MCLVC

I.pHAN

lILY do chon oJ tili: 2/Muc tieu nghien cuu: 3INhiem vu nghien cuu: 41CacphuO'ng phap nghien cuu:

MO DAu:

NOIDUNG •

TRANG

II.PHAN NOI DUNG:
llLich sfr Clla vin d~ nghien Ctlu: 2/Ca SO' Iy luan Clla d~ tai: 3/ThU'c trang Clla vin d~ nghien c..ru: 4/Noi dung nghien cuu va k~t gui nghien ciru:
A1NOI DUNG NGmEN CUu: A.l)Y nrong giai plnrong trinh ham, bdt phirong trinh ham. A.2)M9t s6 d~e tnrng co ban cua ham s6 . A.3)Bdt plnrong trinh ham. A.4)Phuong trinh ham lien quan den tam giac. A.5)Bdt plnrong trinh ham lien quan den tam giac, A.6)Cae de thi hoc sinh gioi. A.7)M9t s6 ky thuat giai plnrong trinh ham. BIKET QuA NGmEN CUu:

2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3

4
4 4 4 4 4 8 12 17

20
34 43 43 43

III.pHAN KET LuAN:
llKitluan: 2ITdi lieu tham khao:

44

SANG KIEN KINH NGHIEM MON TOAN-(2006-2007).doc

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I.PHAN MO aAu:
1/Ly do chon de fai:
rong nhimg nam gdn day, bQ mon Toan cua Tinh Ti6n Giang cua chung ta da C? nh~g tien bQ ra r~t va ~hanh tich trong nhtrng ky thi H9C sinh Gioi cap Quoc gia ngay cang tot han. Co diroc nhimg thanh tich do la nho S\I chi dao chuyen mon cua SO GIAO Dl,JC vA DAo T~O TIEN GIANG, S\I n6 hrc cua Quy Thdy Co va S\I c6 g~ng cua cac em h9C sinh. Qua qua trinh nghien CUu, theo dai cac d6 thi H9C sinh Gioi va nhfmg 1dn cham thi, toi thdy r~ng da s6 cac em h9C sinh con "chua thao" trong viec giai cac bai toan v6 Phuong trinh ham mQt each co "bai ban". De gop phdn nho cua minh vao viec h~ thong lai mQt cong Cde nghien CUu, giai toan thi H9C sinh Gioi nhirng phan co lien quan d~n ham s6, nhtrng diing tlnrc, bdt dAng thirc, tao S\I thich thu cho cac em h9C sinh; giup cac em "khong con ngan ngai" khi g~p cac bai toan v6 ham s6. Toi xin diroc phep trinh bay chuyen d6 " PHUONG TRINH HAM ".

T

2IMuc tieu nghien cuu:
Nham h~ thong kien thirc v6 phirong trinh ham, trinh bay cac k~t qua qua qua trinh nghien CUuplnrong trinh ham va bdt phirong trinh ham. Giup cac em h9C sinh co kien tlnrc t6t v6 Phuong trinh ham va mQt phan cua Bdt phirong trinh ham, rna ra mQt s6 huang cho cac em h9C sinh suy nghi va sang tao nhimg bai toan maio

3INhiem vu nghien cuu:
Tnroc h~t la sang tao tim nhfmg n~m vfmg han nfra Quy Thdy Co T6 tlnrc hien d6i moi plnrong phap giang day Toan lam cho h9C sinh k~t qua moi, loi giai hay tren mQt "loai toan kho", giup ban than v6 Phuong trinh ham, d6ng thai trao d6i va h9C t~p kinh nghiem a Toan.

41CacDhlftrng DhaDnghien cuu:
tAng hQ'P: k~t hQ'P bili glang cua GS- TSKH NGUYEN VAN M~U voo cac d~ thi HQc sinh Gioi rut ra nhii'ng kinh nghi~m, h~ th6ng I~i ki~n tlnrc, mer ra cac hU'ang moo. =Plnrong phap tro chuy~n - phong vin: trao dAi tam tinh vOOnhi~u hec sinh kha gioi d~ nim tinh hinh sfr dy.ng cac ki~n thti'c v~ Phuong trinh ham. =Plnrong phap khao sat: ban than dU'C}'cham dV cac IcY chim thi HQc sinh t Gioi nen co nim dU'C}'c tinh hinh sfr dy.ng cac phuong phap lam bai cua cac em hQc sinh. =Plnrong phap phan tich Iy luin: phan tich giup hec sinh nim thit rii ban chit vin d~, Iva chen dU'C}'c huong phap giai cho phil hQ'P. p

a

=Plnrong phap suy luin,

SANG KIEN KINH NGHIEM MON TOAN-(2006-2007).doc

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II.PHAN NOI DUNG •
llLich

sa Clla vin

d~ nghien cthI:

He nhimg nam 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006 ban than t6i duoc tharn du lap "BOI DUONG CHUYEN Tom THPT" tai Truong DN HOC KHOA HOC TV NHIEN HA NOI". Trong khoa h9C t6i nhan thliy ki6n tlnrc ve Toan cua minh duoc nang len ro ret, "BAI GIANG CHUYEN HE PHUONG TRiNH HAM vA BAT PHUONG TRiNH HAM " (cua GS- TS NGUYEN V AN MAU) la mot trong cac bai giang rna t6i tam d~c. Diroc S\I d9ng vien khuyen khich cua Thdy TRUONG THANH PHU - So' Giao Due & Dao Tao Tien Giang; t6i manh dan chon de tai nay d@ nghien CUll va trinh bay.

2/Ca sO'ly luan clla d~ tai:

K6t hop bai giang va cac tai li~u tharn khao d@phan tich, t6ng hop, h~ thong,

3/ThU'c trang Clla vin d~ nghien cthI:
Da s6 h9C sinh rlit ngai khi sir dung plnrong phap nay, rlit hing tung trong qua trinh phan tich d@tim ra ban chlit va v~n dung kien thirc ve plnrong trinh ham rn9t each thich hop,

4INoi dung nghien cthI va k~t qUa nghien cthI: A/NOI DUNG NGHIEN CUu: A.l)Y tuong giai phunng trinh ham, bit plnrong trinh ham:

.

Phuong trinh ham va blit phirong trinh ham la mot trong nhtrng chuyen de giang day va b6i dircng h9C sinh nang khieu toano Nghien CUllphirong trinh ham la mot viec lam thiet thirc, gop phan lam phong phil them kien tlnrc toano D~c biet voi "tu nrong" cua Thdy N guy6n Van M~u, nghien CUll phirong trinh ham con giup chung ta giai quyet dtroc nhtrng ham "tua" nhir: "tua l6i", "tva 10m", ... ; cac d~c tnrng ham co ban cua rn9t s6 ham s6 sinh boi cac phep bien hinh so clip, "sang tac" cac k6t qua moi trong tam giac, cac "ky thuat" giai phirong trinh ham, rn6i quan h~ gitra phirong trinh ham va blit plnrong trinh ham, ...

A.2)M{)t

A.l.llD,e

sa dic trung co ban ciia ham sa:
trung cua mQt

Trong phan nay ta neu nhfrng d~c tnrng cua rn9t s6 ham s6 so clip thirong g~p trong clnrong trinh ph6 thong. Nho cac d~c trung ham nay rna ta co th@ du doan k6t qua cua cac phirong trinh ham nrong img cling nlnr co th@de xulit nhtrng dang bai t~p nrong irng voi cac d~c trung ham do. Cac ham s6 duQ'c xet trong phdn nay thoa man dieu kien lien tuc tren toan mien xac dinh cua ham s6. N6u ham s6 thoa man cac d~c trung ham da cho rna kh6ng co tinh lien tuc ho~c duoc xac dinh tren cac t~p roi rae thi nghiem cua phirong trinh ham co th@la mot bieu tlnrc hoan toan khac,
SANG KIEN KINH NGHIEM MON TOAN-(2006-2007).doc Ngo Quang Dung Trang 1

sa ham

SO'

eip:

l/Ham b~c nhdt: f(x)

=

ax + b; (a,b

D~c trung ham: f( x ~ y

J

* 0).
Vx,y

=

f(x) ~ f(Y);

(Phuong trinh Jensen)

2/Ham tuy8n tinh: f(x) = ax; (a * 0). D~c trung ham: f{x+ y)= f(x) + f(y); Vx,y (Phuong trinh Cauchy) 3/Ham mii: f(x) = a"; (a > O,a * 1). D~c trung ham: f{x+ y)= f(x).f(y); Vx,y (Phuong trinh Cauchy) 4/Ham logarit: f(x) = logalxl; (a > O.a * 1) . D~c trung ham: f{x.y) = f(x) + f(y); Vx,y E R* (Phuong trinh Cauchy) 5/Ham sin: f(x) = sin x . D~c trung ham: f{3x) = 3f(x) - 4f3 (x); Vx 6/Ham eosin: f(x) = cosx . D~c trung ham: f{2x) = 2f2(x) -1; Vx 7/Ham tang: f(x) = tgx . Dac trung ham: f{x+ y)= f(x) + f(y) ; Vx,y
. 1-f(x)f(y)
E

R, x+ y

* -+k71(k 2
7l

E

Z)

8/Ham cotang: f(x)
.

=

cotgx. -1; Vx,y f(x) + f(y)
E

Dac trung ham: f{x+ y)= f(x)f(y)

R, X+ Y

* kstt]:

E

Z)

9/Ham luy thira: f(x) = x"; X E R+ . D~c trung ham: f{x.y)= f(x).f(y); Vx,y A.1.2/Ham selchuy~n dAi phep tinh sel hQc va d~i sel: Trong phan nay, ta khao sat mot s6 tinh chdt co ban cua m9t s6 dang ham s6 thong qua cac h~ tlnrc ham don gian va cac ham bao toan va chuyen d6i cac tinh chdt co ban cua phep tinh dai s6 nhir giao hoan, phan phoi, k8thgp. Bai tmin 1: Xac dinh cac ham sAf(x) xac dinh va lien tuc tren R thoi: f(x+y)=f(x)+f(Y)+f(x)f(y); v x,y (1) • Phan tieh: f(x+l)=2f(x)+f(1), e=2e+l ::::>c=-l • LOi giiii: D¥tf(x)=g(x)-l, Ta co g(x+y)-1 =g(x)-1 +g(y)-1 +[g(x)-1 Hg(y)-I] hay g(x+y)=g(x)g(y) ; V x,y (2). Do f(x) lien tuc tren R nen g(x) cling la ham lien tuc tren R. Suy (2) co nghiem la g(x)=eax. (1) co nghiem la f(x)=eax-l. Bai toan 2: Cho ham sAF(u,v) (u, v la sA thU'c). Gii sfr phU'ong trinh ham: f(x+y)=F[f(x),f(v)] (x, y la sA thU'c) (1) co nghiem f(x) xac dinh va lien tuc tren R. Chung minh ring F(u,v) la ham deli xung (F(u,v)=F(v,u)) va co tinh k~t hop (F[F(u,v),w]=F[u,F(v,w)])(2) • LOi giiii: v u, v, WE D-l f(t~p gia tri cua ham s6 f)
SANG KIEN KINH NGHIEM MON TOAN-(2006-2007).doc Ngo Quang Dung Trang 1

F(u,v)=F [f(x),f(y)] =f(x+y)=f(y+x)=F[f(y),f(x)]=F(v,u) F[F(u,v),w]=tt(x+y)+z]=ttx+(y+z)]=F[f(x),f(y+z)]=F[u,F(v,w)] BAi tmin 3: Gii sfr phU'O'ng trinh hAm f(x+y)=F[f(x),fM], 'It X,YER; voi F(u,v)( 'ltU,V,WE D-lf) la mot da tlnrc khac h~ng, co nghiem la f(x) xac dinh va lien tuc tren R. Chung minh F(u, v) co dang F(u, v)=auv+bu+bv+c.

• LUi giiii: Giii sir F(u. v) la ila thuc bQc n theo u va bQc m theo v. Khi i/O, do F(u, v) ilAi xUng nen m=n. Tie bai todn 2, ta co F[F(u,v),w}=F[u,F(v,w)}, vi Irai la da thuc bQc n theo w va vi phai la da thuc bQc n2 theo w. Suy Fa n2=n, hay n=1. VQy F(u,v)=auv+blu+b2v+c. Ma F(u,v) ilai xung nen bl=b2 va F(u, v)=auv+bu+bv+c. Theo bai todn 2, ta co ac=b2-b. BAi tmin 4: Cho da thti'c F(u,v)=bu+bv+c (b =f:. 0). Xac dinh cac ham s6
f(x) xac dinh va lien tuc tren R thoa f(x+y)=F[f(x),f(y)] (Tuc la f(x+y)=bf(x)+bf(y)+c (4)) N~u b e l thi ill (4) voi y=0, ta co f(x)=const Khi b= ~ va c=o thi moi ham h~ng d~u thoa (4) Khi b=~ va
C=f:.

(x, y la s6 thirc)

• LUi giiii:

0 thi (4) vo nghiem
2' 1-2b

Khi b e l va b=f:. _!_ thi nghiem cua (4) la f(x)=_c_ N~u b=l thi (4) co dang la f(x+y)=f(x)+f(y)+c nay co nghiem f(x)=ax+c BAi tmin 5: Cho da thti'c F(u, v) dinh
f(x+
=

va phirong trinh ham

auv + bu + bv + C (a

=f:.

0, c= b
tren

2

a

-

b ).

Xac
thoa

cac
y)

ham

s6

f(x)
x,y
E

xac
R

dinh

va

lien

tuc

R

= F[f(x),j(y)],

(Ttrc la f(x + y)

= af(x)f(y) J)'" f}t

+ bf(x) + bf(y) + C (5))
=

L'· 11lglal:
.?

f(x)

hex) - b , ....... t a co (5) ' tU
a
E

hex + y) hex)

=

h(x)h(y); 'ltx,y

R va plnrong trinh nay co nghiem
= eQX

= eQX.

Suy ra nghiem cua (5) co dang f(x)

a

-b

BAi tmin 6: Gii sfr f(x) la nghiem cua phirong trinh ham: f'tax+by +c) = Af(x)+ Bf(y) + C (abAB =f:. 0), 'ltx,y E R (6). Chung minh ham s6 g(x) = f(x) - f(O) thoa man phirong trinh Cauchy: g(x + y) = g(x) + g(y), 'ltx,y E R

• LUi giiii: Lan IU'{J't if9t:
SANG KIEN KINH NGHIEM MON TOAN-(2006-2007).doc Ngo Quang Dung Trang 1

x=-

u v-c y=-a' b

u

-c

x

= -;;'

y

=

x=o,y=-bx=O,y=b feu + v) feu)

v-c

b

va the vao (5), ta thu duoc cac diing tlnrc:

-c
= =

u v-c Af(-) + Bf( --) a b

+C

Af(!!_)+Bf(-~)+C a b v-c f(v) = Af(O) + Bf(-b-) +C f(O)
=

Af(O) + Bf(-~)
= feu)

+C
f(x) + f(y)g(x) + g(y), Vx,y

Suy ra: feu + v)
Vag(x+ y)
=

+ f(v) - f(O)
=

f(x+ y) - f(O)

f(O) - f(O)

=

E

R

V~y: g(x + y) = g(x) + g(y), Vx,y E R Bai tmin 7: Gia sli ham sa f(x) lien tuc tren R la nghiem cua plnrong trinh ham: f'tax+by+cs = Af(x)+Bf(y)+C (abAB"* 0), Vx,y E R (7). Chung minh: khi do A = a, B = b • LOi giai: Nghijm cua g(x + y) = g(x) + g(y), Vx,y E R trong lap ham lien tuc la ham tuyen tinh g(x) = ax. Do do f(x) = ax + p, the vao (7), ta diroc: A = a,B = b; ac - C = (a + b -1)P (7') Bai tmin 8: Giai va bien luan phU'O'ngtrinh ham: f'tax+by+cs = Af(x)+Bf(y)+C (abAB "* 0), VX,YER (8)trong lap cac ham lien tuc tren R. • LOi giai: Theo bai toan 7: di@ukien edn d~ (8) co nghiem Ia A = a,B = b. Gia sir di@ukien nay thoa man. Theo (7'), ta ehia ra cac truong hop sau: +TIh: a + b = 1, c = o. Khi do (8) tro thanh: f(ax +(l-a)y) = af(x) + (l-b)f(y)(abAB"* 0), Vx,y E R(8') thuoc lap ham chuyen tiep cac dai hrong trung binh cong. V~y (8') co nghiem Ia f(x) = ax+ P; a,p E R +T/h: a+b = 1, c"* 0 Khi do (8) tro thanh: f(ax +(l-a)y+c) = af(x) + (l-b)f(y)+ C (abAB"* 0), Vx,y E R (8"). D~t:
f(x)
=

C x + hex) . c

V~y (8") co dang:

SANG KIEN KINH NGHIEM MON TOAN-(2006-2007).doc

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h(ax + (1-a)y

+c)

=

ah(x) + (1-b)h(y)(abAB:;t:

(8"')
f(x)

+ 13; 13 E R c +T/h: a+b= 1. Theo f(x) = ax+ 13; 13 E R. Tit tuy

c = -x

chi co nghiem h~ng tuy

y

Do do (Xem (7)), vi v~y (8) co nghiem
0), 'v'x,y
E

R (8"').

bai toan 6 thi nghiem cua (8) co dang (7') suy ra ac=C = (a+b-l)f3. Neu cho a E R

Y thi 13 =

a+b-l

ac - C lien tuc tren R la nghiem cua
E

Bai tmin 9: Xac dinh cae ham sA f(x)
phirong trinh ham: f(x + y) + f(z)
= f(x)

+ f(y + z); 'v'x,y,z

R

(9).

• LUi giiii:
+D~t f(O) = a, z = 0 the vao (9) ta co: f(x + y) + a = f(x) + f(y); 'v'x,y E R (9') +D~t f(x) = g(x) + a. Tit (9'), ta co: g(x + y) = g(x) + g(y); 'v'x,y E R (9"). Suy ra g(x) = ax; a E R V~y (9) co nghiem f(x) = ax + 13; a,f3 E R . Tlnr lai thdy (9) thoa, Bai toan 10: Xac dinh cae ham sA f(x) lien tuc tren R la nghiem cua phirong trinh ham: f(x + y)f(z)
= f(x)[f(y)

+ f(z)]; 'v'x,y,z

E

R

(10).

• LUi giiii:
Thay y thi
f(x)f(y)

=z =0

vao (10), ta duQ'c f(O)f(x) = o. V~y f(O) = o. V 6i z = 0 f(x + y)f(O) = f(x)[f(y) + f(O)]; 'v'x,y E R (10') hay
E

=

0; 'v'x,y

R

(10'). CO'

A.3)Bit phuong trinh ham
.

ban.

Bai toan 1: Xac dinh cae ham f(x) lien tuc tren R thoa dAng thai , d·;" k·" { f(x) ~ 0; 'v'x E R (1.1) cac leu len sau:
f(x + y) ~ f(x) + f(y); 'v'x,y
E

sa

R

(1.2)

• LUi giiii:
Th ay x
=y =

0, ta co
= f(x

' { f(O) ~ 0
f(O) ~ 2f(0)

hay f(O) ~
=

=0

V~y nen f(O)
thoa

+ (-x)) ~ f(x) + f(-x)

o.
thai

Suy ra f(x)

=

o.

Thir lai (1)

Bai toan 2: Cho trlf(Yc ham
f(x)

sa

h(x)

ax; a E R. Xac

dinh cac ham s6
di6u kien sau:

lien

tuc

tren

R

thoa

dAng
(2.2)

cac

f(x) ~ ax; 'v'x E R (2.1) { f(x + y) ~ f(x) + f(y); 'v'x,y E R

• LUi giiii:
SANG KIEN KINH NGHIEM MON TOAN-(2006-2007).doc Ngo Quang Dung Trang 1

Khi do ta co g(x)~O; '\IxER va g(x+y)~g(x)+g(y);'\Ix,YER. Theo bai toan 1, ta co: g(x)=O;'\IXER. V~y f(x) = hex) = ax; a E R. Tlnr lai thdy thoa di~u kien (2.1) va (2.2) Bai tmiD 3: Cho a> o. Xac dinh cac ham s6 f(x) lien tuc tren R thoa
h(x+y)=h(x)+h(y). h(x)+g(x).

D~t f(x)=

;.. , leu ten dong thoi cac d·;" k·" sau: { (Y1 • LUi giiii:

f(x)~ax;'\IxER(3.1) f(x + y) ~ f(x)f(y); '\Ix,y

E

R

(3.2)

Ta co f(x) > 0; '\Ix E R. Khi do logarit hoa hai v6 (3.1), (3.2), ta co
Inf(x) ~ (lna)x; '\Ix E R (3.1') { Inf(x+y)~lnf(x)+lnf(y);'\IX,YER m(x)~(lna)x;'\IxER(3.1") 'I' { rp(x + y) ~ rp(x) + rp(y); '\Ix,y E R f(x)
=

Dat
(3.2') . .

Inf(x)

=

rp(x),

ta

co:

(3.2")

D~ at rp(x) = g(x) + (lna)x,
=

, h' ta co: am V~y

g(x) thoa di~u kien bai toan 2 nen g(x)

0; '\Ix E R va rp(x) = (lna)x.

aX; '\Ix E R (3.1) thoa di~u kien bai toano

Bai toaD 4: Xac diDh cac ham cac di~u kien sau: { f(x+

sa f(x)
2

lien tuc tren R thoa dAng thai
'\Ix,y E R (4.2)

f(x) ~ 0; '\Ix E R (4.1) y) ~ f(x) + f(Y);

2
=

• LUi giiii:
D~t
f(O)
=

a, f(x) - a

g(x).

Khi
(4.2') vdig(O)
=

do
0 Thay y=O

ta

co

g(x) ~ 0; '\Ix E R (4.1') g(x+y)~g(x)+g(Y);'\Ix,YER { 2 2

vao (4.1')

va (4.2') {g(~) ~ g;x); '\Ix E R . Suy ra g(x+ y) ~ g(x) + g(y); '\Ix,y E R hay
g(O)
=0

2

2

2

g(O) = 0, g(x) ~ 0; '\Ix E R { g(x + y) ~ g(x) + g(y); '\Ix,y E R g(x)
= 0;

theo

bai
=c

toan

1

thi

'\Ix E R va f(x)la canst. Tlnr lai f(x)

Bai toaD 5: Xac diDh cac ham
f(x)=max{2xyYER

sa f(t)

thoa di~u kien bai toano

lien tuc tren R thoa di~u kien sau:

fey)}; '\IxER

(5)

Tir (5) ta co f(x) ~ 2xy - fey); '\Ix,y E R (5') Thay x = y = t vao (5'), ta co f(x) ~ x2; '\Ix E R (5") Suy ra 2xy - fey) ::;2xy - y2 = x2 - (x - y)2; '\Ix,y ERma
max{2xyYER

• LUi giiii:

f(y)}

=

max{x2 -(xYER

y)2}= x2

suy ra

f(x)::; x2; '\Ix E R.

V~y

f(x)

= x2;

'\Ix E R (k6t hop voi (5"). Tlnr lai thdy thoa di~u kien,
Ngo Quang Dung Trang 1

SANG KIEN KINH NGHIEM MON TOAN-(2006-2007).doc

TRllfV!fNlG TH !PT !PHAM THAfNlH TRUfNlG

Bai toan 6: Xac dinh cae ham sau: f(X)=max~2y+xy2_f(y)},\lXER+
YER+

sa f(t)
~ x3; \Ix

lien tuc tren R+ thoa di6u kien
(6)
\lx,y R+
E

Tirong t1,r bai toan 5, ta co f(x) ~ x2y+ xy2 - f(y);

• LUi gitii:

E

rna
yER

Thay x = y = t vao (6'), ta co f(x) Suy ra: x2y+xy2 - f(y)::; x2y+xy2
~~2y+xy2 f(x) ::;x3; \Ix _ f(y)}
E

R+ (6") - y3 = x3 -(x+ y)(x - y)2 ::;x3; \lx,y
E

R+

= ~~3
yER

-(x+

y)(x-

y)2}= x3; \Ix

E

R+

suy ra

Ket hop voi (6"), ta co f(x) = x3; \Ix E R+. Tlnr lai thdy thoa di6u kien bai toano • NhQ-nxit: DiJu khing iljnh tren cho ta mvt kit luQ-ntuang ,mg sau: Neu co mQt bdt d~ng thirc c6 di@ncho c~p s6 x,y; ch~ng han nhu x3 ~ x2 Y + xy2 - y3; \lx,y E R thi tir di6u kien f(X)=max~2y+xy2_f(y)},\lXER+ ta co ngay ham dn tim la
R+ .
yeR+

f(x)

= x3;

\Ix

E

R+

Tir day ta co th@"sang tac" ra nhimg bai toan tuong tv ' . $. B'al. toan: 7 Clni U'ng mIDh;:' rang nen: Hoac f'(x) > 0 va hex) ~ 0 '<;IxEne D, Hoac rex) ~ 0 va hex) > 0 '<;IxEne D,

thi trong

nta co: f(g(x»+

g(x).h(x)~

f(O)~

g(x) ~ 0

• LUi gitii: Sir dung dinh ly Lagrange, ta co:
f(g(x»+ g(x).h(x)~ f(O)
~ f(g(x»- f(O)+ g(x).h(x)~ 0 ~ [f'(c) + h(x)]g(x)~ 0; c n~m gitra 0 va g(x) ~ g(x) ~ 0 do [f'(c) + h(x)] > 0

Bai toan 8: Giai bit phU'O'ngtrinh 3 • LUi gitii:

X2 -

4

+ (x2 - 4)3 2 ~ 1(7)
X -

Xet ham s6 f(x) = 3x, ta co f'(x) = 3 .lnx (7): f(x2 - 4) - f(O) + (x2 - 4)3 2 ~ 0 do 1 = f(O)
X X -

Sir dung dinh ly Lagrange, ta co:
f'(C)[(X2 (x
2

-4)-0]+(X2
x2 -]
C

_4)3 2
X -

~O

cn~mgiuaOVa(X2

-4)

- 4)[f'(c) +3 ~0 2 - 4)[3 In3 + 3x-2] ~ 0 (x

SANG KIEN KINH NGHIEM MON TOAN-(2006-2007).doc

Ngo Quang Dung

Trang 1

(x2 -4) ~ 0

x~ 2v x:::;;-2

BAi toan 9: Cho cae sA dU'O'ng M,a.

Tim cac ham s6 f(x),g(x):
E

R~ R
(8)

thoa man di6u kien If(y) - f(x) - g(x)(x - y)l:::;; ix - yI2+a;Vx,y M

R

• LOi giiii:
Gill sir co cac ham s6 f(x),g(x): tro cua x,y ta co:
If(x)-f(y)-g(y)(y-x)I:::;;Mly-xI2+a;VX,YER R~ R

thoa di6u kien. Thay d6i vai
(8').

Cong v~ (8) va

(8'), ta co I[g(x)-g(y)]~-y~

:::;;If(Y)-f(x)-g(x)(x-y~
E =F-

+If(x)- f(y)-g(y)(y-x)1

I[g(x) - g(y)](x - y)1 :::;; 2Mlx - yI2+a;Vx,y

R

(8")

I

g(X)- g(y)l:::;; 2Mlxx-y
= 0; Vx E

yla;

Vx,y g(x)

E

R,x

y.
Vx

C6
E

dinh

x eho y ~ x,

ta co

g'(x)

R suy ra

= e(eonst);

R

Thay

g(x)

=e

vao

(8)
yla; d.
= ex

va
Vx,y

lam
E

nrong
=F-

tu

nlnr

tren,

ta

co:

I

f(X)- fey) x-y
=e

el:::;; 2Mlx= ex+ =e

R,x

y

va

f'(x)

~ f(x)

Tlnr lai g(x)

; f(x)

+ d thAy dung.

BAi toan 10: Chung minh:

Ixl = max(ax) lal:S;l
E

(9)

• LOigiiii:
Ta co

-Ixl:::;; (ax) :::;; Ixl;

Va

[-1;1], suy ra di6u phai chirng minh

A.4)PhU'O'Dg trinh ham lien quan d~n tam ghic.
Phep tinh ti~n sinh ra ham tudn hoan cong tinh, phep d6ng dang sinh ra ham tudn hoan nhan tinh, phep phan xa sinh ra ham s6 ch~n, le. Tinh chit 1: Di~u kien cAn vA dti d~ 3 dU'O'ng A. B. C lA 3 goc ctia mot tam giac lA A+B+C=1Z" Tinh chit 2: Di~u kien cAn vA dti d~ 3 dU'O'Dga. b. ciA 3 canh ctia mot tam giac lA a+b>c. b+c>a. c+a>b (hay /b-c/<a<b+c) BAi toan 1: Xac dinh a d@ ham s6 f(x)=x+a co tinh chAt

sa sa

sa

f(a),J(b),J(e)

la dQ dai cac canh cua mQt tam giac irng voi moi tam giac

ABC.

• LOigiiii:
D@ f(a),f(b),f(e) la dQ dai cac canh cua mQt tam giac, tnroc h~t phai co f(a) > O,f(b) > O,J(e) > O.
SANG KIEN KINH NGHIEM MON TOAN-(2006-2007).doc Ngo Quang Dung Trang 1

dirong a>max{-a,-b,-c};VMBC hay a e ts . Ngiroc lai, voi a'?O thi f(a),f(b),f(c) la dQ dai cac canh cua mQt tam giac. V~y voi a'? 0 thi ham 86 f(x)=x+a co tinh chAt f(a),J(b),J(c) la dQ dai cac canh cua mQt tam giac irng voi moi tam giac ABC. Bili tmin 2: Xac dinh sA a d~ ham 86 f(x) = ax co tinh chAt f(a),J(b),J(c) la dQ dai cac canh cua mQt tam giac irng voi moi tam giac

Suy ra a+a > O,b+a > O,c+a > 0; VMBC Hay a > -a, a > -b, a > -c; V MBC

nrong

ABC.
• LUigitii: D~ f(a),f(b),f(c) la dQ dai cac canh cua mQt tam giac, tnroc het phai

co f(a) > O,f(b) > O,J(c) > o. Suy ra aa > O,ab > O,ac > 0; VMBC a > o. V~y voi a > 0 thi ham 86 f(x) = ax co tinh chAt f(a),f(b),J(c) la dQ dai cac canh cua mQt tam giac irng voi moi tam giac ABC. Bili toan 3: Xac dinh sA a,p d~ ham 86 f(x) = ax+ p co tinh chAt Hay
f(a),J(b),J(c)

la dQ dai cac canh cua mot tam giac img voi moi tam giac

ABC. • LUi gitii: D~ f(a),J(b),J(c) la dQ dai cac canh cua mQt tam giac, tnroc het phai co f(a) > O,f(b) > O,f(c) > o. Suy ra aa + p > 0, ab + p > 0, ac + p > 0; VMBC (3) Tu (3), ta co a '? 0 (Vi neu a < 0, p tuy Y thi ta chon tam giac ABC co a du Ian thi aa + p < 0 ) Tuong tg p '? 0 (Vi neu p < 0 chon tam giac ABC co a du nho thi
aa+p<O)

Truong hQ'P a = p V~y
f(a),f(b),f(c)

=0

khong thoa.

a'? 0, p '? 0, a + p > 0

thi ham 86 f(x) = ax + p co tinh chAt la dQ dai cac canh cua mQt tam giac img voi moi tam

giac ABC.

Bili toan 4: Xac dinh
f(a),J(b),J(c)

sa

a,p

d~ ham 86 f(x)

=

1 ax+P

co tinh chAt

la dQ dai cac canh cua mQt tam giac irng voi moi tam giac

ABC. • LUi gitii:

SANG KIEN KINH NGHIEM MON TOAN-(2006-2007).doc

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Gia sir a':? b ':? c. Phep nghich dao g(x)
g(a),g(b),g(c)

= _!_

x

khong CO tinh chdt

la d9 dai cac canh cua m9t tam giac irng voi moi tam
abc

giac ABC.( Phan vi du a = b = 2,c = 1; ta co _!_ + _!_ =.!_ ) D~ f(a),f(b),f(c) la d9 dai cac canh cua m9t tam giac, tnroc h~t phai co f(a) > O,f(b) > O,j(c) > O. Suy ra aa+ P> O,ab+ P > O,ac+ P > 0; VMBC (4) Suy ra a':? 0; P ':? 0 (bai toan 3) +Truong hop a = P = 0 : khong thoa. +Truong hop a > 0, P = 0 : khong thoa ( a = b = 2, c = 1) +Tnrong hop a = O,p > 0: f(a) = feb) = f(c) = ~ > 0; f(a),j(b),j(c) 1a

+ Truong hop

d9 dai cac canh cua m9t tam giac deu. a> O,p > 0: ta co f(a) ':? feb) ':? f(c) Ta dn xac dinh cac s6 dirong
f(a) + feb) > f(c); 1 1 aa+p VABC, a e b ':? c 1 + > ; VABC,a':?b':?c(4') ab+p ac+P

a,p

sao

cho:

Hay

Phan
2 3ad+P

vi
>

du:
1 ad+P .

a=b=3d>0,c=d>0

th~

vao

(4'),

ta

co:

Suy ra p > 2da, dieu nay khong xay ra voi d du

Ian. V~y voi a = O,p > 0: f(a) = feb) = f(c) = ~ > 0; f(a),j(b),j(c) 1a d9

dai cac canh cua m9t tam giac irng voi moi tam giac ABC. Bai tmin 5: Xac dinh ham f(x) lien tuc trong [0; 1i], f(O) = 0 va co dao ham trong (0; 1i) sao cho f(A),j(B),j(C) tao thanh s6 do cac goc cua mot tam giac irng voi moi tam giac ABC cho tnroc . • Ldigitii:

sa

f(x) > 0; Vx E (0; 1i)

Ta cfut xac dinh ham kha vi f(x)
f(O)

sao cho:

{

f(O)

=

0
=

f(A) + feB) + f(C)

1i

= 0 => f(1i) = 1i va C = 1i - (A + B) Suy ra f(A) + f(B) + f(1i- A -B) = 1i;VA,B,A + BE [0;1i] Hay f(x) + f(y) + f(1i-xy) = n; Vx,y,x+ y E [0;1i] Ldy dao ham theo bien x: f'(x)+f'(1i-x-y)=O;Vx,y,X+YE[O;1i] Suy ra x: f'(x) = c; Vx E (0;1i).
SANG KIEN KINH NGHIEM MON TOAN-(2006-2007).doc Ngo Quang Dung Trang 1

V~y f(x) = px + q. Do f(O) = 0 suy ra q = o. Do f{7!) = 1i nen p = 1 K@tluan: ham s6 f(x) = x lien tuc trong [0; 1i], f(O) = 0 va co dao ham trong (0; 1i) sao cho f(A),f(B),f(C) tao thanh s6 do cac goc cua mQt tam giac img voi moi tam giac ABC cho tnroc. Bai tmin 6: Xac dinh ham sA f(x) lien tuc trong [0; 1i ], f(O) = 0, f(x) > O;'v'x E (0;1i) sao cho f(A),J(B),f(C) tao thanh s6 do cac goc cua mQt tam giac img voi moi tam giac ABC cho tnroc.

• Lili giai:
Ta cfut xac dinh ham f (x) lien f(x) > 0; 'v'x E (0;1i)
f(O) f(x)

tuc

trong (6)

[0; 1i]

sao

cho:

{

=0
=

+ f(y) + f(1i -

X-

y)

1i; 'v'x,y,x + Y

E

(0;1i)

+ f(O) + f(1i - x) = n; 'v'x, E [0; 1i] (y = 0) (6') D~t f(x)=x+g(x) thi g(O) =0, g(x) lien tuc trong [0;1i] Taco x+g(x)+(1i-x)+g(1i-x)=1i g(x) = -g(1i - x) (6"). Th@ f(x) = x + g(x) vao (6) va sir dung (6"), ta co: x+ g(x) + y+ g(Y)+1i-(x+ y)+ g[1i-(x+ y)] = 1i Hay g(x) + g(y) = g(x + y); 'v'x,y E [0; 1i], x + y s 1i (6"'). Do f(x) lien tuc trong [0;1i], nen (6"') la phirong trinh ham Cauchy va
f(x) g(x) f(A)
=

ax;

f(x)

=

(1 + a)x.

f(x)

> 0; 'v'x

E

(0; 1i)

nen

1+ a > 0

va

de

+ f(B) + f(C) = 1i ta cdn co 1 + a = 1 suy ra a = 0; f(x) = x Bai toan 7: Xac dinh ham sA f(x) lien tuc trong [0; 1i], sao cho f(A),J(B),f(C) tao thanh s6 do cac goc cua mQt tam giac irng voi moi tam giac ABC cho tnroc.

• Lili giai:
*Ta
f(x)
=

thdy
x; f(x)

co
=

hai

ham

s6

hien

nhien

thoa

di@u kien

la

"3
cac ham s6
f(x)

1i

*Ta

xac

dinh
f(x)

lien

tuc (7)

trong

[0; 1i]

va

> 0; 'v'x E (0;1i)
X-

{

f(x)

+ f(y) + f(1i -

y)

=

1i; 'v'x,y, x + Y

E

(0; 1i)

Cho y ~ 0, ta co: f(x) + f(O) + f(1i -x) = 1i; 'v'X,E (0;1i) (7') Hay f(1i - x) = 1i - f(x) - f(O); 'v'x, E [0; 1i]. D~t f(x) = f(O) + g(x) th@vao (7) va sir dung (7'), ta co: f(x) + f(y) + 1i - f(x + y) - f(O) = 1i hay f(x + y) + f(O) = f(x) + f(y) f(x + y) - f(O) = f(x) - f(O) + f(y) - f(O)
SANG KIEN KINH NGHIEM MON TOAN-(2006-2007).doc Ngo Quang Dung Trang 1

Hay g(x)+g(y)=g(x+y); ham Cauchy va g(x)
f(x) > 0; 'v'x E (O;ir) { f(A) + feB) + f(C) = ir

'v'X,YE[O;ir],x+y~ir
=

ax; f(x)

=

ax+ p.

(7") Ia phirong trinh Ta cdn xac dinh a,p d~

Hay { a(A +B + C)+3p Hay f(x)
--~ a ~1 2
1 3

ax + p > 0;

'v'x E (O;ir)
=

ir

hay

{ax

+ p > 0;
= ir

air + 3p

'v'x E (O;ir) (1- a)ir (P = 3 )
st ,

= ax + (1- a)ir > 0; 'v'x E (0; ir)

(7'''). Cho x ~ 0; x ~

ta co:

Ki~m tra cac tnrong hop: +-_!_ < a < 1: (7"') thoa
2

+a

= -_!_:

222

(7"') thoa (f(X)

= -_!_x+

ir)

+ a = 1: (7"') thoa
A ,

(j(x) = x)
(l-a)ir 3 1 ; -2~a~1

~ im , V ay cac h'amcan tl co d ang: f(x)=ax+

Bai tmin 8: Xac dinh ham sA f(x) lien tuc trong [0; ir ], sao cho: f(a),f(b),f(c)t~o thanh s6 do cac canh cua mQt tam giac nQi ti6p trong duong trim duong kinh bing 1 irng voi moi tam giac ABC cho tnroc. • LUi giiii: Ta co nhan xet sau: Xet dtrong trim (0) co dirong kinh 2R=1. M(I!.) Ia t~p hop tat ca cac tam giac nQi ti6p trong duong trim (0) noi tren, Khi do dieu kien cdn va du d~ ba s6 dirong a,p,y Ia ba goc cua mQt tam giac thuoc M(I!.) la sin a, sin p, sin y tao thanh dQ dai cac canh cua mQt tam giac thuoc M(I!.) (a = 2Rsin a = sin a, b = 2RsinP = sinP, c = 2Rsin y = siny). Theo ", 1 bar toan 7 th' f(x)=sm . [ ax+ (1-a)ir] ; -2~a~1. 1 3 *Nh~n xet: nghiem cua plnrong trinh
X

vo dinh

x2 + y2

= Z2

co th~ mo ta

= U.cosv

diroi dang y
{

= u. sin v ;

UE

R+,

VE

(0; ;).

Ta suy ra cac k6t luan sau:

Z=U

SANG KIEN KINH NGHIEM MON TOAN-(2006-2007).doc

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Biti tmin 9: Chung minh \I(u;v); u giac

E

R+, v E (0; ~)

d@u t6n tai mot tam

rna

d9 dai cac canh la nhimg

s6

{

~(U,V) :u.c~sv. P2 (u, v) - u.sm v , uER+,VE(O;-) P3(u, v) = u.v

,.
2

d@ula cac tam giac vuong.

• Lili giai:
{ ~(U,V) :u.c~sv. P2 (u, v) - u.sm v, P3(u, v) = u.v
u
E

R+ ,v

E

(0; ,.) . 2

~(u;v)

>0 >0
=

Ta

thAy

P2(u;v) > 0

~(u;v)

Tir
[~(U;V)]2

do

suy

ra

[~(U;V)]2 + [P2(u;v)Y ~(U;V),P2(U;V),P3(U;V)

la d9 dai cac canh cua m9t tam giac vuong co

canh huyen ~(u;v).

Biti toan 10: Chung minh ring \Ix> 1 d@ut6n tai m9t tam giac rna d9
~(X)
= X4 =

+ x3 +2x2 + x+ 1
~2

dai cac canh la nhimg

s6

{

P2 (x)

2x3:

+ 2x + 1
-1

va cac tam giac do

~(x)-x

co goc Ian nhAt nlnr nhau (\Ix> 1 cho tnroc).

• Lili giai:
~ (x)
=

2 2 (x + 1)(x + X + 1) P2 (x) = (x2 + 1)(2x + 1) { ~ (x) = (x2 -1)(x2 + 1)

{a

D~t

+ X + 1) > 0 b = (2x + 1) > 0 c = (x2 -1) > 0
= (x

2

Ta

co

Ib-cl=lx2-2x-21<a=x2+x+l<lb+cl=x2+2x
a2

. V~y a,b,c

la 3 canh

cua m9t tam giac. Canh Ion nhAt cua tam giac irng voi ~ (x) hay a. Khi do got a la goc Ian nhat, cosa
• , • ", J.

=

-

+ b2 + c2
2bc

= ...=

1 -"2 ~

a

=

3

2,.

A.5)Bit phunng trinh ham lien quan d~n tam giac. M9t s6 ham s6 khong phai la ham l6i nhung co tinh

chAt cua ham l6i duoc goi la ham "nra l6i", ham s6 khong phai la ham 10m nlnmg co tinh chAt cua ham 10m duoc goi la ham "nra 10m" ,... (theo Thdy Nguyen Van M~u)

Biti toan 1: Trong tam giac ABC, n~u A<B thi sinA<sinB (Chung minh don gian: tU'ong ung vOi goc Ian hoonlit canh Ian hon).
SANG KIEN KINH NGHIEM MON TOAN·(2006-2007).doc Ngo Quang Dung Trang 1

• Nh¥nxit:
Ham s6 f(x) = sin x khong d6ng bien trong (0; n") nhung ta cfing co h~ thirc kieu "d6ng bien" eho e~p goc ella m9t tam giac.

B'· t ' aloan

2 : T rong t amglac ABC • t aco ' cosA+cosB~2cos--. .,

A +B 2

Ham s6 f(x) = cosx khong 1a ham 15m trong (O;n")(J"(x) < 0) nhimg ta vdn co h~ thirc kieu ham 15m eho e~p goc ella m9t tam giac.

• Nh¥nxit:

Bai toan 3: Trong tam giac ABC. ta co:
3.1)sinA+sinB+sinC~
3.2)cosA

3.J3
2

3 + cosB + cosC ~2

3.3)tg A +tg B +tg

222

C ~.J3

3.4)cotg A + cotg B + cotg C ~ 3.J3 222 Tir ket qua 3.2) ta diroc sir dung nhu ella bdt d~ng tlnrc, diroc hay khong

• N~¥n xit:

nhan thay ding m9t cong cu co V~y vdn d@d~t lap cac ham

"

tinh chat ella ham 15m khong con ban de kiem clnmg tinh dung d~n ra la: V@tAng the, ta co the mo ta tAng quat thoa man di@u kien

,

Bai toan 1: Cho ham
f(x) + fey) ~ 2f(x+ y);

r

f(A) + feB) + f(C) ~ 3f(1i) 3 f(A) + feB) + f(C) ~ 3f(1i) 3

voi moi tam giac ABC?

sA

f(t); t

E

(0;1i). Clnmg minh cac di@u kien (1.1)
E

va (1.2) sau day la tuong dirong:
2 'v'x,y,X+ y (0;1i) (Ll)
E

f(x) + fey) + fez) ~ 3f(x+

~+ z);

'v'X,y,z,X+ y+ z

(0;1i] (1.2)

• Lili giai:
+Giil sir:

x;;' y;;' z , ta c6 f(z) + f(X+
va (1.3), ta co:

~+Z)

s 2f[

z+

x:; +Z]

(1.3)

re (1.1)

SANG KIEN KINH NGHIEM MON TOAN-(2006-2007).doc

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f(x) + f(y) + f(z) + f(x+

~+z)

s2

r

f(X~

y)+ f

[

X+ z+

Y+Z]] 23

~ 4f( x+ ~+z)

Vx,y,z,x+

y+ z

E

(O;n-] x~ y f(t); t

.

Suy ra (1.2)

+Tu (1.2), gia sir x s z ~ y, d~t z Bai tmin 2: Xac dinh
A <B ~ f(A) < f(B)

=

ham

sa

ta diroc (1.1).
E

(O;n-)

thoa man di~u kien:

(2).
= fo(t)

• Lili giai: +(2) thoa voi moi c~p goc nhon A,B nrong duong voi f(t) la mQt ham d6ng bien trong (0; ~ ] +Xet ham s6
, { fo (t) fo (n- - t) khi 0 < t s nn2. khi - < t < n2

go (t) =

Ta clnmg minh

go (t)

thoa di~u kien bai toano Th~t vay: o A, B nhon thi (2) thoa o X&O<A<n-<B<~
2 ~ n- -B > A, go (B) A+B<n= fo(n--B)

> fo(A)
f(t); t
E

= go

(A)

+Ta clnrng minh moi ham d~u

s6

(O;n-)

thoa di~u kien bai toan Th~t v~y, ill thi

co

dang:

go (t),

khi 0 < t

s n-

f(t)

=

[ ~ go (t),

2 khi n- < t < n2 O<A<n-

go(B)~f(B)

voi B til, ta
= fo(n--B)

co

n- -B > A, f(B) ~ go(B)

<B<n-,A+B<n2 > fo(A) = go (A) = f(A) khi 0 < t 2. khi n- < t < n2

Bai toan 3: Xet ham

so

,

f(t)

[ sint,
=

s n-

Chimg minh voi

1 + cost,

moi tam giac ABC ta d~u co f(A) + f(B) + f(C) ~ 3!! (3) • Lili giai:

SANG KIEN KINH NGHIEM MON TOAN-(2006-2007).doc

Ngo Quang Dung

Trang 1

+Tam giac ABC nhon (hay vuong) thi (3)
.A.B.C sm +sm +sm ~-

co

dang quen thuoc

313
2

+Tam

giac

ABC

tu:

C>-

1i

2

thi

(3)

co

dang

sin A + sin B + 1+ cosC s 313 (3') dung 2

Do sin A + sin B + 1+ cos C ~ sin A + sin B + sin C ~ 313
2

A.6)Cac d~ thi hoc sinh gioi.
I. Tinh gia tr] ham sa: Bai totin 1: Cho ham
{ f(m+n) f(1) f(2) f(4) f(5) f(9) f(10)
= = = =

sa f(x),

x

E

z, thoa:
. Tinh f(19)
Vm,nEZ

f(l) = 0 f(m) +f(n) +3(4mn-l);

LOi giai: Ta
0

co 19=10+9
=

2f(1) + 9 = 9 2f(2) + 45 63
=

= f(4) = f(5) =

+ f(1) + 45
=

108
=

+ f(4) + 237
= f(10)

408
= 513

2f(5) + 297

513 + f(9) + 1077 + 408 + 1077

Suy ra f(19)

Bai totin 2: (DU' tuvin IMO) Cho ham
{ f(x) + fey) f(1) = 1 = f(x + y) -xy -1; Vx,y
= 1 =>
E

sa f(x):

= 1998

R

T' , . im cac

80

:..

nEZ:f(n)=n
= f(x)

LOi giai: Cho y
fen -1) fen -2) f(2)
= fen = fen

f(x) + f(l) fen) = fen -1) + (n+ 1); 'lin E Z, - 2) + (n) -3) +(n -1)

= f(x+l)-x-l

=> f(x+l)

+2

= f(l)

+ (3)
= (n

Suy ra

fen)

+1) + (n) +(n -1) + ... + (3) +2+ 1-2 ~ n +n-2=0~
2

=

~> n+l 1

2

fen) =n~

(n + 1)(n + 2) 2 -2=n

n=l,n=-2

Bai totin 3: Cho ham

sa f xac dinh tren t~p cac 86 nguyen
Ngo Quang Dung

thoa:

SANG KIEN KINH NGHIEM MON TOAN-(2006-2007).doc

Trang 1

f(O) f(1)

*0
=3 = f(x

. Tinh f(7)

f(x)f(y)

+ y) + f(x - y);

\;Ix,y

E

Z

LOi giiii: +Ta clnrng minh f(n) = 3f(n-l)f(n -2). Ta f(l)f(O) = f(l) + f(l) => f(O) = 2 f(n)f(1) = f(n + 1)+ f(n -1) => 3f(n) = f(n + 1) + f(n -1) f(n + 1) = 3f(n) - f(n -1) => f(n) = 3f(n -1) - f(n - 2) + Suy ra: f(7) = 3f(6) - f(5)

co

f(2) f(3) f(4) f(5) f(6) f(7) f(1) f(2
n

=

3f(1) - f(O) - f(l) 3f(3) - f(2) 4) - f(3) 3f(5) - f(4) 3f(6) - f(5) 5 4n+9 2
n +!

=7 = 18 = 47 =

= 3f(2) =

= 3f( = =

123

= 322 = 843

Bai 100in4: Cho ham
=

sa f xac dinh tren t~p N* thoa:
. Tinh f(1789)

f(j(n))=
)

=

+ 3; \;In E N* 109=4.25+9,25=4.4+9

LOigiiii: Ta 1789=4.445+9,445=4.109+9, Ta tinh cac gia tri:

co

= f(22) = 23 +3 = 11 f(11) = f(j(4)) = 4.4 + 9 = 25 f(25) = f(j(11)) = 4.11 + 9 = 53 f(53) = f(j(25)) = 4.25 + 9 = 109 f(109) = f(j(53)) = 4.53 +9 = 221 f(221) = f(j(109)) = 4.109 + 9 = 445 f(445) = f(j(221)) = 4.221 + 9 = 893 f(893) = f(j(445)) = 4.445 + 9 = 1789 f(1789) = f(j(893)) = 4.893 + 9 = 3581 Bai loan 5: Cho ham f xac dinh tren R thoa:
f(4)

sa

f(x)/(y)

3

- /(xy)

=

x + y + 2; \;Ix,y

E

R (5). Tinh f(36)

LOi giiii:
/(0)/(0) 3 - /(0)

= 2 => /(0) = -2

hay /(0)

=3

SANG KIEN KINH NGHIEM MON TOAN-(2006-2007).doc

Ngo Quang Dung

Trang 1

+TIh f(O)

= -2,

ta ta

co

f(X)f(~)

- f(O)

=x

+ 2; '\Ix E R,y

=0

=> f(x)

=

-%x - 2

khong thoa (5) +TIh f(O)
= 3,

co

f(X)f(i 3 = 39

- f(O)

=

x+ 2; '\Ix E R,y

=

0 => f(x)

=

x+ 3 thoa

(5). Suy ra: f(36) Bai tOfin 6:
D~t

= 36+

It (x)

=-

2:: 1

7 3

,

i.; (x)

=

r.(jn(x)~

n ~ 1. Tinh

f2001

(2002)

LUi giiii:
It(x)=-2-f2(X) x+3
=

1 1 = -3--1_+3 It (x) +3 _2 __ x+2 x+3 1 1 f3 (x) = It (/2 (X)) = -2 = -2 1 =x f2(X)+3 -3---+3 x+2 Clnrng minh bang quy nap: hn (x) = x; '\Ix E N \ {- 2,-3}
= f2(/I(X))

-2-

1

=

-2-

Suy ra f2001 (2002) = 2002 Bai tOlin 7: Cho ham kien: {
. f(xy) f(x + y)
=y =

sa f
=

xac dinh tren t~p cac 86 thirc va thoa di@u
(1) (2) '\Ix,y
E

= xf(y) + yf(x) = f(XI993) + f(/993)

R.

Tinh f(.J5753)

LUi giiii:
(1) : thay x (1) : thay x 0 => f(O) f(1) 0 0 (2): thay y = 0 => f(x) = f(XI993)
= = y = 1 =>

=> f(x + y)

= f(x)

+ fey);
=

'\Ix,y

E

R (2')

V~y ham 86 f cong tinh tren R
f(x + 1) = f(x) + f(1) (1): f(x2) = 2xf(x) f(x) O,n E N)(C/m bang quy nap)

=> f(xn) = nxn-If(x)

(x

=F-

Suy ra f(x) = 1993x1992 f(x). Neu f(x) =F- 0 thi 1993x1992 = 1,'\Ix =F- 0 (!) V~y: f(x)=O. Ketlu~n f(.J5753)=0 Bai tOlin B: Cho hai ham f,g; f: K ~ K, g: K ~ K (K = (2;4)) thoa ·;.. len: (1) Ch' m inh f(3) = g(3) dleu k·" {f(g(x)) = g(f(x)) '\Ix E K. irng

sa

.

f(x)g(x)

= x2

(2)

LUi giiii:
SANG KIEN KINH NGHIEM MON TOAN-(2006-2007).doc Ngo Quang Dung Trang 1

Lily

Xo E

K, a

=

f(xo)
Xo

>0
=

Chimg minh bang quy nap: /(anxo)
+a > 1, anxo +O<a<I,(!)
E

an+1xo;

\/n

E

N

K;

\/n (!) (do anxo ~-too) f(x)
= x;

(doanxo ~O) f(xo)
= Xo ~

+Vay a

= 1~

\/x

E

K;

wang tu g(x)

= x;

\/x

E

K

K~t luan: f(x) = g(x); \/x E K ~ f(3) = g(3) Bai IOfin 9: UMO) Cho ham f: N ~ N thoa di@u kien:

sa

f(m+n)f(m)- fen) { f(2) = 0, f(3) > 0, f(9999)

E

{0;1} (1) . Tinh 1982 = 3333 (2) f()

LUi giiii: (1): f(m + n)
m
= n = 1~

'? f(m) + fen) 0 = f(2) '? 2f(1) ~ f(1)

=0 =

m = 2,n = 1~ f(3) = f(2) + f(1) + 0 = O(!) v f(3) f(3.2) = f(3 + 3) '? f(3) + f(3) = 2f(3) = 2 f(3.n) '? n; \/n
E

f(2) + f(1) + 1 = 1~ f(3)

=1

N (C/m

+N~u
+3333

f(3.n) = n f(3(n + 1)) > f(3n) + f(3)
= f(9999)

b~ng quy nap) thi m >n ta
=

co

f(3m) > m.

Th~t

v~y,

n +1 ~ f(3n)
=n

= f(3.3333)

vdi n::; 3333

V~y f(3.1982) = 1982 M~t khac 1982 = f(3.1982) '? f(2.1982) + f(1982) '? 3f(1982)
~ /(1982)::; 1982 < 661 3 f(1982) '? f(1980) + f(2)

= f(3.660)

+ f(2)

= 660

Do do 660::; f(1982) < 661 ~ f(1982) = 660 Bai locin 10: Cho ham f lien tuc tren R thoa di@u kien:

sa

{

f(f(X))f(X) f(1000)

1; \/x (1). Tinh f(500) = 999 (2)
=

LUi giiii:
/(f(1000))/(1000)
=

1~ /(999)

= _1_

999

Do ham 86 f lien tuc tren R va /(999) = 9~9 < 500 < 999 = /(1000) nen tAn
tai
Xo E

(999;1000):
=

f(xo)

= 500 = _1_

(1)/(f(xo))/(xo)

1 ~ /(500)

500

II.I16'c lU'C}'Ilggbi tr] ham sA: Bai loan 1: Cho ham f xac dinh tren dO(J.n[O;I], thoa:

sa

SANG KIEN KINH NGHIEM MON TOAN-(2006-2007).doc

Ngo Quang Dung

Trang 1

f(O) { f(x ~ y)

= f(1) =

0

(1)
E

s f(x)

+ fey);

'v'x,y

[0;1] (2)

I)Chung minh phirong trinh f(x) = 0 co vo s6 nghiem tren [0;1] 2)TAn tai hay khong ham s6 xac dinh tren [0;1] thoa man di~u kien (1), (2) va khong dAng nhAtbang O? LUigitii:
l)x x
=y

=> f(x) ~ 2f(x) => f(x) ~ 0; 'v'x E [0;1]
0 => 0 ~ f(~J

= 1, Y =

s f(O)

+ f(l)
=

=

0 => f(~J

=

0

De dang clnrng minh f(

2\ J
=

0; 'v'k E N

V~y plnrong trinh f(x) 2)H':" so f(x) am
=

{O,

0 co vo

s6 nghiem tren [0;1] thoa man d'}. kie b" toan oa - leu len ai ,
.

khixEQn[O;I] 1; khi x E [O;I]\Q

Bai totin 2: Cho ham
f(O) = 0 { f(x)=f(4-x)+f(14-x);

sa f

xac dinh tren R, thoa: 'v'x (2)
=

(1) 0

Hay tim s6 cac nghiem cua phirong trinh f(x) 1000;1000] LUi gitii:
f(O)
=

tren doan

[-

f(4)

= f(14)

=

0;

f(x)

= f(10+x);

'v'x
E

Vi v~y voi moi Xl = 10k, x2 = 10k + 4; k trinh f(x) = O. Tren [-1000;1000] s6 diem dang
1000 + 1000 + 1 = 201 10

Z

d~u la nghiem cua phuong (khong ke diem bQi) la

Xl

Tren

[-1000;1000]

s6 diem dang

X2

(khong

ke diem boi)

la

994 + 996 + 1 = 200 10

V~y s6 cac nghiem cua plnrong trinh f(x) khong it han 401.

=

0

tren doan [-1000;1000]

xe ham so f(x) et am so
+N~u
f(4-x)
X

=

{O,
Xl X2

khixc6dl;mgxlho~cx2

co dang
= f(14

1, trong cac tnrong hop con lai

t he d';:' kie b" toan oa leu len ar ,

thi f(x)=O; thi f(x)
= 0;

han nfra 4-x,14-x han ntta 4-x,14-x

co

.

dang dang

X2

nen nen

+N~u
f(4-x)

X

co dang

-x)

= O.

co

Xl

= f(14-x)

= O.

SANG KIEN KINH NGHIEM MON TOAN-(2006-2007).doc

Ngo Quang Dung

Trang 1

TRllfV!fNlG TH !PT !PHAM THAfNlH TRUfNlG

+Neu x khong co dang Xl'X2 thi f(x)=f(4-x)=f(14-x)=1. V~y s6 cac nghiem cua phirong trinh f(x) = 0 tren doan [-1000;1000] 401. Bai loan 3: Cho ham f xac dinh tren K; K = [0;1], thoa:

1a

sa

f(l) { f(x + y) ~ f(x)

=1

(1)
E

f(x) ~ 0 (2) + f(y); \Ix, y,x + Y \Ix
E

K

(3)

Chung minh f(x) ~ 2x;

K

LOigiiii:
I)ChUng minh f(21n
2)f(x+ y) ~ f(x)

J s 21n;
~ f(x); x

\In

E

N* bing quy nap. y
E

+ f(y)

\lx,y,x+

K; suy ra f

kh6ng giam tren

K.
3)\lXEK,

chon k=[10g2.!],

k~log2.!<k+l~2k
= 2.

~ 2k+1< X s

1

1 2k ~
=

f(x)

s f 2k
(1) (2)

(IJ

Bai loan 4: Cho hai ham
f(g(x)) g(f(x))

sa

2k+1 < 2x
=

1

X

~.!<2k+1 x

lien luc Iren K: f,g : K ~ K; K

[0;1],

thoa:

{

f

la ham s6 tang
E

Chung minh 3a LOigiiii:
D~t
h(x)
=

K: f(a) h(x)

= g(a) =

a

ham s6 lien tuc tren K va h(O) = g(O) - 0 ~ 0, h(l) = g(1) -1 ~ 0 . V~y 3xo E K: h(xo) = 0 hay g(xo) = Xo
g(x)-x,
= Xo

la

+Neu f(xo) +Neu

thi ta co di6u phai clnmg minh.
Khi do ta xay dung day so {xn}:
= Xn;

f(xo)*xo'

{XI =~(xo) Xn+1 - f(xn),

nEN

*

Chimg minh g(xn)

n

E

N

* bing

quy nap,

Day (xn) dan di~u (tang neu Xo < Xl' giam neu Xo > XI) va bi chan nen (xn) hQi tu: Iim x, = a E K. Do f,g lien tuc tren K, nen:
f(a) { g(a)

= f(limxn) = lim(f(xn)) = g(lim xn) = lim(g(xn))
E

= limxn+1 = a = lim Xn = a
a

V~y 3a

K : f(a)

=

g(a)

=

III. Tinh tAng cac gia tr] ham sA: Bai loan 1: (CaMO) Cho ham
SANG KIEN KINH NGHIEM MON TOAN-(2006-2007).doc

sa f(x)

= --,
x

9

X

9 +3

tinh S = 1995 Lf
I

(

• _1_

J

1996

Ngo Quang Dung

Trang 1

LUi giiii:

Ta co
S=

1(1- x)

= 19
x

91-x

~/C9~6)

+3

= --x

3

9 +3

=> I(x)

+ 1(1-

x)

=1

=[~19196)+~~::!)]+[ ~1:96)+ IG:::)]+···+[ ~:::6)+ ~:::6)]+ = 997+ I(_!_) = 997+ _!_ = 1995 2 22
Bai totin 2: Cho ham
/(n+l)=n(-I)n+I-2/(n). { 1(1) = 1(2005)

~::986)

sa

1 xac
1

dinh tren N

*

va thoa di@u kien:

Tinh S=~/(i)

LUi giiii: Ta
1(2) 1(3) 1(4)
= 1- 2/(1) =

co

-2 - 2/(2)
2/(3)

=3-

1(2004) 1(2005)
2005

= 2003- 2/(2003) = -2004 - 2/(2004)
... +2003-2004-2S,

=> LI(i)=1-2+3-4+
2

thay

1(2005)=/(1).Ta

co:

3S=-1002. Suy ra S=-334. Bai totin 3: Cho ham I: Q+ ~ R va thoa di@u kien:

sa

I/(x + y) - l(x)1 ~ Y; x

Vx,y
)-

E

Q+ . Vn EN

Clnrng minh: tl/(2
1

n

1(2;)1 s n(n-l);
2

LUi giiii: Cho x = Y = 2; => 1/(2; +2;)- 1(2;)1 s ~:=> 1/(2;+1)-1(2;)1 s 1 Dodo:
1/(2n)-

t(n - i) = fi n(n2-1) Bai totin 4: Cho ham sa 1lien tuc tren doan [0;1]thea man f(O)
tl/(2
1
n ) -

1(2;)1~ 1/(2n)- 1(2 )1 + 1/(2
nI -

nI - )-

1(2n-2)1

+ ...+ 1/(2;+1)-1(2;)1~ n -

i

1(2;)1 s

1

0

=

f(I).

Chimg minh VnEN*,3cE[0;1]
SANG KIEN KINH NGHIEM MON TOAN-(2006-2007).doc

saocho

I(C)=/(C+~)
Ngo Quang Dung Trang 1

LUi giiii: Xet ham s6 g(x)
g(O)
= f(~J= f(

x +~

J- f(x)

~ g(x)

lien tuc tren dean [ 0; n~ ]. Ta

1

co

f(O) f(~J

g(~J

= f(;J-

Suy ra:

g( J f(~J- f( J ~g(;J
n: 1
=

n:

1

= f(1)

- f(O)

=0

~ 3i,j:

g(;J g(~J~
s 0,
= f(x+4)+

0

Do g lien tuc nen 3c nam gitra _!_ va l_ sao cho g(c) = 0 hay n n IV. Ham tuin hoan:

f(c

+!) =
n
'\Ix

f( c)

Bai loan 1: Cho ham s6 f: fxaedinh tren R thoa f(x) Chung minh f la ham s6 tndn hoan, LUi giiii:
f(x+4) f(x+8)

f(x-4),

+ f(x-4) = f(x) + f(x) = f(x+ 4)
=-

Suyra
f(x+8) f(x-4) ~ f(x+12)
=-

f(x) ~ f(x+

24)

=-

f(x+

12) = f(x)

V~y f(x + 24) = f(x); '\Ix hay f la ham s6 tndn hoan. Bai loan 2: Cho ham f: R ~ R thoa man:

sa

f(x.+ y) + ": y) = 2f(x)f(y); { 3xo . f(x ) - -1 (2) o

'\Ix,y

E

R

(1)

Clnrng minh f la ham s6 tuAn hoan. LUi giiii:
T a co x
r

=y =0

~ 2f(0)

=

2[r(0)]2 ~ [f(O) f(O)

=1

+ f(O) = 0 ~ 2f(xo) = 2f(0) = OCt) + f(O) = 1~ f(2x) + f(O) = 2[f(x)Y
~ f(2xo) + f(O) f(2xo)
= = 2[r(xo) =

~ f(2x)
=1

= 2[r(x)Y

-1

j ~f(2xo)
= 1,

(1) ~ f(2x) + f( 4xo)
2[f(xo)Y -1
=

2f(x + 2xo )f(x - 2xo) f(4xo)
=

(1 ')
-1
=

= 2.1-1

2[r(2xo)Y

2.1-1

=1

~ f(2x) + f(4xo)

f(2x) + 1 = 2[r(X)]2
Ngo Quang Dung Trang 1

SANG KIEN KINH NGHIEM MON TOAN-(2006-2007).doc

(1'): 2[r(x)Y

=

2f(x + 2xo)f(x -2xo)

- 2xo) => f(x + 2xo)f(x
=

- 2xo)

=

[r(x)Y

(1): f(x + 2xo)f(x

= 2f(x)f(2xo)

2f(x)

Suyra f(x+2xo)=f(x-2xo)=f(x); Vx V~y f la ham s6 tudn hoan, Bai totin 3: J.. Ch o h'am so f: R ~ R the man: {f(X+3)::;f(X)+3 oa Chimg minh g(x) = f(x)-x LOigiai:
g(x+6) g(x+6)
= f(x+6)-x-6= = f(x+6)

f(x + 2) ~ f(x) + 2

(1) (2)

Vx

la ham s6 tudn hoan.
::;f(x+3)-x-3 ::;f(x)-x =g(x)

f(x+3)+3)-x-6 f(x+4)

-x-6=

+2)-x-6~f(x+4)-x-4~f(x)-x=g(x)

Suy ra g(x + 6) = g(x); Vx V~y g(x) = f(x)-x la ham s6 tudn hoan. (Nhdn xetu: 6=BCNN(3;2); co thi t6ng quat hili toan tit nhdn xet tren) Bai toan 4: Cho ham s6 f: R ~ R thoa man: f(x + 1) + f(x -1) = ..fif(x); Vx Chimg minh f(x) la ham s6 tudn hoan. LOi giai:
f(x + 2) + f(x) f(x + 1) = .fif(x)

= .fif(x

+ 1)
- f(x -1)] => f(x + 2) - f(x)
= -.fif(x

- f(x -1)
= .fi[.fif(x)

=> f(x + 2) + f(x)

-1)

=> f(x + 3) - f(x + 1) = -.fif(x) (1') Til (1) va (1 '), ta co: => f(x+3) + f(x-l) = 0 => f(x+3) => f(x+4) = - f(x) => f(x+8) = - f(x +4) = f(x)

=-

f(x -1)

V~y f(x) la ham s6 tudn hoan, V.Ham hing: Bai toan 1: Cho ham s6 f:R
~ R thea f(xy)
=

f(x) + f(y) x+y

, VX,y: x+ y"* 0

Chung minh f la ham hing. LOi giai:
f(x) x
=

= f(x) + f(1) => (x + l)f(x) = f(x) + f(1) => xf(x) = f(I),
x-i-I 0 => f(l)
=

Vx

"* -1

0 x ~ {-1;0}

(x + l)f(x)

= f(x),

+ x ~ {-1;0}, f(x) = 0 + f(O) = f(x) + f(O)
x

, Vx

"* 0 => xf(O) = f(x)

+ f(O)
Ngo Quang Dung Trang 1

SANG KIEN KINH NGHIEM MON TOAN-(2006-2007).doc

2f(0) = f(2) + f(O) => f(O) = f(2) = 0 [ -If(O) = f( -1) + f(O) => f( -1) = -2f(0) = 0 =>

V~y f(x) =0 Bai totin 2:
Tim tAt ca

cac

ham

s6

f: R ~ R thoa f(j(x)

+ y)

= yf{x

- f(Y)~ Vx,y

LUi giiii: f(j(x))= 0; Vx. D~t f(O) = a . f(j(j(y)) + y)= yf(j(y)fey))=> fey) = y.a Suy ra f(x) = ax. Ta co f{ax+ y) = yf{x -ay)=> a(ax+ y) = ya(x -ay)
=>a2(x2+y2)+a(y_xy)=0; Vx,y=>a=O

V~y f(x)=O Bai totin 3: Cho ham
{ 3a: f(x + y)
= f(x)f(a

sa f:R
= _!_

~ R thoa: (1) - x); Vx,y (2)

f(O)

- y)

'1- f(y)f(a

Chimg minh

f

la ham hing. => f(a) = ~
-x)

LUi giiii:
f(O) f(x) f(x+

= f(O)f(a) + f(O)f(a)
= f(x)f(a)
a-x)

+ f(O)f(a

= f(x)f(a

2 -a+ x) + f(a-x)f(a-x) f(x) [ f(x)
= _!_

= _!_[r(x) + f(a -x)] => f(x) = f(a -x)

=> f(a) = [f(x)Y + [f(x)Y =>

=-"2
~O; Vx, nen f(X)=~; Vx

21

+ f(X)=f(~+~)=2f(~)f(a-~)=2[f(~)r

la ham hing thoa di6u kien bai toano Bai tot in 4: Jim ta" cii cae ham f: Z ~ R thoa man:

sa

f( x; y)

=

f(x);

f(Y);

x,y

E

Z

J\

(x+ y):3

LUi giiii:
fen) fen) fen)

= f( 0~3n) = f(O) ~f(3n) = f( n ~ 2n) = fen) ~f(2n)

=> 2f(n) = f(O) + f(3n) => 2f(n) = fen) + f(2n) => fen) = f(2n)
f(3n) => fen)

= f(2n) = f( 3n; 3n) = f(3n);

= f(3n)

=> fen) = f(2n) = f(3n), fen) = f(O)
SANG KIEN KINH NGHIEM MON TOAN-(2006-2007).doc Ngo Quang Dung Trang 1

TRllfV!fNlG TH !PT !PHAM THAfNlH TRUfNlG

h~ng thoa di8u kien bai toan. Bai tOtin 5: Tim tat cti cae ham f: N ~ N thoa man:

V~y f(x) == c (c my
3f{n)2f(J(n))
=

y) la ham
E

sa

n; \in

N (1)

LUi gitii: D~t g(n) = fen) - n (1): 2f(J(n))- 2f{n)
Suyra
2g(J(n))=g(n)

= fen)

- n;

g(n) = 2g(f(n)) = ... = 2mg[t(f(

... f(n)
mlh

)]=? g(n):2m; m EN

V~y g(n) == 0 => fen) = n thoa di8u kien bai toan. Bai toan 6: Tim tat cti cae ham f: R ~ R thoa man:

sa

f{x+ y)= f(x)e!(Yl-l;

\ix,y

(1)

LUi gitii:
(1) f{x)=f(x)e!(Ol-1
~[f(X)=O f(O)
=1

+ f(x)
+ f(x)"*
f{y) g'{t)

=0

thoa man di8u kien
0 => f(O)
=1

= f(O)e!(yl-l => f{x) = e!(xl-l . D~t g{t) = et-1 - t

0, khi do 3xo : f(xo)"*

Taco:

= et-1 -1; g'{t) = 0 ~ t = 1; min get) = g(1) = 0 => get) ~ 0, \it get) = 0 ~ t = 1. Do do e!(xl-l - f{x) = 0 ~ f{x) = e!(xl-l ~ f(x) = 1

V~y co hai ham thoa man di8u kien bai toan la: f(x) = 0 v f(x) Bai toan 7: Tim tat cti cae ham f: R ~ R thoa man: 2 - y2); \ix,y (x - y)f{x + y)- (x + y)f(x - y) = 4xy(x (1)

sa

= 1;

\ix

LUi gitii:
{ y=-- u-v 2
U

X

=U

;v

=> {x+ y = U. The vao (1), ta co: vf{u)-uf(v)
x-y=v

= (u2 -v2)uv

=> feu) _u2 = f(v) _v2 => g(x) = f(x) _x2 = a (x"* 0) la ham h~ng. V~y f{x) = Ket luan f{x)
f{ax)
=

v x x +ax (\ix"* 0). (1): 2xf(0)
3

=x

3

+ ax; \ix,

Bai toan B: Cho ham
f(x); (0 < a

"* 1)

sa

di8u kien, khong gitim f: R + ~ R + thoa man:

a my

y thoa

= 0 (x = y"* 0) => f(O) = 0

(1)

LUi gitii:
D~ dang chimg minh b~ng quy nap f{anx)= f(x)

SANG KIEN KINH NGHIEM MON TOAN-(2006-2007).doc

Ngo Quang Dung

Trang 1

+a>1.

Xet O<x<y;

n=[10ga

~]~n~10ga

~ <n+l

~ an ~ y < an+1 ~ a"» ~ y < an+1x ~ f(anx) ~ f(y) ~ f(an+1x) x ~ f(x) s f(y) s f(x) ~ f(x) = f(y) . V~y f(x) la ham hang, +O<a<1

Xet o<x<y;

n=[10ga

~]~n~10ga ~ f(y)

~ <n+l ~ f(an+1x)

~ an ~ y > an+1 ~
X

anx ~ y > an+1x ~ f(anx) ~ f(x)
= f(y)

~ f(x)

~ f(y) f(x)

~ f(x)

. V~y f(x)

la ham hang,

la ham h~ng thoa di@u kien. Bai totin 9: Cho ham f: R ~ R thoa man: 3 +2y)= f(y3 +2x); \lx,y f{x (1). Clnrng minh f(x)la

K@tluan

sa

ham hang,

LUi giiii:
x: + 2y { y +2x

=u
=v

~ {y
3

=

U

~X3 ~ {[ u ~x'

Y+x

2

J

+2x-v ~O(l')

=V

y3 + 2x

= v(I")

(1 ') la phirong trinh b~c le (b~c 9) theo x nen (1') co it nhdt 1 nghiem, (1") la plnrong trinh b~c le (bac 3) theo y nen (1") co it nhdt 1 nghiem, V~y \lu, v ta luon co (x;y) , rna (1) suy ra f(u) = f(v) la ham hang, K@tluan f(x) la ham h~ng.

Bai tOfin 10: LUi giiii: D~t g(x)

(Du

turin IMO) Tim tat cii cae ham
= x2 + x;

thoa man f{x2)+

sa lien tuc f:
lien
\Ix (1') \Ix

R~ R

f(x)

\Ix

(1) .

g{X2)+g(X) ~ g(O) = 0, g(1) (1') ~ g{(-x)2 g(x)

-x 2)-X2 = f{x
=

= f(x)

Ta + f(x)-x=-x2
=0~

co
_X+X2
=

g(x) +x=O;
=

tuc

va

)+ g(-x)

0

g{x2)+ g(-x)

0 ~ g(x)

g(-x);

Suy ra

x> 0 ~ g(x) = _g(x2) (xn):

t

la ham 86 ch~n. Ta chirng minh g(x) la ham h~ng voi x > 0
= g(X4) ~ g(x) = g(x4).
1

Ldy a> 0 my

y.

Xet day 86

= a ~ . Ta co lim Xn = 1 xn+l = (Xn)4
=

g(Xn+l) g(a)
=

g(x:)

= =

g(xn)

= ...= g(xo) =

=

g(a). g(1)
=

Do

g(x)
=

lien
0; \Ix

tuc

nen:

limg(a)

limg(xn)

g(limxn)=

o.

V~y g(x)

K@tluan f(x)

=x

thea diSu kien,

SANG KIEN KINH NGHIEM MON TOAN-(2006-2007).doc

Ngo Quang Dung

Trang 1

Bai totin 11: Tim tfit cii cae ham
f(x)
= f(X2

+±)

sa lien

TRllfV!fNlG TH !PT !PHAM THAfNlH TRUfNlG

tuc f :R +

~

R + thoa man

\;Ix

(1).

LUi giiii:
Nhan

xet: ham s6 f
bilt ky.
• Xet day

la ham

s6 chin.
X {

Lily

a~0

+ 0 ~ a ~ _!_
f(xn)

2

s6 (xJ:
f(xn-l)
2

=a
0-_ 2

~B-~+-

1
4

= f(X~_1
Xl

+±) =

= ... = f(xo) = f(a).
t h' minh 1 quy nap a c irng », ~"2

' Ta co

= Xo2

1 1111 +"4 = a +"4 ~ "4+"4 = "2. B~ ang (x,') tang

. (x.)
(xn)

hi chan tren va

hQi tu, b = lim Xn , ta co lim Xn+l lim ( x~ +

(x.•,-x. ~x;+~-x. ~[x. = ±)~ = ±~
b 2 b+

-~JJ
b

nen

= ~. Vi
la h~ng

ham

s6

f

lien tuc nen f(a) = limf(a)
=a
0n+l

= limf(xn)

= f(limxn)

= f(~)

so.
X

,

+ a > _!_. Xet day
2 f(Xn+I)=f(X~+1

s6 (xn):

{X

=

n~
Xn
X
n

= X~+l

+ _!_
4

--

4

+±)=f(Xn) (x,) 4

= ... =f(xo)

=f(a).Day

(XJ giam va bi chan
b
=

diroi
lim Xn f(a)

nen

hQi
4

tu.
2

lim x,

ta
f

co

= lim(X~+1 + _!_) ~ b = b2 + _!_ ~ b = _!_. = limf(xn) = f(limxn)
X~

Vi ham la h~ng

s6 s6.

lien tuc nen

= limf(a)

= f(~)

Ham s6 f la ham h~ng voi f la ham h~ng tren R

0,

rna ham s6 f

la ham chin nen ham

s6

trinh ham. A. 7.1/Giiii phuong trinh ham bdng phep thi
Bai toan 1: (Chon HS GiiJi TiJn Giang Vimg 2-2004-2005) Tim tfit cii cae iIa thuc P(x) Val h~ s6 tlnrc thoa di~u kien
P(a+ b)
= P(a)

A.7)M9t

sa kY thu~t giai phunng
+7P(b); a,b
E

R: ab(a +b) = 2b3•

LUi giiii:
SANG KIEN KINH NGHIEM MON TOAN-(2006-2007).doc Ngo Quang Dung Trang 1

Phan tich:
ab(a+b)=2b3
(1)~[ ::~ .

V~y (x;x);

Vx

thoa t l)

a=-2b

Trinh bay: Ta co (x; x); Vx thoa (1), nen P(x+x)=P(x)+7P(x);
P(2x)
= 8P(x);

VXER. Vx (1"').

Suy ra

Vx E R

(1"). Da thirc P(x)

n

= ~>jxj;

o

Tit (1") va

(1 "'), ta co:
n

I,aj(2x)j
o

= I,8ajxj;
0

n

Vx ~

2 aj

j

= 8aj

~ (2 -8)aj

j

=0~
~

aj

= 0, Vi"*

3

V~y P(x) = a3x3; Vx thoa di~u kien bai toan. Bai totin 2: (AusMO) Tim tfit ea cae ham sa f :R +
3f)(1)=~ ( y + f(y)f

R

thoa man

{ f(xy)

= f(x)f

(3)
~;

(1). Vx,y
E

R

Lili giai: (1)'
f(1.3)

= f(1)f(~)

. f(l.y) ~ f(1)f(!

I

3

+ f(3)f(~)
) + f(Y)~

1

i
3 x

r

{f(3)

= !.!+

22

(j(3)y

~ f(3)

=!

2

f(! ) ~ fly)

~{

f(1) f(xy) f(l)

2 = 2f(x)f(y)

=!

~

{f(l) f(x.-)

=~ = 2f(x)f(-)
1
=-

3~ x

{f(1) f(3)

=!

= 2f(x)f(x)

2

=!
2, 1

~

{ f(x)=±-

V6i x>o,f(x2)=2(j(x)]2

2
Vx

2

V~y f(x) =~;
f[xf(x)

> 0 thoa di~u kien,
~R

Bai toan 3: (BaIMO) Tim tfit ea cae ham sa f :R
+ f(y)] = (j(x)Y + y;
Vx,y
E

thoa man

R

(1).

Lili giai:
(1): f[O.f(O) + f(y)] = (j(O)Y + y ~ f(j(y)]
f(Yl)

mQt dan anh.Ve phai cua (1) la ham nhdt bien theo Y nen co t~p gia tri la R. V~y
~ (j(O)Y f 3a:f(a)=0.

= f(Y2)

+ Yl = (j(O)Y

= (j(O)Y + y + Y2 ~ Yl = Y2' V~y la

(1) ~f[af(a)+f(a)]=(j(a)y+a~f(O)=a.
Ngo Quang Dung

Do f
Trang 1

la dan

SANG KIEN KINH NGHIEM MON TOAN-(2006-2007).doc

anh

nen

a=O.

Suy

ra

x=O=>f(j(y»)=y=>f(j(x»)=x;

(1): y = 0 => f(j(x»)

= (j(x)Y => f(j(x)f(j(x»)) = (j(f(x»Y => f(xf(x») 2 => vdi m8i x, ta eo f(x) = x v f(x) = -x. => (j(x)Y = x Gia sir 2 +b 2 +b] (!). a,b 0: f(a) = -a, f(b) = -b => f[a.(-a) + b] = a a

'\Ix. 2 =x

*

* ±[-

co

V~y f(x) = x, '\Ix v f(x) = -x, '\Ix thoa di6u kien, Bai toan 4: (VMO) Tim tat ca cae ham f: R ~ R thoa man
x2f(x)+f(l-x)=2x-x4;

sa

'\IxER

(1).

LUi giai:
(1): (1_X)2 f(1-x)+ f(x) = 2(I-x)-(1-x)4 => (1-x)2[2x-X4_X2 f(x)]+ f(x) = 2(1-x)(1_X)4 4) + [1- (1- X2)X2lr(X) = 2(1- x) - (1- X)4 => (1- X)2(2x _x => (x2 - X -1)(x2-x + l)f(x) = (x2 - x -1)(1- x)(1 + x3)

=> (x2 - x -1)f(x) => f(x) = l-x)(1+
f(a),j(b).

=

(x2 - x -1)(1- x)(1 + x)

x); '\Ix ab

* a,b. a,bla * a, b

, ta co {a+b=1 .

=1
,

nghiern ciia pt x2 -x-l = O. 4 {a2f(a)+f(b)=2a-a ~ (1) 2 4 • D~t f(a) b f(b) + f(a) = 2b-b a,b x=b

Tim
= c; C E

R

1-x2

X

V~y f(x) =

{4 2 _a -a c+2a,

c,

x

=a

la nghiem

ciia pt: x2 -x -1

= 0 thoa

di6u kien. Bai toan 5: (Du turin IMO) Tim tat ca cae ham
f(f(x)+y)=2x+f(f(y)-x); '\Ix,YER (1).

sa f :R ~

R

thoa man

LUi giai:
(1):
x
E

R,

a

= f(O; - x => x = f(O) - 2a.

Chon p = - f( -a), r = f(P) - a .
P)

Khi do f(r) = f(f(p)-a) = 2(-a) + f(f(-a)+ mQt toan anh, suy '\Iy f(y) = f(O + y) = f(f(a) + y) = 2a + f(f(y)
'\Ix, 3y: f(y) x
= x+a

= -2a+ f(O) = x. V~y f lil
ra
3a :f(a)
=

0.

- a) .

=> x

= f(y)-a

= 2a+ f(f(y)a) -a = f(x) + a => f(x) = x-a thoa di6u kien bai toano V~y f(x) + c; '\Ix, c : const Bai toan 6: (CaMO) Tim tat ca cae ham f :R ~ R thoa man
f«X-y)2)=x2-2yf(x)+(f(y»2;

sa

'\Ix,YER

(1).

LUi giai: (1): f«O - 0)2) = 02 - 20 f(O) + (f(0»2 => f(O) = (f(0»2 => f(O) = 0 v f(O) = 1.
+T/h: f(O)=I,
y=O. (l)=>f(x2)=x2+1; suyra f(x)=x+l; x~O

SANG KIEN KINH NGHIEM MON TOAN-(2006-2007).doc

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x

= O. (1) => f(y2) = -2y
=

=> f(y)

y+l

V

f(y) 2

=

+ (f(y))2 -y-l

=> (f(y))2
2

= y2

+ 1 + 2y

= (y
[

+ 1)2

X = y. (1): f(O)

= X - 2xf(x) + (f(X))
=

=> 1 = (x - f(x))

2

=>

X - f(x) = 1 x- f(x) =-1

=> [f(X)

= X -1 . Thir lai f(x) f(x)=x+l·

+T/h: f(O) = 0, y = o.
X = y. (1) : f(O)

X + 1 thoa di@ukien bai toano . 2) = x2; suy ra f(x) = X; X ~ 0 (1) => f(x

= x2 - 2xf(x) + (f(X))2 => 0 = (x - f(X))2 => f(x) = x, thoa di@u
=

kien, V~y co hai ham thoa man di@u kien lit f(x)

X + 1;Vx v f(x)

A. 7.2/Giai phuang trinb dva vao giti trj cua tMi cua ham Bai tOtin 1: Jim t8i cii cae ham f :R ~ R thoa man

sa

sa,

=

X;Vx

sa

f(x + f(y))

= X+

f(y) + xf(y);

Vx,y

E

R

(1).

LUi giiii: (1): f(O

V~y Vu +T/h: 3Yo:f(Yo):;t:-l,

= 0 + f(y) + Of(y) => f(f(y)) thuoc t~p gia tri, ta co f(u) = u
+ f(y))

= f(y) hay f(f(x)

= f(x); Vx.

(1):f(x+f(Yo))=(1+f(Yo))x+f(yo).

Ta co ve phai

lit ham b~c nhdt theo X co t~p gia tri lit R, nen v@trai cling co t~p gia tri lit R. Vi v~y, Vt E R, 3u :f(u) = t. Suy ra f(t) = f(f(u)) = f(u) = t hay f(x) = X; Vx: tlnr lai thdy khong thoa di@ukien. +TIh: Vy: f(y) = -1 hay f(x) = -1; Vx: thir lai thdy thoa di@ukien. V~y ham thoa man di@ukien lit f(x) = -1; Vx

Bai toan 2: Jim tat cii cae ham
f(x - f(y))
= 2f(x)

sa f :
E

R~ R

thoa man

+ X + f(y);

Vx,y

R

(1).

LUi giiii: (1): f(f(y)
=> f(x)
=

- f(y)) -x +!!.-; Vx
2

= 2f(f(y)) (1')

+ f(y) + f(y) => f(f(y))

= - f(y) +~[a = f(O)].

(1): f(f(x) - f(y)) = 2f(f(x)) + f(x) + f(y) => f(f(x)f(y)) = -[J(x)- f(y)]+a (1): f(f(x) - f(y) - f(y)) = 2f(f(x) - f(y)) + f(x) - f(y) + f(y) => f(f(x) - 2f(y)) = -2[J(x) - f(y)] + 2a + f(x) = -[J(x) - 2f(y)]+ 2a (1) : f(x - f(y)) - 2f(x) = x + f(y), y = 0 => f(x - a) - 2f(x) = x + a. Ta thdy v@ phai co t~p gia tri lit R nen v@ trai cfing co t~p gia tri lit R. vt, t = f(u) - 2f(v) => f(t) = f(f(u) - 2f(v)) = -(f(u) - 2f(v)) + 2a = -t + 2a.

SANG KIEN KINH NGHIEM MON TOAN-(2006-2007).doc

Ngo Quang Dung

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Hay f(x) = -x + 2a; 'v'x (1 "). Til (1 ') va (1"), ta co a thoa di8u kien. V~y ham thoa man di8u kien Ia f(x) = -x; 'v'x

=

O. Tlnr lai thdy

Bai tOlin 3: UMO) Tim tat eli cae ham
f(x - f(y))
= f(f(y))

s8 f :R ~
E

R

thoa man

+ xf(y) + f(x) -1;
= f(f(y))

'v'x,y

R

(1).

LUi gilii: (1): f(f(y)
=> f(f(y))

- f(y))

+ f(y)f(y)
1

+ f(f(y))-1
= -~(f(X))2

= -~(f(y))2

+ a;

[a = f(O)] => f(f(x))

+ a; 1(1')

(1): f(f(x)
=> f(f(x) => f(f(x)-

- f(y)) - f(y)) f(y))
:;t:

= f(f(y)) =-

+ f(x)f(y)

+ f(f(x))-1
_ (f(X))2 + a + 1-1

(f(y))2

2

+ a + 1 + f(x)f(y) 2

2

2

=-

«(f(X)~f(y))2

+a . Nhan xet f(x) == 0 khong thoa (1)
= f(f(yo))

nen 3yo :f(yo)

O. Til (1), ta co f(x - f(yo)) - f(x)

+ xf(yo)-1.

V~ trai la mQt ham b~c nhdt thea x nen co ~p gia tri Ia R. Suy ra v~ phai cfing co t~p gia tri la R.
'v'x, 3u, v: x f(f(x)) f(x)
= f(u)

- f(v) => f(x)

=

f(f(u)

- f(v))

=

1 -2 (f(u)

- f(v))
=-

2

+ a, 'v'x
2

= -_(f(X))2

1

2

+ a, 'v'x (1"). Tir (1')

va

(1"), ta co a

a+l

=> a

=1

= _~X2 + 1;

'v'x. Tlnr lai thdy thoa di8u kien.
=

V~y ham thoa man di8u kien Ia f(x)

_~X2 +1;

'v'x

A. 7.3/Giiii phuong trinh dva vao tinh dan iIi?u
Bai toan 1: Tim tat eli cae ham iItrn
f(x+f(y))=f(x)+y; 'v'x,YER (1).

meu f:

R ~ R thoa man

LUi gilii:
=> f(x + f(Yl)) = f(x + f(Y2)) => f(x) + Yl = f(x) + Y2 => Yl = Y2· V~y f Ia dan anh. (1) : f(O + f(y)) = f(O) + y => f(f(x)) = f(O) + x; 'v'x (1) : f(f(x) + f(y)) = f(f(x)) + y = f(O) + x + y = f(f(x + y). Vi f Ia dan anh nen f(x + y) = f(x) + f(y); 'v'x,y. Suy ra f la dan anh va cQng tinh tren R. Ta co f(x) = ax; 'v'x [a:;t:0], thay vao (1): f(x + f(y)) = a(x + f(y)) = a[x + f(x) + y = ax + y 2y = ax + ay, 'v'y => a = ±1. Thir lai thdy thoa di8u kien. => ax + a V~y co hai ham thoa man di8u kien Ia f(x) = x; 'v'x v f(x) = -x; 'v'x Bai toan 2: Tim tat eli cae ham tang that SU' f: R ~ R thoa man
f(Yl)
= f(Y2)

ayl

f(f(x)

+ y)

= f(x

+ y) + 1; 'v'x,y

E

R

(1).
Ngo Quang Dung Trang 1

SANG KIEN KINH NGHIEM MON TOAN-(2006-2007).doc

LUi giiii:
(1) : f(f(x) + 0) = f(x + 0) + 1 => f(f(x)) = f(x) + 1. (1): f(f(f(x)) + y) = f(f(x) + y) + 1 => f(f(x) + 1+ y) (1) : f(f(x) + f(y)) = f(x + f(y)) + 1 = f(x + y) + 1 + 1
= f(x

+ y) + 1 + 1

=> f(f(x) + y + 1) = f(f(x) + f(y)) . => f(x) + y + 1 = f(x) + f(y) => f(x)

Vi ham f dan di~u nen = x + 1; Vx. Thir lai thdy thoa di6u kien,
=x

V~y ham thoa man di6u kien la f(x)
f(x2 + f(y))
=

Bai tocin 3: flMO) Tim tat cii cac ham
(f(X))2 + y; Vx,y
E

sa f:

+ 1; Vx
R ~ R thoa man

R

(1).
=

LUi giiii:
f(Yl)
=

f(Y2) => f(x2 + f(Yl))

= f(x

2 + f(Y2)) => (f(X))2 + Yl

(f(X))2 + Y2

=> Yl = Y2' V~y f la dan anh. V~ trai la m9t ham b~c nhdt theo Y nen co t~p xac dinh la R, suy ra v~ phai co t~p xac dinh la R. 3!a: f(a) = 0 . D~t f(O) =b (1) : f(02 + f(y)) = (f(0))2 + Y => f(f(y)) = Y + b2 => f(f(x)) = x + b2 (1) : f(02 + f(a)) = (f(0))2 + a => b = b2 + a (1): f(a2 + f(a)) = (f(a))2 + a=> f(a2 + 0) = 02 + a => f(a2) = a => f(a) = f(f(a2)) = a2 + b2 => 0 = a2 + b2 => a = b = O. Suy ra f(f(x)) = x; Vx (1) : f(x2 + f(O)) = (f(X))2 + 0 => f(x2) = (f(x)) 2 ; Vx (1') Suy ra x ~ 0 => f(x) ~ 0 /\ f(x) = 0 ~ x = o.
x ~ 0, Y E R :f(x+ y)
= f[<~)2

=> f(x + y)

+ f(y). x > y=> x- y > o=> f(x= f(x)

+ f(f(y))]= (J(~)) V~y f c9ng tinh.
= f«x-

+ f(y)
=

=

(J(~)2)+ f(y) > f(y).
Vx
E

y) >O·f(x)

y)+ y)

f(x-

y)+ f(y)
= kx;

> f(y). V~y f tang th~t su, Suy ra f(x) Tir 0 (1') => k = 1. Tlnr lai thdy thoa di6u kien, V~y ham thoa man di6u kien la f(x) = x;vx

x> y => f(x)

k > 0,

R.

A. 7.4/Giai phuang trinh dva vao tink lien t(lc Bai toan 1: Tim tat cii cac ham f lien tuc tren R thoa man

sa

f(x)

= f(~)

Vx

E

R

(1).

LUi giiii:
B~ng quy nap, ta co: f(x) nen f(x)
= = f(;)

Vx f(O);

E

R, Vn EN.
E

Do f lien tuc tren R

n~oo

lim f(x)

=

n~oo

lim f(~J

2n

=

Vx
= c;

R. (c: const)
Trang 1

V~y ham thoa man di6u kien la f(x)
SANG KIEN KINH NGHIEM MON TOAN-(2006-2007).doc

Vx

Ngo Quang Dung

TRllfV!fNlG TH !PT !PHAM THAfNlH TRUfNlG

Bai tmin 2: Tim tat cii cae ham sa lien tuc f: R ~ R thoa man
f(1) =-1 { f(x + y)
=

f(x) + f(y) + 2xy;
= f(x)

\lx,y (1)
=

LUi giiii:
(1) : f(x + 0) (1): f(x+ + f(O) + 2.0 => f(O) 0 -2x+ f(y)y2 -2y(l') . y) -(x+ y)2 -2(x+ g(x) = f(x) - x2 - 2x lien y) = f(x)-x2

D~t

tuc tren R. (1') => g(x + y) = g(x) + g(y). Ham g(x) lien tuc va cQng tinh nen g(x) = ax /\ g(1) = f(1) -1- 2 = -4. Suy ra
g(x) =-4

V~y ham thoa man di8u kien la f(x) = x2 - 2x; \Ix Bai toan 3: Tim tat cii cae ham sa lien tuc f: R+ ~ R+ thoa man
f(2006) { f(f(x)) ~ f(2007)
= -;

(1.1) 0 (1.2)

x

\Ix

=f:.

LUi giiii:
f(xl)
= f(x2)

=> f(f(xl))

= f(f(x2))

=> -

1

=-

1

Xl

x2

=> Xl

= x2·

V~y f

dan anh,

Suy ra f dan di~u (do dan anh va lien tuc), rna do (1.1) nen f dAngbi@n tren R+. Khi do f(f(x))
= _!_
X

cling dAng bien tren R+ (!)

A. 7.5/Giai phutmg trinh dva vao aic cau true i19i sa,e nghijm phuong trinh i/i}i sa, phutmg phap tang hpp
ham sa sao cho f( -~)+ LUi giiii: Phan tich:
(1): f( -~)+ c + c f(x)
=

V~y khong co ham f thoa man di8u kien.

cua

Bai toan 1: (Chon HS GiiJi TiJn Giang Vong 1-2004-2005) Xac ilinh
f(x)
=

2004;

\Ix

=f:.

0

(1).

2004

=> c = 1002

=

2004

Trinh bay: D~t f(x) = g(x) + 1002 (1'). Th@(1') vao (1), ta co:

g(

-~)+

1002 + g(x) +1002

=

2004 =>

(1") => g(x)

= -g( -~)

=> g(x)

g(-~) =±[ g(-~)]
g(x) -

+ g(x)

=

0; \Ix

=f:.

0

(1")

SANG KIEN KINH NGHIEM MON TOAN-(2006-2007).doc

Ngo Quang Dung

Trang 1

=> g(x)

= ~[h(X)

-h( -~)}

hex) la mQt ham '\Ix

sd tuy yxacdinh tren R \ {o}
thoa di6u kien bai toano

V~y I(x)

= ~[

hex) - h( - ~)] + 1002;

Bai loan 2: Xac ilinh ham
I(x) + 1(1- x)
=

sa

*0

I:

[0;1] ~ R sao cho:

1; '\Ix E [0;1]

(1).

LUigitii:
Phan tich: I(x) + 1(1- x) = 1; '\Ix E [0;1] c + c =1 :::::> c =(1)

1 2

Trinh bay: D~t I(x) = g(x) + ~ (1'). Th~ (1') vao (1), ta co:
g(x) +-+ g(1-x)

1 2

1 +- = 1 => g(x) + g(1-x) 2

=

0

g(l- x)] 2 1 => g(x) = -[hex) - h(1- x)l 2

=> g(x)

= _!_[g(x)-

hex)

la mQt ham tuy hex)

y xac dinh tren [0;1]

V~y

I(X)=~[h(X)-h(I-X)]+~;

Ia mot ham tuy y xac dinh tren Itl.I]

thoa di6u kien bai toano

Bai loan 3: Xac ilinh ham
I(x) + 1(1- x) ~ 1; '\Ix E [0;1]

sa

I:

[0;1] ~ R sao cho:

(1).

LUi gitii:
Trinh bay: D~t I(x) 2
=

g(x) + ~ (1'). Th~ (1 ') vao (1), ta co:

g(X) + _!_ + g(1- x) + _!_ {

2

= 1+ hex)

=> g(x) + g(l- x)

=

hex)

hex) ~ 0

(Ta ilii chuyin b8-t phuong trinh ham vJ phutmg trinh ham)

cau true

dai

s6 cua

hex) la:

h(l-x)

= h(x);d6i xtmg qua x = ~(di~m ba't dQng: x =~)

111 h(1- x) = hex), x = - + t => h(- - t) = h(- + t) 222
SANG KIEN KINH NGHIEM MON TOAN-(2006-2007).doc Ngo Quang Dung Trang 1

~ rp(-t)

= rp(t), Vt E [-~;~}

rp(t) = h(~+tJ X)]
=

[g(X) -~h(X)] g(x)
= -hex)

+ [g(1- x) -~h(1+ -[rp(x) - rp(1- x)] 2
1

0

1

2

V~y:
f(x)
= -[hex)

1

2

+ rp(x) -

1 rp(l- x )]+-;

2

.{ vdi

hex) ~ 0, h(l- x) rp(x) la mQt ham tuy

=

hex); x

E

[0;1]

y xac

dinh tren [0;1]

thoa di@ukien bai toano Bai lotin 4: Xac ilinh ham
f(x + 1) = f(x) + 2; Vx (1) .

sa

f: R ~ R

sao cho:

LUigiiii: Nhap:
f(x+ c 1) = f(x) +2

=

c+2

c =00 f(x + 1) = f(x) + 1 ~ f(x) =ax ~ a(x+l) = ax+2 ~a=2

Trinh bay: D~t f(x) = 2x + g(x) (1'). Th~ (1') vao (1), ta co:
2(x+l)+ g(x+ 1) = 2x+ g(x) + 2 ~ g(x +1)
= g(x);Vx.

V~y: f(x) = 2x + g(x); Vx (g(x) di@ukien bai toano Bai loan 5: Xac ilinh ham
f(x + 1) = - f(x) + 2; Vx

la ham tudn hoan voi chu ky T= 1) thoa
f: R ~ R

sa

sao cho:

(1) .

LUi giiii: Nhap:
f(x+ c 1) = - f(x)+2

=

-c+2

c =1

Trinh bay: D~t f(x) = 1 + g(x) (1'). Th~ (1') vao (1), ta co:
1+ g(x+ 1) = -1- g(x) + 2 ~ g(x+ 1) = -g(x);Vx.

SANG KIEN KINH NGHIEM MON TOAN-(2006-2007).doc

Ngo Quang Dung

Trang 1

=> {

g(X + 1) = -g(x) g(x + 2)
=

g(x) ,

. Vx

=> {g(X)
g(x)

= ~[g(X)

- g(x + 1)~ Vx
=

g(x + 2)

g(x)

= _!_[h(x) 2 f(x)

h(x + 1)1 h(x) la ham tu~n hoan (tuy y), T 1 2

=2
=

V~y:

= 1 + -[h(x)

- h(x + 1)1 h(x) lil ham tuh hoan (tuy y), T

2

thoa

di8u kien bai toan.

B/KET QUA NGHrEN CUu:
Qua qua trinh nghien ciru va v~n dung d8 tai "PHUONG TRiNH HAM", toi nhan thdy vdn d8 nay giup Ich nhieu cho hoc sinh trong viec hoc toan, giup cac em khong con "ngan ngai" phan plnrong trinh ham mra, cac em da giai kha t6t nhimg phdn lien quan d8n phirong trinh ham; mi)t s6 em da biroc ddu sang tao duQ'c nhfrng bai toan moi (tuy la nhtrng bai toan con "dan gian"). Rieng ban than toi se ti8p tuc nghien ciru sau hon ntta v8 Phuong trinh ham va Bdt plnrong trinh ham hy vong se "sang tac" (Tir hay dung cua GS-TS Nguysn Van Mau) duoc nhieu bai toan maio

III.PHAN

KET

llK2tluan: Toi vi8t d8 tai nham muc dich cung trao d6i voi Quy Thdy Co day bi) mon toan v8 viec "h~ thong" cac kien thirc, mi)t vai ky nang v8 Phuong trinh ham va mi)t phdn Bdt phirong trinh ham. Vi ki8n tlnrc va thai gian con nhieu han ch8 nen ch~c r~ng tai lieu co thieu sot, toi chan thanh don nhan Sl,T gop y cua Quy Thdy Co. Xin chan thanh cam an. 2IT1l; lieu tham khao:

LuAN: •

l)"BAI GIANG CHUYEN DE PHUONG TRiNH HAM vA BAT PHUONG TRiNH HAM " (cua GS-TS NGUYEN VAN MAU) 2)CAC CHVYEN DE CHON LOC BGI DUONG HOC SINH NANG xmsu Tom (Taj li~u HQi nghi Khoa hoc) 3)BAo Tom HOC vA TUGI TRE 4)CAC DE THI CHON HOC SINH GIGI cAP TINH. 5)CAC DE THI HS GIGI Tom DB SONG cUD LONG. 6)CAc DE THI OLYMPIC 30/4. 7)CAC DE THI Tom ouoc GIA (VMO). 8)cAc DE THI Tom ouoc TE (IMO) vA cAc NUdc.
Het
SANG KIEN KINH NGHIEM MON TOAN-(2006-2007).doc Ngo Quang Dung Trang 1