. 759. convert : one who has adopted a different religion or opinion * On his trip to Japan, though the President spoke at length about the merits of American automobiles, he made few converts to his beliefs. 760. convex : curving outward * He polished the convex lens of his telescope. 761. conveyance : vehicle; transfer * During the transit strike, commuters used various kinds of conveyances. 762. conviction : strongly held belief * Nothing could shake his conviction that she was innocent. 763. convivial : festive; gay; characterized by joviality * The convivial celebrators of the victory sang their college songs. 764. convoke : call together * Congress was convoked at the outbreak of the emergency. 765. convoluted : coiled around; involved; intricate * His argument was so convoluted that few of us could follow a it intelligently. 768. cordial : gracious; heartfelt * Our hosts greeted us at the airport with a cordial welcome and a hearty hug. 769. cordon : extended line of men or fortifications to prevent access or egress * The police cordon was so tight that the criminals could not leave the area 773. corporeal : bodily; material * He was not a churchgoer; he was interested only in corporeal matters. 774. corpulent : very fat * The corpulent man resolved to reduce. 776. corroborate : confirm * Unless we find a witness to corroborate your evidence, it will not stand up in court. 777. corrosive : eating away by chemicals or disease * Stainless steel is able to withstand the effects of corrosive chemicals. 779. cosmic : pertaining to the universe; vast * cosmic rays derive their name from the fact that they bombard the earth's atmo sphere from outer space. 781. countenance : approve; tolerate * He refused to countenance such rude behavior on their part. 782. countenance : face
* When Jose saw his newborn daughter, a proud smile spread across his countenanc e. 783. countermand : cancel; revoke * The general countermand the orders issued in his absence. 784. counterpart : a thing that completes another; things very much alike * Night and day are counterparts. 789. covert : secret; hidden; implied * She could understand the covert threat in the letter. 790. covetous : avaricious; eagerly desirous of * The child was covetous by nature and wanted to take the toys belonging to his classmates. 797. craven : cowardly * When he saw the enemy troops advancing, he had a craven impulse to run for his life. 798. credence : belief * Do not place any credence in his promises. 799. credo : creed * I believe we may best describe his credo by saying that it approximates the Go ldren Rule. 800. credulity : belief on slight evidence * The witch doctor took advantage of the credulity of the superstitious natives. 801. creed : system of religious or ethical belief * In any loyal American's creed, love of democracy must be emphasized. 809. crux : crucial point * This is the crux of the entire problem. 817. culpable : deserving blame * Corrupt politicians who condone the activities of the gamblers are equally cul pable. 818. culvert : artificial channel for water * If we build a culvert under the road at this point, we will reduce the possibi lity of the road at this point, we will reduce the possibility of the road's bei ng flooded during the rainy season. 819. cumbersome : heavy; hard to manage * He was burdened down with cumbersome parcels. 822. curator : superintendent; manager * The members of the board of trustees of the museum expected the new curator to plan events and exhibitions that would make the museum more popular. 824. cursive : flowing, running * In normal writing we run our letters together in cursive form; in printing, we separate the letters. 825. cursory : casual; hastily done * A cursory examination of the ruins indicates the possibility of arson; a more extensive study should be undertaken. 837. daunt : intimidate * Your threats cannot daunt me. 838. dauntless : bold * Despite the dangerous nature of the undertaking, the dauntless soldier volunte ered for the assignment. 844. debase : reduce to lower state * Do not debase youself by becoming maudlin. 851. decadence : decay * The moral decadence of the people was reflected in the lewd literature of the period. 853. decapitate : behead * They did not hang Lady Jane Grey; they decapitated her. 854. decelerate : slow down * Seeing the emergency blinkers in the road ahead, he decelerated quickly. 855. deciduous : falling off, as of leaves * The oak is a deciduous tree. 857. decipher : decode
* I could not decipher the doctor's handwriting. 858. declivity : downward slope * The children loved to ski down the declivity. 863. decrepitude : state of collagse caused by illness or old age * I was unprepared for the state of decrepitude in which I had found my old frie nd; he seemed to have aged twenty years in six months. 864. decry : express strong disapproval of ; disparage * The founder of the Children's Defense Fund, Marian Wright Edelman, strongly de cries the lack of financial and moral support for children in America today. 865. deducible : derived byreasoning * If we accept your premise, your conclusions are easily deducible. 866. deface : mar; disfigure * If you deface a library book, you will have to pay a hefty fine. 867. defamation : harming a person's reputation * Such defamation of character may result in a slander suit. 868. default : failure to do * As a result of her husband's failure to appear in court, she was granted a div orce by default. 869. defeatist : resigned to defeat; accepting defeat as a natural outcome * If you maintain your defeatist attitude, you will never succeed. 870. defection : desertion * The children, who had made him an idol, were hurt most by his defection from o ur cause. 871. deference : courteous regard for another's wish * In deference to his desires, the employers granted him a holiday. 872. defile : pollute; profane * The hoodlums defiled the church with their scurrilous writing. 873. definitive : most reliable or complee * Carl Sandburg's Abraham Lincoln may be regarded as the definitive work on the life of the Great Emancipator. 874. deflect : turn aside * His life was saved when his cigarette case deflected the bullet. 875. defoliate : destroy leaves * In Vietnam the army made extensive use of chemical agents to defoliate the woo dlands. 880. degenerate : become worse; deteriorate * As the fight dragged on, the champion's style degenerated until he could barel y keep on his feet. 881. degraded : lowered in rank; debased * The degraded wretch spoke only of his past glories and honors. 882. dehydrate : remove water from; dry out * Vigorous dancing quickly dehydrates the body; between dances, be sure to drink more water than normal. 883. deify : turn into a god; idolize * Admire the rock star all you want; just don't deify him. 887. deliberate : consider; ponder; unhurried * Offered the new job, she asked for time to deliberate before she made her deci sion. 890. delta : flat plain of mud or sand between branches of a river * His dissertation discussed the effect of intermittent flooding on the fertilit y of the Nile delta. 891. delude : deceive * Do not delude yourself into believing that he will relent. 892. deluge : flood; rush * When we advertised the position, we received a deluge of applications. 893. delusion : false belief; hallucination * This scheme is a snare and a delusion. 896. demagogue : person who appeals to people's prejudice; false leader * He was accused of being a demagogue because he made promises that aroused futi le hopes in his listeners.
deplete : reduce. deplore : regret * Although I deplore the vulgarity of your language. deprecate : express disapproval of. 911. belittle * A firm believer in old-fashioned courtesy. derision : ridicule * They greeted his proposal with derision and refused to consider it seriously. denounce : condemn. 917. burning farms and carrying off the harv est. deploy : move troops so that the battle line is extended at the expense of depth * The general ordered the battalion to deploy in order to meet the offensive of the enemy. 932. denotation : meaning. deposition : testimony under oath * He made his deposition in the judge's chamber. the people were penniless. forsake * The bandits desolated the countryside. 915. exhaust * We must wait until we deplete our present inventory before we order replacemen ts. abandoned * The corporal who fell asleep while on watch was thrown into the guardhouse for being derelict in his duty. critcize * The reform candidate denounced the corrupt city officers for having betray ed the public's trust. 919. I defend your right to expr ess yourself freely. a bitter dispute about succession to power de veloped. violate the sanctity of * The soldiers desecrated the temple. lay waste to. 923. 920. remove form office * The army attempted to depose the king and set up a military government. dermatologist : one who studies the skin and its diseases * I advise you to consult a dermatologist about your acne. 930.899. derogatory : expressing a low opinion * I resent your derogatory remarks. 914. depict : portray * In this book. protest against. 903. desolate : rob of joy. demise : death * Upon the demise of the dictator. 916. desiccate : dry up * A tour of this smokehouse will give you an idea of how the pioneers used to de siccate food in order to preserve it. distinguishing by name * A dictionary will always give us the denotation of a word. demented : insane * She became increasingly demented and had to be hospitalized. Miss Post deprecated the modern ten dency to address new acquaintances by their first names. demotic : pertaining to the people * He lamented the passing of aristocratic society and maintained that a demotic society would lower the nation's standards. 927. depredation : plundering * After the depredations of the invaders. depreciate : lessen in value * If you neglect this properly. it will depreciate. 912. 925. 900. 928. desperado : reckless outlaw . 933. demoniac : fiendish * The Spanish Inquisition devised many demoniac means of torture. frequently. deride : scoff at * The people derided his grandiose schemes. depose : dethrone. desecrate : profane. 904. 909. 931. 913. 924. derelict : neglectful of duty. 921. it will always give us its connotation. the author depicts the slave owners as kind and benevolent maste rs.
the survivors. to him reading was purposeful. devotee : enthusiastic follower * A devotee of the opera. calm and objective. 949. deviate : turn away from * Do not deviate from the truth. invariable * At the royal wedding. 964. damaging * Your acceptance of her support will ultimately prove detrimental rather than h elpful to your cause. desultory : aimless. aspersion * He is offended by your frequent detractions of his ability as a leader. devolve : deputize. to arrange peace terms with the enemy. 939. haphazard. instructional.* Butch Cassidy was a bold desperado with a price on his head. the le sson he teaches is more memorable than the lines. despise : scorn * I despise your attempts at a reconciliation at this time and refuse to meet yo u. hindrance * Does the threat of capital punishment serve as a deterrent to potential killer s? 944. diffusion : wordiness. not desultory. despondent : depressed. diaphanous : sheer. 963. 936. you must face the facts. transparent * They saw the burglar clearly through the diaphanous curtain. detraction : slandering. devious : going astray. detonation : explosion * The detonation of the bomb could be heard miles away. detached : emotionally removed. he bought season tickets every year. 948. 957. 937. 950. despoil : plunder * If you do not yield. 943. he became more and more depondent every day. 961. destitute : extremely poor * The costs of the father's illness left the family destitute. pass to others * It devolved upon us. erratic * Your devious behavior in this matter puzzles me since you are usually direct a nd straightforward. 958. 953. 951. 947. detrimental : harmful. invective * During the lengthy diatribe delivered by his opponent he remained calm and sel f-controlled. indifferent * A psychoanalyst must maintain a detached point of view and stay uninvolved wit h her patients' personal lives. the procession of the nobles followed a determinate orde r of precedence. 940. dictum : authoritative and weighty statement * She repeated the statement as though it were the dictum of the most expert wor ker in the group. diffidence : shyness * You must overcome your diffidence if you intend to become a salesperson. digressing at random * In prison Malcolm X set himself the task of reading straight through the dicti onary. I am afraid the enemy will despoil the countryside. 935. 946. spreading in all directions like a gas . diatribe : bitter scolding. deterrent : something that discourages. 934. 942. dexterous : skillful * The magician was so dexterous that we could not follow his movements as he per formed his tricks. preaching or moralizing * The didactic qualities of his poetry overshadow its literary qualities. 941. didactic : teaching. despicable : contemptible * Your despicable remarks call for no reply. 960. gloomy * To the dismay of his parents. devoid : lacking * He was devoid of any personal desire for gain in his endeavor to secure improv ement in the community. determinate : having a fixed order of procedure. 945.
dilate : expand * In the dark. 999. rambling * They were annoyed and bored by her discursive remarks. disbelieve * The campaign was highly negative in tone. dishearten : discourage * His failure to pass the bar exam disheartened him. destroy confidence in. dilatory : delaying * Your dilatory tactics may compel me to cancel the contract. renounce claim to * If I grant you this previlege. disgorge : surrender something. the pupils of your eyes dilate.* Your composition suffers from a diffusion of ideas. they had to pick up their passports fro m the ship's purser. 986. dilemma : problem. difference * The police noticed some discrepancies in his description of the crime and did not believe him. discredit : defame. disabuse : correct a false impression. 981. reduce in strength * She preferred her coffee diluted with milk. he refused to disclose any informatio n about his company's forthcoming product. 968. I know he is innocent. each candidate tried to discredit th e other. diminution : lessening. 997. discrete : separate. spoil * An ugly frown disfigured his normally pleasant face. will you disclaim all other rights? 991. reduction in size * The blockaders hoped to achieve victory as soon as the diminution of the enemy 's supplies became serious. disband : dissolve. disdain : treat with scorn or contempt * You make enemies of all you disdain. undeceive * I will attempt to disabuse you of your impression of my client's guilt. disperse * The chess club disbanded after its disastrous initial season. disclose : reveal * Although competitors offered him bribes. 1009. persisten hard work * Her employers were greatly impressed by her diligence and offered her a partne rship in the firm. unconnected * The universe is composed of discrete bodies. efect. 1006. 973. vomit * Unwilling to disgorge the cash he had stolen from the pension fund. 1005. discount : disregard * Be prepared to discount what he has to say about his ex-wife. discourse : formal disscussion. 1010. 1012. diligence : steadiness of effort. disconcert : confuse. ability to adjust actions to circumstances * Use your discretion in this matter and do not discuss it with anyone. 1001. disembark : go ashore. 1002. 990. discordant : inharmonious. 994. 1000. disclaim : disown. . try to be more compact 966. dilute : make less concentrated. 969. discursive : digressing. 1004. 971. conversation * The young Plato was drawn to the Agora to hear the philosophical discourse of Socrates and his followers. 967. disfigure : mar the appearance of. discretion : prudence. discrepancy : lack of consistency. unload cargo from a ship * Before the passengers could disembark. 972. embarrass * The lawyer was disconcerted by the evidence produced by her adversary. the embezz ler tried to run away. dilapidated : ruined because of neglect * We felt that the dilapidated building needed several coats of paint. choice of two unsatisfactory alternatives * In this dilemma. conflicting * She tried to unite the discordant factions. 998. upset. he knew no one to whom he could turn for advice. 996.
disparate : basically different. dismember : cut into small parts * When the Austrian Empire was dismembered. 1022. 1021. 1034. dispel : scatter. he carefully examined the causes o f the conflict and proceeded to suggest suitable remedies. disquisition : a formal systematic inquiry. unrelated * It is difficult. she dismissed the notion that he might be un faithful. if not impossible. we all knew there not to dance but to meet girls. he outlined the steps he had taken in reaching his conclu sions.1014. dispassionate : calm. each ye ar. dissipate : squander * The young man quickly dissipated his inheritance and was soon broke. an explanation of the results of a formal inquiry * In his disquisition. looseness in morals . dissimulate : pretend. 1029. 1035. conceal by feigning * She tried to dissimulate her grief by her exuberant attitude. dismiss : eliminate from consideration. 1024. to organize these disparate elements into a coherent whole. Justice Marshall dissented from the majo rity opinion. dissolution : disintegration. unearth * They disinterred the body and held an autopsy. dissident : dissenting. reject * Believing in John's love for her. 1025. dissent : disagree * In a landmark Supreme Court decision. fond of argument * People avoided discussing contemporary problems with him because of his disput atious manner. a candidate is frequently required to prepare a dissertation on some scholarly subject. disinterested : unprejudiced * The only disinterested person in the room was the judge. dispatch : speediness. cause to vanish * The bright sunlight eventually dispelled the morning mist. 1016. he then sent a d ispatch to headquarters. message sent with all due speed * Young Napoleon defeated the enemy with all possible dispatch. disperse : scatter * The police fired tear gas into crowd to disperse the protesters. 1036. dissemble : disguise. disinclination : unwilingness * Some mornings I feel a great disinclination to get out of bed. disinter : dig up. 1037. impartial * In a dispassionate analysis of the problem. 1042. several new countries were establish ed. pretend * Even though John tried to dissemble his motive for taking modern dance. the government hunted down the dissident students and their supporters. 1031. 1040. 1032. drive away. thousands more disport themselves at Miami and Palm Beach. 1041. rebellious * In the purge that followed the student demonstrations at Tianamen Square. 1027. 1039. disputatious : argumentative. informing his commander of the great victory. disport : amuse * The popularity of Florida as a winter resort is constantly increasing. 1033. prompt execution. dissertation : formal essay * In order to earn a graduate degree from many of our universities. cutting apart in order to examine * The dissection of frogs on the laboratory is particularly unpleasant to some s tudents. 1028. 1026. 1038. disseminate : scatter (like seeds) * The invention of the radio helped propagandists to disseminate their favorite doctrines very easily. 1017. disparity : difference. dissection : analysis. condition of inequality * The disparity in their ages made no difference at all.
1061. 1072. 1057.stubborn * Les Miserables tells of Inspector Javert's long. foresee the future * Nothing infuriated Tom more than Aunt Polly's ability to divine when he was no t telling the truth. an epigrammatist distills thoughts i nto quips. 1075.* The profligacy and dissolution of life in Caligula's Rome appall some historia ns. must be milked regularly. 1069. various * There are diverse ways of approaching this problem. dissimilitude * The diversity of colleges in this country indicates that many levels of abilit y are being served. refine. 1051. divest : strip. I find myself addressin g a pack of dolts. deviating * The two witnesses presented the jury with remarkably divergent accounts of the same episode. docile : obedient. 1044. dogmatic : positive. diversion : act of turning aside. 1053. concentrate * A moon shiner distills mash into whiskey. 1054. but the repressive response of the doctrinaire hard-liners crushed h is dreams of democracy. easily managed * As docile as he seems today. cold in manner * His distant greeting made me feel unwelcome from the start. dissuade : advise against * He could not dissuade his friend from joining the conspirators. go in different directionsfrom the same point * The spokes of the wheel diverge from the hub. 1046. dolt : stupid person * I thought I was talking to a mature audience. 1055. 1045. for example. distant : reserved or aloof. dissonance : discord * Some contemporary musicians deliberately use dissonance to achieve certain eff ects. 1067. diverse : differing in some characteristics. diurnal : daily * A farmer cannot neglect his diurnal tasks at any time. swell out * I can tell when he is under stress by the way the veins distend on his forehea d. dogmatic. it can be easily refuted. diversity : variety. 1066. cows. snarling beas t. dogged : determined. document : provide written evidence * She kept all the receipts from her business trip in order to document her expe nses for the firm. 1056. diverge : vary. 1058. uny ielding * Weng had hoped that the student-led democracy movement might bring about chang e in China. 1059. 1063. 1048. arbitrary * Do not be so dogmatic about that statement. that old lion was once a ferocious. instead. dogged pursuit of the crimina l Jean Valjean. pastime * After studying for several hours. divine : perceive intuitively. 1047. 1043. deprive * He was divested of his power to act and could no longer govern. doff : take off * A gentleman used to doff his hat to a lady. he needed a diversion from work. 1064. distend : expand. doctrinaire : unable to compromise about points of doctrine. distill : purify. don : put on . divergent : differing. distortion : twisting out of shape * It is difficult to believe the newspaper accounts of this event because of the distortions and exaggerations of the reporters.
correct morally * Although his purpose was to edify and not to entertain his audience. 1105. any overpowering emotion * The announcement that the war had ended brought on an ecstasy that resulted in many uncontrolled celebrations. 1107. efficient * A dynamic government is necessary to meet the demands of a changing society. egotism : conceit. 1106. 1117. dormant : sleeping. 1118. belief that one should be inter ested in one's self rather than in others * His egoism prevented him from seeing the needs of his colleagues. duplicity : double-dealing. egoism : excessive interest in one's self. ductility : malleability. reduce * They spent so much money that their funds dwindled to nothing. 1097. 1125. eccentricity : oddity. 1110. egregious : notorious. effusion : pouring forth * The critics objected to her literary effusion because it was too flowery. as he had always seemed honest and straightforward. 1099. economy : efficiency or conciseness in using something * Reading the epigrams of Pope. lethargic. ecstasy : rapture. he changed clothes in a conven ient phone booth. 1126. 1093. efface : rub out * The coin had been handled so many times that its data had been effaced. idiosyncrasy * Some of his friends tried to account for his rudeness to strangers as the ecce ntricity of genius. . 1128. dynamic : active. flexibility. dormer : window projecting from roof * In remodeling the attic into a bedroom. torpid * Sometimes dormant talents in our friends surprise those of us who never realiz e how gifted our acquaintances really are. dwindle : shrink. extinguish. 1115. ability to be drawn out * Copper wire has many industrial uses because of its extreme ductility. efficacy : power to produce desired effect * The efficacy of this drug depends on the regularity of the dosage. surpass * The new stock market high eclipsed the previous record set in 1985. 1129. whimsical. we all knew better than to believe a word she said. eccentric : odd. 1100. 1130. many of h is listeners were amused and not enlightened. ebullient : showing excitement. 1077. overflowing with enthusiasm * His ebullient nature could not be repressed. dutiful : respectful. 1076. 1112.* When Clark Kent had to don his Superman outfit. shocking * She was an egregious liar. irregular * The comet passed close by the earth in its eccentric orbit. vanity * She thought so much of herself that we found her egotism unwarranted and irrit ating. edify : instruct. effrontery : shameless boldness * She had the effrontery to insult the guest. we must seek effectual means of securing our goals. I admire the economy of his verse: in few words he conveys worlds of meaning. hypocrisy * People were shocked and dismayed when they learned of his duplicity in this af fair. 1123. joy. obedient * The dutiful child grew up to be a conscientious adult aware of his civic oblig ations. eclipse : darken. 1101. dubious : doubtful * He has the dubious distinction of being the lowest man in his class. 1113. effectual : efficient * If we are to succeed. conspicuously bad. effigy : dummy * The mob showed its irritation by hanging the judge in effigy. 1094. 1122. we decided that we needed to put in do rmers to provide sufficient ventilation for the new room.
embed : enclose. encumber : burden * Some people encumber themselves with too much luggage. the attempts of the Abolitioninst to emancipate the slaves were unpo pular in New England as well as in the South. we were cheerful for we were wel l stocked and could withstand a siege until our allies joined us. my lord. 1173. go on board a boat. 1142.\ said Holmes. eminent : high. enamored : in love * Narcissus became enamored of his own beauty. emaciated : thin and wasted * His long period of starvation had left him emaciated. hire. 1172. encompass : surround * Although we were encompassed by enemy forces. emancipate : set free * At first. egress : exit * Barnum's sign \To the Egress\ fooled many people who thought they were going t o see an animal and instead found themselves in the street. 1140. engage : attract. place in something * Tales of actual historical figures like King Alfred have become embedded in le gends. persuasive speech * The crowds were stirred by Martin Luther King's eloquence. emissary : agent.1131. even a short walk to the window ener vated her. begin a journey * In devoting herself to the study of gorillas. 1157. 1158. pledge oneself. enfranchise : admit to the rights of citizenship (especially the right to vote) * Although blacks were enfranchised shortly after the Civil War. 1132. elucidate : explain. 1177. 1146. confront * \Your case has engaged my interest. embargo : ban on commerce or other activity * As a result of the embargo. embellish : adorn * My mother-in-law's stories about her journey from Russia made us laugh because she embellished the bare facts of her travels with humorous anecdotes. 1179. elusive : evasive. 1141. endemic : prevailing among a specific group of people or in a specific are or country * This disease is endemic in this part of the world. eloquence : expressiveness. enlighten * He was called upon to elucidate the disputed points in his article. \You many engage my . enervate : weaken * She was slow to recover from her illness. emanate : issue forth * A strong odor of sulfur emanated from the spring. support * Everyone waited to see which one of the rival candidates for the city council the mayor would endorse. 1145. 1147. endorse : approve. 1150. 1168. 1149. Dian Fossey embarked on a course of action that was to cost her life. 1164. he seldom had time for his for mer friends. when they take short tr ips. 1148. 1178. baffling. messenger * The secretary of State was sent as the President's special emissary to the con ference on disarmament. 1170. 1144. women did not r eceive the right to vote until 1920. hard to grasp * His elusive dreams of wealth were costly to those of his friends who supported him financially. trade with colonies was at a standstill. embark : commence. lofty * After his appointment to this emiment position. ejaculation : exclamation * He could not repress an ejaculation of surprise when he heard the news. more than 80 percent of the population are at one time or another affected by it.
ask earnestly * She entreated her father to let her stay out till midnight. he was enthralled by her beauty. 1191. epigram : witty thought or saying. enunciate : speak distinctly * How will people understand you if you do not enunciate? 1203. 1208. enslave * From the moment he saw her picture. entice : lure. 1185. 1200. for example. entomology : study of insects * I found entomology the least interesting part of my course in biology. 1213. 1184. 1206. 1205. 1193. engender : cause. attract. ensue : follow * The evils that ensued were the direct result of the miscalculations of the le aders. mention one by one * Huck hung his head in shame as Miss Watson enumerated his many flaws. usually short * Poor Richard's epigrams made Benjamin Franklin famous. enumerate : list. eon : long period of time. carry away with emotion * Shafts of sunlight on a wall could entrance her and leave her spellbound. order. epilogue : short speech at conclusion of dramatic work * The audience was so disappointed in the play that many did not remain to hear the epilogue. enhance : advance. entrance : put under a spell. hatred * At Camp David President Carter labored to bring an end to the enmity that prev ented Egypt and Israel from living in peace. or similar work of art * Kurosawa's film Seven Samurai is an epic portraying the struggle of seven warr iors to destroy a band of robbers. epic : long heroic poem. ephemeral : short-lived. novel. produce * To receive praise for real accomplishments engenders self-confidence in a chil d. epithet : word or phrase characteristically used to describe a person or t hing * So many kings of France were named Charles that modern students need epithets to tell them apart: Charles the Wise. studyin g insects bored me. entreat : plead. was someone far different fro m Charles the Fat. puzzling * Many have sought to fathom the enigmatic smile of the Mona Lisa. forbid * The owners of the company asked the court to enjoin the union from picketing t he plant. 1182. 1189. 1214. 1197. he dictated the epitaph he wanted placed on his tombstone. enigmatic : obscure.services. 1186. enthrall : capture. epitome : perfect example or embodiment * Singing \I am the very model of a modern Major-General\ in The Pirates of Penz . 1201. 1212.\ 1180. enrapture : please intensely * The audience was enraptured by the freshness of the voices and the excellent o rchestration. an age * It has taken eons for our civilization to develop. epitaph : inscription in memory of a dead person * In his will. 1209. fleeting * The mayfly is an ephemeral creature. 1192. enormity : hugeness (in a bad sense) * He did not realize the enormity of his crime until he saw what suffering he ha d caused. 1195. 1188. improve * Your chances for promotion in this department will be enhanced if you take som e more courses in evening school. 1196. enmity : ill will. tempt * She always tried to entice her baby brother into mischief. enjoin : command.
known only to the chosen few * New Yorker short stories often include esoteric allusions to obscure peoplee a nd events: the implication is if you are in the in-crowd. escapade : prank. ambiguous * Macbeth was misled by the equivocal statements of the witches. 1233. the government developed a system of espionage that penetrated every household. equilibrium * The high-wire acrobat used his pole as an equipose to overcome the swaying cau sed by the wind. 1222. erudite : learned. the beginning of spring and aut umn * The vernal equinox is usually marked by heavy rainstorms. esoteric : hard to understand. the Italian language is particul arly pleasing to the ear when sung. equinox : period of equal days and nights. espionage : spying * In order to maintain its power. steady. equivocal : doubtful. 1227. espouse : adopt. wrong * I thought my answer was correct. uniform * After the hot summers and cold winters of New England. support * She was always ready to espouse a worthy cause. . equanimity : calmness of temperament * In his later years. scholarly * His erudite writing was difficult to read because of the many allusions which were unfamiliar to most readers. but it was erroneous. 1247. you'll get the referen ce. impartial * I am seeking an equitable solution to this dispute. mislead. 1226. 1225.ance.\ 1249. eulogy : praise * All the eulogies of his friends could not remove the sting of the calumny heaped upon him by his enemies. equity : fairness. 1221. 1215. one which will be fair and acceptable to both sides. 1235. equable : tranquil. flighty conduct * The headmaster could not regard this latest escapade as a boyish joke and expe lled the young man. equitable : fair. 1217. justice * Our courts guarantee equity to all. 1216. he found the climate of the West Indies equable and pleasant. 1232. equivocate : lie. he could look upon the foolishness of the world with equan imity and humor. you won't. errant : wandering * Many a charming tale has been written about the knights-errant who helped the weak and punished the guilty during the Age of Chivalry. equipoise : balance. etymology : study of word parts * A knowledge of etymology can help you on many English tests. erode : eat away * The limestone was eroded by the dripping water 1229. unpredictable * Investors become anxious when the stock market appears erratic. 1230. balancing force. epoch : period of time * The glacial epoch lasted for thousands of years. euphemism : mild expression in place of an unpleasant one * The expression \he passed away\ is a euphemism for \he died. 1224. 1236. 1231. erratic : odd. 1244. 1237. euphony : sweet sound * Noted for its euphony even when it is spoken. erroneous : mistaken. if you come from Cleveland. Major-General Stanley proclaimed himself the epitome of an officer and a g entleman. 1223. attempt to conceal the truth * The audience saw through his attempts to equivocate on the subject under discu ssion and ridiculed his remarks. 1248.
1251. euthanasia : mercy killing * Many people support euthanasia for terminally ill patients who wish to die 1252. evanescent : fleeting; vanishing * For a brief moment, the entire skyline was bathed in an orange-red hue inthe e vanescent rays of the sunset. 1253. evasive : not frank; eluding * Your evasive answers convinced the judge that you were witholding important ev idence. 1254. evince : show clearly * When he tried to answer the questions, he evinced his ignorance of the subject matter. 1256. evoke : call forth * He evoked much criticism by his hostile manner. 1258. exacerbate : worsen; embitter * This latest arrest will exacerbate the already existing discontent of the peop le and enrage them. 1259. exacting : extremely demanding * The colonies rebelled against the exacting financial claims of the mother coun try. 1260. exalt : raise in rank or dignity; praise * The actor Alec Guinness was exalted to the rank of knighthood by the Queen; he now is known as Sir Alec Guinness. 1261. exasperate : vex * Johnny often exasperates his mother with his pranks. 1262. excerpt : selected passage (written or musical) * The cinematic equivalent of an excerpt from a novel is a clip from a film. 1264. excise : cut away; cut out * When you excise the dead and dying limbs of a tree, you not only improve its a ppearance but also enhance its chances of bearing fruit. 1266. exculpate : clear from blame * He was exculpated of the crime when the real criminal confessed. 1267. execrable : very bad * The anecdote was in execrable taste and shocked the audience. 1268. execrate : curse; express abhorrence for * The world execrates the memory of Hitler and hopes that genocide will never ag ain be the policy of any nation. 1269. execute : put into effect; carry out * The choreographer wanted to see how well she could execute a pirouette. 1271. exemplary : serving as a model; outstanding * Her exemplary behavior was praised at commencement. 1272. exemplify : show by example; furnish an example * Three-time winner of the Super Bowl, Joe Montana exemplifies the ideal quarter back. 1273. exertion : effort; expenditure of much physical work * The exertion involved in unscrewing the rusty bolt left her exhausted. 1274. exhort : urge * The evangelist will exhort all sinners in his audience to reform. 1275. exhume : dig out of the ground; remove from a grave * Because of the rumor that he had been poisoned, his body was exhumed in order that an autopsy might be performed. 1279. exodus : departure * The exodus from the hot and stuffy city was particularly noticeable on Friday evenings. 1280. exonerate : acquit; exculpate * I am sure this letter naming the actual culprit will exonerate you. 1282. exorcise : drive our evil spirits * By incantation and prayer, the medicine man sought to exorcise the evil spirit s that had taken possession of the young warrior. 1283. exotic : not native; strange * Because of his exotic headdress, he was followed in the streets by small child
ren who laughed at his strange appearance. 1285. expatriate : exile; someone who has withdrawn from his native land * Henry James was an American expatriate who settled in England. 1286. expedient : suitable; practical; politic * A pragmatic politician, he was guided by what was expedient rather than by wha t was ethical. 1287. expedite : hasten * We hope you will be able to expedite delivery because of our tight schedule. 1288. expertise : specialized knowledge; expert skill * Although she was knowledgeable in a number of fields, she was hired for her pa rticular expertise in computer programming. 1290. expletive : interjection; profane oath * The sergeant's remarks were filled with expletives that offended the new recru its. 1291. explicate : explain; interpret; clarify * Harry Levin explicated James Joyce's novels with such clarity that even Finneg an's Wake seemed comprehensible to his students. 1293. exploit : deed or action, particularly a brave deed * Raoul Wallenberg was noted for his exploits in rescuing Jews from Hitler's for ces. 1294. exploit : make use of, sometimes unjustly * Caesar Chavez fought attempts to exploit migrant farmworkers in California 1297. exposure : risk, particularly of being exposed to disease or to the elemen ts; unmasking; act of laying something open * Exposure to sun and wind had dried out her hair and weathered her face. 1298. expunge : cancel; remove * If you behave, I will expunge this notation from your record. 1299. expurgate : clean; remove offensive parts of a book * The editors felt that certain passages in the book had to be expurgated before it could be used in the classroom. 1300. extant : still in existence * Although the authorities suppressed the book, many copies are extant and may b e purchased at exorbitant prices. 1301. extemporaneous : not planned; impromptu * Because his extemporaneous remarks were misinterpreted, he decided to write al l his speeches in advance. 1302. extenuate : weaken; mitigate * It is easier for us to extenuate our own shortcomings than those of others. 1303. extirpate : root up * The Salem witch trials were a misguided attempt to extirpate superstitionand h eresy. 1304. extol : praise; glorify * The astronauts were extolled as the pioneers of the Space Age. 1305. extort : wring from; get money by threats, etc. * The blackmailer extorted money from his victim. 1309. extricate : free; disentangle * He found that he could not extricate himself from the trap. 1310. extrinsic : external; not inherent; foreign * Do not be fooled by extrinsic causes. We must look for the intrinsic reason. 1311. extrovert : person interested mostly in external objects and actions * A good salesperson in usually an extrovert, who likes to mingle with people. 1312. extrude : force or push out * Much pressure is required to extrude these plastics. 1313. exuberant : abundant; effusive; lavish * His speeches were famous for his exuberant language and vivid imagery. 1314. exude : discharge; give forth * The maple syrup is obtained from the sap that the trees exude in early spring. 1315. exult : rejoice * We exulted when our team won the victory. 1317. facade : front of the building
* The facade of the church had often been photographed by tourists because it wa s more interesting than the rear. 1318. facet : small plane surface (of a gem); a side * The stonecutter decided to improve the rough diamond by providing it with seve ral facets. 1319. facetious : humorous; jocular * Your facetious remarks are not appropriate at this serious moment. 1320. facile : easy; expert * Because he was a facile speaker, he never refused a request to address an orga nization. 1321. facilitate : make less difficult * He tried to facilitate repayment of the loan by getting a part-time job. 1322. facsimilie : copy * Many museums sell facsimilies of the works of art on display. 1323. faction : party; clique; dissension * The quarrels and bickering of the two small factions within the club disturbed the majority of the members. 1324. factious : inclined to form factions; causing dissension. * Your statement is factious and will upset the harmony that now exists. 1325. factitous : artificial; sham * Hollywood actresses often create factitious tears by using glycerine. 1326. factotum : handyman; person who does all kinds of work * Although we had hired him as a messenger, we soon began to use him as a genera l factotum around the office. 1327. faculty : mental or bodily powers; teaching staff * As he grew old, he feared he might lose his faculties and become useless to hi s employer. 1328. fallacious : misleading * Your reasoning must be fallacious because it leads to a ridiculous answer. 1329. fallible : liable to err * I know I am fallible, but I feel confident that I am right this time. 1333. fancied : imagined; unreal * You are resenting fancied insults. No one has ever said such things about you. 1335. fanciful : whimsical; visionary * This is a fanciful scheme because it does not consider the facts. 1337. fantastic : unreal; grotesque; whimsical * Your fears are fantastic because no such animal as you have described exists. 1342. fatuous : foolish; inane * He is far too intelligent to utter such fatuous remarks. 1343. fauna : animals of a period or region * The scientist could visualize the fauna of the period by examining the skeleta l remains and the fossils. 1346. feasible : practical * This is an entirely feasible proposal. I suggest we adopt it. 1349. feign : pretend * Lady Macbeth feigned illness in the courtyard although she was actually health y. 1350. feint : trick; shift; sham blow * The boxer was fooled by his opponent's feint and dropped his guard. 1355. ferment : agitation; commotion * With the breakup of the Soviet Union, much of Eastern Europe was in a state of ferment. 1357. fervent : ardent; hot * She felt that the fervent praise was excessive and somewhat undeserved. 1358. fervid : ardent * Her fervid enthusiasm inspired all of us to undertake the dangerous mission. 1359. fervor : glowing ardor * Their kiss was full of the fervor of first love. 1362. festive : joyous; celebratory * Their wedding in the park was a festive occasion.
1390. many of th e incidents are fictitious. 1370. 1371. flourish : grow well. foreshadow : give an indication beforehand. 1405. 1412. 1431. fidelity : loyalty * A dog's fidelity to its owner is one of the reasons why that animal is a favor ite household pet. 1436. renounce * No one expected Foster to forsake his wife and children and run off with anoth er woman. series of changes * While conditions are in such a state of flux.1369. foliage : masses of leaves * Every autumn before the leaves fell he promised himself he would drive though the New England to admire the colorful fall foliage. 1438. figurative : not literal. 1378. no one expects you to rush out to buy him a replacement set. forbearance : patience * We must use forbearance in dealing with him because he is still weak from his illness. 1430. prudence * A wise investor. flamboyant : ornate * Modern architecture has discarded the flamboyant trimming on buildings and emp hasizes simplicity of line. I do not wish to commit myself t oo deeply in this affair. she had the foresight to buy land just before the current rea l estate boom. 1423. 1429. prosper. but metaphorical. figment : invention. 1432. abandon. abandon * The captured knight could escape death only if he agreed to forswear Christian ity and embrace Islam as the one true faith. if you're told Jack has lo st his marbles. it does not obligate you in any way . 1437. foresight : ability to foresee future happenings. direct. Ida decided to forgo dessert until s he could fit into a size eight again. forswear : renounce. forgo : give up. fictitious : imaginary * Although this book purports to be a biography of George Washington. 1434. 1408. 1372. fortitude : bravery. 1387. finale : conclusion * It is not until we reach the finale of this play that we can understand the au thor's message. frank * I prefer Jill's forthright approach to Jack's tendency to beat around the bush . the prospective bride and groom hoped to forestall any potential arguments about money in the event of a divorce. do without * Determined to lose weight for the summer. 1418. forthright : straightforward. prefigure * In retrospect. forte : strong point or special talent * I am not eager to play this rather serious role. portend. 1428. flux : flowing. for my forte is comedy. forestall : prevent by taking action in advance * By setting up a prenuptial agreement. forsake : desert. courage . make sweeping gestures * The orange trees flourished in the sun. fluency : smoothness of speech * He spoke French with fluency and ease. imaginary thing * That incident never took place. political analysts realized that Yeltsin's defiance of the attempted coup foreshadowed his emergence as the dominant figure of the new Russ ian republic. flagrant : conspicuously wicked * We cannot condone such flagrant violations of the rules. using a figure of speech * \To lose one's marbles\ is a figurative expression. it is a figment of your imagination. 1435. formality : adherence to established rules or procedures * Signing this petition is a mere formality.
generality : vague statement * This report is filled with generalities. garnish : decorate * Parsley was used to garnish the boiled potato. grandiloquent : pompous. origin * Tracing the genesis of a family is the theme of \Roots. 1558. futile : ineffective. for our crops were good and our granaries are f ull. as in prenatal growth * While this scheme was being gestated by the conspirators. 1509. genealogy : record of descent. lineage * He was proud of his genealogy and constantly referred to the achievements of h is ancestors. vividly described * I was particularly impressed by the graphic presentation of the storm. 1555. 1441. fugitive : fleeting or transitory. 1508. 1560. gratify : please * Her parents were gratified by her success. genteel : well-bred. stateliness. 1457. class of people just below nobility * The local gentry did not welcome the visits of the summer tourists and tried t o ignore their presence in the community. 1514. bombastic. 1556. using high-sounding language * The politician could never speak simply. David never failed to be s truck by the grandeur of the Sierra Nevada range. 1564. sink * After hitting the submerged iceberg.* He was awarded the medal for his fortitude in the battle. 1521. roving * The film brought a few fugitive images to her mind. 1476. gazette : official publication * He read the gazettes regularly for announcement of his promotion. the Titanic started taking in water rapid ly and soon foundered. 1465. generic : characteristic of an entire class or species * Sue knew so many computer programmers who spent their spare time playing fanta sy games that she began to think that playing Dungeon & Dragons was a generic tr ait. genesis : beginning. fusion : union. but on the whole it made n o lasting impression upon her. 1563. 1442. grandiose : imposing. coalition * The opponents of the political party in power organized a fusion of disgruntle d groups and became an important element in the election. 1445. 1475. graphic : pertaining to the art of delineating. frailty : weakness * The doctor prescribed vitamin and mineral supplements for the sick old woman b ecause of her frailty. you must be more specific in your sta tements. fruitless * Why waste your time on futile pursuits? 1497. 1506. founder : fail completely. business) * Among those drowned when the Titanic sank was the founder of the Abraham & Str aus chain. frigid : intensely cold * Alaska is in the frigid zone. elegant * We are looking for a man with a genteel appearance who can inspire confidence by his cultivated manner. 1557. grandeur : impressiveness. granary : storehouse for grain * We have reason to be thankful.\ 1512. they maintained comp lete silence about their intentions. 1507. gestate : evolve. she was always grandiloquent. majesty * No matter how often he hiked through the mountains. impressive * His grandiose manner impressed those who met him for the first time. gratis : free . 1505. founder : person who establishes (an organization. gentry : people of standing.
hegemony : dominance. 1656. tribute * In her speech she tried to pay homage to a great man. humid : damp * She could not stand the humid climate and moved to a drier area. 1631. headstrong : stubborn. unconventional * To those who upheld the belief that the earth did not move. 1632. we have an unassorted assemblage. 1618. commen tators marveled at the sudden breakdown of the once monolithic Soviet hegemony. e and cry that the thief was captured. humane : kind * His humane and considerate treatment of the unfortunate endeared him to all. comically hideous * On Halloween people enjoy wearing groteque costumes. willful. heterogeneous : dissimilar * In a heterogeneous group. 1652. 1622. hubris : arrogance. gratuity : tip * Many service employees rely more on gratuities than on salaries for their live lihood. grimace : a facial distortion to show feeling such as pain. his grimace indicated his displeasure. 1617. hedonism : belief that pleasure is the sole aim in life * hedonism and asceticism are opposing philosophies of human behavior. unyielding * Because she refused to marry the man her parents had chosen for her. the ancient Egyptian hieroglyphics. by chance * His haphazard reading left him unaquainted with the authors of the books. 1624. excessive self-conceit * Filled with hubris. uncalled for * Quit making gratuitous comments about my driving. homage : honor. 1633.* The company offered to give one package gratis to every purchaser of one of th eir products. while in a homogen eous group we have people or things that have common traits. hap : chance. headlong : hasty. hilarity : boisterous mirth * The hilarity is improper on this solemn day of mourning. 1602. every one scolded Minna and called her a foolish. harangue : long. hew : cut to pieces with ax or sword * The cavalry rushed into melee and hewed the enemy with their swords. 1642. * Even though he remained silent. the principal berated the offenders. 1565. homogeneous : of the same kind * Many educators try to put pupils of similar abilities in the same class becaus e they believe that his homogeneous grouping is advisable. 1668. headstrong girl. 1603. especially of one nation over others * As one Eastern European nation after another declared its independence. Lear refused to heed his friends' warnings. etc. obstacle * Stalled cars along the highway are a hindrance to traffic that tow trucks shou ld remove without delay. 1671. unwarranted. humility : humbleness of spirit . hindrance : block. gratuitous : given freely. 1605. 1567. heterodox : unorthodox. 1566. luck * In his poem hap. 1665. haphazard : random. gravity : seriousness * We could tell we were in serious trouble from the gravity of her expression. herbivorous : grain-eating * Some herbivorous animals have two stomachs for digesting their food. 1620. 1571. 1640. rash * The slave seized the unexpected chance to make a headlong dash across the bord er to freedom. and vehement speech * In her lengthy harangue. Thomas Hardy objects to the part chance plays in our lives. grotesque : fantastic. 1573. Galileo's theory t hat the earth circled the sun was disturbingly heterodox. 1670. passionate. disgust. no one asked you for your op inion.
clear up or make understandable. immure : imprison. idiom : special usage in language * I could not understand their idioms because literal translation made no sense. illuminate : brighten. 1720. immaculate : pure. unworthy * This plan is inspired by ignoble motives and I must.* He spoke with a humility and lack of pride that impressed his listeners. 1708. 1673. enlighten * Just as a lamp can illuminate a dark room. ignominious : disgraceful * The country smarted under the ignominious defeat and dreamed of the day when i t would be victorious. that is . 1716. . 1694. immutable : unchangeable * Scientists are constantly seeking to discover the immutable laws of nature. impalpable : imperceptible. 1679. impecunious : without money * Now that he was wealthy. overstatement * This salesman is guilty of hyperbole in describing his product. 1698. undemonstrative and stoical. the student immureed himself in his room and concentrated upon his studies. illusion : misleading vision * It is easy to create an optical illusion in which lines of equal length appear different. ignoble : of lowly origin. oppose it. impair : worsen. indict * The angry congressman wanted to impeach the President for his misdeeds. 1678. impeach : charge with crime in office. 1695. impassive : without feeling. 1712. 1682. 1707. hypothetical : based on assumptions or hypotheses * Why do we have to consider hypothetical cases when we have actual case histori es that we may examine? 1687. hypocritical : pretending to be virtuous. he spread humus over his lawn and flower beds. 1717. impending * Rosa was such a last-minute worker that she could never start writing a paper till the deadline was imminent. humus : substance formed by decaying vegetable matter * In order to improve his garden. shut up in confinement * For the two weeks before the examination. 1715. diminish in value * This arrest will impair her reputation in the community. impasse : predicament from which there is no escape * In this impasse. eccentricity * One of his personal idiosyncrasies was his habit of rinsing all cutlery given him in a restaurant. 1699. deceiving * I resent his hypocritical posing as a friend for I know he is interested only in his own advancement. 1714. it is wise to discount his claims. hypercritical : excessively exacting * You are hypercritical in your demands for perfection. idiosyncrasy : peculiarity. not affected by pain * The Native American has been incorrectly depicted as an impassive individual. illicit : illegal * The defense attorney claimed that the police had entrapped his client. 1688. a perceptive comment can illuminate a knotty problem. 1713. 1696. all turned to prayer as their last hope. intangible * The ash is so fine that it is impalpable to the touch but it can be seen as a fine layer covering the window ledge. 1718. 1681. he gladly contributed to funds to assist impecunious and disbled persons. imminent : near at hand. they had elicited the illicit action of which they now accuse of him. we all make mistakes. 1711. hyperbole : exaggeration. spotless * The West Point cadets were immaculate as they lined up for inspection. therefore. impale : pierce * He was impaled by the spear hurled by his adversary.
you do not trust our captain. incentive. impetuous : violent. 1739. like the room. impervious : not penetrable. 1735. 1741. 1723. imposture : assuming a false identity. the imponderable items are not so easily analyzed. implacable : incapable of being pacified * Madame Defarge was the implacable enemy of the Evremonde family. stumbling-block * She had a speech impediment that prevented her from speaking clearly. the myster y. 1743. he found himself impotent in r esisisting the craving for a cigarette. masquerade * She was imprisoned for her imposture of a doctor. not permitting passage through * You cannot change their habits for their minds are impervious to reasoning. 1745. had not intentionally set out to impede the progress of the investigation. . imply : suggest a meaning not expressed * Even though your statement does not declare that you are at war with that coun try. 1742. stimulus * A new federal highway program would create jobs and five added impetus to our economic recovery. 1729. 1737. 1747. impending : nearing. implicit : understood but not stated * Jack never told Jill he adored her. 1749. 1750. 1732. though inept. impede : hinder. 1744. he believed his love was implicit in his d eeds. implication : that which is hinted at or suggested * If I understand the implications of your remark. imponderable : weightless * I can evaluate the data gathered in this study. impolitic : not wise * I think it is impolitic to raise this issue at the present time because the pu blic is too angry. demanding * He tried to hide from his importunate creditors until his allowance arrived. importune : beg persistently * Democratic and Republican phone solicitors importuned her for contributions so frequently that she decided to give nothing to either party. 1733. impenitent : not repentant * We could see by his brazen attitude that he was impenitent. 1746. import : significance * I feel that you have not grasped the full import of the message sent to us by the enemy. impinge : infringe. your actions imply that that is the actual situation. 1740. impious : irreverent * The congregation was offended by her impious remarks. rash * We tried to curb his impetuous behavior because we felt that in his haste he m ight offend some people. impetus : moving force. collide with * How could they be married without impinging on one another's freedom? 1736. impotent : weak. 1725. touch. ineffective * Although he wished to break the nicotine habit. approaching * The entire country was saddened by the news of his impending death. 1731. impertinent : insolent * I regard your remarks as impertinent and I resent them. implement : put into effect. 1748. 1722. impenetrable : not able to be pierced or entered * How could the murderer have gotten into the locked room? To Watson. block * The special prosecutor determined that the Attorney General. impediment : hindrance. supply with tools * The mayor was unwilling to implement the plan until she was sure it had the go vernor's backing. hasty. 1724. importunate : urging.1721. was impenetrable. implore : beg * He implored her to give him a second chance.
impute : attribute. incessant : uninterrupted * The crickets kept up an incessant chirping that disturbed our attempts to fall asleep. slant * The architect recommended that the nursing home's ramp be rebuilt because its incline was too steep for wheelchairs.1751. . 1772. 1769. personified * Your attitude is so fiendish that you must be a devil incarnate. 1780. infuriate * Unkindness to children incensed her. 1758. incantation : singing or chanting of magical formula * Uttering incantations to make the brew more potent. impugn : doubt. 1765. gainsay * I cannot impugn your honesty without evidence. 1761. 1757. improvise : compose on the spur of the moment * She would sit at the piano and improvise for hours on themes from Bach and Han del. 1783. 1766. I would state my feelings definitely and immediately. he was denied entrance into the din ing room. 1771. 1768. incense : enrage. 1760. sharp * His incisive remarks made us see the fallacy in our plans. 1756. minor * The scholarship covered his major expenses at college and some of his incident al expenses as well. incandescent : strikingly bright. 1776. incidental : not essential. impunity : freedom from punishment * The bully mistreated everyone in the class with impunity for he felt that no o ne would dare retaliate. 1777. 1784. 1775. incidence : rate of occurrence. inaugurate : begin formally. 1786. impropriety : state of being inappropriate * Because of the impropriety of his costume. the witch doctor stirred t he liquid in the caldron. it quickly grows too hot to touch. inarticulate : speechless. beginning * She was involved with the project from its inception. incite : arouse to action * The demagogue incited the mob to take action into its own hands. imprecation : curse * Roused from the bed at what he considered an ungodly hour. incarnate : endowed with flesh. Roy muttered imprec ations under his breath. imprudent : lacking caution. incarnation : act of assuming a human body and human nature * The incarnation of Jesus Christ is a basic tenet of Christian theology. 1767. install in office * The candidate promised that he would inaugurate a new nationwide health care p lan as soon as he was inaugurated as president. incline : slope. injudicious * It is imprudent to exercise vigorously and become overheated when you are unwe ll. inception : start. incentive : spur. particular occurrence * Health professionals expressed great concern over the high incidence of infant mortality in major urban areas. producing indistinct speech * He became inarticulate with rage and uttered sounds without meaning. shining with intense heat * If you leave on an incandescent light bulb. 1778. inanimate : lifeless * she was asked to identify the still and inanimate body. motive * Students who dislike school must be given an incentive to learn. incisive : cutting. 1773. challenge. incarcerate : imprison * The warden will incarcerate the felon after conviction. 1754. 1781. ascribe * If I wished to impute blame to the officers in charge of this program.
when they will do so. inclusive : tending to include all * The comedian turned down the invitation to join the Player's Club. however. nightmare * The incubus of financial worry helped bring on her nervous breakdown. indisputable : too certain to be disputed * In the face of these indisputable statements. 1789. 1802. skeptical * When Jack claimed he hadn't eaten the jelly doughnut. incredulity : a tendency to disbelief * Your incredulity in the face of all the evidence is hard to understand. 1805. remains indeterminate. 1824. incorporate : introduce something into a larger whole. indifferent : unmoved. incriminate : accuse. 1820. 1816. increment : increase * The new contract calls for a 10 percent increment in salary for each employee for the next two years. 1807. 819. combine. using an assumed name * The monarch enjoyed traveling throughthe town incognito and mingling with the populace. indignity : offensive or insulting treatment * Although he seemed to accept cheerfully the indignities heaped upon him. 1804. bring about . indeterminate : uncertain. Miss Watson pronounced him incorri gible and said he would come to no good end. compose * Cyrano indited many letters for Christian. incorrigible : uncorrectable * Though Widow Douglass hoped to reform Huck. incredulous : withholding belief. unite * Breaking with precedent.1788. indicative : suggestive. not clearly fixed. implying * A lack of appetite may be indicative of a major mental or physical disorder. 1822. he will go to trial. 1813. 1809. 1792. mental care.indite : write. 1801. she was indifferent to his constant propo sals. saying any club that would let him in was too inclusive for him. incompatible : inharmonious * The married couple argued incessantly and finally decided to separate because they were incompatible. indict : charge * If the grand jury indicts the suspect. indignation : anger ar an injustice * He felt indignation at the ill-treatment of the helpless animals. President Truman ordered the military to incorporate blacks into every branch of the armed services. incubate : hatch. incursion : temporary invasion * The nightly incursions and hit-and-run raids of our neighbors across the borde r tried the patience of the country to the point where we decided to retaliate i n force. incubus : burden. 1803. 1800. incumbent : officeholder * The newly elected public official received valuable advice from the present in cumbent. serve as evidence against * The witness's testimony against the racketeers incriminates some high public o fficials as well. incur : bring upon oneself * His parents refused to pay any future debts he might incur. I withdraw my complaint. 1806. indefinite * That interest rates shall rise appears certain. incognito : with identity concealed. 1798. 1815. 1808. 1828. scheme * Inasmuch as our supply of electricity is cut off. induce : persuade. he wa s inwardly very angry. we shall have to rely on the hens to incubate these eggs. lacking concern * Because she felt no desire to marry. 1814. Jill took an incredulous look at his smeared face and laughed.
encroach * I think your machine infringes on my patent and intend to sue. 1837. the movie star still insisted that she be cast as an ingenuous sweet young thing. influx : flowing into * The influx of refugees into the country has taxed the relief agencies severely . ingenuous : naive. young and unsophisticated * Although she was over forty. the judge was inexorable and gave t he convicted man the maximum punishment allowed by law. women protest the basic inequity of a s ystem that allots greater financial rewards to men. infinitesimal : very small * In the twentieth century. 1856. 1829. 1847. firmly rooted * Try as they would. 1853. it cannot be described. infraction : violation * Because of his many infractions of school regulations. he pope is capable o f error. penetrate (an organization) sneakily * In order to infiltrate enemy lines at night without being seen. inexorable : relentless. we all make mistakes. 1840. 1850. inequity : unfairness * In demanding equal pay for equal work. 1841. 1836. 1842. inflated : exaggerated. he was suspended by the dean. infantile : childish. infiltrate : pass into or through. infallible : unerring * We must remember that none of us is infallible. ingenious : clever * He came up with a use for Styrofoam packing balls that was so ingenious that h is business school professors declared it was marketable. infantlike * When will he outgrow such infantile behavior? 1844. the scouts dar kened their faces and wore black coveralls. 1832. the missionaries were unable to uproot the ingrained supers titions of the natives. infernal : pertaining to hell. . ingrained : deeply established. enlarged (with air or gas) * His claims about the new product were inflated. 1846. 1855. it did not work as well as he had promised. infirmity : weakness * Her greatest infirmity was lack of willpower. conclude * We must be particularly cautious when we infer that a person is guilty on the basis of circumstantial evidence. 1848.* After the quarrel. infringe : violate. 1854. cannot be expressed in speech * Such ineffable joy must be experienced. 1852. inductive : pertaining to induction or preceeding from the specific to the general * The discovery of the planet Pluto is an excellent example of the results that can be obtained from inductive reasoning. infidel : unbeliever * The Saracens made war against tne infidels. reasoning: \All human beings are capable of error. 1851. physicists have made their greatest discoveries abou t the characteristics of infinitesimal objects like the atom and its parts. unyielding. inevitable : unavoidable * Death and taxes are both inevitable. infamous : notoriously bad * Jesse James was an infamous outlaw. inerrancy : infallibility * Jane refused to believe in the pope's inerrancy. implacable * After listening to the pleas for clemency. ineffable : unutterable. infer : deduce. pompous. Therefore. The pope is a human being. Tina said nothing could induce her to talk to Tony again. 1849. devilish * They could think of no way to hinder his infernal scheme. 1845. 1839. 1843.
1873. 1865. it is innocuous and will have no ill effect. insidious : treacherous. unresponsive * Sherry and I are very different. 1859. Marsha faced her inquis itors with trepidation. inhibit : prohibit. they began to press h im for payment of the money due them. inherent : firmly established by nature or habit * His inherent love of justice compelled him to come to their aid. initiate : begin. vague * Though the financial benefits of his Oxford post were meager. start. stealthy. haughtiness * How dare you treat me so rudely! The manager will hear of you insolence.1857. 1871. 1878. sly * The fifth column is insidious because it works secretly within our territory f or our defeat. innate : inborn * His innate talent for music was soon recognized by his parents. the fellowship . innocuous : harmless * Let him drink it. intellectual freedom. insensible : unconscious. investigator * Fearing being grilled ruthlessly by the secret police. injurious : harmful * Smoking cigarettes can be injurious to your health. at times when I would be covered with embarra ssment. 1884. originate. dull * Flat prose and flat ginger ale are equally insipid: both lack sparkle. an insurrection seems unav oidable. 1864. insolvent : bankrupt. 1875. insipid : lacking in flavor. 1872. insurrection : rebellion. greedy * Welty's thirst for knowledge was insatiable. 1877. Lewis was drawn to it by its intangible rewards: prestige. intangible : not able to be perceived by touch. inquisitor : questioner (specially harsh). poorly chosen * A rock concert is an inopportune setting for a quiet conversation. inability to sleep * He refused to join us in a midnight cup of coffee because he claimed it gave h im insomnia. receive into a group * The college is about to initiate a program for reducing math anxiety among stu dents. restrain * The child was not inhibited in her responses. isolation * The insularity of the islanders manifested itself in their suspicion of anythi ng foreign. inopportune : untimely. 1886. she seems insensible to shame. excessive * She had an inordinate fondness for candy. 1868. insurgent : rebellious * We will not discuss reforms until the insurgent troops have returned to their homes. 1858. 1883. 1889. insensate : without feeling * She lay there as insensate as a log. instigate : urge. ingratiate : become popular with * He tried to ingratiate himself into her parents' good graces. insomnia : wakefulness. insatiable : not easily satisfied. 1892. 1867. 1860. she was in the library day and ni ght. insolence : imprudent disrespect. uprising * Given the current state of affairs in South Africa. 1893. 1880. insinuate : hint. 1882. 1879. 1891. inordinate : unrestrained. imply* What are you trying to insinuate by that remark? 1881. provoke * I am afraid that this statement will instigate a revolt. ingrate : ungrateful person * That ingrate Bob sneered at the tie I gave him. insularity : narrow-mindedness. lacking money to pay * When rumors that he was insolvent reached his creditors.
1912. 1903. fought a civil war to maintain the integrity of the republic. 1917. he reveals that he is an introvert by his intense interest in h is own problems. le t us proceed as we have in the past. he felt the blood rush to his head. 1911. forbid * Civilized nations must interdict the use of nuclear weapons if we expect out s ociety to live. necessary for completeness * Physical education is an integral part of our curriculum. interrogate : question closely. 1916. intermittent : periodic. 1896. inveigle : lead astray. interminable : endless * Although his speech lasted for only twenty minutes. 1919.of his peers. interpolate : insert between * She talked so much that I could not interpolate a single remark. inured : accustomed. refractory * The horse was intractable and refused to enter the starting gate. integrate : make whole. inundate : overflow. 1897. intimidation : fear * A ruler who maintains his power by intimidation is bound to develop clandestin e resistance. 1895. integrity : uprightness. the secret agent invented a cover story that would help him meet their questions. it seemed interminable to his bored audience. inverse : opposite * There is an inverse ratio between the strength of light and its distance. intervene : come between * She intervened in the argument between her two sons. intrude : trespass. destroy * The relatives who received little or nothing sought to invalidate the will by claiming that the deceased had not been in his right mind when he signed the doc ument. 1901. in the interim. intractable : unruly. a sound mind and a s ound body are complementary. . combine. flood * The tremendous waves inundated the town. introspective : looking within oneself * We all have our introspective moments during which we examine our souls. enter as an uninvited person * She hesitated to intrude on their conversation. interim : meantime * The company will not consider our proposal until next week. 1920. 1900. that these United States might remain u ndivided for all time. 1918. make into one unit * She tried to integrate all their activities into one program. 1894. hardened * She became inured to the Alaskan cold. invalidate : weaken. 1899. 1927. inter : bury * They are going to inter the body tomorrow ar Broadlawn Cemetry. intuition : power of knowing without reasoning * She claimed to know the truth by intuition. whose personal integrity has inspired millions. on and off * Our picnic was marred by intermittent rains. intellect : higher mental powers * He thought college would develop his intellect. 1908. 1921. wheedle * She was inveigled into joining the club after an initial reluctance. interdict : prohibit. integral : complete. 1909. invert : turn upside down or inside out * When he inverted his body in a hand stand. 1922. 1904. inclined to think more about oneself * In his poetry. 1925. introvert : one who is introspective. 1926. cross-examine * Knowing that the Nazis would interrogate him about his background. wholeness * Lincoln. 1906.
irresolute : uncertain how to act. isotope : varying form of an element * The study of the isotopes of uranium led to the development of the nuclear bom b. jaunty : lighthearted. he discussed his iti nerary with people who had been there and with his travel agent. jingoism : extremely aggressive and militant patriotism * We must be careful to prevent a spirit of jingoism from spreading at this time . spoilsport * At breakfast we had all been enjoying our bacon and eggs until that killjoy Jo hn started talking about how bad animal fats and cholesterol were for our health . unrelated * This statement is irrelevant and should be disregarded by the jury. 1972. 1979. 1948. 1945. tedious * He found working on the assembly line irksome because of the monotony of the o peration he had to perform. itinerant : wandering. 1944. wise * At a key moment in his life. 1930. 1949. 1959. jurisprudence : science of law * He was more a student of jurisprudence than a practitioner of the law. ask for * She invoked her advisor's aid in filling out her financial aid forms. intersperse : scatter * The molecules will intersperse throughout the space according to the second la w of thermodynamics. 1962. easy and carefree * In Singing in the Rain. irremediable : incurable. irrevocable : unalterable * Let us not brood over past mistakes since they are irrevocable. 1976. let us think carefully before determining the cours e we shall follow. irreparable : not able to be corrected or repaired * Your apology cannot atone for the irreparable damage you have done to her repu tation. juncture : crisis. invulnerable : incapable of injury * Achilles was invulnerable except in his heel. 1938. irrepressible : unable to be restrained or held back * Her high spirits were irrepressible. itinerary : plan of a trip * Before leaving for his first visit to France and England. Gene Kelly sang and danced his way through the lighthe arted title number in a properly jaunty style. irksome : annoying. 1951. jaunt : trip. invidious : designed to create ill will or envy * We disregarded her invidious remarks because we realized how jealous she was. animated. she could see no way to repair it. invoke : call upon. lectures are dull. he made a judicious investment that was the found ation of his later wealth. invincible : unconquerable * Superman is invincible. 1942. 1970. inquisitive : unduly curious. 1958. 1933. 1946. judicious : sound in judgment. weak * She had no respect for him because he seemed weak-willed and irresolute.1929. joining point * At this critical juncture. irrelevant : not applicable. juxtapose : place side by side * Comparison will be easier if you juxtapose the two objects. . killjoy : grouch. prying. uncorrectable * The error she made was irremediable. 1975. 1943. 1954. short journey * He took a quick jaunt to Atlantic City. 1932. 1953. 1952. seeking knowledge * We need more inquisitive students in this school. traveling * He was an itinerant peddler and traveled through Pennsylvania and Virginia sel ling his wares.
roue * Although she was aware of his reputation as a libertine. such levity is improper in chur ch. 2024. legend : explanatory list of symbols on a map * The legend at the bottom of the map made it clear which symbols stood for rest areas along the highway and which stood for public camp sites. lateral : coming from the side * In order to get good plant growth. 2041. limpid : clear * A limpid stream ran through his property. kindle : start a fire. tedious * In putting together his dictionary of the English language. libretto : text of an opera * The composer of an opera's music is remembered more frequently than the author of its libretto. sluggish. 2036. libido : emotional urges behind human activity * The psychiatrist maintained that suppression of the libido often resulted in maladjustment and neuroses. litigation : lawsuit * Try to settle this amicably. levy : impose (a fine). languish : lose animation. 2037. languor : lassitude. inspire * Her teacher's praise kindled a spark a hope inside her. 2048. lavish : liberal. levity : lack of seriousness or steadiness. depression * His friends tried to overcome the languor into which he had fallen by taking h im to parties and to the theater. 2007. 2006.\ the colonists demonstrated agains t England's power to levy taxes. 2027. lovelorn damsels used to languish and pine away. debts * Her lack of an extensive vocabulary was a liability that she was able to overc ome. I do not want to start litigation.1980. she appeared to rise and levitate about three feet above the table. lewd. 2043. licentious : wanton. legacy : a gift made by a will * Part of my legacy from my parents is an album of family photographs. 2046. 2008. the gardener must pinch off all lateral shoots. 2020. 2055. 2017. languid : weary. 2065. collect (a payment) * Crying \No taxation without representation. latitude : freedom from narrow limitations * I think you have permitted your son too much latitude in this matter. laborious : demanding much work or care. 2058. lectern : reading desk * The chaplain delivered his sermon from a hastily improvised lectern. listless * Her siege of illness left her languid and pallid. linguistic : pertaining to language * The modern tourist will encounter very little linguistic difficulty as English has become an almost universal language. 2016. libertine : debauched person. she felt she could re form him and help him break his dissolute way of life. levitate : float in the air (especially by magical means) * As the magician passed his hands over the recumbent body of his assistant. Doctor Johnson und ertook a laborious task. lose strength * In stories. 1993. lax : careless * We dislike restaurants where the service is lax and inattentive. libelous : defamatory. 2044. liability : drawback. frivolity * Stop giggling abd wriggling around in the pew. wasteful * The actor's lavish gifts pleased her. 2047. injurious to the good name of a person * He sued the newspaper because of its libelous story. . 2028. 2035. dissolute * The licentious monarch helped bring about his country's downfall. 2021.
2094. virulent * This is a malignant disease. maladroit : clumsy. the reporters ridiculed the magniloquent speech es of the defense attorney. 2082. Ethel Barrymore was a theatrical lumina ry whose name lives on. extent * It is difficult to comprehend the magnitude of his crime. clear. 2095. loiter : hang around. 2108. 2121. low : moo * From the hilltop. issuing light * The sun is a luminous body. intelligible * Her explanation was lucid enough for a child to grasp. this is not a ludicrous issue. longevity : long life * When he reached ninety. 2115. malediction : curse * The witch uttered maledictions against her captors. malignant : having an evil influence. handcuff . they coul d barely hear the cattle low. 2074. lustrous : shining * Her large and lustrous eyes gave a touch of beauty to an otherwise drab face. magnanimity : generosity * Noted for his magnanimity. we must have to use drastic measures to stop its spread. luminary : celebrity. pompous * In their stories of the trial. luminous : shining. distress * She felt a sudden vague malaise when she heard sounds at the door. 2127. lunar : pertaining to the moon * lunar craters can be plainly seen with the aid of a small telescope. bungling * In his usual maladroit way. loquacious : talkative * She is very loquacious and can speak on the telephone for hours. magnitude : greatness. 2088. they could see the herd like ants in the distance. 2116. 2096. 2078. 2079. 2114. ornate * Farming was easy in this luxuriant soil. philanthropist Eugene Lang donated millions to char ity. malaise : uneasiness. manacle : restrain. 2118. malcontent : person dissatisfied with existing state of affairs * He was one of the few malcontents in the Congress. 2117. 2089. malign : speak evil of. it empties the bowels 2106. malevolent : wishing evil * We must thwart his malevolent schemes. luster : shine. malefactor : criminal * We must try to bring these malefactors to justice. linger * The policeman told him not to loiter in the alley. gloss * The soft luster of the silk in the dim light was pleasing. ludicrous : laughable. trifling * Let us be serious. 2087. defame * Because of her hatred of the family. lucid : easily understood. 2107. abundant. magnate : person of prominence or influence * The steel magnate decided to devote more time to city politics. laxative : facilitating evacuation of the bowels * The effect of the constipation medicine is laxative. the old man was proud of his longevity. magniloquent : boastful. 2093. he constantly voiced his ob jections to the Presidential program. dignitary * A leading light of the American stage. 2111. 2076. luxuriant : fertile. 2112. she maligns all who are friendly to them. he managed to upset the cart and spill the food.2072. 2120. 2109. malfeasance : wrongdoing * The authorities did not discover the campaign manager's malfeasance until afte r he had spent most of the money he had embezzled.
2150. and his friends learned to discount his mendacious s tories. for where the materialist e mphasizes the needs of the body. 2179. megalomania : mania for doing grandiose things * Developers who spend millions trying to build the world's tallest skyscraper s uffer from megalomania. 2159. materialism is opposed to idealism. a souvenir of an old IRA attack. memento : token. targeted for vengeance * He walked with a marked limp. 2141. commonplace * We were disappointed because he gave a rather mediocre performance in this rol e. matrix : point of origin. manipulate : operate with the hands. any violation will be severely punished. maternal : motherly * Many animals display maternal instincts only while their offspring are young a nd helpless. 2174. As British amba ssador. 2128. mediate : settle a dispute through the services of an outsider * Let us mediate out differences rather than engage in a costly strike. manifesto : declaration. 2133. 2140. 2173. he knew he was a marked man. mercantile : concerning trade * I am more interested in the opportunities available in the mercantile field th . free from bondage * Enlightened slave owners were willing to manumit their slaves and thus put an end to the evil slavery in the country. indication * Mozart's early attraction to the harsichord was the first manifestation of his pronounced musical bent. 2166. nautical * The maritime Provinces depend on the sea for their wealth. 2136. array of numbers or algebraic symbols. marked : noticeable. memorialize : commemorate * Let us memorialize his great contribution by dedicating this library in his ho nor. mandate : order. control or change by artful means * How do you manipulate these puppets? 2138. manumit : emancipate. reminder * Take this book as a memento of your visit. 2134. manifest : understandable. varied * I cannot begin to tell you how much I appreciate your manifold kindnesses. maxim : proverb. maritime : bordering on the sea. mandatory : obligatory * These instructions are mandatory. false * He was pathological liar. 2175. manifold : numerous. a truth pithily stated * Aesop's fables illustrate moral maxims. mold or d ie * Some historians claim the Nile Valley was the matrix of the Western civilizati on. charge * In his inaugural address. 2151. mendacious : lying. matriarch : woman who rules a family or larger social group * The matriarch ruled her gypsy tribe with a firm hand. 2164. statement of policy * The Communist Manifesto by Marx and Engels proclaimed the principles of modern communism. 2170. materialism : preoccupation with physical comforts and things * By its nature. 2129. 2149. 2152. meddlesome : interfering * He felt his marriage was suffering because of his meddlesome mother-in-law 2165. 2132. 2135. clear * His evil intentions were manifest and yet we could not stop him. manifestation : outward demonstration. the President stated that he had a mandate from the people to seek an end to social evils such as poverty and poor housing. the idealist emphasizes the needs of the soul.* The police immediately manacled the prisoner so he could not escape. mediocre : ordinary.
2189. 2188. 2183. 2207. 2210. optical illusion * The lost prospector was fooled by a mirage in the desert. 2190. tawdry. 2200. we find illustrations of all the evils that beset the universe. 2209. metaphysical : pertaining to speculative philosophy * The modern poets have gone back to the fanciful poems of the metaphysical poets of the seventeenth century for many of their images. 2187. migrant : changing its habitat. metaphor : implied comparison * \He soared like an eagle\ is an example of a simile. militate : work against * Your record of lateness and absence will militate against your chances of prom otion. millenium : thousand-year period. 2196. one could usua lly find him adopting a more militant attitude. metropolis : large city * Every evening this terminal is filled with the thousands of commuters who are going from this metropolis to their homes in the suburbs. falsely attractive * Her jewels were inexpensive but not meretricious. period of happiness and prosperity * I do not expect the milennium to come during my lifetime. it was a merger. ill luck * The young explorer met death by misadventure. mincing : affectedly dainty * Yum-Yum walked across the stage with mincing steps. \I'm in it for the dough. meretricious : flashy. only minute differences set them apar t. mercenary : motivated solely by money or gain * \I'm not in this war because I get my kicks waving flags. momentarily brilliant * We all wondered at his meteoric rise to fame. metamorphosis : change of form * The metamorphosis of caterpillar to butterfly is typical of many such changes in animal life. merger : combination (of two business corporations) * When the firm's president married the director of financial planning. minutiae : petty details * She would have liked to ignore the minutiae of daily living. migratory : wandering * The return of the migratory birds to the northern sections of this country is a harbinger of spring. bellicose * Although at this time he was advocating a policy of neutrality. mercurial : fickle. changing * He was of a mercurial temperament and therefore unpredictable. 2202.an I am in those in the legal profession. 2182. methodical : systematic * An accountant must be methodical and maintain order among his financial record s. . 2205. wandering * These migrant birds return every spring. minute : extremely small * The twins resembled one another closely. 2191. mirage : unreal reflection. the offi ce joke was that it wasn't a marriage. 2213. 2198.\ is a metaphor. meteoric : swift. minuscule : extremely small * Why should I involve myself with a project with so minuscule a chance for succ ess? 2208.\ 2181. 2201. mete : measure. 2193. 2180. misadventure : mischance.\ said the mercenary soldier. 2186. 2197. distribute * He tried to be impartial in his efforts to mete out justice. militant : combative. microcosm : small world * In the microcosm of our rural village. \He is an eagle in flight .
monotheism : belief in one God * Abraham was the first to proclaim his belief in monotheism. monumental : massive * Writing a dictionary is a monumental task. missile : object to be thrown or projected * Scientists are experimenting with guided missiles. momentous : very important * On this momentous occasion. we study how atoms and molcules react to form new substances. 2215. 2226. momentum : quantity of motion of a moving body. 2218. 2238. misconstrue : interpret incorrectly. 2251. molt : shed or cast off hair or feathers * The male robin molted in the spring. incorrect designation * His tyrannical conduct proved to all that his nickname. 2233. 2245. 2227. have a truly monochromatic view of a world all in shades of gray. 2244. misunderstanding * To avoid misapprehension. mollify : soothe * We tried to mollify the hysterical child by promising her many gifts. misogynist : hater of women * She accused him of being a misogynist because he had been a bachelor all his l ife. misapprehension : error. mean * The miserly old man hoarded his coins not out of prudence but out of greed 2223. 2255. 2243. wa s a misnomer. mischance : ill luck * By mischance. modish : fashionable * She always discarded all garments that were no longer modish. he lost his week's salary. however. miserly : stingy. 2217. but soon grew to hate the monotony of his daily routin e. impetus * The car lost momentum as it tried to ascend the steep hill. we must be very solemn. morbid : given to unwholesome thought. monochromatic : having only one color * Most people who are color blind actually can distinguish several colors. 2239. not fixed * The mobile blood bank operated by the Red Cross visited our neighborhood today . 2248. 2241. mobile : movable. misjudge * She took the passage seriously rather than humorously because she misconstrued the author's ironic tone. modulation : toning down. we must lighten our spirits by emphas izing more pleasant matters. misnomer : wrong name. 2236. 2221. mode : prevailing style * She was not used to their lavish mode of living. misanthrope : one who hates mankind * We thought the hermit was a misanthrope because he shunned our society. 2258.2214. monarchy : government under a single hereditary ruler with varying degrees of power * England today remains a monarchy. moribund : at the point of death . King Eric the Just. 2235. 2250. some. gloomy * These morbid speculations are dangerous. 2224. molecule : the smallest particle (one or more atoms) of a substance that h as all the properties of that substance * In chemistry. monotony : sameness leading to boredom * He took a clerical job. mishap : accident * With a little care you could have avoided this mishap. changing from one key to another * When we she spoke. 2252. I am going to ask all of you to repeat the instructi ons I have given. 2232. it was with quiet modulation of voice.
2298. negligible : so small.* The doctors called the family to the bedside of the moribund patient. naÃ‾tÃ© quality of being unsophisticated * I cannot believe that such naivete is unassumed in a person of her age and exp erience. myopic : nearsighted * In thinking only of your present needs and ignoring the future. mutable : changing in form. 2283. 2277. nautical : pertaining to ships or navigation * The Maritime Museum contains many models of clipper ships. mosaic : picture made of smell. colorful inlaid tiles * The mayor compared the city to a beautiful mosaic made up of people of every r ace and religion on earth. mortician : undertaker * The mortician prepared the corpse for burial. 2304. negligence : carelessness * negligence can prove costly near complicated machinery. nascent : incipient. mortify : humiliate. neologism : new or newly coined word or phrase * As we invent new techniques and professions. 2287. 2264. punish the flesh * She was so mortified by her blunder that she ran to her room in tears. 2286. she was constantly busy with the multifarious activ ities of her daily life. beginner * This monuntain slope contains slides that will challenge esperts as well as ne ophytes. multilingual : having many languages * Because they are bordered by so many countries. . multifarious : varied. neophyte : recent convert. nefarious : very wicked * He was universally feared because of his many nefarious deeds. 2272. Michael decided he wouldn't bother to report the matter to his insurance company. or unimportant as to be easily disregarde d * Because the damage to his car had been negligible. you are being rather myopic. 2295. mutinous : unruly. 2299. 2307. 2308. negation : denial * I must accept his argument since you have been unable to present any negation of his evidence. 2275. anchors a nd many other items of a nautical nature. rebellious * The captain had to use force to quiet his mutinous crew. necromancy : black magic. 2262. 2260. we must also invent neologisms su ch as \microcomputer\ and \astronaut\ to describe them. fill with disgust * The foul smells began to nauseate him. dealings with the dead * Because he was able to perform feats of necromancy. 2303. 2301. nauseate : cause to become sick. 2274. 2302. fickle * His opinion were mutable and easily influenced by anyone who had any powers of persuasion. the natives thought he was in league with the devil. 2292. motif : theme * This simple motif runs throughout the score. coming into being * If we could identify these revolutionary movements in their nascent state. 2261. 2305. we would be able to eliminate serious trouble in later years. trifling. the Swiss people are multiling ual. munificent : very generous * The munificent gift was presented to the bride by her rich uncle. greatly diversified * A career woman and mother. multiplicity : state of being numerous * He was appalled by the multiplicity of details he had to complete before setti ng out on his mission. logbooks.
nihilism : denial of traditional values. he's very important to th e firm. nutrient : nourishing substance * As a budding nutritionist. Kim has learned to design diets that contain foods rich in important basic nutrients. 2338. 2353. please mend your ways. nexus : connection * I fail to see the nexus that binds these two widely separated events. fair * Even though he was her son. trifling * He offered to drive her to the airport for only a nominal fee. 2317. 2334. its meaning was still obscure. unclear * Even after I read the poem a fourth time. 2361. 2357. 2333. infamy * I resent the obloquy that you are casting upon my reputation. 2344. obituary : dealth notice * I first learned of her death when I read the obituary in the newspaper.\ 2354. she tried to be objective about his behavior. nondescript fellow with no outstanding feat ures.2312. obscure : darken. nondescript : undistinctive. servile. total skepticism * nihilism holds that existence has no meaning. obnoxious : offensive * I find your behavior obnoxious. 2325. sycophantic * Helen valued people who behaved as if they respected themselves. objective : not influenced by emotions. 2360. in his quiet way. unpledged. nullify : to make invalid * Once the contract was nullified. 2349. noxious : harmful * We must trace the source of these noxious gases before they asphyxiate us. deviating from the perpendicular or from a straight li ne * The sergeant ordered the men to march \oblique right. obscure : dark. 2332. vague. preferring mystery to cla rity. 2362. obsequy : funeral ceremony * Hundreds paid their last respects at his obsequies. nonexistence * Don't dismiss John as a nonentity. 2323. obdurate : stubborn * He was obdurate in his refusal to listen to our complaints. ordinary * The private detective was a short. nonentity : person of no importance. obliterate : destroy completely * The tidal wave obliterated several island villages. 2319. obsequious : slavishly attentive. Jones obtained a watchdog to prevent the nocturnal raids on his chicken co ops. novice : beginner * Even a novice can do good work if he follows these simple directions. 2348. make unclear * At times he seemed purposely to obscure his meaning. 2342. 2352. nominal : in name only. disgrace. the sort of person one would never notice in a crowd. noncommittal : neutral. obfuscate : confuse. 2326. 2327. undecided * We were annoyed by his noncommittal reply for we had been led to expect de finite assurances of his approval. 2356. 2350. 2358. continued brooding . muddle * Do not obfuscate the issues by dragging in irrelevant arguments. oblique : slanting. obloquy : slander. 2359. novelty : something new. nothing irrit ated her more than an excessively obsequious waiter or a fawning salesclerk. obligatory : binding. nocturnal : done at night * Mr. required * It is obligatory that books borrowed from the library be returned within two w eeks. obsession : fixed idea. newness * The computer is no longer a novelty around the office. it no longer had any legal force.
but he was obstinate and refused to change. occult : mysterious. 2380. insulting. 2368. obviate : make unnecessary. 2364. optimum : most favorable * If you wait for the optimum moment to act. 2387. 2403. others are either carnivorous or herbivorous. 2366. an oculist is the only one who may apply medicinal drops to th e eyes for the purpose of examining them. constantly seeking the center of the sta ge. 2389. odoriferous : giving off an odor * The odoriferous spices stimulated her jaded appetite. 2365. the optimist says it is half-full. optimist : person who looks on the bright side * The pessimist says the glass is half-empty. she may not use medicinesor surgery in her examinations. obtrusive : pushing forward * I found her a very obstrusive person. opportunist : individual who sacrifices principles for expediency by takin g advantage of circumstances * Forget about ethics! He's such an opportunist that he'll vote in favor of any deal that will give him a break. obsolete : outmoded * \Hip\ is an obsolete expression. 2371. get rid of * I hope this contribution will obviate any need for further collections of fund s. who ar e required by law to restrict their offensive impulses to the ring. ubiquitous * On Christmas Eve. optional : not compulsory. onomatopoeia : words formed in imitation of natural sounds * Words like \rustle\ and \gargle\ are illustrations of onomatopoeia. omnipresent : universally present. obstetrician : physician specializing in delivery of babies * Unlike midwives. are omnivorous and eat both meat and vegetable s. 2409. 2399. Santa Claus is omnipotent. omnipotent : all-powerful * The monarch regarded himself as omnipotent and responsible to no one for his a cts. occlude : shut. oratorio : dramatic poem set to music . 2388. secret. you may never begin your project . but I am positive about this fact. optometrist : one who fits glasses to remedy visual defects * Although an optometrist is qualified to treat many eye disorders. distasteful * Getting into street brawls is no minor offense for professional boxers. mysterious * Oedipus could not understand the oracular warning he received. who care for women giving birth at home. 2373. including humans. 2390. 2377. 2370. omniscient : all-knowing * I do not pretend to be omniscient. 2402. occident : the West * It will take occident to understand the ways and customs of the orient.* This obsession with the supernatural has made him unpopular with his neighbors . offensive : attacking. it went out with love beads and tie-dye shirt s. 2408. 2404. 2405. obstetricians genera lly work in a hospital setting. devouring everything * Some animals. omnivorous : eating both plant and animal food. left to one's choice * I was impressed by the range of optional accessories for my microcomputer that were available. supernatural * The occult rites of the organization were revealed only to members. oracular : foretelling. 2372. 2392. oculist : physician who specialized in treatment of the eyes * In many states. close * A blood clot occluded an artery to the heart. obstinate : stubborn * We tried to persuade him to give up smoking. 2374.
adjust * Philip spent his first day in Denver orienting himself to the city. ornate : excessively or elaborately decorated * Furniture of the Baroque period can be recognized by its ornate carvings. orthodox : traditional. a person must commit an overt act before he may be tried for treason. 2429. compared to that. overbearing : bossy. 2435. 2414. overhaul : thoroughly examine the condition of and repair if necessary * It is necessary for the engineers of NASA to overhaul the rocket everyday. 2455. \good birth is of overbearing importance. decisively important * Certain of her own importance and of the unimportance of everyone else. pacify : soothe. his heart began to palpitate more and more erratically. orthography : correct spelling * Many of us find English orthography difficult to master because so many of our words are written phonetically. pretentious. palpitate : throb. pretended * Although the ostensible purpose of this expedition is to discover new lands. arrogant. 2419.* The Glee Club decided to present an oratorio during their recital. old-fahioned * Unconcerned about keeping in style. 2456. 2413. Lenore was perfectly happy to wear outmode d clothes as long as they were clean and unfrayed. Lady B racknell was intolerably overbearing in manner. antimilitarist * The pacifists urged that we reduce our military budget and recall our troops s tationed overseas. oth erwise. ordination : ceremony conferring holy orders * The candidate for ordination had to meet with the bishop and the diocean offic ers before being judged ready to be ordained a deacon. conservative in belief * Faced with a problem. make calm or quiet. professed. palpable : tangible. ostentatious : showy. 2441. ordinance : decree * Passing a red light is a violation of a city ordinance. 2412. 2442. painstaking : showing hard work. trying to attract attention * Trump's latest casino in Atlantic City is the most ostentatious gambling place in the East: it easily outglitters its competitors. w e are really interested in finding new markets for our products. flutter * As he became excited. 2418. outwit : outsmart. orient : get one's bearings. 2440. 2445. pachyderm : thick-skinned animal * The elephant is probably the best-known pachyderm. neither wealth no r talent 2436. 2425. . he preferred to take an orthodox approach rather than sh ock anyone. overt : open to view * According to the United States Constitution.\ she sai d. 2424.\ he implied that his adversary'sbrain had ossified and that he was not capable of clear thinking. an incident similar to that of Challenger accident might happen. outmoded : no longer stylish. Holmes was able to outwit his pursuers and escape capture. 2417. 2433. 2423. trick * By disguising himself as an old woman. pacifist : one opposed to force. 2420. 2443. ornithologist : scientific student of birds * Auduborn's drawings of American bird life have been of interest not only to th e ornithologists but also to the general public. subdue * Dentists criticize the practice of giving fussy children sweets to pacify them . ostensible : apparent. taking great care * The new high-frequency word list is the result of painstaking efforts on the p art of our research staff. \In choosing a husband. easily perceptible * I cannot understand how you could overlook such a palpable blunder. ossify : change or harden into bone * When he called his opponent a \bonehead.
paramount : foremost in importance. the playwright was miserable when th e critics panned it unanimously. example. pity. but I must also avoid any evidence of partiality when I award the prize. partiality : inclination. 2467. partisan : one-sided. pandemonium : wild tumult * When the ships collided in the harbor. h is claim was accurate. a contradict ory statement * Wordworth's \The child is father to the man\ is an example of paradox. 2469. paltry : insignificant. supreme * Proper nutrition and hygiene are of paramount importance in adolescent develop ment and growth. 2461. ironically. 2500. travesty * We enjoyed the clever parodies of popular songs that the chorus sang. pandemonium broke out among the passeng ers. 2458. compassion. pan : criticize harshly * Hoping for a rave review of his new show. toady. partial : incomplete * In this issue we have published only a partial list of contributors because we lack space to acknowledge everyone. 2462. the clown could be understood wherever he appe ared. committed to a party * On certain issues of conscience. she refused to take a partisan stand. parity : equality. 2486. 2491. 2494. 2459. acted upon * Mahatma Gandhi urged his followers to pursue a program of passive resistance a s he felt that it was more effective than violence and acts of terrorism. 2479. panacea : cure-all. partial : biased. paradox : statement that looks false but is actually correct. 2476. 2492. bias * As a judge. 2474. pathetic : causing sadness. 2470. paramour : illicit lover * She sought a divorce on the grounds that her husband had a paramour in another town. petty * This is a paltry sum to pay for such a masterpiece. papyrus : ancient paper made from stem of papyrus plant * The ancient Egyptians were among the first to write on papyrus. paradigm : model. 2478. 2466. remedy for all diseases * There is no easy panacea that will solve our complicated international situati on. touching * Everyone in the auditorium was weeping by the time he finished his pathetic ta le about the orphaned boy. close resemblance * I find your analogy inaccurate because I do not see the parity between the two illustrations. sycophant * The tapeworm is an example of the kind of parasite that may infest the human b ody. he claimed everyone was out to get him. not only must I be unbiased. paraphrase this article. pantomime : acting without dialogue * Because he worked in pantomime. 2496. pandemic : widespread. pattern * Pavlov's experiment in which he trains a dog to salivate on hearing a bell is a paradigm of the conditioned-response experiment in behavioal psychology. having a liking for something * I am extremely partial to chocolate eclairs. parasite : animal or plant living on another. paraphrase : restate a passage in one's own words while retaining thought of author * In 250 words or less. 2493. . paranoia : psychosis marked by delusions of grandeur or persecution * Suffering from paranoia. passive : not active. 2475. parody : humorous imitation. prejudiced.2457. even paranoids have enemies. affecting the majority of people * They feared the AIDS epidemic would soon reach pandemic proportions. 2482.
pendant : hanging down from something * Her pendant earrings glistened in the light. \I have penance done and penance more will do. he became remorseful and penitent. 2533. pensive : dreamily thoughtful. art of education * Though Maria Montessori gained fame for her innovations in pedagogy. 2512. 2525. pedestrian : ordinary. pedagogy : teaching. he wrote page after page of pedestrian prose. 2516. 2523. etc. 2526. 2514. act superior toward * Experts in a field sometimes appear to patronize people who are less knowledge able of the subject. percussion : striking one object against another sharply * The drum is a percussion instrument. patrician elegance 2507. unimaginative * Unintentionally boring. 2524. I find his pellucid style very enjoya ble. pathological : pertaining to disease * As we study the pathological aspects of this disease. * The family doctor advised the parents to consult a pediatrician about their ch ild's ailment. down-to-earth anecdotes. 2530. * The quiet tone of pathos that ran through the novel never degenerated into the maudlin or the overly sentimental. penitent : repentant * When he realized the enormity of his crime. 2513. wise * Although Maud was a generally perceptive critic. wh ich is the penumbra. 2520. 2527. thoughtful with a hint of sadness * The pensive youth gazed at the painting for a long time and then sighed. 2515. penance : self-imposed punishment for sin * The Ancient Mariner said. aristocratic * We greatly admired her well-bred.) * The grateful team presented the coach with a silver chain and pendant engraved with the school's motto. the leader and lawmaker was the patriarch. pendant : ornament (hanging from a necklace. she had her blind sports: she could never see flaws in the work of her friends. 2532. it took y ears before her teaching techniques became common practice in American schools. quality in art or literature that produce s these feelings. 2521. patronize : support. bookish * Leaving his decisions with humorous.\to at one for the sin of killing the albatross. penury : extreme poverty * When his pension fund failed. pity. suspended * The pendulous chandeliers swayed in the breeze as if they were about to fall f rom the ceiling. pediatrician : physician specializing in children's diseases. pendulous : hanging. 2502. aware.2501. 2536. 2506. we must not overlook the psychological elements. pedant : scholar who overemphasizes book learning or technicalities * Her insistence that the book be memorized marked the teacher as a pedant rathe r than a scholar. 2505. pedantic : showing off learning. 2528. penumbra : partial shadow (in an eclipse) * During an eclipse. patriarch : father and ruler of a family or tribe * In many primitive tribes. patrician : noble. 2517. his classes were always lively and fille d with humor. easy to understand * After reading these stodgy philosophers. pathos : tender to sorrow. we can see an area of total darkness and a lighter area. George feared he would end his days in penury. limpid. perceptive : insightful. peremptory : demanding and leaving no choice . Judge Walker was not at all pedantic legal scholar. pellucid : transparent. pedagogue : teacher * He could never be a stuffy pedagogue.
2539. 2558. lacking interest. 2546. 2541. permeable : porous. perennial : something long-lasting * Tese plants are hardy perennials and will bloom for many years. peripheral : marginal. allowing passage through * Glass is permeable to light. we add the lengths of the four sid es. to the point * The lawyer wanted to know all the pertinent details. but in one of those peripheral suburbs that s pring up on the outskirts of the great city. 2561. 2553. especially of a round surface * He sensed that there was something just beyond the periphery of his vision. perpetual : everlasting * Ponce de Leon hoped to find perpetual youth. put a hole through * Before you can open the aspirin bottle. disloyal * When Caesar realized that Brutus had betrayed him. perquisite : any gain above stipulated salary * The perquisites attached to this job make it even more attractive than the sal ary indicates. 2542. harmful * He argued that these books had a pernicious effect on young and susceptible mi nds. personable : attractive * The man I am seeking to fill this position must be personable since he will be representing us before the public. not in central London. 2544. 2555. or enthus iasm * The auditor's perfunctory inspection of the books overlooked many errors. perjury : false testimony while under oath * When several witnesses appeared to challenge his story. pertinacious : stubborn. 2556. 2545. 2547. peroration : conclusion of an oration * The peroration was largely hortatory and brought the audience to its feet clam oring for action at its close. you must first perforate the plastic s afety seal that covers the cap. he was indicted for pe rjury. Jill could tell he would not give up until she let him in. perforate : pierce. 2549. perspicacious : having insight. . outer * We lived. 2551. her meaning is always clear. care. perigee : point of moon's orbit when it is nearest the earth * The rocket which was designed to take photographs of the moon was launched as the moon approached its perigee. perifidious : treacherous. pernicious : very destructive. astute * The brillant lawyer was known for his perspicacious deductions. 2554. perimeter : outer boundary * To find the perimeter of any quadrilateral. perusal : reading * I am certain that you have missed important details in your rapid perusal of t his document. 2538. perspicuous : plainly expressed * Her perspicuous comments eliminated all posibility of misinterpretation. not thorough. perfunctory : superficial. 2560. pertinent : suitable. 2552.* From Jack's peremptory knock on the door. perturb : disturb greatly * I am afraid this news will perturb him and cause him grief. perspicuity : clearness of expression. freedom from ambiguity * One of the outstanding features of this book is the perspicuity of its author. 2540. 2548. 2559. persistent * He is bound to succeed because his pertinacious nature will not permit him to quit. periphery : edge. 2537. he reproached his perfidiou s friend. penetrating.
placate : pacify. 2609. plausible : having a show of truth but open to doubt. perverse : stubbornly wrongheaded. he felt soothed and rested. 2574. pervasive : spread throughout * Despite airing them for several hours. pliable copper tubing. politic : expedient. 2565. subjects of scientific investigation * We kept careful records of the phenomena we noted in the course of these exper iments. yielding. 2610. 2572. perversion : corruption. pessimism : belief that life is basically bad or evil. plenary : complete. placid : peaceful. rigid lead pipes with new . applauding * The theatrical company reprinted the plauditory comments of the critics in its advertisement. full * The union leader was given plenary power to negotiate a new contract with the employers. 2598. petrify : turn to stone * His sudden and unexpected appearance seemed to petrify her. 2620. completeness * Looking in the pantry. poignancy : quality of being deeply moving. specious * Even though your argument is plausible. gloominess * The good news we have been receiving lately indicates that there is little rea son for your pessimism. polarize : split into opposite extremes or camps * The abortion issue has polarized the country into pro-choice and anti-abortion camps. philology : study of language * The professor of philology advocated the use of Esperanto as an international language. polyglot : speaking several languages . 2564. 2568. 2626.2562. he did not think it politic to refuse the off er. 2600. 2590. 2623. 2563. 2577. the socia l worker was touched by the poignancy of the scene. 2625. well devised * Even though he was disappointed. conciliate * The teacher tried to placate the angry mother. plaintive : mournful * The dove has a plaintive and melancholy call 2606. we replaced all the old. 2602. plauditory : approving. 2607. we could not understand his perve rsion. he ate the flesh of his victims. phenomena : observable facts. keenness of emotion * Watching the tearful reunion of the long-separated mother and child. he became famous as a philanthropist and benefactor of the n eedy. polygamist : one who has more than one spouse at a time * He was arrested as a polygamist when his two wives filed complaints about him. calm * After his vacation in this placid section. polity : form of government of nation or state * Our polity should be devoted to the concept that the government should strive for the good of all citizens. 2621. she could not rid her clothes of the pe rvasive odor of mothbals that clung to them. prudent. turning from right to wrong * Inasmuch as he had no motive for his crimes. I still would like to have more proof. adaptable * In remodeling the bathroom. pliable : flexible. 2624. wicked and unacceptable * When Hannibal Lecter was in a perverse mood. plenitude : abundance. we admired the plenitude of fruits and pickles we had p reserved during the summer. 2612. doer of good * As he grew older. pinnacle : peak * We could see the morning sunlight illuminate the pinnacle while the rest of th e mountain lay in shadow. philanthropist : lover of mankind.
useful * He was a practical man. posture : assume an affected pose. 2642. 2632. precipitate : throw headlong. forewarning * He regarded the black cloud as a portent of evil. etc. corpulent * The salesclerk tactfully referred to the overweight customer as portly rather than fat. 2650. 2647. his jokes were always ponderous. 2648. potential : expressing possibility. sovereign * The potentate spent more time at Monte Carlo than he did at home on his throne . precedent : preceding in time. 2660. potent : powerful. portend : foretell. risky * I think this stock is a precarious investment and advise against its purchase. dangerous position * Suddenly Indiana Jones found himself dangling from the edge of a precipice 2659. rash * Do not be precipitate in this matter. 2633. precipitate : headlong. 2628. it was only after the posth umous publication of his last novel that they recognized his great talent. portent : sign. 2643. portly : stout. investigate further. 2634. precedent to this event. the purpose of the document is set forth. 2641. 2639. persuasive. precipice : cliff. ponderous : weighty. opposed to theory 2649. unwieldy * His humor lacked the light touch. 2637. 2655. presage * The king did not know what these omens might portend and asked his soothsayers to interpret them. hasten * The removal of American political support appeared to have precipitated the do wnfall of the Marcos regime. act artificially * No matter how much Arnold boasted or postured.* New York City is a polyglot community because of the thousands of immigrants w ho settle there. * Our discussions. 2656. 2657. pragmatic : practical (as opposed to idealistic). pragmatist : practical person * No pragmatist enjoys becoming involved in a game that he can never win 2653. precedent : something preceding in time that may be used as an authority o r guide for future action * This decision sets a precedent for future cases of a similar nature. rank. omen. . 2640. 2654. latent * The juvenile delinquent is a potential murderer. posthumous : after death (as of child born after father's death or book pu blished after author's death) * The critics ignored his works during his lifetime. preamble : introductory statement * In the preamble to the Constitution. precarious : uncertain. practicable : feasible * The board of directors decided that the plan was practicable and agreed to und ertake the project. potable : suitable for drinking * The recent drought in the Middle Atlantic States has emphasized the need for e xtensive research in ways of making sea water potable. greatly influential * The jury was swayed by the highly potent testimony of the crime's sole eye wit ness. potentate : monarch. precept : practical rule guiding conduct * \Love thy neighbor as thyself\ is a worthwhile precept. I could not believe he was as i mportant as he pretended to be. 2658. practical : based on experience. certainly did not give you any reaso n to believe that we would adopt your proposal. concerned with the pract ical worth or impact of something * This coming trip to France should provide me with a pragmatic test of thevalue of my conversational French class.
and ou r descent will be precipitous as well. forestall by acting first. preposterous : absurd. 2686. 2669. 2670. foreboding * Hamlet felt a presentiment about his meeting with Laertes. 2665. she had a predilecti on for watercolors. not true Ro mantics. one slip. superior * The king traveled to Boston because he wanted the preeminent surgeon in the fi eld to perform the operation. prestige : impression produced by achievements or reputation . unquestionable right * The President cannot levy taxes. precise : exact * If you don't give me precise directions and a map. 2685. precipitous : steep. 2662. 2675. it does not take prescience for me to foresee problems in our future trade relations with Japan. appropriate for oneself. prescience : ability to foretell the future * Given the current wave of Japan-bashing. premonitory : serving to warn * You should have visited a doctor as soon as you felt these premonitory chest p ains. preempt : head off. etc. 2683. eliminate * This contract does not preclude my being employed by others at the same time t hat I am working for you. preference * Although the artist used various media from time to time. 2667. predatory : plundering * The hawk is a predatory bird. predecessor : former occupant of a post * I hope I can live up to the fine example set by my late predecessor in this of fice. the child demonstrate d that she was precocious. preeminent : outstanding. most critics consider them precursors of the Romantic Movement. preclude : make impossible. we all thought. 2681. the candidate set out her own plan to revitalize the public schools. postulate * Because Jack had based his argument upon a faulty premise. quantity. 2664. 2668. precocious : advanced in development * By her rather adult manner of discussing serious topics. 2663. that is the prerogative of the legislative br anch of government. precursor : forerunner * Though Gray and Burns share many traits with the Romantic poets who followed t hem. 2673. su pplant * Hoping to preempt any attempts by the opposition to make educational reform a hot political issue. presentiment : premonition. overhasty * This hill is difficult to climb because it is so precipitous. premise : assumption. prehensile : capable of grasping or holding * Monkeys use not only their arms and legs but also their prehensile tails in tr aveling through the trees. his opponent cheerf ully pointed out the holes in his logic. presage : foretell * The vultures flying overhead presaged the discovery of the corpse in the deser t. forerunner * I am afraid that this border raid is the prelude to more serious attacks. prerogative : privilege. preponderance : superiority of power. \What a preposterous excuse!\ 2682. 2684. predilection : partiality. prelude : introduction. 2679. * The rebels sought to overcome the preponderance of strength of the government forces by engaging in guerrilla tactics. ridiculous * When the candidate tried to downplay his youthful experiments with marijuana b y saying he hadn't inhaled. 2680. 2666.2661. I'll never find your place. 2677.
not superficial. rudimentary * The Neanderthal Man is one of our primordial ancestors. ambitious * I do not feel that your limited resources will permit you to carry out such a pretentious program. 2711. prevail : induce. 2705. proclivity : inclination. performing wonders on his violin when he was barely eig ht years old. 2700. primordial : existing at the beginning (of time). procurement : obtaining * The personnel department handles the procurement of new employees. unsettled: questionable * Given the many areas of conflict still awaiting resolution. 2694. profusion : lavish expenditure. problematic : perplexing. want * In his youth. he knew hunger and privation. the outcome of the peace talks remains problematic. shocked us all. probe : explore with tools * The surgeon probed the wound for foreign matter before suturing it. 2713. probity : uprightness. licentious * In this profligate company. not public * We do not care for privy chamber of government. incorruptibility * Everyone took his probity for granted. Reed had no patience with the conservati ve views prevalent in the America of his day. victim * In Stalking the Wild Asparagus. prodigy : highly gifted child. privy : secret. 2689. profound : deep. 2714. overabundant condition * Seldom have I seen food and drink served in such profusion as at the wedding f east. wasteful.* The wealthy man sought to obtain social prestige by contributing to popular ch arities. 2688. marvel * Menuhin was a prodigy. primogeniture : seniority by birth * By virtue of primogeniture. she lost all sense of decency. prevalent : widespread. settled in Peru. 2707. 2704. profligate : dissipated. 2715. 2690. 2701. hidden. 2696. natural tendency * The cross old lady has a proclivity to grumble. complete * Freud's remarkable insights into human behavior caused his fellow scientists t o honor him as a profound thinker. 2702. prey : target of a hunt. pretext : excuse * He looked for a good pretext to get out of paying a visit to his aunt. 2712. 2697. preternatural : beyond that which is normal in nature * John's mother's total ability to tell when he was lying struck him as almost p reternatural. triumph over * He tried to prevail on her to type his essays for him. profane : violate. Illinois. 2717. pretentious : ostentatious. his defalcations. 2691. generally accepted * A radical committed to social change. 2703. 2716. whose progenitors emigrated from Germany early in the ninetee nth century. progeny : children. privation : hardship. prodigal : wasteful. 2709. Euell Gibbons has as his prey not wild beasts but wild plants. 2692. in some cultures the first-born child has many pri vileges denied his brothers and sisters. progenitor : ancestor * The Roth family. offspring * He was proud of his progeny but regarded George as the most promising of all h . reckless with money * The prodigal son squandered his inheritance. desecrate * Tourists are urged not to profane the sanctity of holy places by wearing impro per garb. therefore.
protruding * Have you ever noticed that Prince Charles's prominent ears make him resemble t he big-eared character in Mad comics? 2727. you have propounded several questions. provoke. 2719. promontory : headland * They erected a lighthouse on the promontory to warn approaching ships of their nearness to the shore. proscribe : ostracize. spread. particularly s exually * In the opera La Boheme. irregular. multiply * Times of economic hardship inevitably encourage countless get-rich-quick schem es to proliferate 2723. Joseph said that the seven fat cows eaten by the seven lean cows represented seven years of plenty followed by seve n years of famine. prominent : conspicuous. 2741. the patient will be in a coma for at lea st twenty-four hours. Sol has an unfortunate propensity to belittle the talents of others. propriety : fitness. banish. prolific : abundantly fruitful * She was a prolific writer who produced as many as three books a year. this is not a good time. prompt : cause. propitious : favorable. 2746. 2742. 2737. 2725. proponent : person who supports or proposes (an idea) * After the bill had been amended and re-amended in committee. 2740. projectile : missile * Man has always hurled projectiles at his enemy whether in the form of stones o r of highly explosive shells. prolong : extend. promiscuous : mixed indiscriminately. propensity : natural inclination * Convinced of his own talent. correct conduct * I want you to behave at this dinner with propriety. they were true friends. we get a picture of the promiscuous life led by the yo ung artists of Paris. 2734. 2722. prediction * If the doctor's prognosis is correct. propulsive : driving forward * The jet plane has a greater propulsive power than the engine-driven plane. prophetic : having to do with predicting the future * In interpreting Pharaoh's prophetic dream. draw out. provide a cue for an actor * Whatever prompted you to ask for such a big piece of cake when you're on a die t? 2730. 2720. let us consider each one separately. propinquity : nearness. notable. prognosis : forecasted course of a disease. outlaw . haphazard. lengthen * In their determination to discover ways to prolong human life. 2726.is children. doctors fail to take into account that longer lives are not always happier ones. 2728. propound : put forth for analysis * In you discussion. promulgate : make known by official proclamation or publication * As soon as the Civil Service Commission promulgates the names of the successfu l candidates. prognosticate : predict * I prognosticate disaster unless we change our wasteful ways. 2735. 2743. we shall begin to hire members of our staff. even its original proponents didn't want to vote in its favor. 2718. proliferate : grow rapidly. 2733. propellant : substance that propels or drives forward * The development of our missile program has forced our scientists to seek more powerful propellants. 2739. don't embarass me. 2729. kinship * Their relationship could not be explained as being based on mere propinquity: they were more than relatives. kindly * I think it is advisable that we wait for a more propitious occasion to ann ounce our plans.
* Antony, Octavius and Lepidus proscribed all those who had conspired against Ju lius Caesar. 2749. prosperity : good fortune; financial success; physical well-being * Promising to stay together \for richer, for poorer,\ the newlyweds vowed to be true to one another in prosperity and hardship alike. 2750. prostrate : stretch out full on ground * He prostrated himself before the idol. 2752. protocol : diplomatic etiquette * We must run this state dinner according to protocol if we are to avoid offendi ng any of our guests. 2753. prototype : original work used as a model by others * The crude typewriter on display in this museum is the prototype of the elabora te machines in use today. 2754. protract : prolong * Seeking to delay the union members' vote, the management team tried to protrac t the negotiations endlessly, but the union representatives saw through their st rategy. 2755. protrude : stick out * His fingers protruded from the holes in his gloves. 2759. provident : displaying foresight; thrifty; preparing for emergencies * In his usual provident manner, he had insured himself against this type of los s. 2760. provincial : pertaining to a province; limited in outlook; unsophisticated * As provincial governor, Sir Henry administered the Queen's law in his remote c orner of Canada. 2762. proviso : stipulation * I am ready to accept your proposal with the two proviso that you meet your obl igations within the next two weeks. 2763. provoke : stir up anger; cause retaliation * In order to prevent a sudden outbreak of hostilities, we must not provoke our foe. 2764. proximity : nearness * The deer sensed the hunter's proximity and bounded away. 2766. prude : excessively modest or proper person * The X-rated film was definitely not for prudes. 2767. prudent : cautious; careful * A miser hoards money not because he is prudent but because he is greedy. 2769. pseudonym : pen name * Samuel Clemens' pseudonym was Mark Twain. 2770. psychiatrist : a doctor who treats mental diseases * A psychiatrist often needs long conferences with his patient before a diagnosi s can be made. 2771. psychopathic : pertaining to mental derangement * The psychopathic patient suffers more frequently from a disorder of the nervou s system than from a diseased brain. 2772. psychosis : mental disorder * We must endeavor to find an outlet for the patient's repressed desires if we h ope to combat this psychosis. 2774. puerile : childish * His puerile pranks sometimes offended his more mature friends. 2776. pugnacious : combative; disposed to fight * As a child he was pugnacious and fought with everyone. 2780. pulsate : throb * We could see the blood vessels in his temple pulsate as he became more angry. 2781. pulverize : crush or grind into very small particles * Before sprinkling the dried herbs into the stew, Michael first pulverized them into a fine powder. 2783. punctilious : laying stress on niceties of conduct or form; precise * We must be punctilious in our planning of this affair, for any error may be re garded as a personal affront.
2785. pungency : sharpness; stinging quality * The pungency of the cigarette smoke made me cough. 2786. punitive : punishing * He asked for punitive measures against the offender. 2788. purchase : firm grasp or footing * The mountaineer struggled to get a proper purchase on the slippery rock. 2789. purgatory : place of spiritual expiation * In this purgatory, he could expect no help from his comrades. 2790. purge : clean by removing impurities; clear of changes * If you are to be purged of the charge of contempt of Congress, you must be wil ling to answer the questions previously asked. 2791. purport : intention; meaning * If the purport of your speech was to arouse the rabble, you succeeded admirabl y. 2792. purveyor : furnisher of foodstuffs; caterer * As purveyor of rare wines and viands, he traveled through France and Italy eve ry year in search of new products to sell. 2797. pyre : heap of combustible material, esp. for burning a corpse. * The mortician put pyre on the corpse before burning a corpse. 2798. pest : troublesome or annoying person * He was a pest; always bothering people. 2799. prohibitive : extremely high (of prices etc.) * The super computer's price was prohibitive. 2801. quadruped : four-footed animal * Most mammals are quadrupeds. 2806. qualified : limited; restricted * Unable to give the candidate full support, the mayor gave him only a qualified endorsement. 2812. quash : subdue; crush; squash * The authorities acted quickly to quash the student rebellion, sending in tanks to cow the demonstrators. 2816. querulous : fretful; whining * His classmates were repelled by his querulous and complaining statements. 2819. quiescent : at rest; dormant * After this geyser erupts, it will remain quiescent for twenty-four hours. 2820. quietude : tranquility * He was impressed by the air of quietude and peace that pervaded the valley 2821. quintessence : purest and highest embodiment * Noel Coward displayed the quintessence of wit. 2825. quiver : case for arrows * Robin Hood reached back and plucked one last arrow from his quiver. 2829. quotidian : daily; commonplace; customary * To Philip, each new day of his internship was filled with excitement; he could not dismiss his rounds as merely quotidian routine. 2836. ramble : wander aimlessly (physically or mentally) * Listening to the teacher ramble, Judy wondered whether he'd ever get to his po int. 2845. random : without definite purpose, plan, or aim; haphazard * Although the sponsor of the raffle claimed all winners were chosen at random, people had their suspicions when the grand prize went to the sponsor's brother-i n-law. 2846. rankle : irritate; fester * The memory of having been jilted rankled him for years. 2848. rapacious : excessively grasping; plundering * Hawks and other rapacious birds prey on variety of small animals. 2852. ratify : approve formally; verify * Before the treaty could go into effect, it had to be ratified by the president . 2853. ratiocination : reasoning; act of drawing conclusions from premises * While Watson was a man of average intelligence, Holmes was a genius, whose gif
t for ratiocination made him a superb detective. 2854. rationalization : bringing into conformity with reason * All attempts at rationalization at this time are doomed to failure; tempers an d emotions run too high for intelligent thought to prevail. 2855. rationalize : reason; justify an improper act * Do not try to rationalize your behavior by blaming your companions. 2857. ravage : plunder; despoil * The marauding army ravaged the countryside. 2858. rave : overwhelmingly favorable review * Though critic John Simon seldom has a good word to say about contemporary plays, his review of All in the Timing was a total rave. 2861. ravine : narrow valley with steep sides * Steeper than a gully, less precipitous than a canyon, a ravine is, like them, the product of years of erosion. 2862. raze : destroy completely * The owners intend to raze the hotel and erect an office building on the site. 2863. reactionary : recoiling from progress; retrograde * His program was reactionary since it sought to abolish many of the social refo rms instituted by the previous administration. 2864. realm : kingdom; sphere * The realm of possibilities for the new invention was endless. 2866. rebate : discount * We offer a rebate of ten percent to those who pay cash. 2867. rebuff : snub; beat back * She rebuffed his invitation so smoothly that he did not realize he had been sn ubbed. 2869. rebuttal : refutation; response with contrary evidence * The defense lawyer confidently listened to the prosecutor sum up his case, sur e that she could answer his arguments in her rebuttal. 2870. recalcitrant : obstinately stubborn * Donkeys are reputed to be the most recalcitrant of animals. 2871. recant : repudiate; withdraw previous statement * Unless you recant your confession, you will be punished severely. 2872. recapitulate : summarize * Let us recapitulate what has been said thus far before going ahead. 2873. receptive : quick or willing to receive ideas, suggestions, etc. * Adventure-loving Huck Finn proved a receptive audience for Tom's tales of buri ed treasure and piracy. 2874. recession : withdrawal; retreat; time of low economic activity * The slow recession of the flood waters created problems for the crews working to restore power to the area. 876. recipient : receiver * Although he had been the recipient of many favors, he was not grateful to his benefactor. 2878. reciprocate : repay in kind * If they attack us, we shall be compelled to reciprocate and bomb their territo ry. 2879. recluse : hermit * The recluse lived in a hut in the forest. 2880. reconcile : correct inconsistencies; become friendly after a quarrel * Every time we try to reconcile our checkbook with the bank statement, we quarr el. However, despite these monthly lovers' quarrels, we always manage to reconci le. 2881. recondite : abstruse; profound; secret * He read many recondite books in order to obtain the material for the scholarly thesis. 2882. reconnaissance : survey of enemy by soldiers; reconnoitering * If you encounter any enemy soldiers during your reconnaissance, capture them f or questioning. 2883. recount : narrate or tell; count over again
regicide : murder of a king or queen * The beheading of Mary Queen of Scots was an act of regicide. 2890. reiterate : repeat * He reiterated the warning to make sure everyone understood it. lying down completely or in part * The command \AT EASE\ does not permit you to take a recumbent position. odorous. regime : method or system of government * When a Frenchman mentions the Old Regime. 2907. Sol could never refrain from jo ining in on the refrain. resist n. 2911. 2903. 2913. 2914. refraction : bending of a ray of light * When you look at a stick inserted in water. you can easily reduce its length. he refers to the government existing before the revolution. it was necessary to refurbish o ur belongings. 2908. 2900. recourse : resorting to help when in trouble * The boy's only recourse was to appeal to his father for aid. causing fear * During the Cold War period. it looks bent because of the refra ction of the light by the water. 2885. refute : disprove * The defense called several respectable witnesses who were able to refute the f alse testimony of the prosecution's only witness.* About to recount the latest adventure of Sherlock Holmes. recurrent : occurring again and again * These recurrent attacks disturbed us and we consulted a physician. 2896. 2891. 2906. 2905. unmanageable * The refractory horse was eliminated from the race when he refused to obey the jockey. 2894. 2899. we can feed the entire student body at one sitting 2897. redolent : fragrant. reimburse : repay * Let me know what you have spent and I will reimburse you. refractory : stubborn. 2887. redoubtable : formidable. refurbish : renovate. neighboring countries tried not to offend the Russ ians because they could be redoubtable foes. regimen : prescribed diet and habits * I doubt whether the results warrant our living under such a strict regimen 2910. chorus * Whenever he heard a song with a lively chorus. 2902. make bright by polishing * The flood left a deposit of mud on everything. recumbent : reclining. regale : entertain * John regaled us with tales of his adventures in Africa. rectify : correct * I want to rectify my error before it is too late. 2884. consign to inferior position * If we relegate these experts to minor posts because of their political persuas . recrimination : countercharges * Loud and angry recriminations were her answer to his accusations. suggestive of an odor * Even though it is February. 2901. regeneration : spiritual rebirth * Modern penologists strive for the regeneration of the prisoners. excessively wordy. 2888. 2886. 2892. refrain : v. rectitude : uprightness * He was renowned for his rectitude and integrity. Watson lost track of exactly how many cases Holmes had solved and refused to begin his tale until he 'd recounted them one by one. repetitious * Your composition is redundant. refectory : dining hall * In this huge refectory. 2898. regal : royal * Prince Albert had a regal manner. the air is redolent of spring. relegate : banish. redundant : superfluous. rejuvenate : make young again * The charlatan claimed that his elixir would rejuvenate the aged and weary. abstain from.
Joan of Arc refused to renounce her belief that her voices came from God. referring to the case in hand * Teri was impressed by how relevant Virginia Woolf's remarks were to her as a w oman writer. replete : filled to capacity. 2935. relevant : pertinent. traitor* Because he had abandoned his post and joined forces with the Indians. it was as if Woolf had been writing with Teri's situation in mind. the damages we suffered in the accident were reparable and our ca r looks brand new. repercussion : rebound. 2945. compensation * At the peace conference. 2938. relic : surviving remnant. remediable : reparable * Let us be grateful that the damage is remediable. 2947. 2916. unattractive * Mosquitoes find the odor so repellent that they leave any spot where this liqu id has been sprayed. cancellation of a de bt. renew * They claim that they can renovate worn shoes so that they look like new ones. repudiate * Even though she knew she would be burned at the stake as a witch. relinquish : abandon * I will relinquish my claims to this property if you promise to retain my emplo yees. 2917. 2918. render : deliver. forgiveness or pardon * Though Senator Tsongas had been treated for cancer. Carla had to replenish her sto ck of freeze-dried foods. 2923. his symptoms were in r emission. renegade : deserter. complain * There is no sense repining over the work you have left undone. Barbara McClintock gained internation al renown when she won the Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine. reminiscence : recollection * Her reminiscences of her experiences are so fascinating that she ought to writ e a book. repellent : driving away. and he was considered fit to handle the strains of a Presidential race 2925. . 2926. 2939. self-reproach * The murderer felt no remorse for his crime. abundantly supplied * The book is replete with humorous situations. disown. 2943. 2929. reparable : capable of being repaired * Fortunately. renovate : restore to good condition. 2946. represent * He rendered aid to the needy and indigent. his fellow officers considered the hero of Dances with Wolves a renegade. 2920. reaction * I am afraid that this event will have serious repercussions. repine : fret. remorse : guilt. renounce : abandon. we shall lose their valuable services. objection * The authorities were deaf to the pastor's remonstrances about the lack of poli ce protection in the area. remiss : negligent * He was accused of being remiss in his duty when the prisoner escaped. 2921. repeal : revoke. reparation : amends. 2934.ions. replenish : fill up again * Before she could take another backpacking trip. 2936. the defeated country promised to pay reparations to t he victors. remission : temporary moderation of disease symptoms. 2932. reverberation. provide. 2941. remonstrance : protest. annul * What would the effect on our society be if we decriminalized drug use by repea ling the laws against the possession and sale of narcotics? 2942. 2922. memento * Egypt's Department of Antiquities prohibits tourists from taking mummies and o ther ancient relics out of the country. renown : fame * For many years an unheralded researcher.
censure * I want my work to be above reproach and without error 2958. . he might have gotten up the nerve to hand in his resignation. reprobate : person hardened in sin. revenge * The wretch requited his benefactors by betraying them. oppress * Anne's parents tried to curb her impetuosity without repressing her boundless high spirits. crush. the lawyers sought to make the stay of e xecution permanent. reprieve : temporary stay * During the twenty-four-hour reprieve. repository : storehouse * Libraries are repositories of the world's best thoughts. 2973. and funeral expe nses. repulsion : act of driving back. repugnance : loathing * She looked at the snake with repugnance. reprove : censure. he requested that after payment of debts. steel makes excellent bedsprings. taxes. 2951. 2974. 2969. duplicate * To the chagrin of the scientists. 2953. far too many dealers today pass off fakes as genuine antiques. 2967. reserve : self-control.2948. resilient : elastic. repress : restrain. statement that one is quitting a job * If Bob Cratchit had not accepted Scrooge's bullying with timid resignation. residue : remainder. reproach : blame. rebuke * The principal reproved the students when they became unruly in the auditorium. rescind : cancel * Because of public resentment. the residue be given to his wife. for she felt his aloofness indicated a lack of openness. 2964. reputed : supposed * He is the reputed father of the child. 2959. 2972. many of th e defenders were wounded in driving the enemy back. resolution : determination * Nothing could shake his resolution to succeed despite all difficulties. formal but distant manner * Although some girls were attracted by Mark's reserve. 2955. 2975. 2952. reputable : respectable * If you want to buy antiques. reprobation : severe disapproval * The students showed their reprobation of his act by refusing to talk with him. replicate : reproduce. distaste * The repulsion of the enemy forces was not accomplished bloodlessly. Judy was put off by it. replica : copy * Are you going to hang this replica of the Declaration of Independence in the c lassroom or in the auditorium? 2949. 2950. 2965. reprisal : retaliation * I am confident that we are ready for any reprisals the enemy may undertake 2957. 2968. resignation : patient submissiveness. 2970. resolve : determination * Nothing could shake his resolve that his children would get the best education that money could buy. 2962. devoid of a sense of decency * I cannot understand why he has so many admirers if he is the reprobate you say he is. balance * In his will. 2971. 2963. 2960. they were unable to replicate the results of their controversial experiment. having the power of springing back * Highly resilient. the king had to rescind his order. reprehensible : deserving blame * Your vicious conduct in this situation is reprehensible. look for a reputable dealer. requite : repay. requisite : necessary requirement * Many colleges state that a student must offer three years of a language as a r equisite for admission.
delighting the performers by its responsiv eness. exhalation * The doctor found that the patient's years of smoking had adversely affected bo th his lung capacity and his rate of respiration. resounding. noting that the former s' dislike of idle chatter might ensure their discretion about his affairs. 2987. resurgent : rising again after defeat. 2986. no one expected her to take up public spea king. compensation. order. retentive : holding.2976. resplendent : brilliant. Senator Foghorn retained a new manage r to head his reelection campaign. retiring : modest. 2984. settle. 2994. 2996. restitution : reparation. * The audience cheered and applauded. Don had not realized how much he missed university li fe: at the resumption of classes. employ * Fighting to retain his seat in Congress. 2989. 2997. inclined to silence * Hughes preferred reticent employees to loquacious ones. find and bring in * The dog was intelligent and quickly learned to retrieve the game killed by the hunter. however. etc. retribution : vengeance. lustrous * The toreador wore a resplendent costume called a suit of lights. 2985. shy * Given Susan't retiring personality. * The resurgent nation surprised everyone by its quick recovery after total defe at. retraction : withdrawal * He dropped his libel suit after the newspaper published a retraction of its st atement. reticent : reserved. deep and full in sound * The deep. sharp reply * Even when it was advisable for her to keep her mouth shut. attendants * The queen's retinue followed her down the aisle. resonant voice of the actor James Earl Jones makes him particulary e ffective when he appears on stage. etc. uncommunicative. respiration : breathing. surprisingly enough. 2995. retrieve : recover. restraint : controlling force * She dreamt of living an independent life. indemnification * He offered to make restitution for the window broken by his son. 2982. 2977. they would have to retrench. retort : quick. 2998. retrench : cut down. she was always read y with a retort. 2988. 2981. 2990. 2991. punishment for offenses * The evangelist maintained that an angry deity would exact retribution from the sinners. retinue : following. having a good memory * The pupil did not need to spend much time in study as he had a retentive mind. solve * Homes resolved to travel to Bohemia to resolve the dispute between Irene Adler and the King. retain : keep. resonant : echoing. responsiveness : state of reacting readily to appeals. recommencement * During the summer break. resumption : taking up again. 2992. retaliate : repay in kind (usually for bad treatment) * Fear that we will retaliate immediately deters our foe from attacking us. 2980. 2978. economize * If they were to be able to send their children to college. she became a star of the school debate team. he felt marked excitement and pleasur e. resuscitate : revive * The lifeguard tried to resuscitate the drowned child by applying artificial re spiration. 2999. 2993. free of all restraints. retroactive : taking effect before its enactment (as a law) or imposition (as a tax) . resolve : decide.
our civilization seems to have retrograded in ethics and culture. 3049. 3029. rustic : pertaining to country people. 3042. dwell in the country * I like city life so much that I can never understand how people can rusticate in the suburbs. resound * The entire valley reverberated with the sound of the church bells. 3023. 3016.* Because the new pension law was retroactive to the first of the year. uncouth * The backwoodsman looked out place in his rustic attire. 3012. rotunda : circular building or hall covered with a dome * His body lay in state in the rotunda of the Capitol. 3017. 3028. 3015. rusticate : banish to the country. 3000. negative reaction * Many people in this country who admired dictatorships underwent a revulsion wh en they realized what Hitler and Mussolini were trying to do. 3052. rotundity : roundness. reverberate : echo. 3020. stirring * \And now. profane * His stealing of the altar cloth was a very sacrilegious act. inviolable * The brash insurance salesman invaded the sacrosanct privacy of the office of t he president of the company. 3048. revoke : cancel. the trickle of water running down the hillside grew in to a rivulet that threatened to wash away a portion of the slope. to disturb * Be careful when you pour not to roil the wine. relapse : fall back or sink again * The economy relapsed into a depression from the peak. retract * Repeat offenders who continue to drive under the influence of alcohol face hav ing their driver's licenses permanently revoked. rivulet : small stream * As the rains continued. George Eliot broke Victorian society's most rigid rule of respectable behavior. rigid : stiff and unyielding. 3003. rig : fix or manipulate * The ward boss was able to rig the election by bribing people to stuff the ball ot boxes with ballots marked in his candidate's favor. strict. 3008. shrewd. 3007. elementary * His dancing was limited to a few rudimentary steps. rider : amendment or clause added to a legislative bill * Senator Foghorn said he would support Senator Filibuster's tax reform bill onl y if Filibuster agreed to add an antipollution rider to the bill. rigor : severity * Many settlers could not stand the rigors of the New England winters. hard and unbending * By living with a man to whom she was not married. sonorousness of speech * Washington Irving emphasized the rotundity of the governor by describing his h eight and circumference. 3045. rousing : lively. 3053. sacrosanct : most sacred. degenerate * Instead of advancing. retrograde : go backwards. having insight * He is much too sagacious to be fooled by a trick like that. sacrilegious : desecrating. let's have a rousing welcome for TV's own Roseanne Arnold. even tho ugh Martha had retired in February she was eligible for the pension.'\ 3035. retrospective : looking back on the past * It is only when we become retrospective that we can appreciate the tremendous advances made during this century. roil : to make liquids murky by stirring up sediment. sage : person celebrated for wisdom * Hearing tales of a mysterious Master of All Knowledge who lived in the hills o f Tibet. 3001. Sandy was possessed with a burning desire to consult the legendary sage . revulsion : sudden violent change of feeling. 3030. sagacious : keen. 3043. rudimentary : not developed. if you stir up the sediment you 'll destroy the flavor. who'll le ad us in a rousing rendition of 'The Star-Spangled Banner.
which is regarded by many as a tale for children. satisfy fully * The guests. sanction : approve. 3064. 3058. hopeful * Let us not be too sanguine about the outcome. salutary : tending to improve. scanty : meager. though the comments of the Doonesbury characters. 3084. 3072. sate : satisfy to the full. ratify * Nothing will convince me to sanction the engagement of my daughter to such a w orthless young man. Oliver Twist asked for more. Costner especially savored the chagrin of the critics w ho had predicted his failure. savor : enjoy. satirical : mocking * The humor of cartoonists Gary Trudeau often is satirical. scale : climb up. produce and release a substance into an orga nism. the lion dozed. 3063. have a distinctive flavor. beneficial. secrete : hide away or cache. Lee had to scale an exception ally rickety ladder. or agreeable * Julia Child's recipes enable amateur chefs to create savory delicacies for the ir guests. opera libretto * Scaramouche startled the other actors in the commedia troupe when he suddenly departed from their customary scenario and began to improvise. she sought to address universal religious issues and n ot limit herself to mere sectarian concerns. smell. 3074. cloy * Its hunger sated. 3069. solitude * One moment she loved crowds. is actua lly a bitter satire attacking human folly. pleasing. scenario : plot outline. 3070. sanguine : cheerful. saline : salty * The slightly saline taste of this mineral water is pleasant. and ridicule are empl oyed to attack vice and folly * Gulliver's Travels. savory : tasty. satire : form of literature in which irony. sarcasm. limited in scope * As university chaplain. 3108. 3073. 3061. temporal . 3059. sanguinary : bloody * The battle of lwo Jina was unexpectedly sanguinary with many casualties. 3055. seclusion : isolation. salient : prominent * One of the salient features of that newspaper is its excellent editorial page. or quality * Relishing his triumph. insufficient * Thinking his helping of food was scanty. 3080. having eaten until they were satiated.. the next. now listened inattentively to the speakers. salubrious : healthful * Many people with hay fever move to more salubrious sections of the country dur ing the months of August and September. 3110. hundreds of satellites were launc hed by Russia and the United States. satellite : small body revolving around a larger one * During the first few years of the Space Age. 3088. sanctimonious : displaying ostentatious or hypocritical devoutness * You do not have to be so sanctimonious to prove that you are devout. attractive. 3062. 3071. sectarian : narrow-minded. secular : worldly. she sought seclusion. not pertaining to church matters. the pancreas secretes insulin in the islets of Langerhans. something could go wrong. * The pack rat secretes odds and ends in its nest. 3111. ascend * To locate a book on the top shelf of the stacks. wholesome * The punishment had a salutary effect on the boy. 3079. as he became a model student. 3109. 3056. 3085. screenplay. saturate : soak * Their clothes were saturated by the rain. Trudeau ridicules political corruption and folly. satiate : surfeit.
red rose\ is a simile. sedentary : requiring sitting * Because he had a sedentary occupation. using the word like or as * \My love is like a red. sedulous : diligent * The young woman was so sedulous that she received a commendation for her hard work. bending in and out. I am a skeptic. 3172. were calculated to arouse thoughts of sedition. 3165. it was simplistic in failing to consider various complicating factors that might arise . segregate. especia lly for young women * Sure of his priestly vocation. skeptic : doubter. 3163. . 3113. operating through the senses * He was stimulated by the sights. 3138. 3128. 3145. 3125. feeble mindedness of old age * Most of the decisions are being made by the junior members of the company beca use of the senility of the president. scene of carnage * By the time the police arrived. 3127. sedition : resistance to authority. 3122. simile : comparison of one thing with another. I want proof. 3124. guise * Although this book has a semblance of wisdom and scholarship. shambles : slaughterhouse. 3141. aphoristic * After reading so many redundant speeches. he never was able to drop his busy round of activities in the city. I find his sententious style particu lary pleasing. humble Uriah Heap was a servile creature. compulsory labor * Born a slave. person who suspends judgment until he has examined the evidence supporting a point of view. 3171. sinuous : winding. servitude : slavery. sedate : composed. voluptous * I cannot understand what caused him to drop his sensual way of life and become so ascetic. Terrence planned to pursue his theological trai ning at the local Roman Catholic seminary. 3126. influencing future developments. he was enjoying his sensuous experience. senility : old age. sententious : terse. sensual : devoted to the pleasures of the senses. secondary school.* The church leaders decided not interfere in secular matters. a careful examin ation will reveal many errors and omissions. grave * The parents were worried because they felt their son was too quiet and sedate. sensuous : pertaining to the physical senses. simulate : feign * He simulated insanity in order to avoid punishment for his crime. simplistic : oversimplified * Though Jack's solution dealt adequately with one aspect of the problem. semblance : outward appearance. sounds and smells about him. seminary : school for training future ministers. Douglass resented his wife of servitude and plotted to escape to the North. insubordination * His words. seclude * Although he had hoped for a long time to sequester himself in a small communit y. cringing * Constantly fawning on his employer. 3123. related to seed or se men * Although Freud has generally been regarded as a seminal thinker who shaped the course of psychology. seminal : germinal. not morally honest * The snake moved in a sinuous manner. he decided to visit a gymnasium weekly. though not treasonous in themselves. carnal. plainness * The newspapers disapproved of the severity of the sentence. the room was a shambles. 3139. 3115. 3132. servile : slavish. his psychoanalytic methods have come under attack recentl y. * In this matter. 3166. concise. 3112. severity : harshness. 3114. sequester : retire from public life.
3205.\ the angry father shouted at his laz y son. 3235. found more frequently among city dwellers than among residents of rural areas. 3223. solicitous : worried. the mayor telephoned all the members of the city council to solicit their votes. solemnity : seriousness. act of employing sophistry in reasoning * Sophistication is an acquired characteristic. he began to long for the colder climate of his n ative New England home. somber : gloomy. unnaturalness. lazy. spectral : ghostly * We were frightened by the spectral glow that filled the room. 3219. slake : quench. he was finally able to become solvent and avoid bankruptcy proceedings. solstice : point at which the sun is farthest from the equator * The winter solstice usually occurs on December 21. 3236. lethargic * After two nights without sleep. shallow * Your sophomoric remarks are a sign of your youth and indicate that you have no t given much thought to the problem. depressing * From the doctor's grim expression. sophistication : artificiality. 3222. spectrum : colored band produced when a beam of light passes through a pri . gravity * The minister was concerned that nothing should disturb the solemnity of the ma rriage service. solicit : request earnestly. a parasite. somnolent : half asleep * The heavy meal and the overheated room made us all somnolent and indifferent t o the speaker. sate * When we reached the oasis. seek * Knowing she needed to have a solid majority for the budget to pass. solvent : able to pay all debts * By dint of very frugal living. soporific : sleep producing * I do not need a sedative when I listen to one of his soporific speeches. quibbler. soliloquy : talking to oneself * The soliloquy is a device used by the dramatist to reveal a character's innerm ost thoughts and emotions. 3218. he tried to overwhelm his audience with a flood of sophistries. 3206. 3209. 3224. sluggard : lazy person * \You are a sluggard. I could tell he had somber news. concerned * The employer was very solicitous about the health of her employees as replacem ents were difficult to get. sojourn : temporary stay * After his sojourn in Florida. sophomoric : immature. 3213. somnambulist : sleepwalker * The most famous somnambulist in literature is Lady Macbeth. 3212. sonorous : resonant * His sonorous voice resounded through the hall. sophistry : seemingly plausible but fallacious reasoning * Instead of advancing valid arguments. 3194. 3211. 3195. your argument is specious. her monologue in t he sleepwalking scene is one of the highlights of Shakespeare's play. 3234. a drone. 3217. sluggish : slow. solace : comfort in trouble * I hope you will find solace in the thought that all of us share your loss. 3221. sophist : teacher of philosophy. 3216. 3214. specious : seemingly reasonable but incorrect * Let us not be misled by such specious arguments.3182. 3210. she felt sluggish and incapable of exertion. employer of fallacious reasonin g * You are using all the devices of a sophist in trying to prove your case. we were able to slake our thirst. 3220.
3243. static : unchanging. steadfast : loyal. means of support. subside : settle down. subjugate : conquer. he refused to be subservient to anyone. we shall take up more difficult problems. subjective : occurring or taking place within the mind. 3305. unreal * Your analysis is highly subjective. 3260. rigid * I think these regulations are too stringent. sportive : playful * Such a sportive attitude is surprising in a person as serious as you usually a re. Will had no defiance left in him. severe and adverse criticism * His strictures on the author's style are prejudiced and unwarranted. stoic : person who is indifferent to pleasure or pain * The doctor called her patient a stoic because he had borne the pain of the exa mination without whimpering. stellar : pertaining to the stars * He was the stellar attraction of the entire performance. 3310. brand * I do not attach any stigma to the fact that you were accused of this crime. th e fact that you were acquitted clears you completely. amaze * Disapproving of drugs in general. stealth : slyness. timid * Crushed by his authoritarian father. things were static there 3261. 3266. 3290. secondary * This information may be used as subsidiary evidence but is not sufficient by i tself to prove your argument. no approximati ons or rough estimates would satisfy him. faithfully waiting for Ulysses to re turn from his wanderings. 3295. descend. 3300. American ship operators would not be able to compete in world markets. noble. subsistence : existence. stigma : token of disgrace. stickler : perfectionist. grow quiet * The doctor assured us that the fever would eventually subside. 3308. sublime : exalted. later * In subsequent lessons. 3313. uplifting * Mother Teresa has been honored for her sublime deeds. stupefy : make numb. my salary provided mere subsistence. subsidiary : subordinate. servile. subservient : behaving like a slave. 3263. stun. you have permitted your emotions and your opinions to color your thinking. stringent : binding. livelihood * In those days of inflated prices.sm * The visible portion of the spectrum includes red at one end and violet at the other. 3314. 3264. 3271. unswerving * Penelope was steadfast in her affections. 3288. bring under control * It is not our aim to subjugate our foe. Laura refused to take sleeping pills or any other medicine that might stupefy her. * Without this subsidy. support . lacking development * Nothing had changed at home. secretiveness * Fearing detection by the sentries on duty. we are interested only in establishing peaceful relations. obsequious * He was proud and dignified. substantiate : verify. subsequent : following. 3312. stricture : critical comments. the scout inched his way toward the enemy camp with great stealth. statute : law * We have many statutes in our law books which should be repealed. 3273. submissive : yielding. person who insists things be exactly right * The Internal Revenue Service agent was a stickler for accuracy. he was totally submissive in the face of authority. etc. 3309. 3301. 3303. subsidy : direct financial aid by government. sneakiness. 3311. 3281.
guile. supernumerary : person or thing in excess of what is necessary. terse. I cannot gi ve you more than a passing grade. supposition : hypothesis. shallow * Since your report gave only a superficial analysis of the problem. supersede : cause to be set aside. pray to grant a favor * We supplicate Your Majesty to grant him amnesty. or is Newt on's law of gravity subsumed into Einstein's larger scheme? 3317. subsume : include. supercilious : contemptuous. counterfeit. summary * In his summation. 3344. 3333. 3320. 3328. die * I succumb to temptation whenever it comes my way. and he gave it some food. assistance. suffragist : advocate of voting rights (for women) * In recognition of her efforts to win the vote for women. subversive : tending to overthrow. 3335. encompass * Does the general theory of relativity contradict Newtonian physics. supplicate : petition humbly. succumb : yield.* I intend to substantiate my statement by producing witnesses. supple : flexible. 3329. 3343. overabundant. Congress authorized c oining a silver dollar honoring the suffragist Susan B. beseeching * He could not resist the dog's suppliant whimpering. supplant : replace. 3319. cunning. the lawyer emphasized the testimony given by the two witness es. suffuse : spread over * A blush suffused her cheeks when we teased her about her love affair. superfluous : excessive. 3316. superimpose : place over something else * Your attempt to superimpose another agency in this field will merely increase the bureaucratic nature of our government. 3338. relief * We shall be ever grateful for the succor our country gave us when we were in n eed. 3318. 3324. 3336. succor : aid. 3325. destructive * At first glance. usurp * Corazon Aquino supplanted Ferdinand Marcos as president of the Philippines 3342. evasion * As soon as we realized that you had won our support by a subterfuge we withdre w our endorsement of your candidacy. 3346. unnecessary * Please try not to include so many superfluous details in your report. hypothetical . 3341. 3339. compact * His remarks are always succinct and pointed. rich * I cannot recall when I have had such a sumptuous Thanksgiving feast. surmise * I based my decision to confide in him on the supposition that he would bediscr eet. delicacy * The subtlety of his remarks was unnoticed by most of his audience. superannuated : retired or disqualified because of age * The superannuated man was indignant because he felt that he could still perfor m a good day's work. replace * This regulation will supersede all previous rules. 3321. 3337. summation : act of finding the total. pliant * The angler found a supple limb and used it as a fishing rod. give in. 3323. 3332. sumptuous : lavish. subtlety : nicety. the notion that Styrofoam cups may actually be more ecologica lly sound than paper cups strikes most environmentalists as subversive. supposititious : assumed. Anthony. superficial : trivial. 3345. just giv e me the bare facts. suppliant : entreating. extra * His first appearance on the stage was as a supernumerary in a Shakespearean tr agedy. succinct : brief. haughty * I prefer Jill's modesty to Jack's supercilious and arrogant attitude. subterfuge : pretense.
easily influenced. surpass : exceed * Her SAT scores surpassed out expectations. susceptible : impressionable. stygian : literary dark * The stygian room reminded him of an empty space. 3353. not put into words * We have a tacit agreement based on only a handshake. meanwhile. surly : rude. 3350. syllogism : logical formula consisting of a major premise. often m utually beneficial * Both the crocodile bird and the crocodile derive benefit from their symbiosis. simultaneous with * We have many examples of scientists in different parts of the world who have m ade synchronous discoveries. talking a little * New Englanders are reputedly taciturn people. a tel evision. surreptitious : secret * News of their surreptitious meeting gradually leaked out. real. tacit : understood. 3371. congruity * The addition of a second tower will give this edifice the symmetry that it now lacks. nourishment * In the tropics. 3375. he had several tangible assets--a car. our next problem is to plan its synthesis in the laboratory. nourish * He sustained such a severe injury that the doctors feared he would be unable t o work to sustain his growing family. and so his parents worried that he might fall into bad company. synchronous : similary timed. 3354. 3373. synthetic : artificial. derives proper dental hygiene. 3357. deceptive or specious argument * There must be a fallacy in this syllogism. it brings drowsiness. 3369. having little resistance. surfeit : satiate. 3378. synthesis : combining parts into a whole * Now that we have succeeded in isolating this drug. resulting from synthesis * During the twentieth century. taciturn : habitually silent. many people avoided his company. sedative : calming drug or influence * It is dangerous to drive after taking the sedative. palpable * Although Tom did not own a house. 3376. as to a disease * He was a very susceptible young man. surrogate : substitute * For a fatherless child. 3355. a minor premise and a conclusion. surveillance : watching. 3370. species). guarding * The FBI kept the house under constant surveillance in the hope of capturing al l the criminals at one time. 3384. indulge to excess in anything * Every Thanksgiving we are surfeited with an overabundance of holiday treats. 3348. the bird derives nourishment. surmount : overcome * He had to surmount many obstacles in order to succeed. support. 3349.* I find no similarity between your supposititious illustration and the problem we are facing. the crocodile. cross * Because of his surly attitude. 3377. many synthetic products have replaced the natura l products. sustain : experience. a male teacher may become a father surrogate. sustenance : means of support. . food. a PC--that he could sell if he needed cash. 3374. surmise : guess * I surmise that he will be late for this meeting. pecking away at food particles embedded in the crocodile's teeth. 3347. 3352. stuff. symbiosis : interdependent relationship (between groups. the natives find sustenance easy to obtain because of all the fruit trees. 3356. symmetry : arrangement of parts so that balance is obtained. tangible : able to be touched. I cannot accept its conclusion. 3351. 3367.
we continued our journey into the wild erness on saddle horses. terminus : last stop of railroad * After we reached the railroad terminus. 3406. thrifty : careful about money. tenuous : thin. 3414. 3441. but Rod is excitable. 3412. terminology : terms used in a science or art * The special terminology developed by some authorities in the field has done mo re to confuse laypersons than to enlighten them. tensile : capable of being stretched * Mountain climbers must know the tensile strength of their ropes. temporal : not lasting forever. extend * Although no formal changes had been made against him. 3403. toughen (steel) * Not even her supervisor's grumpiness could temper Nancy's enthusiasm for her n ew job. tender : offer. experimental * Your tentative plans sound plausible. temperament : characteristic frame of mind. temper : moderate. tenacity : firmness. 3421. 3402. time during which such an office is held * He was permanent tenure in this position and cannot be fired. disposition. limited by time. designed to further a cause * The editorials in this periodical are tendentious rather than truth-seeking. 3431. 3405. demonstrating fear . throng : crowd * Throngs of shoppers jammed the aisles. 3407. terminate : to bring to an end * When his contract was terminated unexpectedly. tenet : doctrine. 3411. 3400. rare. 3410. temporal rulers assumed that they had been given t heir thrones by divine right. 3417. temporize : avoid committing oneself. economical * A thrifty shopper compares prices before making major purchases. 3399. 3440. terrestrial : on or relating to the earth * We have been able to explore the terrestrial regions much more thoroughly than the aquatic or celestial regions. dogma * The agnostic did not accept the tenets of their faith. secular * At one time in our history. 3415. they differ markedly in temperament: Tod is cal m. 3425. biased. adhesiveness * It is extremely difficult to overcome the tenacity of a habit such as smoking.3398. 3416. let us hope they will remain loyal. tendentious : having an aim. timidity : lack of self-confidence or courage * If you are to succeed as a salesperson. tenure : holding of an office. you must first lose your timidity and fear of failure. temperate : restrained. he desperately needed a new job . tone down or restrain. 3408. let me know when the final details are w orked out. gain time * I cannot permit you to temporize any longer. 3434. tentative : provisional. 3409. testator : maker of a will * The attorney called in his secretary and his partner to witness the signature of the testator. in the wake of the recen t scandal the mayor felt he should tender his resignation. self-controlled * Noted for his temperate appetite. emotional excess * Although the twins look alike. theocracy : government of a community by religious leaders * Some Pilgrims favored the establishment of a theocracy in New England. I must have a definite answer tod ay. persistency. slim * The allegiance of our allies is held by rather tenuous ties. tenacious : holding fast * I had to struggle to break his tenacious hold on my arm. timorous : fearful. 3404. he seldom gained weight.
temporary. transition : going from one state of action to another * During the period of transition from oil heat to gas heat. 3475. Located near the airpor t. tract : pamphlet. 3473. it is unwise to go faster than twenty miles an hour on it.* His timorous manner betrayed the fear he felt at the moment. 3466. 3462. happen * When Austen writes the sentence \It had just transpired that he had left gamin g debts behind him. 3468. mark of rank. transcribe : copy * When you transcribe your notes. easily detected * Your scheme is so transparent that it will fool no one.Smith and keep the or iginal for our files. 3471. torrent : rushing stream. a region of indefinite size * The King granted William Penn a tract of land in the New World. criterion * What touchstone can be used to measure the character of a person? 3461. transgression : violation of a law. tractable : docile * You will find the children in this school very tractable and willing to learn. tortuous : winding. 3469. we know not what we do. flood * Day after day of heavy rain saturated the hillside until the water ran downhil l in torrents. she s till had to find presents for the cousins and Uncle Bob. 3454.\ her meaning is not that the debts had just been incurred. 3457. please send a copy to Mr. they ordered a complete study of the topography of the region. irascible * Do not discuss this phase of the problem as he is very touchy about it. this hotel caters to the largely transient trade. sin * Forgive us our transgressions. peace * After the commotion and excitement of the city. etc. name (of a book. full of curves * Because this road is so tortuous. transpire : be revealed. 3477. 3463. traduce : expose to slander * His opponents tried to traduce the candidate's reputation by spreading rumors about his past. convert to something different * He was unable to transmute his dreams into actualities. transient : momentary. tranquility : calmness. transcend : exceed. he still retained his title as head of one of England's oldest families.) * Though the penniless Duke of Ragwort no longer held title to the family estate . transmute : change. topography : physical features of a region * Before the generals gave the order to attack. toxic : poisonous * We must seek an antidote for whatever toxic substance he has eaten. 3464. 3447. transparent : permitting to light to pass through freely. the furnace will ha ve to be shut off. 3465. 3459. touchy : sensitive. praise excessively * I lost confidence in my broker after he touted some junk bonds that turned out to be a bad investment. touchstone : stone used to test the fineness of gold alloys. film. staying for a short time * Lexy's joy at finding the perfect Christmas gift for Phil was transient. tout : publicize. 3470. 3476. trajectory : path taken by a projectile * The police tried to locate the spot from which the assassin had fired the fata l shot by tracing the trajectory of the bullet. b . 3460. 3472. translucent : partly transparent * We could not recognize the people in the next room because of the translucent curtains that separated us. surpass * This accomplishment transcends all our previous efforts. I appreciate the tranquillity of these fields and forests. title : right or claim to possession. 3467. 3478.
always backing up at daunting situations. tyranny : oppression. at another moment in transports of grief over a dying bird. wavering * She was tremulous more from excitement than from fear. 3505. 3485. 3519. mark of respect * The colonists refused to pay tribute to a foreign despot. I prefer writing which is less swollen a nd bombastic. 3493. treatment aimed at making something appear ridi culous * The ridiculous decision the jury has arrived at is a travesty of justice. 3521. tribulation : distress. trivia : trifles. turbid : muddy. 3506. tryst : meeting * The lovers kept their tryst even though they realized their danger. 3510. 3527. toil : work laboriously. novice * For a mere tyro. umbrage : resentment. anger. be careful of the bull. 3520. not susceptible to further analysis * Scientists are searching for the ultimate truths. traverse : go through or across * When you traverse this field. treatise : article treating a subject systematically and thoroughly * He is preparing a treatise on the Elizabethan playwrights for his graduate deg ree. tribute : tax levied by a ruler. 3503. 3479. tumid : swollen. 3492. unassuming : modest * He is so unassuming that some people fail to realize how great a man he really is. tremulous : trembling. having the sediment disturbed * The water was turbid after the children had waded through it. 3498. unimportant matters * Too many magazines ignore newsworthy subjects and feature trivia. 3484. trilogy : group of three works * Romain Rolland's novel Jean Christophe was first published as a trilogy. apprehensive * He was timid and cowardish. we need this rest. . 3491. 3526. 3483. 3531. suffering * After all the trials and tribulations we have gone through. truism : self-evident truth * Many a truism is well expressed in a proverb. transport : strong emotion * Margo was a creature of extremes. bombastic * I especially dislike his tumid style. ultimate : final. our only recourse is to declare war 3528. 3523. you have produced some marvelous results. cruel government * Frederick Douglass fought against the tyranny of slavery throughout his entire life. ultimatum : last demand. warning * Since they have ignored our ultimatum. 3496. make slow painful progress * You must toil through 3500 words list in order to achieve a high score on GRE. trite : hackneyed. 3499. timid : easily frightened. turbulence : state of violent agitation * We were frightened by the turbulence of the ocean during the storm. tyro : beginner. 3488. pompous. travesty : comical parody. tribunal : court of justice * The decision of the tribunal was final and the prisoner was sentenced to death . commonplace * The trite and predictable situations in many television programs alienate many viewers. sense of injury or insult * She took umbrage at his remarks and stormed away in a huff. 3509. unanimity : complete agreement * We were surprised by the unanimity with which our proposals were accepted by t he different groups.ut the the shocking news had just leaked out. at one moment in transports of joy over a vi vid sunset. 3529.
monotony * After a while. unrequited : not reciprocated * Suffering the pangs of unrequited love. unwitting : unintentional. 3558. uproarious : marked by commotion. 3576. 3539. 3565. usurp : seize power. complete accord * The choir sang in unison. unravel : disentangle. unwonted : unaccustomed * He hesitated to assume the unwonted role of master of ceremonies at the dinner . 3557. morally offensive * People with unsavory reputations should not be allowed to work with youngchild ren. supplant * The revolution ended when the victorious rebel leader usurped the throne. underscore : emphasize * Addressing the jogging class. single in kind * You have the unique distinction of being the first student whom I have had to fail in this course. unison : unity of pitch. 3575. 3585. sap * The recent corruption scandals have undermined many people's faith in the city government. 3559. 3579. groundless. 3541. Kim underscored the importance to runners of goo d nutrition. usury : lending money at illegal rates of interest * The loan shark was found guilty of usury. the archeologists found many relics of an ancien t civilization. undeserved * We could not understand Martin's unwarranted rudeness to his mother's guests. weird * There is an unearthly atmosphere in her work that amazes the casual observer. cumbersome. 3574.undergird : strengthen the base of . 3581. unfeigned : genuine. unearthly : not earthly. uniformity : sameness. the uniformity of TV situation comedies becomes boring. unwieldy : awkward. 3567.3534. real * She turned so pale that I am sure her surprise was unfeigned. reproach * I must upbraid him for his unruly behavior. unwarranted : unjustified. consistency. 3546. upbraid : scold. unique : without an equal. no one shared Christopher's opinions. universal : characterizing or affecting all. unsavory : distasteful. 3552. undermine : weaken. extremely funny. unilateral : one-sided * This legislation is unilateral since it binds only one party in the controvers y. present everywhere * At first. refined. 3578. unearth : dig up * When they unearthed the city. 3553. 3588. elegant * The courtier was urbane and sophisticated 3584. solve * With equal ease Miss Marple unraveled tangled balls of yarn and baffling murde r mysteries. unmanageable * The large carton was so unwieldy that the movers had trouble getting it up the stairs. his theory that the world was round was met with universal disdain. urbane : suave. 3564. 3538. excessive * She found the load shark's demands unconscionable and impossible to meet. Olivia rebukes Cesario for his hard-he artedness. whose mugging a nd comic antics provoked gales of uproarious laughter from audiences coast to co ast. unconscionable : unscrupulous. not knowing * She was the unwitting tool of the swindlers 3577. 3542. very noisy * The uproarious comedy hit Home Alone featured Macaulay Culkin.
vagrant : stray. verbalize : put into words * I know you don't like to talk about these things. 3609. 3598. valor : bravery * He received the Medal of Honor for his valor in battle. cosmology was un dergirded by it. 3596. but please try to verbalize your feelings. random * He tried to study.Annapurna. Gretchen saw the fields of tulips as a variegated blur. 3592. Senator Spector repeatedly questioned her veracit y. 3599. but could not collect his vagrant thoughts. vainglorious : boastful. vagrant : homeless wanderer * Because he was a stranger in town with no visible means of support. vagabond : wanderer. 3593. vagary : caprice. variegated : many-colored * Without her glasses. 3602. verbose : wordy * This article is too verbose. 3590. veracity : truthfulness * Trying to prove Hill a liar. 3629. vegetate : live in a monotonous way * I do not understand how you can vegetate in this quiet village after the adven turous life you have led. who had hoped to hear mo re than empty platitudes 3591. verbiage : pompous array of words * After we had waded through all the verbiage. legally acceptable * You're going to have to come up with a better argument if you want to convince me that your reasoning is valid. 3623. 3619. vacuous : empty. vent : small opening. edge * Madame Curie knew she was on the verge of discovering the secrets of radioacti . vent : express. tramp * In summer. lacking in ideas. 3597. we discovered that the writer had said very little. venturesome : bold * A group of venturesome women were the first to scale Mt. with marked vigor * He spoke with vehement eloquence in defense of his client. utter * He vented his wrath on his class. 3626. Martin fea red he would be jailed as a vagrant. 3620. stupid * The candidate's vacuous remarks annoyed the audience. verge : border. valid : logically convincing. ratify * I will not publish my findings until I validate my results. we must edit it. validate : confirm. 3627. 3594. 3625. vehement : impetuous. college students wander the roads of Europe like carefree vagabonds . excessively conceited * She was a vainglorious and arrogant individual. vantage : position giving an advantage * They fired upon the enemy from behind trees. 3633. sound. outlet * The wine did not flow because the air vent in the barrel was clogged. valedictory : pertaining to farewell * I found the valedictory address too long. leave-taking should be brief. veracious : truthful * I can recommend him for this position because I have always found him veraciou s and reliable. 3628. 3608. whim * She followed every vagary of fashion. walls and any other point of vant age they could find. 3604. 3595. verbatim : word for word * He repeated the message verbatim. 3630.* Whereas relativity theory undermined the Newtonian mechanics.
3663. Jack had the vigor of a man in his pri me. viand : food * There was a variety of viands at the feast. workable * The infant. versatile : having many talents. vital : vibrant and lively. vindictive : revengeful * She was very vindictive and never forgave an injury. 3640. 3634. I know you are hungry. 3664. vise : tool for holding work in place * Before filling its edges. vertigo : dizziness * We test potential plane pilots for susceptibility to spells of vertigo. 3653. 3676. 3644. virtue : goodness. for example. vilify : slander * She is a liar and is always trying to vilify my reputation. visionary : produced by imagination. and track. vigor : active strength * Although he was over seventy years old. likelihood * Critics praised her for the verisimilitude of her performance as Lady Macbeth. 3669. virtual : in essence. virtuoso : highly skilled artist * The child prodigy Yehudi Menuhin grew into a virtuoso whose virtuosity on the violin thrilled millions. virulent : extremely poisonous * The virus is highly virulent and has made many of us ill for days. sprightly * She had always been vivacious and sparkling. though prematurely born. 3651. 3639. 3655. victuals : food * I am very happy to be able to provide you with these victuals. 3660. is viable and has a good chance to surviv e. vivacious : lively or animated. She was completely believable. 3635. 3668. vindicate : clear of charges * I hope to vindicate my client and return him to society as a free man. at college he had earned varsity letters in baseba ll. can degenerate into servility and spinelessness. good quality * A virtue carried to extremes can turn into something resembling vice. vertex : summit * Let us drop a perpendicular line from the vertex of the triangle to the base. verity : truth. viable : capable of maintaining life. breathing * The vital. 3675. moral excellence. for practical purposes * She is a virtual financial wizard when it comes to money matters. visage : face. vigilance : watchfulness * Eternal vigilance is the price of liberty. 3659.ve elements. virus : disease communicator * The doctors are looking for a specific medicine to control this virus. humility . football. 3670. capable of working in many fields * He was a versatile athlete. 3638. the keysmith took the blank key and fixed it firmly between the jaws of a vise. living. 3662. practicable. 3667. highly energetic first aid instructor stressed that it was vital in examining accident victims to note their vital signs. 3650. 3645. 3648. reality * The four verities were revealed to Buddha during his long meditation. gluey * Melted tar is a viscous substance. critical. viscous : sticky. 3661. fanciful. appearance * The stern visage of the judge indicated that she had decided to impose a sever e penalty. 3654. mystical * She was given to visionary schemes that never materialized. verisimilitude : appearance of truth. vivisection : act of dissecting living animals .
large * Despite her family burdens. surrender * The wounded knight refused to yield to his foe. worldly : engrossed in matters of this earth. 3750. with a humorous twist * We enjoy Dorothy Parker's verse for its wry wit. vociferous : clamorous. voluptuous : gratifying the senses * The nobility during the Renaissance led voluptuous lives. 3689. wheedle : cajole. volition : act of making a conscious choice * She selected this dress of her own volition. In response. voluble : fluent. as he had no on e in whom to confide. 3728. 3700. yoke : join together. remote * Rebuffed by his colleagues. she made herself liked by everyone who met her. vortex : whirlwind. glib * She was a voluble speaker. wanton attack. 3684. voracious : ravenous * The wolf is a voracious animal. withdrawn : introverted. 3751. 3738. predicament into whic h one is inexorably plunged * Sucked into the vortex of the tornado. barely discernible * Worried about preserving his few wispy tufts of hair. she kept up a voluminous correspondence with her f riends. Walter carefully massage d his scalp and applied hair restorer every night. crop. unite * I don't wish to be yoked to him in marriage. yield : amount produced. xenophobia : fear or hatred of foreigners * When the refugee arrived in America. Jennifer's small body was covered with welts and bruises. wanton : unrestrained. coax. slight. 3746. 3747.* The Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals opposed vivisection and d eplored the practice of using animals in scientific experiments. 3732. not spiritual * You must leave your worldly goods behind you when you go to meet your Maker. 3729. wispy : thin. income on investment * An experienced farmer can estimate the annual yield of his acres with surprisi ng accuracy. unchaste * Pointing to the stack of bills. 3683. whirlpool. he was unprepared for the xenophobia he f ound there. the initially outgoing young researcher became inc reasingly withdrawn. weather : endure the effects of weather or other forces * He weathered the changes in his personal life with difficulty. wry : twisted. decay * Cut flowers are beautiful for a day. always ready to talk. Dorothy and Toto were carried from Kans as to Oz. but all too soon they wither. 3710. whet : sharpen. stimulate * The odors from the kitchen are whetting my appetite. deceive by flattery * She knows she can wheedle almost anything she wants from her father. yield : give in. 3731. 3681. voluminous : bulky. willfully malicious. wither : shrivel. Sheldon criticized Sarah for her wanton expend itures. welt : mark from beating or whipping * The evidence of child abuse was very clear. I will be ravenous by the time the meal is served. vulnerable : susceptible to wounds * Achilles was vulnerable only in his heel. 3686. 3752. 3678. 3685. winsome : agreeable. gracious. noisy * The crowd grew vociferous in its anger and threatened to take the law into its own hands. engaging * By her winsome manner. Sara accused Sheldon of making an unfounded. 3714. center of turbulence. 3682. its hunger never satisfied. 3711. 3716. as if we were cattle pulling a pl .
conclude c.disprove 7.gravity 7. forlorn a. continued c. guess d.alleviate 4. provenance tion 3.aggressiveness 6. western c. 3753. know a.bellicose 8. part of France b. place c. consume d. origin c. inspired by his ardent enthusiasm for the cause. decision a. shake up a.approbation 2. jury b. propaganda b. poor c. circular d. raise 4.rascal 3. conjecture 2. extended a. missing d. denial .study of illegal behavior 5.criminology 5.gravitate 8. zealot : fanatic. soothe b.decriminalize 8. dejected 4.reduce penalty for 7. vibrate c.recrimination 4.before the war 5. cinema a. retraction a.appease 2. regret c.quarrelsome 2.opposition to authority 7. synagogue 2.belligerence 6.levity 1. courthouse b. 3757. a.to calm by satisfying 8.pacifist 5.reprobate 3.gravid 3.incriminate 1.ow.approval 2. withdrawal b. venturesome 5. judge c. disavowal d.relieve 3. forthright d. commerce d.leavening 6. temple d. advent 7.lack of seriousness 8. arrival c. departure a.demonstrate as false 4.one who opposes war 1.solemn dignity 2. protracted 3. downcast c. timid a. soon all his fellow students were busily making po sters. PART IV QUIZ QUIZ ONE 1.accuse 6. argue in court d. suppose b.pacify 4.antebellum 1.something that lightens 5.move toward as if drawn 6.seriousness QUIZ TWO 1. excited b. lengthened b. litigate negotiate 8. Italian cheese d.gravitas 2. agitate 6.utter honesty 1. select a jury b. menu d.solemn agreement 3.rebellion 3. daring b. prodigal 4. depressed d. zeal : eager enthusiasm * Wang's zeal was contagious.probity 6. lavish a.pregnant 7.elevate 5.to make peaceful 4. venue 1.lift. person who shows excessive zeal * It is good to have a few zealots in our group for their enthusiasm is contagio us. invita a. arena c. 3756.counterattack 8. yokel : country bumpkin * At school.pact 7. his classmates regarded him as a yokel and laughed at his rustic ma nnerisms. brilliant b.
epithet 3. low energy c. uncontrollable c.ephemeral QUIZ THREE 1.helpful 5. hypocrisy a.assume 3.noticeable 2. thermonuclear a.5. typical b. substandard c. insincerity d.wavering 4. hypothermia a.affinity 2.beginning 4. warmth 2. diminish c. altitude gauge 7. keeping out b. line d.depressed 4.trajectory 4. near b. defy d. area of warm water b. untoucha ble 1.protracted 2. decrease b.attraction 7. area of cold water c. bordering 8.nearby 1. nickname 4.consequential 7. hypothetical a.epitaph 7.conducive 8.denial 2.subtraction 4.short-lived 8.receiving 8.reception 5.intractable 7. chemical reaction requiring a vacuum c.susceptible 3.incipient 7.non-parasitic plant growing on another .flattering 1.having more than one 2.retraction 5. area between warm and cold water d.seduction 6.finite 6. intractable a.take away 6. impossible b. touching d. keeping col d 5.difficult 5.limited 1.produce 7.temptation 3. thermal a.ambiguous 6. assumed 6. path c. external temperature d.infinitesimal 8. detract a.surrounding 3. curve b. deep ocean water 3.amphitheater 4.dejected 1. adjacent a.perceptible 1. minimize 7. sympathetic d.grave inscription 5.easily influenced 5. temperature gauge b. nuclear reaction based on distance from the sun 1.induce 4. ocean current gauge d.adjacent 3. nuclear reaction trigger c.epiphyte 5.obsequious 3. biological reaction producing bright light d.sequential 1.ambient 8. keeping safe d.ordered 6.conjecture 6.execute 5. subnormal temperature c.tiny 6.persuade 2.detract 8.drawn out 7.definitive 4.stage surrounded with tiered seats 6. thermocouple a. adjourned c.ambivalent 2. target 6. thermo cline a.ultimate 3.deduction 2. trajectory a. keeping warm c.significant 8. excitability b. nuclear reaction requiring high heat b. dislike b.descriptive nickname 7. stubborn d.curved path 8.
of different length b.1. boring .malevolent a.perfidy 1.posterior a.creed 5.bad faith 1.impedi ment 2. wishing well c. occurring after death d.s t one of voice 8. vague b. word spelled and sounded the same as another c. slow c.homonym a. word that means the same thing as another c.simultaneous 1.postmortem a.inflection a.pedest rian 6.cataclysm a. flex a muscle c. fold back d. make pale d.homogeneous a. word that sounds like another b. undo 2. dissolve d.obstacle 2. on the back c. breaking up of atoms 6. one with same name as another d. speak to c. self-loving b.catatonic a. badly done 2.principles 7.genuflect a. breaking up of light wa ves c. motionless d. on top 4. inspiration 3.credulity 4.postmodern a. sunscreen d. muscle d. change one.diffident 3. natural disaster d. underground treasure 5. contemporary d. before the event b.malign a.trust-based 4.fiduciary 7.disseminate a. underground spring d. turn aside d.homophone a.credence 8. refreshing b. muscle c. consistent throughout 5. traditional c.well-done 6. of similar size c. underground road b. word that looks like another d. underground cemetery c. explosive c. confusing d. on the front b.rambling 7. satisfaction d.speed up 6. early in development 2.homologous a. plant in rows c.affidavit 6. wishing evil b. of different stages d.catacomb a. kneel b.precur sor 3. breaking up of meetings d.ordinary 8.concur rent 1. unusually brilliant c. word relating to sexual desire 1. spread widely b.diffraction a. kneel c. after the event b.creditable 2.deflect a. blowing violently d. mean 6. underneath d.dissipate a.cursor y 8.malicious a.convenient 5.posthumous a. ultramodern b. before the event c.hasty 3. disagreement c. speak of repeatedly 4. protect 5.forerunner 4.expedi te 7. style in art b.discur sive 5.trustfulness 8.timid 2.acceptance 3. scatter c.expedi ent 4. change in pitch c. curiosit y 8. using p ast styles 6. drink slowly b. having many parts d. born prematurely c. causing the event QUIZ FOUR 1. one who loves another of the same sex 3. breaking up of friendships b. confusion b. feline behavior c. loud applause b. caused by the event d. of similar origin 7. radar detector b.sworn document 5. bone 3.dissension a. make lo nger 4. speak well of b. fold over b. word meaning the same a another b. part to the rear 7. speak ill of d.flexor a.
warden b.protoplasm 5.odometer 5. receipt c.put to use 3.metric 3. agent of change 1.euphoria 6. treatment of skeletal defects 4.muscul ar deterioration 4. height measurer d.hero or heroine 8. moving at 45o angle d.deplete a. purchase order b.protocol 1. roughness b. abundantly provided d. distance measurer 4.balanced 5.arrogate a. neglect b.derogatory a.to date before 1. grabby d. dentistry for crooked teeth d. examination b. bonus c. moving in a curved line c. fu lly clothed 3. unattractive d. integrity c. dentistry for children b.impair ed 2. direction d.rectify a. abundance d.dyspeptic 7.catalyst a. medical dictionaries d.rectitude a.cell contents 2. put into practice d . fatigue measurer d.symmetrical 1.rules of behavior 4.towards the front 5. uncomplicated b. correct spelling 6.7. admiring d.malnourished a.prerogative a.replete 4. fed frequently b. critical b.odometer a. moving in a circle 1.antechamber 2.great happiness 1.readin g disorder 7. grateful b. put to sleep 8.orthodox a.replete a.tachometer a.counterpart 4. fed poorly c.requisition a.ante meridiem 4. straighten out b. waterfowl 2.complement a. straight b. measured c.protagonist 3.anterior 8. headmaster c.acquisitive a. redo b. foot surgery b.implement a.perquisite a. certainty d. power d. intelligence measurer b. privilege 6. insurance agent c.waiting room 7. number required c.deplete 6. dentistry for every one 8. children. put to death b. relating to poetic rhythm b. release 1.speed measurer . abando n 2. pardon d. persuasion c. steal d. seize c. correct map c. heart-rate measure c. greedy 7. praise b.rector a. dentistry for gums c. conventional d. modify d.s medicine c. salary d. relating to particles of matter 7. refold b. unflattering c.eugenic 4. draw down c.dysfunctional 5.orthography a. make longer 3. sharpness measurer c. inquiry 3. privilege b. sameness 7.rectlinear a.antedate 6. pier c.symmetrical a.drain 2. relating to books d. fold d. balanced 1. correct direction d.distance measurer 6. fed excessively d.inquisition a.model 6. request d.evangelism 8. cleaning agent d. speed measurer b.euphemism 2. ignore 4. usual dress 6.prototype 7.dystrophy 1. size measurer 5.dyslexia 3. grasping c. interrogation c. literary agent b.orthopedics a. effect 5. fed occasionally 8.metric a. relating to ocea n depth c. correct color b.abrogate a.morning 3. abolish c.promoting supe rior 8.tachometer 2. put to pasture c. scornful 2. moving in a straight line b.orthodontics a.beset by indigestion 3. demand 8. grab d. claim b. make right c. repeat c.crusad ing zeal 5. right b. right 5.polite term 6.
outstandingly excellent 3.complement 7.periodontal a.involving sound 1. thoughtlessn ess 6. saving d.perspicacious 6. order b. confused d. overhead serve b. biased c.conspicuous 8. characteristic c. constant c.sensuous 3. connection 2.suterfuge a.gratifying the senses 5. loyal 2.sensational 8. healing c.inherent a. around a tooth c. wandering b.visionary 7. musical form c.vis-a-vis 4. unity b. wandering d.favora ble 7. part of b. caretaker d.docrine of God and the world 4.periheral a.finacial examiner 7.adherent a. inside a tooth c.cohesion a.impartial a. marginal figure d. moving outward 5. flower 4. escapee d.visitation 3.full 8. sailor c.a critical hearing 4.sonic 6. surrounding d. fruitless search c. opini onated 3.centrifugal a.continuing or echoing sound 8. thoughtfulness c. fact d. factor b.noticeable 6. easy job 2. confused 8.sophomoric 4. obtain c. drifter 1. position c.injunction a.ultrasound 3. say b. heal 6. doctor b.inaudible 1.sophisticated 7. supplement d.unharmonious 6. underhanded plot c.visage QUIZ SIX 1.self-e xamination 5. stinker c.receiving perceptions 8. dange rous 1. moving upward b. attached b. sticker b. moving downward d. addition c.opinion colored by emotion 7.introspection 2. supplementary b. boundary 8. mathematical formula b. unemployed c. purify b.relating to a measuring system QUIZ FIVE 1. masonry foundation 3. wanderi ng 4.false reasoning 6.dissonant 7.official call 8.curator a.theosophy 1.auditor 5.impossible to hear 2. repairing 7.implement 8.immaturely overconfident 2.perimeter a. secret supporter 7.fugue a. controlled d. moving backward c. spectator 3. accurate d. diffe rence .curative a.auspicious 5. lawyer c.audition 8. warning b. around a tooth c. powerful force d.peripatetic a. fair b.shrewd 2.highly complex 1.procure a. visual b.relating to hearing 5.7.resonance 4. disclosure d. follower d. old-fashion ed 5. careless act d. look after d. uniformity d.appear ance 4.sinecure a. traveler b. inherited c.sentiment 2.compar ed to 1.diagnostic technique 3.incoherent a.sophistry 5.fugitive a.auditory 2.sentient 6. hopeful sign b.prophet 3.adjunct a.
ceremony c.unconscionable 5.impel 8. unpleasant c. group d. refer 3. refusal c.ludicrous a.photon 8. devolution a.omniscience 2. carousel 3. spinning b.universe 3.compel 3. added melody c. ritual chant b.passing diffused light 4.emissary 1.inexcusable 8. supposed inability d.cosmetic 3. symphony 6. yearning d. solemn march d.prescient 7.cosmos 8. process of democracy c. break c. tough b. reset b.descant a. intersection 8. warning c.phosphorescent 3.decription of the universe QUIZ SEVEN 1. simple d. point c.elucidate 5.collusion a. admission 5. new material d.translucent 4. babbling c.force by moral pressure 1. illegal cooperation c.drive irresistibly 3. process of election d. recorded song 4.lucent 1.conscientious 4. support c. talkative d.participle a. calm c.matrilineal a. process of development b.turbid a. laughable c.hard study 7.s family b.emancipation 8. adjust 2. judge b.perturb a.voluble a. favor d.visually appealing 8. gallop 8.letter 2. detract c.elemental particle 5. turning around 1.cantor a. flat b.expel 6. handing in c.incantation a. aftermath b. discl ose 7. accidental crash b. pre maturity d.photogenic 6.having foresight 2. leader 1. cautionary d.remittance 2.evolution a. supplement d. forewarning 3. slow 8.lucubration 2. adopted c. ugly 7.clarify 3. teacher c. writing tab le 2. snack bar b.partisan a. play b.cantata a. magic spell 1. winding 2. monetary b.allude a.junta a. turning up d. burning 7. traitor d. confused d.monitory a. headdress d.glowing 1. suppo rter d.drive out 7. handing down b. sung composition d.disjunction a.missive 7. dance b.brightly clear 6. preset d.photosynthesis 7. engine c. tickle d.for the sake of appearance 6.disgust 4. verb part b.payment 6.turbulent a.prelude a.production of organic matter 2.agent 5.repulsion 4. climb downward b. grinding d. give birth b. mean c. process of elimination 4. garbled 6. introduction b. pasta dish c. female 4. enthusiastic . through the mother.cosmology 6. introduction d.4. guerr illa fighter 5. prohibition b. whirling b.universal knowledge 4.premonition a.impart a.manumission 5. churning b. inset c. requirement d.scrupulous 7. separate b. whirlpool b. farewell gestu re 6. upset 5. turning c. graduating c. avoid d. enroll c. conclusion c. scolding c.turbine a.convoluted a. singer b.cosmopolitan 1.matriculate a.sophosticated 5.
praise b. Robin Hood d.maternity 4.sign up at school 3.pantheistic 2. high flight c.matriculate 7.contained habitat 5.seaman 6. persuade c.theocracy 7.skilled craft 2.regulate 4. childhood c.terrarium 5.imitation 5.installing in office 3. inheritance c.adumbrate 5. defy 3.godlines 6. speech b. sainthood 8.accuse 1. rethought b. assumed b.deus ex machine 8.turbid 4.under the ground 3. scold 1.deity 1.impute a.cross-dresser 4.metropolitan 5.monitor a. new thought 5. eulogy a.disturb 7. new way d. courageous b.divinatory 6. ignored 6.blue-green gem 2. imply b. await d.early suspicion 6. attribute d. think b.motherliness 7. avoid d. appointed c.umbrage 7.prophetic 8. watch 7. drama c.complicated 4.marina 4.monitory 1.monitor 2. reputed a.artful 2.through the female line 1.seething 3.turning engine 5.perturb 6. family history d.parterre 7.terrestrial 3.perfect example 1.theater area 1.accepting all gods 7. solved d.mariner 2. new day b.partially disclose 8. disputatious a.near the sea 4.transvestite 4.travesty 3. accord man 1.brownish color 2.artifice 1.supreme being 4.excuse 2. revise c.atheistic 5. motherhood b.apotheosis 3.concordance 2. new word c.premonition 3.fluent 2.evolution 3.voluable 1.degeneration 6.natural talent . generation b.warning 2.admonish 8.city 8.small harbor 7.maternity a.gently correct 5. boredom 2.umber 1.state ruled by religion 2. urban b. murky 1. argumentative 8.penumbra 2. neologism a.matrilineal 6.investiture 8.near shadow 7.metropolitan a.devolution 5. genealogy a.turbulent 8.turbine 2.maritime 6.non god believing 5. unknown d.resentment 1.divest 6. determined d.5.subterranean 8. high jump 1. rural d.aquamarine QUIZ EIGHT 1. oceanic 6. high times d. arrest c. disproved c.admonish a.divinity 4.dramatic device 3.convoluted 7.earthly 8. accused c.get rid of 6.monologue a. height 7. high praise b. suburban c. putative a. catalog d.progress 8. believed 4.
divert 4. suspect c.heartfelt 4.revival 8. backscratching d. absent 2.confession 8. popularity 3.blamable 6. common b. foreign c.cryptography 8. describing politics b.relate 5.upper 1.avoid 5. short b. describing populations c.pediatrician 3. describing policies d.awkward 8.abstraction 3. avert 2. public policy b. common c.expert 4. cultural d. sure c. ten years long 3.productive 5. conciseness d. generous c.disagreeing 7.spherical 3.adept 8.3.apocryphal 2.wrongheaded 4. well-liked b. socialist d. backstabbing c.innate 8.tomb th 5. public opinion d. dirty d.versatile 7. self-indulgent d.encyclopedic 5.abscond 4.supreme 2.present from bir 6.inculpate 7.precision a.flee 8.cognate 4.nascent 6. recidivism a.cryptic 4.code writing 2. sharp 8.man-made object 7.implied conclusion 3.agreement 3. believer in the peop le 8.glorification 4.exculpate 8. damaging b.pedant 7. examine c. dependence 2. politics b.multiply 2.adaptation 4. definite 6. obscure 6. corpse d.fake 3.excise a.endemic a. cut out 4.inept 5.transfiguration 4. absent c.pandemic a.cordial 6.mysterious 1. describing epidemics 7. accuracy b.slyness 5.artifact 1.decadent a.difficult d 5. present d. victim b. public survey c.hemisphere 5.s doctor 1.fertile 1. numerous d. communist b.transcendent atmosphere 3. infection d.demographic a.artisan 6.casualty a.demotic a.skillfully sly 3. cadaver a.beginning 3. occasional 4. serious remark b.deferential 3. useful 5.children. shifting d.thorough 2.abstemious 1. serious injury 7. tax b. beauty c. detective QUIZ NINE 1.vox populi a. widespread c.concise a.populous a.incisive a. direct c. devilish b.boring teacher 4.mea culpa 3.aptitude 7.theory 6. numerous c.populist a. backslapping 5.self-controlled 7. refuse d.grant 5.proliferate 5.crypt 7. backsliding b.education .half-sphere 1.pedagogy 1. isolated b.populace a.abstruse 6.renaissance 2. public outra ge 1.discordant 4.culpable 5.with many uses 2. campaigner c. masses d. serious outlook c.process of cha nge 6. rotten b. serious condition d.
indoctrinate a. anger d. substance b. nourishment 1. tough c.transfuse 8.epicenter 8. cancele d class 7.doctrinaire a. quick understanding c. tame b.ethnocentric 4.tenacious a. consider thoroughly 4.of current interest 6. night class d.disease prevention 8.away from its usual place 4. whole c. likely 8. applaud c.individual instruction 8. reveal b. place over d.revert to an earlier state 7.invincible a.tuition 8.placed off-center 8.self-centered 5.terminollgy a. religion d. insight 5.tuition a.intuition 6. self-will c. research thoroughly c.central point 2.topical 1. some d. protection c. invite 1. small class b. storage container c.passing 7.propitious 2.retroactive 7. reliable d. decent b.rigidly principled 1. self-service d. uncertain c. solution b. technical c.globelike 8.tenable a. local d.easily led 3. throw out c. instruct thoroughly d. overcome 2. technology 4. lengthy b. by the class 8.review of a body of work 6. part b. by the way b. verbal d. helping 3.interminable a.intuition a. similar 7.guardianship 6.evince a. professional b.tutelage 2. eject d. resolution d.topography 5. learned c.docile 7. intelligent c.landscape features 1. safeg uard 5. report 6.component a. amaze 4.biosphere 6.retrogress 1. payment d. surpass b.transient 6.topiary 3. all 8. unending d. apartment c. national 5.doctrine a.teaching 7. temperature b. design c.doctrine 3.indoctrinate 1. clothing d. loving d.temporal 2.ectopic 7.chronic 1. riddance 2.effective as of earlier 3.inference 7. remarkable b. housing 3. instruction c. sticking b. unthinkable c. by the by c.enormous 2.transfer 8. responsibility b. impossible c.indeterminate a. inflammable d. self-help b.tutorial a. conquer b. reasonable d.life zone 1.current 2. medicate thoroughly b.put off 5.repository a.egocentric 2. controlled 7. put into c.6. tomb b.docile a.prophylaxis 6.modernize 1.sustenance a.stratosphere 7.yielding 6. self-restraint 5.instruction costs 2. requirement b. ignorance b.tutorial 4.s own group 3.retrospective 3. personality c. deceive d.doctrinaire 5. unsuitable b. consideration QUIZ TEN 1. by the rule d. library 6. instruction d.eccentric 6. unconquerable 6.entertain 7.victimize a.tutelage a.retrofit 4.provincial a.promising 4. fatal b.ornamentally pruned 7.superimpose a. vocabulary d. global c.perverse 8. office d.order of events .abstinence a.procrastinate 5. taught d. instruction b. eternal 3.disposition a.prodigious 8.fill with a point of view 4. beloved 2.terminal a. principle c. large class c.centered on one.
renegade a. huge c.extemporaneous 4. agreement c.philatelist a. banner d. era d.millennium a. arrest 6.coeval 5. sieve c. thorough 2. go back on c. muddy 1. longing 3.resign a. healing lotion b.ongoing 4.of the same age 2. custom b. concise c. Pope.worn out 6. study of cigars b. show-off b. century c. list c. ridicule c.measurable by time 8. abundance b.of the Middle ages 5. lightest c. laugh at c.permutation a. restrain d. secret letter d.continuing 8. an nual garden 7. game d. retrain 5. secret lover d. annual event b.longevity a. leg al objection 4. home d. small b.era of earthly paradise 4. wicked b. simultaneous c. movement 2. elderly c. realist 5. live in b. assign d. small fish b. wine lover 4.dominion a. name b. self-satisfaction 7. defiant 7. romantic d. habit 6.chronology 7. consigner 8. codex a. perfect b. long life c. study of trees c. conceal c. document b. longest b. deviation d. abruptness c. appointment 5.perfunctory a.temporize 6. amendment to a will d. longitude d. kingdom c.immutable a. inflation 3.codify a. primitive d. gem collector c. perennial 4. one-tenth c. renegotiate d. shower c. reconsider b. word lover d. rearrangement c. gold ring c. antiquated b.length of life 7. middle-aged c.signatory a.synchronous 5.inhibit a. study of language d.3. everlasting d. ordinary d. interpret 2. convert 5. flowerlike b. mechanical c. knightly 8. showdown 1.transmute a. unique c. self-denial d. thorough d. love potion 8. correctable c. gnawing 7.perennial 2. stamp b. unchangeable b. work improperly c. restorer b. handwritten book c.philter a.talk to fill time 6. customary b. attraction d.renege a.fungible a.codicil a. symbolize d.domicile a. limit c. repeat b. perversion b. explain b. send away c. coin coll ector 6.habitual a. excellent c.unplanned 7.habitation a.primeval 4.assignation a. coded message 7. dwelling d. signature b. persuasive 6. length b.decode a.happening at the same time 5.superannuated 1.functionary a.signet a. show time d. same-sized d. wine collector d.annuity a. strongest d. noisy d.millennium 6.malfunction a.oenophile a. imbecile b.ancient 1. control c. continuing 5.yearly payment 3. silence d. chewing 3. defective 2.medieval a.perennial a. disobey d. amazing b. work mechanica . baby swan 3.predominant a. immature c. work evilly d. a thousand years 6. disguise QUIZ ELEVEN 1. appoint c.something from the past 1.anachronism 3. abnegation a.coeval a.exhibitionist a. bureaucrat b. book lover c.domination a. pig lover b. identical b. accept b.annuity 7. annual income d. considerate 3. aged d. hard worker c. work slowly b. supremacy 4. car part d. earliest 8. exchangeable d. study o f love 2.primeval a. assassination c. activist d. thousand b.philology a. stamp collector b.negligible a. annual payment c.medieval 8. private seal b.contemporary 8. noteworthy d. ancient b. reformer d. weakness b. overturn 1. conceal b. rebel c. executive 4.superannuated a.s sign d.longevity 3.
prerequisite 2.violation 6. grading again c.telegenic 5.fragmentary 4. location a. standing up 3.metonymy 3.use of an associated term 6. galactic travel b. rest b.dynamic a. foremost player c.charitable act 3.telepathic 1. powerful l eader 4. tired again b.persevere 2.peremptory 6. lie down d. raise in esteem c. high church official b.relativity a.decapitate 5.lly 8. hydrodynamic a. influence .seep 2.mind-reading 4.surrender 4. incubate a.behead 1. relating to boats d. stage in a series c.biological absorption processes 8. important officer d.study of the nature of things 7.equating one thing with another 3.anthropoid 4. give up 5. energy.abrupt and final a. and time d.well-suited to television 7. reduce in size b.spread throughout 4. rise to a h igher stage 5. moving in reverse b.free-market system 2. power ou tage 2. switching grades 1.recapitulate 1. excited d. arrange in order b. energetic c. program in a series b. geometric figure b.dynasty a. ruling family c. train ride c.dynamo a. increa se in importance 3. sleep 6. pattern b.keep going 5. relationship of human races 8.study of cultures 7.refraction 2. relationship between mass. demonstrate d.telemetry 3.fractious 6. model of excellence 3. compare 2. primitive d. get along d. relating to water 7. great wealth d.graduate a. altered speed of light c.paragon c.incumbent a.capitalism 3. review d. enchant c. imposing figure d. dangerous 1.long-distance measurement 8. approach d.misanthropic 2.metaphorical 8. driving b. replacement d.anthropology 6. retiring c.quarrelsome 3. review 1.summarize 5. preference d. glamorous clam b. lying down c.hating humans 6. water-resistant c. produce 4.relating to design or purpose QUIZ TWELVE 1. relating to moving fluids b.correlate a.degrade a.ape 8. store c. powerhouse b. go to school b. carry over b.percolate 7. direction a.collate a.recumbent a.predispose 1. distribute c.commutation a. requirement c. eliminate c.philanthropy 8. vulnerable d. holding office d. eventual decline d. not straig ht 8. increase in size d.metabolism 1.infraction 8. coming in b.succumb a.distortion 5. graduate degree 6. time interval d. definite improvement 7.prelate a. explosive b. brood b. show a relationship c.permeate 4metaphysics 5. measure exactly c. force unit c.capitulate 7.teleological 7.retrograde a. recycle b. lower in rank d.incomplete 2.gradation a.
exercising fatherly 4. m odel 6.secret effort to overthrow 3.compunction 8. faithful 1.high blood pressure 1.precocious a. retain d.hyperactive 1. difficult b. gluttonous a.disgraceful 7. maturing early c.purgative 5. remove completely d.living abroad 1.precept a. law c. prompt d. characteristic 5. funny a. subdivision a. large framework d. requirement c.in name only 8.misnomer 4. careful c.ignominious 7.torsion 5.underlying meaning 4. bend c.egg-based paint 8. contrary d.extreme overstatement 4.intemperate 8. he a. animal experimentation treatment d.heritage 5. contradiction d.remove impure elements 7.paradox a.punctilious 6. harmful d. rotten c. mutilate a.harmless substance . drunk c.purifying 5.breathe deeply and rapidly 2.supplication 4. contrary belief b.paradigm a.setting of spoken or written words 6. painful truth 7. self-contradictory d. rule b. desire b.purge 3. lively d. measure a. bravery c.place of misery 1. characteristic element 1. round d.subjugate 2.patrimony 3.convivial 6. plea c. body trunk d.unrestrained 2.subliminal 8.aristocrat 3. winding c. sharp b.subconscious 4. pay up c. product d. written d.overly active 7.pungent 5. painful b. explain b. experimental 4. injury a. living area b.purgatory QUIZ THIRTEEN 1.explicate 2.relating to written matter 2.tempera 2. mop up b.vivisection c. instructive c. elasticity b.subtext a. breed c.hyperbole 7.beneath the level of consciousness 6.tortuous 7.moderation or abstinence 6.hyperventilate 3. opposing tr uths d.tort 1.extort minate 3. pointed b. example b. exter a. use d.expurgate 7.unchangeable 3.nomenclature 2. substitution b.expunge sitate slightly 3. unusual a.nominal 6.placebo 4.complaisant 2. life-giving b. general rule b.4. monstrous a.not strong enough to be sensed 5.context 3. reclaim c. deformity b. reflect b.paternlistic 1.parameter a.conquer 8. tale d. restrain a.expatriate 5.wrong name 2. twisting c.implicit 1.temper 6.placidity 6. necessary 8. obtain by force b. nearly cooked b. loud c.naming system 6.patrician 8.vivacious 2. teacher c.revivify 8. axis a. removal of organs a.texual 5.eager to please 5. conviction a.mix or moderate 4. revive b. copy d.subversion 6. sociable a. fold d. sweet-tempered b.temperance 4. partially restore c.remove offensive material 3.replicate 7. scruple d. engage in crime d. unspoken c.hypertension 5. punishment c.
overwhelm b. construction d.implacable 7. holiness c.7.masculinity 3.increment a. confu sion 1.aristocrat 8.dimens ion 5. informative 6. growth b.conscription 4. make harmless c. criminalize b.circumlocution a.excrescence a.skill 6.loquacious a.diffuse a.valorous 5.widespread 7. public speaking c.suffuse a. term of office c.crescent a.virility 4.remand 6.undulant 2.mandate 1. stickle-shaped d.required 2.rule by the rich 8.bureaucrat 6. pie-shaped b.flood 3.prevalent 1. spread through d. trade d.excuse hiding a real motive 8. emotional b. election d. grasp . abundance c. partly balding b.circumscribe 6. inject 3.tenure a. teaching b.recovery 2. spread widely d. partly specific d. decision d. continual d. addition d.equivalent 5. income 6. flow c.direct 6.speak formally 6.reflect 5.commensurate 1.hugeness 8. partly excusing c. climb c.triumvirate 6. sacred b. refuge 7.sacrilege a. belief b. forerunner 4.ruled by one person 7. increasing 8. outgrowth c. consider b.government official 5.sanction a.three-person board 8.redound 8.peacefulness 1.reclamation 5. slangy b. rank 2. unusual formatio n 2. buildup 4. ancestor c.confirm 4. falsehood d.extenuating a. abundant b.ascendancy a. blasphemy c. control d. eruption c.autocratic 1. layer b.needless repetition 1. priest d.clamor 7. half-full c. disgust b.vituosity 3.descendant a. excess of words c.similar in value 1. completion 1.redundancy 4.acceptance with cheers QUIZ FOURTEEN 1.noisy din 4. uneducated 8. silent c. churchlike c.strong woman 5.mandatory 7.inundate 5.colloquial a.immensity 3. public platform d. slight increase c. Christian d. disrespectful c. conversational d. religion b. approve 2. offspring b.validate 8.acclamation 4.limit 7.draft 1.declaim 2.sacrosanct a. public transportation 3.accrection a. cousin d. pour in 7.aspect 3.wavy 7. general 5. entrance b.plutocracy 3.effusive a.mensurable 7.prohibit 2.pretext 8.virago 2. public opinion b.engraving 4. extremity d. distinction b.proscribe 2. exaggeration b. punish c. talkative d.formal citation 4. partl y mending 3. priestly 5.send back 8. gradual c.equivalent 7.noble 3.measurable 6.sanctuary a.inscription 8.profusion a.commendation 3. cemetery d.brave 2.elocution a. conviction 4.
fulfill d. stoop b. insubstantial d. tender c.attenuate 7. transform a. reject a. agree d. make thin a. make friends d. remove c. make late c.transcend 6.tenuous a. astound c. stretching b.condescend 8. arranged . make free b. exceed b.5.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.