“Right step of Maintenance is the SOUL™ of efficiency”

An ISO 900:2008 Certified Comp.

BOILER-BASICS
What is a Boiler? Boiler, also called STEAM GENERATOR, is an apparatus designed to convert a liquid to vapor. In a conventional steam power plant, a boiler consists of a furnace in which fuel is burned, surfaces to transmit heat from the combustion products to the water, and a space where steam can form and collect. A conventional boiler has a furnace that burns a fossil fuel or, in some installations, waste fuels. A nuclear reactor can also serve as a source of heat for generating steam under pressure. Boilers were built as early as the 1st century AD by Hero of Alexandria but were used only as toys. Not until the 17th century was serious consideration given to the potential of steam power for practical work. Denis Papin of France designed the first boiler with a safety valve in 1679; boilers were made of wrought iron; as the advantages of high pressure and temperature were realized, manufactures turned to steel. Modern boilers are made of alloy steel to withstand high pressures and extremely high temperatures. Most conventional steam boilers are classed as either fire-tube or water tube types. In the fire-tube type, the water surrounds the steel tubes through which hot gases from the furnace flow. The steam generated collects above the water level in a cylindrically shaped drum. A safety valve is set to allow escape of steam at pressures above normal operating pressure; this device is necessary on all boilers, because continued addition of heat to water in a closed vessel without means of steam escape result in a rise in pressure and ultimately, in explosion of the boiler. Fire-tube boilers have the advantage of being easy to install and operate. They are widely used in small installations to heat buildings and to provide power for factory processes. Fire-tube boilers are also used in steam locomotives. In the water tube boiler, the water is inside tubes with the hot furnace gases circulating outside the tubes. When the steam turbo generator was developed early in the 20th century, modern water tube boilers were developed in response to the demand for large quantities of steam at pressures and temperatures far exceeding those possible with fire-tube boilers. The tubes are outside the steam drum, Which has no heating surface and is much smaller than in the fire-tube boiler. For this reason, the drum of the water tube boiler is better able to withstand higher pressures and temperatures. A wide variety of sizes and designs of water tube boilers are used in ships and factories. The express boiler is designed with small water tubes for quick generation of steam. The flash boiler may not require a steam drum, because the tubes operate at such high temperatures that the feed water flashes into steam and superheats before leaving the tubes. The largest units are found in the central-station power plants of public utilities. Units of substantial size are used in steel mills, paper mils, oil refineries, chemical plants, and other large manufacturing plants.

BARON Chemicals & Systems (P) Ltd. H-5/ 21, Krishna Nagar, Delhi-110051. Tel:011-22418572,22056393 Fax 91-11-22023200 Email: info@baronchemicals.com Web: www.baronchemicals.net

sulfur dioxide and heat are formed. All fuels. BARON Chemicals & Systems (P) Ltd. What are the products of combustion? When the hydrogen and oxygen combine.net .“Right step of Maintenance is the SOUL™ of efficiency” An ISO 900:2008 Certified Comp.baronchemicals. it is a controlled explosion. which cools before it can combine with oxygen to form CO2. When sulfur and oxygen combines. the fuel is burned at the highest combustion efficiency with low pollution. When carbon and oxygen combine. Residual oil is 10% noncombustible. Krishna Nagar. consist primarily of compounds of carbon and hydrogen called hydrocarbons. Complete combustion is always our goal. intense heat and water vapor is formed. Carbon.22056393 Fax 91-11-22023200 Email: info@baronchemicals.com Web: www. intense heat and the compounds of carbon monoxide or carbon dioxide are formed. which result in the formation of soot and smoke. whether they are solid. It is the rapid union of an element or a compound with oxygen that results in the production of heat-essentially. Combustion occurs when the elements in a fuel combine with oxygen top produce heat. Very little of the released carbon is actually “consumed” in the combustion reaction because flame temperature seldom reaches the vaporization point of carbon. All fuels contain some moisture and noncombustible: • • • Top-quality coal is 20% noncombustible. Is the combustion process 100% efficient? Combustion can never be 100% efficient. These chemical reactions take place in a furnace during the burning of fuel. Natural gas is 6% noncombustible. Tel:011-22418572. passes out the vent as visible smoke. Incomplete Combustion occurs when all the fuel s not burned. provided there is sufficient air (oxygen) to completely burn the fuel. liquid or in gaseous form. Delhi-110051. Complete Combustion is achieved when all the fuel is burned using the minimal amount of air above the theoretical amount of air needed to burn the furl. Most of it combines with oxygen to form CO2and passes out the vent. The intense yellow color of an oil flame is largely caused by incandescent carbon particles. What is combustion? The process of combustion is a high speed. H-5/ 21. But as we said before perfect combustion cannot be achieved in a boiler. Sulfur is also present in these fuels. With complete combustion. What are the various types of combustion? There are three types of combustion: • • • Perfect Complete Incomplete Perfect combustion is achieved when all the fuel is burned suing only the theoretical amount of air. high temperature chemical reaction.

What is primary air? Primary Air controls the rate of combustion. Delhi-110051. passing out of the vent as vapor mixed with the combustion products. That excess air has a chilling effect on the flame. carbon and hydrogen. Stated another way: A 100 HP boiler requires 75. ash. It too subtracts heat from the flame and becomes steam at flue gas temperature. How does the composition of fuel used influence the combustion air requirements? Combustion air requirements are based on the composition of the fuel used. It contributes nothing to combustion. When a fuel has a large volume of nitrogen that must be accepted along with desired oxygen. Air requirements for combustion are generally expressed in cubic feet air per gallon of oil or per cubic foot of gas for convenience because fans. About 15 cubic feet of air is required to burn one cubic foot or natural gas at 75% at sea level. which is about 21% oxygen by volume or 23% by weight. sulfur. Natural gas contains more hydrogen and less carbon per unit of heat content than oil and consequently its combustion produces a great deal more water vapor. What is secondary air? Secondary Air controls combustion efficiency by controlling how completely the fuel is burned.22056393 Fax 91-11-22023200 Email: info@baronchemicals. Which withdraws a greater amount of heat from the flame. The Fuel/Air Ratio for combustion is actually a weight ratio based on the required weight of oxygen for a given weight of fuel. About 2000 cubic feet of are is required to burn one gallon of fuel oil at 80% efficiency to sea level. and it steals heat from the reaction and now creates a growing environmental problems as well. Fuels commonly used contain nitrogen. Some fuel particles fail to combine with oxygen and pass out of the vent unburned. What is excess air in combustion? Excess Air is air supplied to the burner that exceeds the theoretical amount needed to burn the fuel. which determines the amount of fuel that can be burned. What is the air requirement for combustion? Oxygen for combustion is obtained from the atmosphere. Therefore gas efficiency is always slightly less than oil efficiency. Water vapor is a by-product of burning hydrogen. with traces of other elements. ducts and other air moving devices are rated incubi feet per minute or cubic feet per hour. more excess air must be provided.baronchemicals. Krishna Nagar.net . oxygen.000 ft3 of fresh air per hour for combustion to take place. it increases the volume of combustion products to be vented. Nitrogen is an unwanted “parasite” that must be accepted in order to obtain the oxygen. Nitrogen is inert at ordinary flame temperature and forms few compounds as the result of combustion. Most of the 79% of air that is not oxygen is nitrogen. BARON Chemicals & Systems (P) Ltd. H-5/ 21.com Web: www.“Right step of Maintenance is the SOUL™ of efficiency” An ISO 900:2008 Certified Comp. Tel:011-22418572.

Delhi-110051. Tel:011-22418572. The heat balance of a boiler consists of accounting for all the heat units in the fuel used or wasted. Boiler Design What is the heat balance for a boiler? Fuel fed to a burner is converted to heat. Fuel gas obeys the same Physical laws as air-at 5000 feet above sea level 20% greater gas volume is required to obtain sea level weight of combustibles.“Right step of Maintenance is the SOUL™ of efficiency” An ISO 900:2008 Certified Comp. It is a balance because it is the sum of all the heat consumed.but not all the heat released from the fuel is used to heat the water. A gallon of fuel oil has the same weight at any altitude and no fuel-input increase is necessary. the weight of oxygen per cubic foot of air does not vary sufficiently to create major problems. At 5000 feet above sea level. such as: Heat carried away in the dry chimney gases Incomplete combustion of the fuel Unburned combustibles (about 2%) Much of the resulting efficiency of a boiler is the result of its basic het transfer design. Krishna Nagar. At higher altitudes.baronchemicals.22056393 Fax 91-11-22023200 Email: info@baronchemicals.com Web: www. Boiler designs that use all possible heat transfer surfaces to their fullest advantage consistently produce the most efficient source of steam or hot water with the lowest total lifetime costs.net . BARON Chemicals & Systems (P) Ltd. The heat is absorbed by the water in the boiler…. air density has to taken into consideration. H-5/ 21. Some of the heat is wasted in the process. air has approximately 4/5 of its weight at sea level. Does the altitude affect the air required for combustion? At sea level or at altitudes up to 3000 feet. therefore about 20% more air by volume must be introduced to obtain the required oxygen for combustion. Heat balance of a boiler is found by using the following equation: A=B+C A= heat energy available in the fuel B= heat energy absorbed any the water in the boiler C= heat losses Therefore: Efficiency of the unit = B divided by A What are the energy losses the occur in a boiler? Gases of combustion to atmosphere (about 9%) Incomplete combustion (about 1%) Moisture in fuel (less than 1%) Moisture in air used for combustion (less than 1%) Water vapor produced from the burning of hydrogen (about 2%) Unburned combustibles (about 2%) Radiation (about3%) Total heat losses in this examples equal 18-19% While some of these losses are preventable losses over which the boiler operator has control.

The basic factor governing boiler output is the rate of heat release that can be maintained in the furnace as determined by the type of firing equipment used: The heat release rate of a boiler is an expression of the rate at which the combustion of the fuel liberates heat energy based on the fuel input in Joules per hour. What is a “pass” for a boiler? Boilers are called “one-pass. but are always directly related to the amount of heat that will be produced when the boiler is fired ar a specified fuel input under specified conditions. How are boilers rated? Commercial boiler ratings may be stated in several ways. This term is not used with fire tube boilers. These surfaces are those that make up “boiler heating surface” calculations. to the water.” “two-pass. then they are not considered as a separate pass and the unit is then called a “one pass” boiler. as in a vertical tube unit. What are the various heating surfaces in a boiler? Regardless of how a boiler is constructed. Heating surface is expressed in square feet and may be defined as: Radiant Heating Surface. Heat release rate may be defined as either Joules per hour per cubic meter of furnace volume or as Joules per hour square meter of radiant heating surface. Gross output is usually expressed in: BARON Chemicals & Systems (P) Ltd. Converted Heating Surfaces – (also called indirect or secondary) including all those water-backed surfaces exposed only to hot combustion gases. H-5/ 21.com Web: www.” If the tubes are arranged so that they are actually an extension of the combustion chamber. Gross output rating is the total amount of heat available at the boiler outlet for a specific fuel input.net .(also called direct or primary) including all water-back surface that are directly exposed to the radiant heat of the combustion flame.22056393 Fax 91-11-22023200 Email: info@baronchemicals.” according to the number of times the heat released in combustion is conducted through the boiler before the gases exit the vent.” “three-pass” or “four-pass.baronchemicals. The furnace in which the combustion takes place is counted as one “pass. produced by burning fuel.“Right step of Maintenance is the SOUL™ of efficiency” An ISO 900:2008 Certified Comp. Krishna Nagar.” For examples: a three-pass boiler consists of a furnace (first pass) from which the gases exit with a 1800 turn in to a course of flue tubes (second pass) from which they exit with a 1800 turn into another course of flue tubes (third pass) before exiting into the vent. it has only one purpose to transfer the heat. then each group of flue passages requiring a reversal of gas direction is referred to as a separate “pass. Extended Heating Surface – referring to the surface of economizers and super heaters used in certain types of water tube boilers. if they are exposed to heat on one side and have water on the other side. Delhi-110051. If the tubes are arranged so that the combustion gases must make a 1800 turn to enter them. Transfer of heat will occur through all of the metal surfaces. Tel:011-22418572.

Water tube Boiler.22056393 Fax 91-11-22023200 Email: info@baronchemicals.7 Kilograms of water at 1000 C into steam 1000 C.net . Hoe do I select a boiler? There are five points of concern that should be applied when selecting the appropriate boiler design for a specific installation.“Right step of Maintenance is the SOUL™ of efficiency” An ISO 900:2008 Certified Comp. Therefore: One Boiler Horsepower is equal to 35356 KJ Note: In order to avoid combustion. Metal or refractory baffles direct the gas flow to improve heat transfer. At 0 gauge pressure. the gross output for any steam pressure s always shown at the standard condition “from and at 1000C. so the rating stated at “standard” condition are valid regardless of the pressure at which the boiler is operated. Sometimes baffles to tabulators are inserted in the tubes to control gas velocity and improve the heat transfer by forcing the hot gases into more intimate contact with the tube walls. Delhi-110051. Tel:011-22418572. Design pressure is the maximum pressure used in the design of the boiler for purpose of calculating the minimum permissible thickness or physical characteristics of the pressure vessel part of the boiler. H-5/ 21. BARON Chemicals & Systems (P) Ltd. Operating pressure is the pressure of the boiler at which it normally operates. or 1000 C heat of the vaporization of steam is 2252 KJ/Kg. the safety relief valves are set at or below design pressure.com Web: www. The tubes may be arranged horizontally or vertically above the furnace. Which boiler designs are more common? Fire tube Boiler. Typically. The operating pressure is set at a suitable level below the setting of the pressure relieving valves to prevent their frequent opening during normal operation.Here the hot combustion gases are directed over the tunes in which the boiler water circulates. the work equivalent per kilogram of steam also increases as steam pressure increases. Thousand of Joules per hour (KJ) Boiler Horsepower (BHP) Kilograms of steam per hour One boiler horsepower is defined as the evaporation of 15.” Although more heat input per kilogram of steam is actually required as steam pressure increases.baronchemicals.Here the combustion products from the burning fuel are conducted to the boiler flue outlet through flue passages (tubes) that are surrounded by water. They are: System Type: Steam or Hot Water System Load Performance Considerations Codes and standards The two system types encountered are steam and hot water systems. Krishna Nagar. Steam and hot water boilers for these systems are defined according to design pressure and operating pressure.

I. The Heating load will include large seasonal variations but no large instantaneous demand changes.I. H-5/ 21. A process Load is usually a high-pressure steam application pertaining to manufacturing processes where heat from either steam or hot water is used in the process. very much like a heating load. Low-pressure boilers are limited to 15-psig design and are typically used for heating applications only. Typical operating pressures for these systems are from 30 psig to 125 psig.net . which means that true capacity will rarely be reached. Many facilities have combination loads with a mixture of different types of processes and heating.D. Batch loads are loads characterized by short-term demands or the M. If a system requires hot water of more than 1160 C. Krishna Nagar. you will need to know the following information: Heating Load Process Load Combination Load A Heating Load is typically low-pressure steam or hot water and s relatively easy to define.D. Variations BARON Chemicals & Systems (P) Ltd. A process load can be further defined as continuous or batch load. What is a system Load? System Load is measured in either KJ or Kilograms of Steam(at a specific pressure and temperature). Due to the fact that a very large instantaneous demand can be several times larger than the rating of the boiler. Continuous load is defined as a load that is fairly constant. Delhi-110051. Once a heating load is computed.22056393 Fax 91-11-22023200 Email: info@baronchemicals. the number can easily be transferred into equipment size requirements.com Web: www. To determine system load. High-pressure boilers have operating pressures typically from 75 psig to 300 psig and are typically used for process loads and/or heating requirements. Tel:011-22418572. Steam boilers are designed for low pressure of high-pressure application.baronchemicals. A heating boiler should be sized to the worst probable weather conditions. Loads vary and a boiler must be capable of handing the minimum load. factor. The information given above should be taken into consideration in an additive manner when you encounter such situations.“Right step of Maintenance is the SOUL™ of efficiency” An ISO 900:2008 Certified Comp. These variations fall into three basic types: Seasonal Variations Daily Variations M. Hot water boilers are commonly used for heating applications with the boilers supplying water to the system at 820C to 1040 C. very careful boiler selection should take place in such process load situations. the maximum load and all the load variations in between. a high temperature water boiler should be used.

feed water valve control and combustion controls.22056393 Fax 91-11-22023200 Email: info@baronchemicals. Krishna Nagar. and maximum load requirements. a section of a large “winter” boiler and a smaller “summer” boiler will provide the best and most cost effective solution when measured on a lowest yearly operating cost basis.“Right step of Maintenance is the SOUL™ of efficiency” An ISO 900:2008 Certified Comp. The ability of a boiler to answer variable load demands depends on the boiler type. Tel:011-22418572.baronchemicals. Often. Load tracking is recommended. BARON Chemicals & Systems (P) Ltd. What are the considerations in selecting the ideal number of boilers? The important criteria in selecting the ideal number of boilers are: Need for back-up boilers Load Type Downtime When selecting boiler consideration should be given to future expansion. H-5/ 21. Below is an illustration of a load tracking collection form. emergency repairs and maintenance situations. especially in a heating/process mixed load situation. If the analysis of a load show a highly variable situation.net .com Web: www. Minimum Heating Load 1 Heating Load 2 Heating Load 3 Total Heating Load Process load 1 Process load 2 Total Process Load Instantaneous Load Total Load Average Maximum - Utilize a load demand matrix to analyze each load and determine minimum. Delhi-110051. a more complex control package may be required. average. To accurately determine the load of any system.

What are the performance considerations in selecting a boiler? Untreated or raw water is never pure. Corrosion occurs when metals (by acid or electrolytic action) attack metals. Corrosion occurs where levels of oxygen or carbon dioxide are high. As it absorbs into and seeps downward through the ground it picks up even more chemicals and minerals. Scale –forming salts adhere directly to heating surfaces forming layers of insulation on the metal substantially decreasing its heat transfer efficiency. Water contain varying amounts of gases. Corrosion increases maintenance costs. The major consequences of fouling to boiler room equipment are energy waste and increased operating/ maintenance costs. Common impurities that can affect physical plant operations are listed below. solids and pollutants. Fouling occurs when restriction develops in piping and equipment passages. where pH values are low.com Web: www. Delhi-110051.baronchemicals. Water in the form of rain absorbs gases from the air asit falls to the ground. creating inefficient water flow. The metals is eaten away similar to the generalized rusting of an automobile fender. Krishna Nagar. results in premature replacement of equipment and causes unnecessary safety risks. H-5/ 21.“Right step of Maintenance is the SOUL™ of efficiency” An ISO 900:2008 Certified Comp. It is loaded with salts. dissolved gases and inorganic compounds. Tel:011-22418572. Common Water Impurities Impurity Source Effect Algae Organic growth Fouling Calcium Mineral deposits Scale Carbon dioxide dissolve gases Corrosion Chloride mineral deposits Corrosion Free acids industrial waste Corrosion Hardness mineral deposits Scale Magnesium mineral deposits Scale Oxygen dissolved gases Corrosion Silica Mineral deposits Scale Solids Undissolved material Fouling What are the major problems associated with water quality and equipment? The five major problems associated with water quality and equipment problems are: Scale Formation Corrosion Fouling Foaming Embitterment Scale is an extremely hard substance created when mineral salts come out of solution as their solubility drops with a rise in water temperature.22056393 Fax 91-11-22023200 Email: info@baronchemicals. where contact occurs between dissimilar metals and in damp environments or corrosive atmospheres.net . BARON Chemicals & Systems (P) Ltd. By the time the water is pumped up from its ground source and delivered to our faucet.

which is then absorbed by the iron in steel. These slugs can wreak havoc with turbine blades.the replacement of specific inorganic salts by ion exchange. the best possible cost/benefit ratio will come from a balanced equipment/chemical treatment approach. unnecessary downtime and equipment replacement. How do I improve the input water quality for my boiler? There are three tools that can be used to improve water quality: Internal Treatment.“Right step of Maintenance is the SOUL™ of efficiency” An ISO 900:2008 Certified Comp. H-5/ 21.in which the bubbles break and create a liquid that combines to form slugs of water that are carried over into the steam system.baronchemicals. Tel:011-22418572. most organizations large enough to have in-house maintenance will find that the combination of these three tools will more than pay for themselves in defrayed operating costs. internal treatment calls for a more concerted effort. BARON Chemicals & Systems (P) Ltd. Delhi-110051. Foaming can cause priming. Foaming is a condition in which concentrations of soluble salts (aggravated by grease. effectively changing its physical properties. By-products of a well-implemented program are: Increased Heat Transfer Lower Fuel Expenditures Lower Chemical Consumption Expected for steam trap maintenance. Caustic Embitterment occurs when hairline crakes appear in highly stressed areas due to high concentrations of alkaline salts that liberate hydrogen. actuating devices and piping downstream of the boiler. cooling towers. Pressure from the steam can create velocities as high as 125-160 km per hour for slugs of water discharged into steam lines.net . They often feel that way because the relatively “small” amounts of money spent consistently “seems” like less of an investment than equipment first costs.conditioning the water to pre-determined levels by using a variety of chemicals.22056393 Fax 91-11-22023200 Email: info@baronchemicals. What is meant by chemical treatment for water? Is chemical treatment the cheapest way to treat the input water? Some people consider chemical treatment to be the least expensive and only necessary water treatment program for their system. Desecration. Krishna Nagar. Demineralization. When fouling is allowed to continue and proliferate in a system. suspended solids or organic material) create frothy bubbles (resembling the foam in a beer mug) in the steam space of a boiler. While demineralization and desecration can be accomplished easily by investment in the appropriate support equipment. For most systems.the removal of dissolved oxygen and carbon dioxide by heating and bombarding the water with steam. However. they will take their toll in higher fuel costs. While chemical treatment is a necessary part of water treatment it is almost never the cheapest or most effective single way.com Web: www. heat exchangers and other critical devices could give rise to the emergence of health-related issues such a Legionnaires Disease. water treatment has the most potential for reducing annual operating costs of your power plant. Unless Embitterment problems are constantly monitored and controlled. This condition is caused largely by boiler water with pH values 11 + and manifests itself in high-temperature areas of the boiler. increased safety risks.

Which equipment is necessary to support a water treatment program for an open steam system? Chemical Feed System Water Softener system Bottom and/or Surface Blow down Boiler Feed water System or Deaerator System Condensate Return System Chemicals Feed is an important part of even the smallest physical plant.“Right step of Maintenance is the SOUL™ of efficiency” An ISO 900:2008 Certified Comp. Wired so that the unit operates in conjunction with the feed water or deaerator unit in open steam systems. Tel:011-22418572. How do I maintain optimum efficiency of my system? What is required to insure that your system is operating as its optimum efficiency is a staff or vendor who can regularly perform the following functions: Will be familiar with all of your water treatment/boiler room equipment and its frequency of operation. To cause compounds to precipitate out of solution to be removed by bottom blow down. Will regularly test your water and log results.22056393 Fax 91-11-22023200 Email: info@baronchemicals. Most organizations with an in house staff will be able to perform water treatment duties themselves. Maintenance departments that don’t have the in-house time or expertise ought to consider contracting these duties out to a reputable vendor.com Web: www. bled and blown down as per equipment manufacturer’s instructions.net . H-5/ 21. Will see to it that equipment is fed. this equipment insures that the chemical treatment of your water is consistently being BARON Chemicals & Systems (P) Ltd. Chemical treatment is simply thee addition of chemicals to the feed water to accomplish one of two things: To cause compounds to stay in solution to be removed by continuous or surface blow down. stand. Will establish chemical inventory and reorder points. These units usually consist of a tank. Krishna Nagar. Chemical treatment programs that are mot accompanied by effective blow down monitoring are one of the leading causes of excessive boiler operating inefficiencies and/or failure. indicating constituents found and in what amounts. This equipment enables you to “feed” the appropriar\te amounts of chemicals into a system to protect equipment against scaling and corrosion. Will do all of the above on a regular basis. Delhi-110051.house tests and make appropriate corrections to your treatment program. pump. Will interpret results of in.baronchemicals. Will establish parameters for the use of chemicals and method for introduction/removal for the system. motor and agitator. Will keep a written analysis of yur water. Will perform regular inspection of all equipment.

Feed water systems have the dual function of storing and returning hot condensate and supplying make-up water in combination to meet the water demands of the boiler. Krishna Nagar. Bottom blow down units forcibly remove the sludge. from the bottom of the boiler. Often feed water systems come fitted with a pre-heater tube (often referred to a “spare tube” assembly) to function well as a “poor man’s deaerator” in some causes.22056393 Fax 91-11-22023200 Email: info@baronchemicals. A water softener System is another investment that should be made no matter how large the facility you are dealing with.baronchemicals. Condensate is water which has condensed from steam in the system. H-5/ 21.net . A water feeding system of some type is necessary to make-up for the system loss of water. These units are available in a wide range of sizes for anything from a light commercial to a heavy industrial application. This is the major cause of boiler replacement.a rusting of the tubes from within and under the water. Tel:011-22418572. Delhi-110051. A surface blow down/heat recovery unit produces an ongoing process that removes dissolved solids from the top level of water in the boiler while recovering a good deal of heat which is returned to the feed water at the same time. Fed from a raw water source. Make-up should not be raw water that has already gone through a softening and filtering process for best results. Use of feed water systems also accounts for large fuel saving and lower chemical costs. Use of water softener will also reduce the need for expensive chemical scale control additives. oxygen and carbon dioxide will cause pitting and corrosion. it is the water softener that produces the conditioned water for a system up front that will reduce the undesirable minerals that produce detrimental scale on heat transfer surfaces. BARON Chemicals & Systems (P) Ltd. Make-up is water that must be brought in to add to the condensate to equal the amount of water demanded by the boiler. A feed water System is necessary to help maintain peak efficiency and prolong the life of the boiler where investment in a dearerator cannot be justified. stand. Blow down Systems eliminate the mineral build-up that causes boiler scale and corrosion. This is very valuable water both for its chemical and heat content. A Deaerator is a mechanical device designed to remove non-condensable gases from boiler feed water.com Web: www. fed with the smallest amount of chemical treatment required to provide your customer with optimum treatment and payback results. These systems consist of a tank. that is the result of a precipitating chemical program. Through a process of heating and bombarding water with steam. As mentioned before: chemicals treatment is performed either to causes compounds to stay in solution to be removed by continuous or surface blow down or to cause compounds to precipitate out of solution to be removed by bottom blow down. Both systems work well to lower operating.“Right step of Maintenance is the SOUL™ of efficiency” An ISO 900:2008 Certified Comp. pumps. control panel and float device driven by demand of a feed water float switch located on the boiler.

pump and motor assemble and a float device to turn on the pump to move the condensate to a boiler feed water or deaerator. Generally. What procedures are recommended while starting the boiler for the first time? Hot water systems are closed systems and are often the systems that will be replacing old lowpressure steam systems for heating in most new construction. promote elimination of dissolved gases and control pH.“Right step of Maintenance is the SOUL™ of efficiency” An ISO 900:2008 Certified Comp. Make-up water provided by the fill device should have some means attached to provided chemicals treatment to the raw prior to being introduced to the system. you will encounter losses from pump packing. These device are used for batch feeding of chemicals into closed loop or low make-up water systems manually without the aid of pumps. H-5/ 21. it is important to be aware that three are many harmful substances.22056393 Fax 91-11-22023200 Email: info@baronchemicals. which remain in the boiler and piping after construction.com Web: www. This is generally accomplished through a shot-type chemical feeder. Krishna Nagar.baronchemicals. It is also recommended that a water meter be installed to monitor the make-up water required by the system to: Monitor system loss Identify system loss Correct system loss BARON Chemicals & Systems (P) Ltd. While many experts will tell you that closed systems require little or no attention to water treatment. air venting devices and threaded or flanged pipe connections. Make-up is generally provided by an automatic fill device. Chemicals will be required to prevent scale formation. It is recommended that chemical treatment be provided for the initial fill of the system.net . greases. Tel:011-22418572. It is common to find oils. These are often simple devices consisting of a small rectangular steel or cast iron tank. It is important that a good initial cleaning or boil out of the entire system be conducted before filling. weld slag and other contaminates within the system. Capturing and reusing treated condensate will result in large energy and water treatment savings. Small tanks with small pumps are your best investment producing the best first costs and insuring tat condensate is returned to the system as quickly and as hot as possible. Condensate Return units can be one of systems best cost/benefit investments. Especially in older hot water systems. Delhi-110051. experience has shown that few systems can actually be considered completely closed. If you are dealing with a new system. glands.

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