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Xu3ac'8
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VOL.

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9. By V. VOL. II : The T. By Translated by Edward Jones. Fausboll. I : Indian Mythology. 6< . J. of Philosophy in Islam. to the Mahabharata. 7.D. B. according 9s. R. VOL.lilac's riental TReligiona Series. History de Boer.

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SEMITIC MAGIC ITS ORIGINS AND DEVELOPMENT. .

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BY R.). (Cantab. London : LUZAC & 1908. M. CO.SEMITIC MAGIC ITS ORIGINS AND DEVELOPMENT. . CAMPBELL THOMPSON.A.

HERTFORD. .PRINTED HY STEPHEN AUSTIN AND SONS. LTD.

WHOSE COUNSELS ON THE HILLSIDE. BY THE LOCHSIDE. .TO MY UNCLE FREDEEIC THOMPSON. AND ON THE BROAD WATERS. HAVE OFTTIMES SERVED ME.

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certain made which bear intimately on our origins of knowledge principle of of the certain tabus and the atonement. incantation tablets from stones Assyria and. tradition. All these superstitions combine to throw light on many of the of peculiar the Old Testament. These may be briefly stated thus : .PREFACE. The are theories put forward or maintained in this book a based on study of that intricate demonology the of which has of gradually developed Asia. and that the coincident in principles of magic broadly speaking. and Arabic we can trace survival in modern Oriental afforded superstition. as far as each separate nation. throughout lands this Western are The earliest written records magic found in the cuneiform . and yet. we know. show how close the grooves are in ideas run. aided by the various stepping- afforded by Rabbinic tales. nations the parallels by Aryan and Hamitic which savage are. Further- more. Syriac monkish its growth and decadence through three thousand years down to its writings. customs of independent invention. From a study of the characteristics of exist which the Semite believed to deductions can be everywhere. the evil spirits. and help to explain the hidden reason why these customs existed.

on man. which he was able to do by a transference of the demoniac influence object.Xll PREFACE. or presence marriageable demons who Hence the would the tolerate no meddling in their amours. from the sick man into a wax figure or slaughtered and he was then able to destroy proceeded. The priest first of all inveigled drove out the demon kid. proximity. (4) It frequently happened ' that. sick from the attack of a resentful called in to exorcise the The priest was then demon. man might would an ' unwitting and as a result spirit. the most probable theory idea of the slaughtered it. from the body of his patient into some other (5) This is the base of the atonement or principle. in From the intermarriage sexual with spirits arose tabus on certain functions. their tribesman. in spite of the care taken to isolate break fall all persons or things tabu. fearing jealousy. As civilisation is that the original kid became merged in that of the ordinary sacrifice representing a the god. a tabu. segregated contaminated person from the rest of the tribe for such time as he deemed expedient. human mothers this belief or fathers. (1) All evil spirits could inflict bodily hurt (2) The relations between spirits and human beings were so close that both semi-divine and semi-demoniac of offspring could be born either of (3) intermarriage between them. common meal with The carcase of the kid then played the part . These (according to the present theory) indicate of the advent.

copy un- but my two applications of this for permission published tablets nature were refused Museum authorities. . and yet the evidence hitherto gleaned existed the cuneiform writings shows in find that it practically the same forms I Mesopotamia as in other countries. instead of being a receptacle for the demon cozened forth from the patient. and it also from a contemporaneous rise in civilisation. became natural to substitute a beast for a tribesman at the tribal sacrificial feasts. had hoped to more proof of its presence in certain cuneiform tablets dealing with medical and kindred subjects in the British to Museum. Hence the material at by the hand for a study of a most interesting branch of Comparative Religion is more imperfect than scientific is I could have wished. the principle of substitution the firstborn its demands primitive attention. (6) Having for proceeded thus far. and the relative this know on subject what we actually proportionate to the amount value of later date of evidence which may be afforded at some by these privy documents. This apparently takes the origin in cannibal feasts. the horror of which was softened their as Semites advanced in progress. to With migration perhaps of poverty a more fertile land where stress and famine did not demand such extremities as cannibalism. The study from in of tabu from the Assyrian side has been comparatively neglected.1* KEF ACE. sense in Xlll of a ' ' sin-offering in the which it is now understood.

" R. London. Campbell Thompson. almost unnecessary to say how much I am indebted to Robertson Smith's Religion of the Semites and Frazer's Golden Bough for the many quotations bearing on this subject which I have taken from them .. to the Encyclopaedia Biblica and Jewish Encyclopcedia to that storehouse of Arabic folklore.xiv It is PKEFACE. to Curtiss' Primitive Semitic Religion .. he weighs the opposite is experiments the greater inclines he considers which side supported by that side number of experiments . : to he last with doubt and hesitation his and when at exceeds not he fixes judgment. not only the care and trouble which he - has in reading the proof suggestions of sheets. To my taken uncle. July. to "a wise man. this must necessarily be imperfect. Frederic for Thompson. belief the evidence : . but also for many appropriate which I have gladly availed myself. to Skeat's Malay Magic and to King's various works on Assyrian religion. 1908. with the deductions that says in his discussion proportions his will agree But. . Such a book as and not everyone have been made. . Doughty's Arabia . the evidence what we properly call probability. I owe hearty thanks. as Hume on Miracles. therefore. Deserta .

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Keilschrifttexte.G. Proceedings of the Society of Biblical Archaeology. T.I.S.J. Old Testament in the Jewish Church. P. J. J. Palestine Exploration Fund.A. Journal of the American Oriental Society. Museum Devils Thompson. References to Kouyunjik Tablets in the British Museum. Die assyrische Beschwomngsserie Maqlu.A. J.T.L. Zeitschrift der Deutschen .L. Spirits of Babylonia.T.Q. J.S.B.S.B. Golden Bough. C.F. A.S.K. Die Beschwb'rungs- tafeln Surpu.S.S. Jewish Quarterly. Journal Asiatique. Surpu The Surpu Series. Zeitschrift fur Assyriologie.O. American Journal of Semitic Languages. Cuneiform Texts from Babylonian Tablets (British publications). Z.B. References to Tablets in the British Museum found by George Smith. Journal of Biblical Literature. Maklu The Maklu Series.J.M. Inscriptions of Western Asia. Journal of the Asiatic Society.S.A. published by Zimmern. P.K. Tt.E.C. Devils and Evil Frazer. W. Haupt. C.D.A. J.LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS.E.B. J. Transactions of the Society of Biblical Archaeology. K. A. G. A.S. Journal of the Ethnological Society. Morgenlandischen Gesellschaft. A. Rawlinson.T. O. published by Tallqvist. Robertson Smith. S. Akkadische und Sumerische Corpus Inscriptionum Semiticarum.I.

using the selfsame word as the Hebrews as the name of his will at once be apparent. on the other hand. " Magic and sorcery. though they lay outside of religion and were forbidden arts in all the civilised states of antiquity. insolita efficiens. Religion of the Semites. that the difference between religion and magic of the is that. and we can best quote the broad definition laid down by Robertson Smith." 1 The difficulty lies in distinguishing magic from religion. Martin Del Rio (Disquisitiones Magicce. qusedam sensum & communem hominum On the beliefs in magic current in the Middle Ages. We have. and yet. "that for the opinion of the ordinary literary critic who ' neither understands nor believes in Occultism. ed. captum it is refreshing to read even in a book published as late as 1898 {The Book of Sacred Magic of Abramelin the Sage. quorum ratio & non supernaturali. vi creata. Mathers) the remarks which are written by the editor who apparently expects to his explanatory Introduction is intended purely be taken seriously and . " : i. superat. the difficulty wizard of the Middle Ages. just as though he were a vindictive exorcism. 90. and ends with his defiance. 2 When sorcerer will conjure a a little demon forth from a sick man with dough figure." the curious will find an exhaustive account in Horst's Zauber Bibliothek. while the former is is the worship for the good community. 1599. to examine of much more than 1 the mere spell an Arab shekh for 2 Kobertson Smith. magic the supernatural relation for remembered how great an influence the principle of Atonement has in the Levitical laws. and solely as a help to genuine Occult students. that a Babylonian it is the individual. were yet never regarded as mere imposture.INTRODUCTION. 12) thus defines magic mira & Ut sit ars seu facultas. I care nothing. therefore. b .

La Magie et V Astrologie. a lovesick Bedawi. he only doing what medicine1 . ladder. xlv. men began to learn something of the mysterious natural forces which would enable one tribal wizard to pit himself in ghostly combat against the warlock of another clan. until we arrive at the bottom it is rung of the spells. As religious principles developed themselves among primitive savages. 103) by into a kind of trance through compressing its head. 1 love-philtres or diet-drinks of herbs for a miserable Then. He quotes also Th. Maury. and no other. and after him a successive line of magic-workers in grades of decreasing power. challenges the priests Baal to a is of comparison between his god and theirs. tree. Pharaoh's magicians cast down their wands. Sur les Harvis. Similarly. and defeat his superior magic. Customs. priest test of him by Yahweh. the head of the profession. the witch whose business to cast or make price. 25. or the amulet of some Syrian wise- woman against the Evil Eye . or (xvii. Surah vii) 40. explains this (quoting Lane's Maimers and a trick the magicians have of throwing a viper says that these magicians imposed on the bystanders with pieces of Other rope and wood which they made to writhe like serpents. xv. 461. magic and witchcraft deserve to be considered as something more than the impotent trickery of charlatans. which become serpents and are finally swallowed by Aaron's serpent. 6) . "When of Elijah. and making it appear as a rod. Revue des Deux Mondes. if for such wizardry go deep into the roots of religion itself. instances of Old Testament magic are contained in Exod. Pavie. Al-Beidawi (quoted Sale. when the existence of this lower order of 1 Kings xviii. where the waters of Marah are made sweet by casting in a where the striking of the rock causes water to flow. in the witch-doctor combat before the King of Egypt. ii. the principles which underlie for this reason. men of different savage tribes always do and in this intertribal warfare of witch-doctors classes arose we can see how different First. the priest among who was those who wrought in spiritual matters.XVlll PRIESTS AND WIZARDS. Koran.

being able to invoke debit the to darkness. whom the credulous or malicious poor will resort for aid in subterfuge. the temple. ed. Command now and the word again and the garment vanish. is the story of the rod becoming and Mohammedan tradition relates . and (thy let let command) shall be fulfilled. cause to find its much of the tribute the priests pockets. Seven Tablets of Creation. and unto Marduk their first-born they spake ' : May thy fate. and speak ' ! the garment reappear Then . one of the most blatant is described in the Assyrian legend of the Creation The gods assemble themselves to praise Marduk in chorus " Then they set in their midst a garment. : magic can descend. although mere conjuring is to-day reckoned the lowest depths to which tricks possible itself. Tablet IV.CONJURING TRICKS. and the garment reappeared. Abraham himself was able to work similar magic 1 Creation Series. King. of the to them he was quite as capable of laying a spell as the priest was of removing it. way by illegal channels into their own and it is such upstart rivals who impoverish. . be supreme among the gods to destroy or create. he spake with his mouth. to themselves in opposition to the The men of old never mistrusted the power sorcerer merely because he was of low degree . it behoves the priestly caste to set about defeating the machinations of such foes to law and order. From this arise so many set of the decrees against sorcerers who have dared established caste. Hence we find that. lesser For these powers of magicians. and the garment vanished again he commanded it. 61. lord." 1 In no wise more advanced a serpent in that Exodus iv. sorcerers is xix to fully established and accredited. speak | thou the word.

a peacock. kneads a piece of clay. a raven. is first vii. col. when he cut the birds in pieces in his sacrifice an eagle (or dove. as a cock others say). 3 Hence it was only a dazzling of the eyes. and having melted it he took an elixir from a little wallet and poured it thereon.. Surah man was made something more valuable we may see the prototype of that goal of every wizard of the Middle Ages. saw a man E. man (in the Jehovist account) fashioned from clay. Sale. 52). Michael. A Syriac Fragment. they first rejoined themselves in their 1 shapes to their heads. a story expanded by Arab tradition. who had been appointed to Karrhai. that the place was dirty from blood and dust? There was nothing. tradition maintained that According to Berossus.. Ashi says that he related in later Jewish literature Still more puerile are the scatter trivial . after stood up. one after another. Rodkinson). Z. rang a and the camel stood up. Ibid. and the fragment of cuneiform tablet identified by Mr.M. Prairies d'Or. 1900. strips of silk from his nose. on leaving. and Israfil were sent by God. Even in a Syriac story (Brooks. ii. 197. laying them in four parts on four mountains. and thus creates Ea-bani. and it changed its colour and became gold. and for this reason men are of different colours Even in the creation of man (Mas'udi." 1 2 3 Koran./ XX that CONJURING TRICKS. the Babylonian of the blood of Bel mixed with earth. the Philosopher's Stone. red. Gabriel. told Isaac to bring him a piece of lead. it R. Sanhedrin (ed. This monk. Hyya answers. Then.O. King {Seven Tablets of Creation. i. and he retained only their heads whole. Surah ii. when he called to each by name. 217) we find it told of one Isaac. and there entertained a strange monk.D. In this method of changing one material to Adam {Koran. 1. " Did you see. . performances of conjurers E. and mixed the flesh and feathers.. which relates that the 'Angel of Death took black. and thereafter bell." She washes her hands. 2 and cut Hyya is told the story of a rider of a camel who off the head of the camel with his sword. and white earth to God to form man. 33) Aruru " forms a man of Anu in her heart. to fetch seven handfuls of earth to create ii). lviii) recounts that Marduk announces his intention of forming man from blood and fashioning bone. 198. In the same way in the Gilgamish Epic (i.

severally to and functions were manifold. upon them by a malignant witch. the art of the baru. to lay spell laid spirits troublesome under as a lay ban that they might not reach. a one for forw-priests. out demons from possessed folk.priests. side of and have it little bearing on the more serious uses to which was put. . 1 a special caste far as and. torment such mortals priesthood large class. Enmeduranki. Sorcerers in olden days were far more concerned with the utilitarian side of their craft than in working sterile wonders merely to please a crowd of sightseers theirs was the graver duty of freeing mankind from tabus of uncleanness. King the town sacred to Samas. according to . or chanters. within their The in which such powers were vested formed a particularly in the systematized methods of their Babylonia. 14 . or relieving them from some also. 17. 42. xxi hypnotic or otherwise. and he communicated of Sippar to the diviners and Babylon. was the power to ward off all hostile ghosts. r/st/ni. second for the Zimmern has baru is collected much material about them . Enmeduranki initiation to had received from Samas and Adad the mysterious it rites. of casting . 14. In ancient Mesopotamian tablets into lore we may the class the ritual three categories. The baru 1 King. represent the least magic.CLASSES OF PRIESTS. These effective tricks. according to Martin. who approximate to and a third for the zamma ni--priests. wizards. Theirs. Letters of Hammurabi. he belonged to which tradition took back as of Sippar. the priest who or performed the ceremonies seers. allotted different divisions of the caste. the met with as far back as the time of Hammurabi. each with a descriptive name.

how. in that (1500 B. l As among the Jewish the baru (and asipu too) had their liturgical vest- 2 ments.) makes an the Agukakrime Kutha creation legend the king asks of the gods through these same The Cultusseers. they. and Utukku In his hands also the power of performing 1 Martin. of the renewal of the privileges of this under the succeeding king. Ibid.. ment of a 860 b. tablet of Sippar treats of the installation of a baru to the seer Sun Temple. Textes Religieux. before he goes out against the enemy.C. he when he was captured a seer besieging a hostile Aramean baru-seers is who went seeks at the head of the enemy." priests. also.C. He who lies is who is cleanses tabus of uncleanness and removes bans. the secret of Anu. and also by the observation of the in water. who are the medium for the favourable oracle which Esarhaddon receives concerning his reconstruction of Babylon. xiv. and Ea the tablet of the gods. xvi. The functions and exorcist of the asipu (which is probably synonymous the incantation-priest with masmasu) are different. the (wand) of cedar dear to the great gods.priests enquiry. series. 2 . Bel.). consults gods on the future by the inspection of the of oil liver and birds entrails. flight of " : The observation .XXli CLASSES OF PRIESTS. the sachet of leather of the oracles of the heavens and earth. Maklu.c) Assurnasirpal (884- mentions in his annals tribe. which they changed frequently during the ceremony. and also of the appointsuccessor (980-950 B. and Sennacherib causes of his father's through the It the violent death. and he the magician chants the rites prescribed in such magical texts as the Surpu. It is through these baru. 1903.

King of the Deep. I am the magician born of Eridu. the XX111 atonement later. 2 Vsurtu. (The man) of Damkina am I. description of them. I. the magic circle. By whose He is the Stilling all incantation everything great Lord Ea. on the asipu.EXORCISM OF DEVILS. King : of the Deep. mighty in decision. The messenger of Marduk am My My spell is the spell of Ea. Begotten in Eridu and Subari. 1 ceremony. The d&te-spathe." 3 Incantation He that stilleth all to rest. at peace. safeguard me " ! 4 " Incantation I. When I draw nigh unto the sick man May Ea. my hand : I hold. Ea.e. that pacifieth is all. . . of the banl . to which a chapter will be devoted gathered from the following quotations from the Assyrian exorcisms which are to be recited over sick people : A more precise view of his functions may be " Incantation : (The man) of Ea am I. 3 * See my i. to rest. 23. the powerful weapon In my hand I hold. By whose incantation everything is at peace. Devils 25. ReligieuXy xiii. i.. to see the magician. . 82 ff. am thy slave. i. incantation is the incantation of Marduk. or perhaps ban. 1 The functions and asipu are taken from Zimmern's Textes See also Martin. In " of Anu. Ibid. The tamarisk. The circle 2 of Ea is in my hand. When I draw nigh unto the sick man All shall be assuaged. Ritualtafeln. and pacifying all. and Evil Spirits of Babylonia.

l be ! " Unto the house on entering Samas (is) before me. May a kindly Spirit. Spirits of Babylonia." 2 with the ritual of the asipu and mahnasu that the following chapters are chiefly concerned. thy pure voice to mine. And my guardian spirit O God that blesseth. exponents of black magic. Of the zammaru less is known than of these other two." .Xxiv WIZARDS AND WITCHES. When I lay my hand on the head of the sick man. thy slave. On the other hand.. And I too. Sin (is) . . ! Oh that thou wert my guardian genius. a kindly Guardian. and Evil i. the kassapu and hassaptu (in Hebrew kassdph) are the wizard spells and witch who lay bans or cast on people. fortunate the utterances of my mouth. stand at my It is side. man whom I (now) touch be blessed. Let me be blessed. behind [me]. where'er my path may Thy power shall god and man proclaim This man shall do thy service. Ordain that my decisions be happy. i. the magician. hand. but from his name he sang or chanted the ceremonials allotted to him. When I draw near unto the sick man. 2 15. me Let the Before After be blessed where'er I tread. (to Vouchsafe me) pure words. Marduk. March thou on Assist (me) on my right my left . . Nergal (is) at [my] right hand. me may a lucky finger be pointed. 27. whose devices 1 Devils Ibid. Add Add Make Let thy pure spell to mine. Ninib (is) at my left hand . me may lucky thoughts be spoken. .

sends to Balaam asking him to curse Israel. and if the river overcome him. Tablet III. he shall plunge into the river. prowling through towns. Cf. 14. walking up and down. and he be saved." 3 He witch. the king of Moab. love. 3 Maklu. By her glance she taketh away her desire. She standeth in the street and turneth her feet. If the river makes "If a man has charged a is himself. he who accused him shall be put to death. : who appeals for divine aid in the following terms " Incantation : The witch that roameth the streets. xxii. 5. Entering houses.. fruit. Through the broad place she hindereth passage. 2 i. Num. bk. Bibl. he who that man to be innocent. see Martin Del Rio. . A witch hath looked on me and With her My god and sorcery she hath stopped my way. XXV the more legitimate priest-magician combated. where Balak. 141. 1 _The second law of the Hammurabi code is framed against this pro- miscuous tampering with dangerous arts man with sorcery and has not justified charged with sorcery shall go to the river. Disquisiliones. She looketh on a man. see Encycl. and snatcheth away her pursued me. Of the well-favoured maid she stealeth away the fruit. Going through the broad places. he who accused him shall take to himself his house. 2 devoted to charms and spells recited against hostile magicians who have practised their arts series is The Maklu against the suppliant. With her venom she hath hindered my passage. 1116 Baudissin. . my goddess cry over my body.WIZARDS AND WITCHES. and snatcheth away his She looketh on a maid. Studien. He who plunged into the river shall take to " himself the house of him who accused him. 1 ff. Of the well-favoured man she snatcheth away the love. On the ideas in earlier times about Biblical sorcerers. 1 goes on to say that he has made an image it of the and calls on the Fire-god to burn in For a discussion on the meanings of the various words for magicians Hebrew.

9496 gives the line " When a man kispi kak-kak (= usepis)-su sorcery bewitches him. Samas. bind thy hand behind thee. thy hands as they twist. In whose footsteps death standeth. thy feet as they walk. On whose tongue is born my spell. like the circlet of this seal. 1 ff. is witch. 1 seize thine eyes as I seize they glance. ." 2 Maklu. Repeat this incantation three times over the threshold and the evil foot will not approach the house of the man. May thy words not reach me By the command of Ea. the magic thou hast Recoil upon thyself. I seize thy tongue. . (?) Assume thy the water thou hast hidden ! Be thine own May thy incantation not draw nigh me. and ! ' Belit. I seize thy knees as they bend. 1." K." or witch The wizard Sits Sits in the shade of the wall. Marduk. And May May May force back thy words into thy mouth. I seize I May he cast thee into an abyss of water and ' fire. I seize thy mouth. Whoever thou In whose heart art. made the images thou hast fashioned character. making spells against . me. Fashioning images of me But I send against thee the haltappan-ipldLnt and sesame. K. On whose lip is born my sorcery. 89 ff.XXVI " Incantation : WIZARDS AND WITCHES.. witch. May Sin destroy thy body in front. Tablet V. " evil may be repelled from the threshold of a house. 2 ." and goes on to give details for his release. the word of my misfortune. May " thy face grow yellow and green. witch. 10333 is an incantation which shows how Ibid. To undo the spell. . Tablet III.

So do ye purify me. done is broken. the lord of magic. All that I do ye know not.WIZARDS AND WITCHES. I bring the message despatched. rising of the sun. a pot." Incantation I : I am sent. may her tongue be salt. Perform the incantation. back to her own mouth. have called hear the [word] of the earth " ! . witch. l bear a box. her tongue shall May May May May May the gods of night smite her in her magic. O earth. hath sent me against the might of : : am my .. All her spells the desert. the east and one to the west. To give water to the gods of heaven. like tallow. loosed without Perform the incantation. the gods of night have spoken. As I have brought ye purification. shall turn off.. the three watches of the night loose her evil sorcery. Perform the incantation. All that my sorceresses have release. my city is Sappan. I come Marduk. Incantation : My Of city is Sappan. ! Gilgamish is the lord of your ban All that ye do I know. the magic which she hath worked be crumbled like is loosed. By the command which Incantation : Earth. my city One to One towards the I Sappan there are two gates. the other towards its setting. Or in Tablet I : XXV11 : " Incantation The spell Her word be cut of my sorceress is evil. the word of my evil which she hath spoken be poured out salt. earth. (and) ?nastakal-}Aa nt. her mouth be fat. I wizard and my . fill Her knot her work is destroyed.

4. Yet I know and have steadfast confidence . enters the westernmost The woman. and the curious them La Magie dans VInde 2 3 in Victor Henry. 142. T. Water mixed with sampata 55) . vi.. 1904. Antique. C. on the lead ("les plombs." see op. the earth receiveth her seed And perform an incantation for myself That it may be favourable to myself And drive out the evil. xxiii. 1 The Assyrian " Ho.XXVU1 WIZARDS AND WITCHES. This incident of making a city is paralleled in Indian charms for a woman at childbirth. this is found in the medical text Maklu. door. cit. 9. 23. the kidneys kill my witch and I may live. Ibid.. On the right and left of my door In I The gods have set Lugalgirra and Allamu. Thou canst pass over all mountains. or the ass her foal. the ewe her lamb. Near my door have I posted a servant. each having two doors. my street is watch kept. ." 3 The rites continue. which is placed on is cast a leaf of paldqa. A charm similar to and 10. 1. of the watch that tear out the heart (?) And wrench " That they may I cherish thee. I cherish thee. the Plain-god cherisheth his cattle. As Or Or I my body. as the water-ditch cherisheth the earth. And may the great gods remove 1 the spell from will find my body. or the gazelle her young. text runs on ! my witch or sorceress Thy bounds are the whole world." 2 O myself. abortion. 26.. by the western clad in a black robe. 118. one to the west and the other to the east. 1. vii. the In order to avoid lie sorcerer makes three small huts which west and east. the woman walks on the lead.

* 5 6 7 Arabia Deserta. enter thy city. i. Klein. xxii. the 7 dead sleep will fall upon him till the morning. and she the goodman not know only a little it If take betwixt her fingers of the ashes of the hearth and sprinkle on his forehead." The 2 silver bullet likewise and this no known amulet magic." adding of thing was their common sly their parts. ii. Arabian Nights. demands the expulsion of Doughty has two stories of the power of . 3 the fate threatened to sorceresses in Exodus. a spirit.WIZARDS AND WITCHES. who wore a hijab against bullets. the work drinks. " Lo." 1 Story in Note 51 to chapter xxi. Lane. (1580). of 6 women with " : philtres and maleficent is His description of the Kheybar witches it ? to the point How may a witch that has an husband gad abroad by night. which besets me. is who would resistless. Religion of Islam. 106 . prince Shammar his it brother Tellal. 10. that they were l fan. 2 3 Arabia Deserta. It is quaint to see XXIX the witch of the old nursery tales who on a broomstick repeated in the Arab lore. I saw four women. Cur magis fcemince superstitiosw reperiantur ? . see Sprenger. 181. of will tells protect the wearer against Doughty after of Metaab (Ibn Rashid). According to Mohammedans the wizard is an infidel and deserves death. Malleus Maleficarum Ibid. I therefore knew. 257. enchantresses.. xviii. 4 while Deuteronomy the sorcerer. but did not prevail against a silver one with which his nephews killed him. 5 Arabian witches one of a patient who was in ' fascinated/ and lamented " that this sort it is nefs. 384. 18. one of them riding upon a broom. 84. rides and one of them riding upon a king.

2. 1 Psellus (eleventh century)." "through who took him by night to a mountain. 8 to-morrow will be a lucky day for Damons. 19." used the holy name of Jesus to cast out " not a few of them that devils 4 and practised curious . He was thereby enabled to see "a host of daemons. 2 4 6 7 Acts Acts Acts viii. 65. Dialogue on the Operation of ed. xix. "strolling Jews." In Sanhedrin' Rabbi Akiba says that an enchanter is one who calculates times and hours and sa}'s. 38. " To-day is good to start much 6 on a journey. 5 Acts Acts xiii. of the 8 Doughty speaks " : lucky days Salih. 6 ff. . 'you know journey ? When I enquired of his art. . Elymas. was " certain maid having a spirit of divination A which brought her masters 1 gain by soothsaying. vagabond gave him a certain herb to eat. A man at power always ascribed Elason said he had learnt a certain something of the black art African. and the magus. 16. 13. exorcists." 5 Divination. is The Moghrebi a sorcerer in a story to "Western always recognized as the Arab folk-tales. and anointed his eyes with an unguent. from among which he perceived a sort of raven fly towards him. spat into his mouth. and down his throat into his stomach. and burned them in recognized. Talmudic Miscellany. col. hearing I custom among the Arabs of foretelling would depart. the sight of all.xxx MAGIC IN THE (' NEW ') TESTAMENT. arts brought their books together." l Several references are to be found in the 2 New Testament. What not this ? how. 9. quoted Hershon. . but by drawing certain lines in the sand and it is ! . asked me privately had ' ' ! I found by divination tamyis. notably Simon of Samaria. 3 Others. if the chance were good for this day's said he. Fol. xix. and even Psellus tells which bears witness to the Moghrebi wizards. too. Collisson. xvi. who became blind at the instance of Paul.

The first husband would and she then generally go to tried to that wine-dealer for his wine. the second day is good.HEBREW WIZARDS. or a crow caws in his hearing. ii) the priest relates how a fox fell into a pit but was got out. Manners 1 and Customs. K. Ed. 1 six. Textes Relatifs aux Presages). One day he much used here {Arabia Deserta. In the Assyrian letter-tablets it is no uncommon thing to find the astronomers making the same calculations. 331). eight. XXXI is the year before the sabbatical year generally of good for growing wheat. Km. "The statement elsewhere that ten. 551 (Harper. i. or he drops the stick that supports calls after him from his hand. and 25th of the month are lucky for entering into contracts. as it happened that a man once divorced his wife. . 228. or cut the nails (Lane. or There is a curious story in Pesachim man bewitched by a former wife. or if his son him. Rodkinson. he who augurs if when his bread drops from his mouth." " An enchanter is to the Rabbis." of a he sees a serpent at his right hand. " It is well for the journey . vol. or a fox on his left. or a deer crosses his path. the pulling up [instead According ill cutting] of pease will preserve them from being spoiled. 565 (Harper. who say. became the wife of a wine-dealer." In K. ' " K. 167 (ibidem) the writer excuses himself from setting out on a journey because the day is unfavourable. the even and four are excluded from numbers which are injurious only refers to acts caused by evil spirits. but where witchcraft is concerned. iv) tells the king that the 20th. vol. i) is a letter to the king from two priests. Omens from all forms of portents are numerous in Even in the Assyrian (see Boissier. 73 (Harper. 162). selling. and . bewitch him. Among the modern Egyptians is a not Saturday day to begin a journey on. but without success for they he was always careful to avoid the even numbers. shave. Assyrian and Babylonian Letters. It is also to be found in the modern magical MSS. letter in the city of Assur. vol. 22nd. the fourth day always (or very) good. even those and more numbers may prove injurious.

sorcery) from beneath and he "If you think you will succeed in affecting me with your witchcraft. the street he was met by a certain merchant. . that enchantments have no effect while the enchanter to is 2 and their mother persuaded tomb to ask his advice. The asleep. men could sometimes overreach Satan himself in tales exist. to court. imbibed too freely." It is curious to see that there is an Arab tradition that it magic will not work while he that works Sadur is asleep. Rodkinson. Although the power of yet wise evil spirits was much feared. pitted who were Moses. and after drinking his sixteenth cup he became confused and did not know how many he had drunk. and Ghadur. Iblis once sent his son to an assembly of honourable people with a flint stone. two the of the of magicians sorcerer. into When he went and then succeeded in bewitching him. (for There was a woman who his foot.' Not being able to proceed farther. Arabs. So they saw to it that he drank an even number. 1 Sanhedrin. cunning. the drunken man embraced emitted a groan and a tree for support. dried up. particularly they redound to the credit of local patriotism. has no effect against heavenly according to R. tried to take earth said. Hanina. and the when the a man was killed. vii. 197." But even witchcraft decree. man walking tree before me.XXX11 ARAB WIZARDS. Surah vii. who 'I see a murdered said. and told him to have the flint stone woven. Sale. against sons a Egyptian famous were sent for them father go to their father's answered their call and told them. as I am not afraid. among other things. Such especially among the modern if who delight to relate such legends. ed. 1 go on and do so. 2 Koran.

" My father sends his peace. wilt thou take as thy half that which is above ground. and the Devil was very angry." A it man with a goat-beard said.B. 86. xxxiii He came in and said. 207. 3 when Iblis Time was. > and the fellah reaped the field and 2 3 Baldensperger.S. and so carried these off as his share.A.. " This time. as my servant related to me. the partners went to their vegetable patch and the man said. Bekoroth. 1893. Then. for he is more devilish than we." quoth he. on a day when the onions were ready. c . round. and then we will weave it. and found a man planting onions." l Curiously enough. "Master. P." The son went back. and thou shalt take the tops and so it fell out.. the Devil looked over the ditch and complained that he had made nothing out of the compact.F.ARAB LEGENDS OF SATAN. 2 made too. have ever prided themselves on a ready wit against the Devil. " we will divide differently. quoted Jewish Encycl. and wishes to have this flint stone woven. i. January. They visited the tilth together when .. or that which is below?" Now the Devil saw the good green shoots of the onions sprouting high. "Tell your father to have spun. They and in their fellowship agreed to divide the produce of the garden. He asks in reply for a few threads stone. Rabbi Joshua ben Hananiah makes a similar request in a contest against the wise men of Athens. came to Mosul fell to talking. leaving the gardener chuckling over his bargain. and told his son never to put forth " any suggestion when a goat-bearded man was present. Talmud. the corn was ripe.E. who have required him to sew together the fragments of a broken millstone. 1908. and the But when wheat time came his glebe man was sowing on a day. For the Arabic version see P. of the fibre of the The good folk of Mosul. 289.

12. So it was a sanguine Devil as I am doing with this. wherein thou 1 hast laboured from thy youth .XXXIV took roots. ears. ! outmatch devilry like yours?" In the present book the Assyrian incantation-tablets are frequently used as a base for the various hypotheses put forward. "This is a paltry hast "thou said cozened me this twice. that went stopping once in a while to shake his hand against so " Cursed be who can ye. after former. quibble. 1 the of world Chaldean "with thine enchantments. this being the most logical method at present available." Iblis." "Nay. away the leaving the Devil stubbing up the he had been digging for a month. "I gave thee thy desire. Moreover. and with the multitude of thy sorceries. and went to the man. xlvii. and . ye tricksters crafty a town. . stalking away in dudgeon. he began to find out his error. in dealing with no underhand sorcery surreptitiously carried on. but in vain and he left Mosul sullenly. thou furthermore. and didst not thresh out thine onion-tops. particularly from its astrological side." Presently. which through its thoroughness had gained great repute. but fair and open magic of which the value is attested by the excellent language in are we which they are couched. and the high regard the class which in which held." said the away to beat the dry onion-stalks. ASSYRIAN MAGIC. made such rest a the profession civilized theirs was Throughout magic was indeed a name to conjure by. who was cheerily threshing his portion. "Stand now. 13. which runs at least from the seventh century onwards until the time these when cuneiform texts ceased to be used. In the cuneiform tablets we have the actual wizardry in vogue at the time they were written." says Isaiah.

stand up.. ed. xlviii. Paris. "Bardesan saith: 'Have you read the books of the Chaldeans which are in Babylon. 24) saying that the Chaldeans were skilled in astronomy and as casting of horoscopes. Spicilegium.THE RENOWN OF THE CHALDEANS. thee.A. Thou the art wearied in the multitude of thy counsels. and through the the spirit of prophecy to their upon them. and three are neutral. 15.S.) quotes both Babylonians and Chaldeans of possessing a 1 considerable knowledge astronomy. Cureton.' people dwelling on the Lower ' Euphrates and Tigris. if so be thou mayest prevail. 338.d. two " gods. .. and save thee from the things that shall in come upon Kaldu.d. " l Plutarch quotes the are Chaldeans beneficent believing of the planets. Let now astrologers. and iElian 5 (third century a. i. A. Gaster. 4 5 6. The heading used a book in late : Hebrew "This is (called The Wisdom of the Chaldeans ") runs the book by the Chaldeans (which they composed) through in their meditations and speculations overflow of divine wisdom.B. xvi. the monthly prognosticates. in which are at written what the stars ' effect by 2 their associations the Nativities of as men ? that." Among the Greek writers we Strabo (died a. . to two are hostile. the stargazers. by strong adherence wisdom and to their meditations in the divine their their wisdom (planets) and speculations that concerning rule the spheres and the 3 spirits those spheres find and 4 move them. if xxxv so be thou shalt be able to profit. Chaldeans. Assyrian a The word Kasdim. 1900. 2 3 De Isid. P. Peri Zoon. assumes at the time that the Book of Daniel was written the significance of 'magicians/ The Syriac writers attest the same notoriety. ed. Hercher.. xxii.

the blocks for which seem to places. . 29. ne qusesieris (scire nefas) quern nrihi. offered a printed book of and Syriac with some form of dealing In Suakin in the Soudan Gershuni. of astrology in Arabic. in the main. Carmina. have done duty in other manuscript in Such books existed in is ancient days. Diodorus Siculus. Horace the popular view Finem Tu. our knowledge of cuneiform 1 ii. as vouched for by the : story of the Sibylline books or the passage in Acts xix. that we owe. 2 3 Potter. in modern times in the East. says that the Babylonian priests observed the position of certain and that they interpreted dreams and derived omens from the movement of birds stars in order to cast horoscopes. It was afterwards much improved and brought to perfection by Democritus. King of Assyria B. Greece with Xerxes.C. illustrated by the most grotesque and bizarre woodcuts the signs of the Zodiac. quern di dederint. books of magic are by no means rare. and manuscripts in Arabic." It is to Assurbanipal.XXXVi MODERN MAGICAL BOOKS. all can frequently be bought. 11. Hebrew. i. Grcec. nee Babylonios tibi Temptaris numeros. and from eclipses and earthquakes. Magic is said to have been introduced who came into it Greeks by (Ethanes. who is said to have learned 2 it 3 out of the voices writings " *of certain Phoenicians. and burned them in the sight of all. 406. 1 a contemporary of Augustus." Indeed. and dispersed the among the rudiments of wherever he had an opportunity. 668-626. from Morocco to Mesopotamia. I was magic or popular medicine. i. Leuconoe. 19 " Not a few of them that practised curious arts brought their books together. Arch.

of of the King. incan- . for xxxvn during his reign book-collecting became a with him. By some happy still extant two duplicate copies of a which was written by a king to a city of Babylonia. Bel-etir. of the tablets for stone l the days of the month Nisan. and to copy and translate the ancient tablets. each having its library of manuscripts. and it and made the base chance there are letter was from these that the king obtained his material of his great work. the son Arkat-ilani. a list of Magic and Sorcery. the the series is . and collect the of the . brother.. the son of of Suma-ukina. . The great in afforded him an of inexhaustible library source to draw on for the formation his end many scribes were set to work Nineveh. and all such people of Borsippa as thou knowest. mine... stone of the .A BABYLONIAN LETTER. and seek out the tablets which are in their houses. month 1 Tisri. and all the tablets laid tablets up in the Temple of Ezida. for it is on the model of the royal " letters of his period : : The word of the thou be happy. take his King unto Sadunu I am well. magic. mayst The day that thou seest this letter of thee with Suma. 2832. and preserved in Babylonia as a valuable record. For the temples of these cities were like the modern monasteries which still to this exist in the East. xix. and he had established a system of passion obtaining copies of the best tablets in temple-cities in Babylonia all Irak. and it quite possible that they are copies of the original letter that was sent by Assurbanipal more than a hundred years previously. . Apia.. Bit-Sala\ the The Incantation BU-Sala' tations published in King's Babylonian known from K. ordering those in authority to search the hidden store of records laid in the shrines of the gods. These two date is from the later Babylonian Empire.

as to whether it will consist of twenty-nine or thirty days. . I am sending the authority for the Thou shalt put them in thy satam and saku officials. and seek out the rare tablets such as are to be found on your route. and if there be and it is good it for my 2 palace. It refers to the calculation of the duration of the month.M. and there is consequently in no lack of These grimoires were written series several tablets. search for it and get it and send to me. . * : wisdom/ series * all the series that there are relating to are. each set being given some name. any tablet or spell which I have not made mention of to you. . spells." But in addition library. . prayers. to the banipal's many magical tablets from Assurcome from Babylonia. written during the later Babylonian Empire. war. and thou shalt learn of (it). besides all their copious documents that there staff (?) the In battle a shall not come near the man/ excellent for (my) the series edin-na dib-bi-da e-gal tur-ra. but do not exist in Assyria. The best 1 On the phrase " " reckoning the day see my Reports of the Magicians and Astrologers. stone inscriptions and royalty. the series Incantation May Ea and Marduk complete . for the the woods head of the royal bed and the royal urkarinnu and cedar for the head of the royal bed. 2 B.xxxvill THE INCANTATION SERIES. 25676 and 25678. See my Late Babylonian Letters. 3 ff. No one shall withhold tablets from thee strong-box. ! for ' reckoning the day/ the four stone . to Some of them date as late the reign of Alexander and others are as the Arsacid period. . xix. Nos. the series (?) this is a trouble) those that are Takpirti all igi-nigin-na (although and whatever may be necessary in the palace. of material. and send them to me. .

Doctrine of Sin in Bab. incantations. for incantations and The motivt which spells against wizards and witches.god is the of adoration object " O that canst give judgment like Sin and Samas. in the chapter on Sympathetic Magic. Fire-god. Headaches '). been shown earlier in this chapter. and Nii kati ('Raising of the hand'). Asakki marsuti Utukki limnuti (' Ti'i Fever Sickness 1 ). burn Fire-god. Consuming '). Fire-god. 18. Fire-god. Tablet II. and exorcisms against the Ban or tabu which lies on the man through some unknown sin or uncleanness. 1. XXXIX at present are the Maklu (' ('Burning'). The reading asakku (and not asakku) was shown to be correct by Morgenstern. Fire-god. Labartu ('Hag-demon'). mighty son of Anu. runs through the whole series instructs the bewitched person how to make 2 figures of his enemies and then destro) them with prayers. The as has series Maklu contains eight tablets all giving directions. Evil Spirits ' Surpu '). 1 The priest recites a list of sins which The exact translation is not certain. up my sorcerer and consume my sorcerer and burn them consume them overpower them destroy them " 3 carry them off ! ! ! sorceress sorceress ! ! ! ! The series Surpu consists of nine tablets which contain prayers. 92.THE known (' (' S URP ^-SERIES. Rel. . Judge thou my case and grant me a decision Burn up my sorcerer and sorceress ! ! Thou Thou flaming Fire-god. If they are to be burnt. 1905. then the Fire. art the fiercest of thy brothers . Fire -god. 2 3 This is discussed more fully Maklu. Fire-god. There are also large classes of both ceremonial and medical texts which throw considerable light on the magical practices.

mother with a daughter. a series of spells directed goblins. and. 'Evil Spirits.SERIES. 2 The most important point is that ' Surpu. of third. pronounced her spell" (King. 1. Both gods and demons have the power of putting a ban on others " recited Tiamat. fifth. and include the use of false weight i the acceptance of adultery. 1. A great as many of the sins are those which very now reckoned moral offences. and murder. agkinst the attacks of demons. that they may be laid under a ban or divine tabu. and so the Ban which is now plaguing him. But there is another decidedly points to stratuii underlying them which those are a distinction between those persons who are a ceremonially proof of clean J and who not . lying. besides fragments of the remainder. . money wrongfully earned. 20. 2 Tablet IV. A A A and are so father with a son. This question discussed at length in the chapter ie series is. when attacked by Marduk. or Utnkki limnuti. briefly. the existence of the tabu is among the Babylonians. and the greater part of four leveral large 'the others. daughter with a mother. it/ consisted originally of at least sixteen tablets. " Hath he laid himself open set a son at variance with a father. by invoking the gods to help.xl THE UTUKKI LIMNUTI. Seven Tablets. and ghosts. an incantation. 71. all pointing to a highly ^ivilized community. the to man may have committed. . stealing. in the Creation Legend. and the general tenor is the same Devils are to be combated throughout the whole text. which in \/e have now the and sixteenth an almost implete form. 91). Tablet II. They are for use of priests or exorcists in driving out the devils from possessed persons. utug-^ul-a-mes devoted to the subject." l on.' as its name implies.

or even the carcase of a originally consisted of at The Asakki marsuti least twelve tablets. sympathetic magic evil is at the base of the treatment. . concerns the its evil spirit or texts. ' The series its ' name implies. he runs through long of evil spirits. Labartu. These powers are often accompanied by as directions for certain ceremonies and rites.e. The Babylonian ritual was as elaborate as the Jewish. prayer) another devoted to magic. many These ailments are treated as ' and exorcised frequently with to atonement '-offerings . and the methods employed against her. Ritual ceremonies consisted. giving directions for making figures of the labartu and the incantations to be 2 repeated over them. a hag-demon which gives name to these kind of female devil who attacks children especially. that is say. 2 See the next chapter for a fuller description of the labartu.THE ASAKKI MARSUTI AND TV I~ SERIES. and end. sometimes being intended to The series called " " remove the evils attendant on eclipses. is The Raising of the Hand (i. man. Three tablets are at present extant. ills written for the purpose Ti'i) (the Asakki marsuti and points. and the influence is transferred to a wax figure representing the sick 1 pig or kid. a categorical description shall be given of to this to xli the particular it demon in question. such as placing a censer and burning incense. lists of the names and descriptions of curing various Two bodily series. with the Babylonians as with discussed more fully in the chapter on the 1 This is Atonement Sacrifice. It consists of prayers and incantations to various deities. while the Ti'i ended at the ninth tablet. are similar to the preceding in devils. as is obviously impossible for the magician make an exact diagnosis.

Many similar tablets have been published by Zimmern. in Zimmern. censer thou shalt place before Bunene. shalt set thereon three times twelve loaves made of wheat. we find incantations for the Babylonian through the pharmacopoeia. winesacrifices. A table thou shalt place behind the censer which is before Samas : Thou Thou Thou salt shalt place thereon four jugs of sesame wine. F. and sprinkle with is A A And table thou shalt place behind the censer which before Adad. censer thou shalt place before Aa. Harper). medicine-man was but a witch-doctor of with a herbalist's 1 knowledge simples combined with see also Gray. censer thou shalt place before Marduk. cit. R. . 1 The medical Assyrian texts are also of great help in the study of demonology. flesh. loc. ii. tables. among prescriptions scattered of drugs Hence. shalt : add a mixture of honey and butter. censer thou shalt place before Adad. and wine which must be used. is table thou shalt place behind the censer which before Marduk. and how each following is is to be treated.xlii THE RITUAL TABLETS. censer thou shalt place before Kettu. jugs." so on. . The a specimen : "Before the rising of the sun thou shalt prepare one offering for Sam as One One One One One One One One : censer thou shalt place before Samas. 105 Assyrian and Babylonian Literature (ed. nations. interand herbs. Babylonische Religion. inasmuch as the physician was always receptive of aid from the spersed short sister art. and other furniture used in making of instructions for the different sorts of food. 403. censer thou shalt place before Mesaru. 1. of other interminable repetitions and tedious directions for the proper number of censers. censer thou shalt place before the god of the man.

Marshes created the Worm. .THE LEGEND OF THE WOKM. Rivers created the Canals. What wilt thou give me for my devouring I l ' 1 will give thee ripe figs. 2 And scented What are these . which sometimes reappear in the traditions of the dwellers in little modern is Irak. [the Earth]. . might of his fist. "After the cuneiform legend: Anu [had created the Heavens]. . gums 4 (?) (?). i"D^fi 3 The line is difficult because of an unusual ideogram. xliii an ingenuous belief in abracadabra. and Evil Spirits this was probably my ' is-ma is the word in question.' In translation in Devils Dy More probably it should be regarded as an ideogram for . tittu (see Muss-Arnolt. often reveal some little superstition. tears.e. devour the blood of the teeth. sub voce). These spells. i. 4 KusasL unknown elsewhere. Since thou hast said this. to shown and among the Malays. brief though they be. and yet it can be have existed in Babylonia two thousand years This is ago and more. wood me set I drink among 1 the teeth.' ' bone. . wood. Ea 1 shall smite thee with the worm. . Dictionary. The The The The The Heavens created Earth created the Rivers. The belief in worms that eat the teeth current in Mesopotamia.' 3 ' ripe figs to me. Ea came her What wilt thou give me for my food. And That me may on the gums(?). ? Or scented Let . connected with } 2 Literally 'destroy. incorrectly translated as dried bones. Canals created the Marshes. the Came Before ' Worm (and) wept before the Sun-god. some remnant of folk-tale. in China. And Then ' of their destroy the strength shall I hold the bolt of the door.' and I read it as a Semitic word is-ma.

which had been brought down from the hills. and the Moon-god [rooted the Sun-god brought it it [Planted it in the mountains] the mountains [and] .' ' stye.-Babyl. it heart of the pig in the stye. " [It seized on the heart of N. . Medizin. . On the Hyoscyamus see preface to Devils. [It seized on the heart of the] man in his pleasure. (and) put it on his : In Mosul I was given some dried henbane berries. and oil repeat the incantation three times. In Les Plantes Magiques. ii.xliv THE HEART-PLANT. tooth. . the plant sakilbir.. which grows in Sinai (Makan). 3 it seized on the heart of the maid in her sleeping-chamber. ed.' sleeping-chamber are all a little doubtful ' ' ' as translations. Prayer for the Toothache. [It seized on the heart of the] dog in the kennel. the ox in the stall. Beitr.' pleasure. .]. Makan. Sedir. [It seized . its horns stretch on the heart of the Sun-god when] he it . down from [Planted it in] the earth out to heaven. [It seized seized on the heart of on the heart of the goat] in the fold. it seized on the heart seized on the of the ass in the stable. 2 worm ' dropped magic is apparent in the charm of the Heart-plant/ which is presumably the Hyoscyamus muticus. son of N. . it is recommended to rub the gums with Senecio vulgaris and then replant it. . Stable. 1902. its root filleth the earth." l Mix fermented drink. . 2 3 ' kennel. it seized on the heart of the Moon-god in the clouds. 9. Ritual for this together. zur Kenntnis der Assyr. drunken in ' The Heart-plant sprang up out and]. i. 1 Devils and Evil Spirits. and was told on good native authority that a man with toothache would ' fumigate his teeth with them until the out of his mouth. the principle of * The same ' ' developed Arabs calling " it * salcran. 160.' Kuchler.

. Make offerings to Ea and Marduk the priest shall make a prayer. Samas. dates. compounded with the milk of a woman that had borne " a man-child.' on to describe the various gods.] . on a fortunate day. . . . 'When Anu created the heaven. . (and) ater-meal thou shalt offer. etc.CEREMONY FOR REBUILDING A TEMPLE. no Weissbach.. fill (?) them] with wine. He formed It goes reeds and canebrakes for the use of building. 360 cakes of wheat meal. ancient who take part in building. Honey-syrup. and sweet oil (semne) [thou shalt offer]. . Thou shalt sacrifice two lambs The priest shall sing before [Ea]. and over this a charm to be recited my occur likewise : son Horus ! it burns on the 1 hills . For being effected. and sweet he shall repeat the incantation 'When Anu created the heaven' in front of the brickwork. The reference to occurrences. . oil. shall pour forth the [honey-syrup]. In a favourable month. Three adagwr. . " . The " xlv principle is adopted in other forms of magic falls (it is When The necessary) to dig the foundation. butter. wine.. the place of this house. in when cures are Egyptian magic. and Marduk. Three offerings thou shalt offer to Ea. a censer And And the priest shall bring. no water is there. milk. Miscellen. . Bab. Samas. Ea in the Ocean pulled off* a piece of clay. butter. . He fashioned the God of Brickwork for the renewal . [and A brazier thou shalt place . and Marduk. inflammations there was a remedy among the Egyptians. in the night. : house. [Several lines broken. The singer shall sing a dirge in the morning over the beams of that .vessels thou shalt place. they shall baril-seer shall bless (?) the wall of a temple light an abra for Ea and Marduk. 32. . his dwelling. Ea created the Ocean. sesame-wine.

be parings or hair. the gods for the welfare of mankind. Luke ix." Just as a Christian monk. bring water over the flood to (i. in the broadest sense. also Matt. doth not out devils. pi. with something more tangible. the Word of Power. we " 2 casting devils in thy name exactly expresses the beliefs of still time. magician with superhuman its In the saw New one Testament out all use is obvious. and more instructive is Pharisees brought fellow down on themselves by cast 3 the rebuke which the " This saying. 38 : Religion. The Word of Power consists in its simplest form of the name of some divine being or thing. vii. banned "the devils of the impure 1. 24. cf. the knowledge of the name his naii- or description of the person or demon he is working it charm against. 22 . ix. in the to human case. or some which was originally ascribed a power vouchsafed by charm or amulet. Horus had extinguished the flames on that occasion would he subdue the inflammation. each with its origin in these three desideratives. 49. to aid all the physician effort. even a in wax his figure or final ' atonement ' sacrifice. something material." Wiedemann and explains just as so as a myth universal conflagration. or.xlvi THREE COMPONENTS IN AN INCANTATION. lxix. 1 all magic three things are necessary for the perfect exorcism. quoting Pap. but by Beelzebub the prince of the devils. Eabban Hormizd the 1 Persian. Wiedemann. is helper of there. First. 3 ff. xii. In Secondly. called in to help the aid. the water the inundation) this put of out the fire. by which the sorcerer invokes divine or supernatural aid to influence the object of his undertaking. Thirdly. 2 3 Mark Matt. some drug. "Master. Ebers. Almost incantations can be split up into three main divisions. 273.e. .

my son. the latter. " Ignatius xlvii with the words " l By Jesus Christ I bind you. 47. it is said of It runs through all Assyrian magic to lay under a ban. whereby may he be relieved ' ? ' Ea hath ' To bind is simply Budge." The is Marduk full recital as follows : "Marduk hath the house of seen him (the sick man). and hath Father. "Go. 3 This line is always varied. 17). 474. a by saying. In numerous incantations recognized as a regular formula to repeat . in Assyrian sorcery. as the son of Ea. it being the first line of the tablet.A. iv. being appealed his to by the magician to act as intermediary with father. . destroying evil. end his spells against demons ye banned ! By by earth be ye But the Assyrian exorcisms show a far more elaborate Ea and Marduk are the two most powerful gods growth." thousand years earlier. 1. Qic. making release" (W.THE WORD OF POWER. 3 Twice headache from the underworld hath gone forth/ he hath said unto him. who it is is learned in all spells. as is clear from Jacob of " Edessa. 14). banned " 2 ! ye trembling horde. 'What this man hath done he knoweth not 1 . Religion of the Semites. Concerning a priest who writes a curse and hangs it on a tree that no man may eat of the fruit " (Robertson Smith. and attama mudi riksisunu muhallik raggi mupassir NAM-BUL-Bi-e. and hath entered said * : his father Ea. tiamas Religious Texts. Christian priests in the Orient were capable of turning their power of 'banning' to practical account. Histories of Rabban Hormizd. "' " thou knowest their bonds. " What I". : (Gray. 17. 164). rev. " him that is bound thou loosest " the Sun-god sa suksura tapattar. " heaven be so would an Assyrian magician. 18-19.L. the legend of and this Marduk going to his father Ea for advice was such a common procedure that the later the incident scribes abbreviated by putting the " : initial words of the three principal phrases in the story hath seen".

On the gods of the incantation see ibid.S.. The Incantation of Nin-aha-kuddu." of is 3 The story Marduk going duplicated in to his father Ea for in a prescription 1 Hermes Trismegistus. 1 Malay ceremonies of the Babylonians. the theory is suggested that we may ultimately trace many incantations to the temple of Ea that once Ea and Eridu stood in Eridu incantations 3 3 . of incantation . .xlviii PARALLELS FROM THE MALAYS." 2 In an Assyrian medical text the parallel is complete "(The sickness) will not return unto N. 275) that from the fact that are so often mentioned. It is not I who apply it. . must be and that when Girru and Nuzku are mentioned the referred to the authority of the priests of the temples of these gods. 20 ff. . February. . the lord It is they who have performed. Jastrow says (Religion.. They are the materials of Kemal-ul-hakim Not to me belongs this neutralising charm. and Ea then gives his son the prescription to be used in This method of quoting at length healing the patient.T. Go. what more can I give thee ? thou not know. such an episode of is merely the development of the Word Power. what dost know.. 1908. Skeat. ff. 3. The text is from my copy in C. It is the Incantation of Ba'u and Gula. 289.B. The Incantation is not invented of mankind. And I have adopted. To Malim Saidi belongs this neutralising charm. 427.. thou knowest also.. . what dost thou not Marduk..A. what can I add to thy knowledge ? "What ' " I know. son of N. my son Marduk . ' answered his son Marduk. rxiii. German ed. Mala?/ Magic. It is Malim Karimun who applies it. P. my son. 13 and 10. are very similar in principle to those To make a ' ' neutralising charm the magician must say " Not mine are these materials.

his dialogues with his son afraid. In Egyptian lore a demon could do no more mischief to a man who called him correctly \ by name in the Underworld. 2 It is only " Open. I adjure fire. and the etc. I am of enemy in my house : To whom he made bitch answer." In Egypt. (in his Medicina Pract. 52. it is Armenia. take the Log of Corascene. 1707 Ed. 62) d . of the : xlix " In Hermes it is said. pot burnt in the so shall ye 1 Salmon." In late Hebrew heavenly charms the sorcerer powers to help him you. 1806. In an it Ethiopic work. J sesame" in another form. Kalid. and from all demons and calls evil spirits.C. Son.. Treasures are kept locked by means of sacred words. and invokes and reads [the long list be saved from by these names of Christ let him and from all bad and wicked and 4 treacherous men. just as this : on angels or other " Ye is holy. 2 3 Wiedemann. and if the deceased named < Unas that a book with words of magical / | a gate it flew open before him. 6. Father. 3 of the Disciples. 299). as far back as 3500 texts of stated in the ~"~? Pyramid power was buried with him. and darkness. " a certain magic alphabet extracted from the regions of Upper Egypt. 1 B. It in is said that Hermes Abootat built treasure-chambers set up stones containing magic he and guarded by the charm of locked which inscriptions. Realms of Egyptian Dead. powerful angels.." This story (with the alphabet) is given in the Ancient Alphabets of Ahmad ibn Abubekr. and from all disease[s] of soul and body. It is curious to see the belief of the modern Arabs that the Jinn are guardians of a hidden treasure (see p.TREASURES GUARDED BY SACRED WORDS. The " said And : Magic Booh believes is everybody who of names]. Hammer. and joyn them together. sin.

1907. the son (or daughter) is N.S. Hebrew magic was always respected by Gentile nations. memoires presentes a Vinstitut egyptien.. a cause des nomes des Dioskoros qui (sont) dedans. Cairo. article The Folklore of Mossoid. iv). son of N. want of anything better in the case of a demon it obviously the only emanation that the sorcerer can 1 See is This 189).. 47). 170. afin qu'il sauve tu crieras Anuk. To prevent a shipwreck a Demotic papyrus prescribes the following " Ce nom.. Papyri Grceci). . fasc. of the person or demon whom he hoped to bring into subjection. and even in Demotic Egyptian it is found. as the connecting links between are wanting. for ^*"lfc$ emendation H3X in Jonah. as is my testified to by the way in which the Hebrew divine names are used as words of power. rags.A.S. No. 2 Sanhedrin. 9. who. iii.B. on going to who uttered a magic word and In return. il donnera une grande force (et) il n'y aura pas de desastre" (Groflf. la formule (est d'une langue) etrangere. Akiba. then which are collected and wrought into the charm it and the victim. Studien. P. these for is name alone will be enough. Joshua and R. Joshua pronounced the word of power that he knew.A. fire burn in the heart of N." x In the Talmud there a story of R. 2 Enough has been said on this use of magical names the second component of the perfect as words of power charm was that the magician should know something. 1901. R. vii (19).. Groflf sees in this Anuk Adonai a possible In the Greek papyri the Assyrian name Ereskigal has been found under the form Epeax i l a^This was pointed out first by Legge (P. In the Greek incantations this use is prevalent (see Leemans.1 KNOWLEDGE OE THE NAME IN MAGIC. even if only the name. and immediately the the baths. or nail- parings. Adonai. particularly the case with the name iao (see Baudissin. after of N. (to follow). If the . February. door barred the way . : : 1897. to The beliefs origin of this would appear have arisen in the about hair. Etudes sur la Soi-cellerie. si tu l'invoques au-devant d'(une) tempete. for the magician's egress. saw a magician held them prisoners. elle sera sans naufrage.B.

4 When a man has fallen sick of a headache. or an evil God. the Assyrian magician takes water from two streams. 6 a custom the Malays. 148.CEREMONIES. For some other form of disease the priest will cleanse him with water still in which certain herbs have been steeped. wax is figures. or Fiend. the holiness of water see Baudissin. Tablet T. ff. or Phantom or evil pestilence. or an an of Night. ii. Studien. 1 prevalent among After childbirth among the Malays a part on the Atonement. On Devils. or fever. 11. 5 adding due enchantments.. 3 Ibid. Tablet Ibid. as is we have already mentioned. at the spot where they run into one another. who have returned to torment the living that the rites necessary to 3 give them rest may be paid. . 30 P.' 1. This is more fully discussed in the chapter Spirits.' 1." 2 or even longer catalogues of ghosts of people who have died unnatural deaths. be thou removed from before me. 17. Wraith of Night. The third and last part of the spell. obtain of him.. who that his Spirit. or Ghost. " Whether thou evil evil art an evil or an evil Demon. place for magic. like the cross-roads. or sickness. i. or have been left unburied. drugs. 2 4 5 Devils and Evil 16. li and hence to learn the name came to be regarded as the equivalent of obtaining something more 1 This is the reason for the long catalogues of tangible. With this is always a water he sprinkles the patient. plainly with the principle of cleansing lying underneath it. which. amulets. or an evil Devil. 65 ff. 154 ff. or death. The simplest form that this is can take pure water with which the demoniac washed. will on the correct diagnosis of the disease straightway come forth when he perceives name is known. devils that the Babylonian wizard repeats in the hope that he may hit demon. the ceremony with water. xxx ff. 6 ii. etc.

1.. Fill a bowl with water from a pool that no hand hath touched."* the possibility being that the scribe. Against the (fever-)heat and cold unkindly for the flesh. that the doctors recommended a frequent use of the ceremony which begins "In Eridu groweth the kiskanu." which is probably a purification of a similar kind. to be " Incantation of the Deep. The Sumerian begins with the word nun-ki. horned alkali. 1 (?). It is very elaborate. as usual. 3 2 For the 183 ff. merely adjunct and further. for home of Ea. .stream. W.A. Malay Magic. 11. water see footnote to p. 1 ff. ceremony consists in administering ' of the mixture.. ii. my son. roots. called in Selangor the an extraordinary Hundred Herbs/ but in is Malacca merely ' pot-herbs. i. an to the main exorcism. 347. [in the body] of N. ginger wine. [be carried off] with the water of his body and the washings of his hands." which is so often prescribed. the spell by part of its refers to first line. 1 is still Another all Assyrian spell more explicit "May that is evil .. and may the river carry it away down. must be some simple the ceremony of sea-god. 516. and spices. Eridu. Tablet i. a are put and portion of the liquor being strained off and given to the patient as a potion every morning for about ten days. The following treatment is [Marduk hath seen :] What I ' interesting ' : Put therein tamarisk. in this same text mention is made of an however.Hi THE INCANTATION OF ERIDU.' which concocted from all kinds of herbs. ' 5 K. into a large vessel of water The ingredients left to soak. 129. mastakal. . evil influences washed away by Devils. this kind.I. mixed (?) Skeat. as an alternative explanation. the It is not probable.. " 2 The explanation of the phrase "perform Eridu is the Incantation of Eridu.e. " Go.

with may he be pure. son of away Eridu. Elsewhere the rab is u -demon eldest "May Marduk.A. Mesopotamia the Euphrates was the sea (Philostratus. 1. 7. At . limpid water. iii. Rel. which was poured out in the temple. 26. 6. A. Pour the water upon this man. 25. ii. may he be let the evil rabisu go forth and stand a kindly s edit. it should be sprinkled on the new-born babe's forehead.WATER Put therein a shining (?) ring. 5 Hadji Khan. No. 58." But far above ordinary water was the sacredness of the Euphrates. liii Give him pure water to drink." synonym the Euphrates. Vita ApolL." 1 up a root of Pound (?) up pure saffroH. 13. Sem. 5 To the Hebrews it was always " the River. the Arabs. if Among water from the Euphrates is procurable.L. 20). 3 Quoted by Minas Tcheraz on Armenian Magic. Haupt. On another text dealing with purification by water see W. Quoted by Robertson Smith.. Tacitus i 3 relates that the T Armenians reverenced Lucian says that twice a at 3 ear a great concourse of worshippers assembled the Temple a (of Hierapolis) for bearing water from "the sea. . He compares also Melito. IN MAGIC.A. it . 2 1 Congr.K. 4 ii. away from him . iv. With Pilgrims to Mecca. on seeing the Euphrates : W. 11." and the Talmud contains some reference to this veneration. water. sprinkle him with : is thus washed 2 pure water.S. . Be Bea Syria.T. 47. Spicilegium Syriacmn. 232. the sight of Babylon one should recite five benedictions " Praised be the Author thus. may may a kindly lamassu- genius be present near his body. and Anoint (therewith) the body of that man seven times.L. bright the water twice seven times clean . Ninth Or. Trans. Fat of the matku-bird... Pull salt and pure alkali. 826. To the dwellers in i.genius. clean water. brought from the mountains put therein.

who didst create all things. 151. rivers were doubtless famous in it their own In Palestine was the Jordan which could heal leprosy. performed miracles in favour If one sees the place of our ancestors in this place. i. sometimes ix. who 1 ordereth Older and keepeth His promises" (to destroy idolatry). ed. 239-361. whose name el-Ghuffary. as in the case of just as in later 3 Naaman. 2. Within thee Ea. of Nebk. iii. 129.liv WATER IN MAGIC. When the great gods dug thee out 2 They set prosperity upon thy banks. as a young man in white. On Baptism and Christian Archaeology see Studia Biblica. or Daniel's den of lions. v. Shekh Yuseph el-hagg. " Praised be of He who is " longsuffering . than these customs. created his dwelling. " Praised be He that talketh and acteth. of Creation at the sight of the idols." " Praised be He who (now desert) from which men used to take earth to spread on animals (" which constitutes a sort of baptism "). but 1 Berakhoth. just in modern times in Palestine streams are venerated because of their local saint. Seven Tablets. 4 The origin is doubtless to be sought in the worship as of river-gods. says with respect to the saint is : who has charge of the streams at Nebk. Schwab. 2 * W. at the sight the ruins of the palace of Nebuchadnezzar. . " . Matt. "Praised be He who hath destroyed the palace of this impious one " . probably." But most localities. 3 2 Kings v. 5. the King of the Deep. and remove the tabu. on seeing the place of the fiery furnace of Hanania. L. that he appears in various forms as an old Mohammed " sometimes man. 10. is the Assyrian hymn " thou River. times John baptized all the region round about therein. King.

writing the oath in a book and it out in the " water of therein. 3 Maury. Prim. and into the fire in which the heifer being consumed. the patient was washed clean of the which had brought on the sickness. but Among in then nothing shall happen. i.. while the accused is woman bitterness. La Magie. for the ordeal of adultery the priest takes "holy water" in an earthen vessel and puts dust of the floor of the tabernacle brought before Yahweh with her hair unbound and a meal-offering in her hands.ASHES IN MAGIC. 79. . then she shall swell fall up and her thigh away." When any of the people 1 He 2 Curtiss. the case of demoniac possession. only those who have the light in their hearts see him. then must purify himself. sins most curious directions for making magic ashes for purification is contained in Numbers. 11 ff. After the exorcism of the evil divinity. 4 A red of the heifer without blemish is to be slaughtered. 180 Jewish Encycl. Sem. some day. * xix. Sem. and a clean man gathers up the ashes " for a water of separation/' as "a purification for sin. Eel. One and the priest must then sprinkle some the tabernacle carcase is of the blood seven times before of the congregation. some see see him l at night. always in see lv human form. The whole is of the then to be burnt. If the accusation be true." washing which the woman must then drink. 2 the Greeks purification by water was common if false.. is hyssop.' In the extraordinary ceremony in Numbers v. note 2. Then the priest is to make the woman swear." From these cases it is but a step to the ' holy water. the body and soul 5 being purified by water and fumigations (OvfiidfjuaTa). 217. Bel. and the priest scarlet to cast cedar. 1 ff. . others him by him in dreams.. 264.

S. see Kohut. Sale 1 points out the similarity of this story of the red heifer with to his son. a tradition similar of the to that contained in the history word ftvpaa . 129. sell and his offered but the son declined to until mother consented. He therefore returned home.. J. to take hyssop. Shortly afterwards a murder was committed and.O. dip in this water. and the persons and sprinkle it on the who had become unclean by reason of the corpse. Surah ii. however. by divine direction. became unclean through a death in a tent. The angel then declared that the Israelites would at some time buy that heifer at any price. The Israelites much gold as her hide were obliged to buy her at would hold. on the way to market. 2 On . as to the God commanded killed. pieces of gold. the ideas of blood breaking forth from a corpse at the presence of the murderer. accused the murderer by name. and.A. The young man. an Arab parallel of a cow-calf left by a father His mother told him to sell the calf for three an angel accosted him six pieces. who this time offered him twice as much. The corpse revived. and then fell back dead.lvi ASHES IN MAGIC. the method of cleansing was to take some of these ashes and mix them with running water in a vessel. the vessels therein. and then they sacrificed the heifer. in the absence of evidence criminal. struck the dead body with part of it. A clean man was then tent. obtained his mother's permission. and his mother was an angel that had spoken. xxiv. and again met the angel. that a cow with such and such marks should be in as and this applied only to the heifer question. and on the use of blood to determine correct ancestry (by its absorption into bones). 2 1 Koran. did not perceived that it agree. provided that he would say nothing of it to his mother.

man with a magic circle of Azarias speaks thus of the the Tigris or an : flour. : right 2 3 4 and left. fish thereof before the man 2 . surround the shut gate . 1 evil which had leapt out of " Touching the heart and the liver. "and the demons will flee a Macedonian charm to sufferer is from him. also Haupt. The ' atonement patient.. where the 3 angel binds him.K. 3. just as by the that cuneiform texts prescribe to a censer and a lighted match be added the wizard's There was also a method of safeguarding the from the onset of fiends by placing him in the middle of an enchanted circle of flour or other crushed ceremony. A. if a devil we must make a smoke spirit trouble any. the warlock atonement throwing the (in ' ' this case a kid) into the street. sick man material as a kind of haram through which no spirit could break. There an echo of this legend in for one possessed by demons.S. and the party shall be no more vexed" night. lvii fumigation with it a is censer was also modern employed by Arabs. The wear the glands from the mouth of a fish. . 7.T. and all evil is dissipated. or the woman. on his weddingand puts the heart and and drives away the is evil spirit which is afflicting Sarah." 4 Among averting the evil 1 Malays there is a custom of consequences of what is called "insulting the Devils. the bride. and be fumigated with them. ii." Tobit Tobit vi. Abbott. which should probably be translated thus. and not as I have given it there cf. ' fumigates the ceremony complete. The ban is loosed.FUMIGATION IN MAGIC. flour of lime. and then surrounding the In the story of Tobit. 232. viii. and the the Assyrians. ii "Enclose the man with kusurra (flour). 11. Macedonian Folklore. Besides cleansing by water. into Egypt. takes the ashes of perfumes liver of the fish thereon and ultimately Tobias. 35. 2.

22. presumably to cut off the bad fortune dogging his steps (Ma'i. The live coal borne by the seraph to touch Isaiah's mouth to take away uncleanness 2 is paralleled in the law of Numbers. 4 To return mentioned. cloth. 273." x The use of a censer to to fumigate the man would have its origin in fire-purification. iron. I have seen we had had no luck an Arab ibex hunter \L the Sinaitic Peninsula. circle). with a sprinkling of lime 1 Malay Magic. root). I have bound their arms with a coloured cord." that may be clean. June. after for several days. with the following spell " I have spread a dark dress on their upraised arms. seven little to the magic circle which has already been is The Assyrian winged figures : sorcerer to advised to make set before the god Nergal. and an old mat burn them. 351. 6. 3 which directs that gold. . (an evil-smelling onion skins. and leave the ashes for about an hour on the floor of the at sunset passage in front of the door. is. setting (thereby) tamarisk (eru) (and) the heart of the palm . tin. kunyit The t'rus receipt runs : " Take assafoetida. 2 3 * xxxi. ure one of the thorn bushes of the desert and jump over it as it blazed. lead.lviii THE MAGIC CIRCLE. lemon-grass leaves. 1905). I have completed the usurtu (magic have I surrounded them. iii. brass." that if a guest should not have remained to by- more than two nights. dried or areca-nut husk. but should have been suffered go away before fulfilling the three nights demanded custom. first and anything that will stand fire is to be passed through the flame and then cleansed with the it " water of separation. sulphur. the night. silver. There are several instances in Frazer's Golden Bouc/n. although there it is appear is the second possibility that the evil stench which drives the demon away. vi. Skeat. 23.

drink what is sweet. 2 ff. to whelm l the evil devil.. I Twin Twin have set a hulduppu at the door to drive away all evil. The Incantation figure of is the Incantation of Marduk. is good. have set a figure of Lugalgirra.. warriors . in the founda- (?) of the house. . I have around them. have set a figure of Narudu.... Eitualtafeln. At the head of these seven with fearful wings set have set a figure of Nergal. that nothing 4 evil draw nigh against your watching. Marduk. have set two twin figures . . See also the chapter on Zimmern. sister of the great gods. Perform him the incantation when the cattle come home. that hath no tions 2 rival. the magician is the N. (?) of bitumen on the threshold of the door I right and left I have set. son of N. with which the magician surrounds the 1 Kissuruti.THE MAGIC CIRCLE. when the cattle go out. 2 3 Sa umasi. whose goddess is N. ye sons of Ea. in whose body the sickness lieth. Rikis. I I have placed Nuzku (the tire-god) at their head in the brazier. . evil below That no may draw nigh. Demoniac Possession and Tabu for another instance of the magic circle 4 (p. 123). The flour of Hx I Nisaba (the corn-god). at the head of the sick I man right and left. warriors of lime I have fastened within the door. whose god for is N. (?) complete in form. the the bed. 168. the ban of the great gods.. that hath no rival. A figure I of Sitlamtaea." In India the magic circle is represented by a rampart of black pebbles. 11. Two guardian figures of Ea and Marduk have set within the door right and left . I have set Amel-dispu and Latarag at the door. Eat what ye pure offspring of the Deep.

break these boundaries. is The use of such an enclosure given in Francis Barrett's for calling spirits Magus. La Magie dans Vlnde Antique." For such as care to know theories about the magic circle in latter-day 'magic/ Mathers. He suggests. . and quite clear that we have 2 a prototype of it in this Assyrian wizardry. so that no spirit whatsoever shall be able be able to . not necessary to form a Magic Circle for defence that " Licence to and protection. ed. in his Introduction to the Book of Sacred Magic of Abramelin? says laid it is true that in the Convocation of the Spirits it is as down by the the author. 2 3 1458. into where directions may be found it. and answer truly the ' our demands." all Armed with acquisition 1 these things the word of power. consecrate this piece ground our defence. 1 woman at childbirth to ward off the approach This magic circle. 1898. : follows for blessing protective circle is as " In the name of the holy. " should not be omitted. neither cause injury nor detriment to any of us here assembled be compelled to stand before this but that they may ' circle. was it is always used in mediaeval magic. and glorious The i ' a Trinity. 99 ff. should he incautiously the Circle without having previously sent them away. however. 142. 1904. the of some part of the enemy. Depart Operator for having quit " because the Evil Forces will be only too glad to revenge the themselves on disturbed them. 1801. the names aforesaid. proceed that we to our work in . xxxvii. these mysteries to in for to accomplish which we desire we of therefore. blessed.lx THE MAGIC CIRCLE. as a protection for the magician. bed of the of demons. the use of the Victor Henry.

of to driving out disease or casting spells. written with the names of Ullah.AMULETS. of tricks which were a steady Lovesick source youths and maidens always hoped for some result from his philtres or love-charms at the demand of jealousy. and the word 'phylactery* exactly expresses their use. 155. he was ever ready to put hatred a certain of stock-in-trade revenue. they remain as much a perpetual charm to the Semites as the cross is to Christians. . i. they would steep and think themselves happy when they had drunk l To drink the ink in which magical names have been written is so well known that few examples need in water it down. magic circle lxi and holy water. He was and wonder-worker for such as would pay him fee. which the patient must drink to be healed. From or the blue beads plaited into horses' caps." 1 Doughty. manes to the and tails. To wear amulets on the person has always appealed to the savage mind. Further- more. Arabia Deserta. papers. . magic names endued with power can be written on parchment and steeped in water. guard had he Furthermore. "At el-Hejr such the gate Arabs demanded of me hijabs or amulets . pluck or little and for such as had not the skill effigies. and the knowledge of the magical properties of substances the ancient warlock was He was then capable of defying well fitted for his trade. even to use a dagger on a dark night. between husband and wife. would bring death to at once a physician a rival. sewn into children's skull up elaborate skin purses containing long charms written out by the bazar-scribe. of the credulous making amulets who came to him. hostile demons or summoning friendly spirits. in the case of sickness. his pierced with pins.

so curiously similar the thunderbolt of Adad. No.. bk. Higam vocant. (Abodah Zarah. that the Assyrian amulet given in Myhrman. riri. and When at Tak-i-Bustan Venus. December. The whole was strikingly similar to that figured on the Ninevite 3 sculptures. ri.B.. I noticed a small round this his neck. by a mad dog and put into drinks." ' The hand ' is a favourite It is hijab (amulet) worn by to Arabs and Persians. G6. beriri. 59 figuram attendunt. on boy wearing a silver circlet which were strung two hands of kind and the figure of the new moon. Labartu sabriri. 12. 1 Folklore of Mossoul. P. German edition. 287. Cf. i. and drunk by one who has been bitten for love.A. is to be compared to the Hebrew b). " si formata. p. be quoted. The Assyrian runs Ki ris-ti li-bi-ki ris-ti la li-bi-ki la li-bi pU pis-ti sa an-zi-is-ti sa an-zi-is su an-zi-is an-zi-is. Ibid. Jastrow {Religion. 1907. etc. quod Hispanicis pueris ex Gagate ad collum deligant. Disquisitiones. 1907. 339) points out iii." This was probably due to Moorish influence. in'. to be A l late Hebrew grimoire prescribes a talisman washed off . Martin Del Rio. . 57. the moon. worn in the necklet of the Assyrian kings along with the emblems for the sun. 2 3 Hue referendum. No. that certain ' seals ' be written a vessel of water from which the youth 2 " and he will love thee with a strong love. 46-7.lxii AMULETS. in Persia. manu in derisum inserto intra digitos primores pollice con: November. that it may be a survival.S. 327.

. artificers will subject their The Magharby of for of the Sinaitic Peninsula make an amulet as a strip of parchment.. P.F. and probably heads are worn threaded on necklets. 1906.E. unless fired from a rest). the amulet should prove satisfactory in nine cases out of ten. and covered with writing. Jennings-Bramley. the to a fowl. the charm its worth. Arab markmanship revolver for that matter. zu-zu-zu KA-KA. apparently suffering of these signifies wheat-stones/ and they on hair is ' W. P.. protection is it the same length is the man of whose It intended.. 81. BUR-BUR-BUR-BUR It is not infrequent efficacy to find that a natural desire to calculate the of amulets leads to tests such as armour-plate to.-KA-KA i EN-EN-EN-EN-EN-EN-EN . potency.. against which no amulet I heard of similar tests in Mosul. and a bullet has proved If the animal escapes. Folklore of Mossoul. lxiii 504 is an incantation of the same kind ki-ki-ki Siptu.S. . In Egypt and the Soudan. is still further eastward. and can be trusted against anything is but a silver bullet. small pierced cornelians in the shape of arrow- I believe that this a superstition that can be traced to the Assyrian medical texts.CORNELIANS AS AMULETS. In these latter incantations there are to be directions given for threading certain stones the patient who The name worn by from rheumatism. trial its then fastened on an animal as a fired at it.A.B. 198. S. Judging by the average (or rifle. 2 E. 2 known. 1906. 1 writing being tied and the fowl shot with a at.

1 corn and seeds of cucumber too "Spin together hair from prescription runs from a lion hair and (and) thread three cornelians dog (thereon). 1907. or of into water. that no sickness draw near to man. No." is The comparison with obvious to be missed. either love or hatred if show themselves good for they sank. a stone that granteth (?) the obtaining of favour and confidence. xxx. 41. 5 December. No.. cast 4 a cake with proper ceremony. would. 114). Ibid. generativam seu actum Venereum malefici potentiam impedire possunt quod Male: Jewish War..S. P. 285.. February." Love-philtres and charms for hatred are frequent in a The Assyrian the magical books. automatically . [bind it on. Compare the discussions in Sprenger. the effect.B. In this text is a case of the Assyrian physician burning his patient on the affected place. . 98) . xxx. i. P.A. 14. they would form the if base of a charm for hate. vel odium valeant immutare (p.S. " wheatare further described in a historical inscription as stones. 92. 1908. love-charms are made of the brain of the hoopoe pounded up and administered in magic wicks inscribed 5 a and burnt in The bones of a with invocations lamp. whereof the shape is fashioned as the seeds of cucumbers. but they floated they were 1 See my article.lxiv LOVE CHARMS. 1580 " " An amorem. just " as his modern Arab descendant does. Hold the flesh of his loins in the flame of a torch the present day. Folklore of Mossoul.A. such as are held in price for necklets. November. and he shall recover]. " An malefici mentes hominum ad Maleficarum. if days frog. for seven and then buried exhumed. 3 And were further.B. a story of a Even the 2 staid historian to to Josephus relates love-potion. 330. mandrakes of Genesis later go back still have the same In Eastern magic. 1907. 2 " are the directions followed by the barbarian of Malleus 1. ficium in bulla continetur" 3 4 (p.

thou shouldst please her father and mother.. 1907. Selection of Charms. The hatred between N. Nos. . 84. 6 83. * s 7 Ibid.. 286. 3 Ibid. " for women. P. Budge. with the so may fall charm " As these hate one another.B." 7 is between cat and dog Once an old legend in Palestine. Ed. and N. and to each was young.B. December. 1 lxv for the girls Charms. he has recourse to a magician to make the woman love him or the husband hate her. 1907. she is and holy it finally restored her former shape by the it. No. 3 for the love of disdainful love. Folklore is 115. 1907. blesses and throws over her head. There of Mossoul. November. 59.. Another hatred demand which the sorcery of supplied was to put is between members a family. 56. too. 287. when the world i Folklore of Mossoul.S. This mentioned in the Koran. more diplomatic of all. 287. No.. The magician transforms the wife to which causes complications in the household. 1907. upon a time. 60. into a mare.. 2 No.A. 6 which says that men learnt from Harut and Marut a charm by which they might " but cause division between a man and his wife they " In later hurt none thereby unless by God's permission. PS." 4 In the Syriac Paradise of the Holy Fathers 5 there is a story told of an Egyptian who had fallen in love with another man's wife. 1907. his suit being unavailing. 329. who takes water.A. Surah ii. i. Ibid. 94. November. thou wishest that a woman should come after still when and thee. man Macarius. No. were made 2 who were not sought in marriage. 43. . to aid lovers. Hebrew magic a black the result was attained if the to a hen boiled in urine were given half hatred egg of dog and half to a cat. and. a Syriac charm for "reconciliation in the household" given in Gollancz. and.HATE CHARMS. November.

265. P. a ring of copper and iron engraved with certain magic signs and worn on the person would secure this result or the .E. the prisoner must get hold of three eggs on each three magic words and eat the eggs. Hanauer. 2 the later New Testament of Peter's release from 3 gaol. Since the loss of this document the dog has been liable. invisible was another attainment also to be sought From directions in the late Hebrew MSS..F. No. lxxi. ass. . P. given of them in it. and worn either at the beginning of the month or with the waning 1 2 3 4 Budge.B. " and he shall 4 go forth by God's help. In fresh magic.lxvi CHARMS TO ESCAPE FROM PRISON. 68. and write To be after. but of privilege exemption so roused the envy of the horse. shell them. Escape from prison was for the sake to be obtained from charms. is to be tied or chained up by his master. boil them hard. Palestinian Animal Folklore. the cat were relieved from menial duty.. heart of a black cat dried and steeped in honey.. 327. The dog and every kind of animal a duty was assigned. and a written document was thereof. and ox that they bribed the rat to burrow underground and destroy the charter.A. Lives of Acts xii. 7 ff. 1 more. In Ethiopic legend a certain man who lay bound in prison of Christ appealed to the Virgin. on account of his carelessness." laid that day. and she appeared in the form of a bird and flew out of the prison This was doubtless modelled on the story in with him. December. attestation and the dog took charge He this buried it where he kept his stock of old bones.S. and what the cat has never forgiven him. 1907. Folklore of Mossoul. because of the faithfulness of the one and the cleanliness of the other. Mabd Seyon and Gabra Krestos. 1904.

a cistern Ibn Khaldun saying that in Africa people who wish to obtain this result use the figure of a a bucket with a cord in a well. and smear he will be invisible if the other half with cinnabar. November. incense. Monumens Musulmans du Due de Blacas. 3 for being when Leo rises on the The mixture of silk and woollen threads is a condoing all this firmation of shall a the theory that the Levitical law 4 " neither garment mingled of linen and woollen come upon 1 Folklore of Mossoul.S. moon. After this it should be covered with silk bound with two woollen threads. we find is charms for sowing dissension in the family accounted a breach of tabu in the Surpu which tamper with a neighbour's water-channels (a serious misdeed in a hot country. 2 1 4 Papyri xix. 47 and 49. meant to make water disappear from refers to this practice. describes an Arabic talismanic plaque or well. Reinaud they are well worth the trouble of collecting.P. if 1 lxvii In the Greek papyrus published by Leemans. and for this reason. ii. if for none other. list. 2 a man take a hawk's egg and gild one-half. and one reckoned as tabu also by the Assyrians) can be effected by magic. the auspicious moment horizon. Ibn Khaldun adds exactly what occurs on the plaque. 1907. 98. as Reinaud remarks. his man drawing hands from the bottom of marked three times. 19. that a bird must be sacrificed and the talisman rubbed with the blood . is On his chest the letter s is legs. 334. Reinaud. him and pronounce the magic word over Just as circle. carry this with he it.. Nos. and myrrh must be burnt to fumigate it. . Groeci.A. 286. so also to These charms are an indirect source for increasing our knowledge of tabu.B. and b between the which. then sandarach.CHARMS TO DRY UP WATER.

1 into the Many and the for such charms are to be found in the Sepher Raziel Sword of Moses. although it seems to have been used more to protect the sick man in early times than the attacks was small. displayed an ostentatious knowledge of their ghostly assailant.B. No. and cast stream. putting love the house with smoke same nature. and many other said. The former contains methods turning the heart of a filling between husband and wife. . and fire. and and in many cases the magic circle was a safeguard. 73. 327. on the magicians and Their warfare against the and powers. December.S. ghosts demanded a knowledge of certain goblins prescribed rules which made their magic effectual when Their personal risk from demoniac properly performed. receipts of the Enough has been their literature however. A Hebrew charm " " to is to write a magical name on a stone dry up a river it from the same water on the Sabbath.. 1907.A. P. 1 Folklore of Mossoul. woman. But provided that they knew the proper word of nothing further was wanting to a successful issue some concrete charm as an effective aid to the power. thee" is due to an aversion to magic. priest. than demon's expulsion.lxviii SUMMARY.

S. Leemans.B. little variation from their pristine simplicity. spooks. . from prehistoric times down to the present day. in Greek. Vocabulaire lists in The Book of Sacred Magic. are capable of inflicting grievous hurt upon them. THE DEMONS AND GHOSTS.A. Der Gotter. Throughout the Near East. . 1901. Mathers in Egyptian. 1 de VAngelologie. to use a general expression. P. Legge.und Daemonennamen . ed.I. Wiedemann. 41. and that ills the maladies and bodily directly due to to this baneful which they are subject are power. Papyrus Magica . Dieterich. and the . vampires.. and light on throw new many ancient Semitic specific most instances the Semitic those of dialect ideas. Although in names for the demons of one have (and no etymological connection in with another the few cases to Hebrew and late Syriac to which are in opposition this statement seem period) have been borrowed at a comparatively still the ideas which are current show us that the more ancient forms of hobgoblins. the inhabitants have been firmly convinced that supernatural beings. who cultivated one of the most elaborate and intricate systems of ancient magic that we know. Papyri Gra>ci Feb. Syria. exist and devils under various titles 1 with the several attributes that were assigned to them by the Babylonians. The modern natives and Barbary have inherited from their forebears a legacy of superstitions and beliefs which show of Irak. ancient witchcraft In making an examination into the shall we therefore avail ourselves of For the names of demons in late Hebrew see Schwab.

the offspring of interbeings of marriage between just as human demigods and the divine spirit world. half-human. The first class.2 CLASSES OF SPIRITS. Inasmuch as the Assyrian is incantations show a systematized demonology. and by a comparison magic of the ancients with that of their descendants try to obtain some glimpse of the It will beliefs of the primitive Semite. then. Lastly. making presence observed either by a visible appearance as it was in the flesh. when once a system of demonology has been evolved. the several Assyrian names for devils form an excellent starting- point in the various species. in all we find half origin mythologies. is The main this its idea concerning this ghost that it returns to world from the place of the departed spirits. East. the souls of men spirits or women who. which earliest at the same time the at our disposal. often of such grotesque or horrid shape as savage had changed their earthly Second to this comes the imagination might invent. to form some substantial basis for a critical insight into this phase of theology. be admitted readily that. i shape for an incorporeal one. as much of modern folklore as may serve to elucidate the of the older superstitions. having died. we by a comparison of the different ideas prevailing among the Semitic and other peoples of the be able. The finds for restlessness are many : the soul . The simplest and most universal form of these was the disembodied spirit. or by making an unseen attack on some man reasons so that he its is stricken down by disease. at least three classes of must be recognized. is that of the disembodied spirit. we have a class of demons half-ghostly. shall Taking each of these classes in turn. supernatural being who never was earthly. a phantom or demon.

" 2 where it was compelled Of Sheol among the Hebrews. xxii). I had hitherto thought that it meant the thing snatched away {Devils. xxxviii. 4 7 the husband of Ishtar.A. 'to rob. 4-7) and translated by Hunger (Becherwahrsagung bei den Babyloniern. 21. and v. In ordinary died and was duly buried circumstances. the house from which none come forth again. 3 no peace if its corporeal it shape is unburied. vii. Job xvii.. J -3. 2 ' See Jeremias. this set forth at Among was the 1 Assyrians used for they f ) ghost edimmu. as it has always been referred to the root ekSmu. described as a It was under the one earth. i. 59 iv. Darkness. and not ekimmu. and was return. In is W. 10. G Job Job x. 5 who described as Ruler of Hades. it is Tammuz. W. as Hunger points out (p. and like nations believed that the soul could return to earth. 'the 1 ' ' seizer. 32). Job xi. The variants e-di-im-mi and e-te-im-mi-im leave no manner of doubt that ekimmu is wrong. feed on dust and mud. is In 3 historic times for ' principal ' characteristic darkness. ff. when " the House of his soul entered the underworld. 10. that we must read edimmu.T. and to these ghosts they ascribed many of their bodily ills. or for by paying it its due rites. it is 7 portrayed as a city with gates. 2-4. Isa. 4 the word dust 5 being used as a synonym. according to the little we have very its direct knowledge.GHOSTS. a person the seat of the that enter to god Irkalla. as in the Assyrian picture in the Descent of Ishtar.I. 6 place from which did not and. 3 27. iii. King (C. etc. or if its descendants cease to feed libations. 1903) show.' although with what is probably an impossible translation (having regard to the form). 8. or sacrifices. The dead would The two texts published by L. Vorstellungen vom Leben nach dem Tode. 16. a hundred other causes length in the cuneiform the word other which are frequently incantations. most primitive beliefs. .

adjoining which Every day Dumah leads out the field spirits to pasture in the and to drink of the river.. when is little man dies 3 he is removed from the jurisdiction of 4 Yahweh. the courtyard flows a river. and subsequently into ass.. No. the soul will pass it for others.4 be RABBINIC BELIEFS. will be invested with the body of a Gentile. xxxii. 338." 5 The Kabbalists believed in metempsychosis from the body of one species into the Some of the later sages of the body of another species. xiv.. 6 1 1 Sam. chap. xxxviii. vi. The Rabbis believed that there was " a place called ni "TCPl. of or into creeping the or reptiles. also Isa. For further reference to this subject. see Hershon. These passages have been taken from the articles and Shedl. who become a proselyte into the body of a mule into for another. sub Bead. which derives its name from of the fact that It it is assigned to the departed spirits men. 1 the of soldier his sword. 2 But Sheol independent Yahweh a in early times. a she-mule or a camel. 18. transmigrates Ashdod. . encircled by a fence. xxviii. Buber. change down to In the primitive belief. Khillim (ed. Eschatology. and Franck. v. J. 326. . Misc. loc. b). 2 Ezek. known by by their dress the old man by is his robe. . 6 Nishmath Charin. quoting Mid. 4 La Kabbale. 51. and there are no more relations between them. 3 Ps. represents a building with a courtyard. xiii. 5. lxxxviii. 14.C. cf. 5 Bender. and there the fourth century B. For one form uncleanness. quoted Hershon. cit. Ishmael transmigrated first into the she-ass of Balaam. a rabbit or a hare. an a woman of the ass of Rabbi Pinchas ben Yair. a bat. 27 .Q. Isa. is Before a field. in the Encyclopedia Biblica. Talm. Kabbala say that the soul of an unclean person will transmigrate things soul will into an unclean animal. 14..

6 Ibid. iv. Ibid.. and continually cries oskuni. the Mohammedans have various concerning the future destination of the souis of the dead. Unbelievers go to the well of Borhut in Hadramaut.S. trumpet which is to wake the that they take the form of white birds in the under the throne of God. 6 received 1 Hence the belief. 3 from the grave. On the Mandean idea of the soul meeting Shitil. Zemzem being the well near Mekka. 1893. 3.. days. 3 4 Sale.. A Mandean Hymn of the Soul. vol. P. Koran. Texts and Studies.F.. going where they please near the graves others that 2 they are with or that Adam stay all in the lowest heaven.J. and then flies away. Certain of the Arabs. xxii. that they seven or they are dead. which once in a hundred years visited the sepulchre . one of the emanations. see Schulim Ochser. v. Prelim.E.MOHAMMEDAN According beliefs BELIEFS. oskuni. Surah vi. his When shall an be infidel comes forth to it works presented him shall under ride the ugliest form he ever beheld. 5 Ibid. who gives him notice of the coming of the two examiners. . or in for Zemzem. which is still current in Palestine. of the blood near the dead person's brain. A. 217). sect. vol. Discourse. first i. 5 When say he a corpse is laid in the grave. "give till me is to drink. 5 to Sale.L. though others say. thought that. No. this bird is animated by the soul of him who is unjustly slain. which are two black angels If of a terrible appearance named Monker and Nakir. the liberty Some say of that they stay near the tombs with x . or finally. sect. believing in a metempsychosis. iv. the Mohammedans by an angel.. 287. may 2 This is in the case of believers. and 4 upon him. was formed a bird named Hamah. On the curious Syriac Hymn of the Soul see Bevan. that the dead drink from the hollows scooped in the tops of tombs where the rain-water gathers (Baldensperger. sect." meaning of the murderer's blood. it his death be avenged.

as the Others say that they are buried two were buried they now dwell in Him Others say that they stand .worshippers of the Sinjar Hills in Mesopotamia) say that the spirits of wicked men take or. to the region of the spirit. darkness go forth to meet it. secrets of our world. 3 cf. 1896. The Yezidis their (the devil. Leben der vorislamischen Beduinen. some say that they are taken up if there be to heaven. seeking to seize and examine ." their bodies. J. up abode in dogs. where the Others say that they go to Paradise. picture of Shedl according to given in Budge. as Abba Isaiah says. that in to say.. Chabot. . on the whole subject see Jacob. 131. of the graves mouth and await their Redeemer that is to say. 1 The Syriac " beliefs are given in the Book of the Bee forth 2 : When the soul goes angels from it the : body. Wellhausen.6 SYRIAC BELIEFS. a man pass by the grave of a friend. 143.) . 2 3 Ed. donkeys. 2nd 183 (and 177 ff. to the place which is abundantly supplied with good things of the mystery of the revelations of God and that the souls of sinners lie in darkness in the abyss celestial hosts dwell. A. 128. The spirits of the good inhabit the 1 air to show the ed. that is. is Ethiopic beliefs vii. the go it. rehabilitate as men. horses. vol. Budge. they possess the knowledge of the resurrection of Others say that they are as it were in a slumber. Lives of Maba Seydn and Gabra A . after suffering a while. is with their bodies. with then the hosts of it . As to anything of theirs in it where the souls abide from the time they leave their bodies until the resurrection. God at baptism. he should hail the soul with a greeting.. that is. so also will until the at the day of resurrection. . of Eden outside Paradise. Beste. pigs. because of the shortness of the time.

as will is more to devils or demons than be seen later.. Devils. the evil Ghost. the classes of spirits are much confused with one another. forth . but. the evil Devil.' 15 . is Tablets 'A. Ibid. ' 5). ibid. . then to was driven by force of hunger come back to earth to demand its due. 1907. This is described on an Assyrian tablet which begins " The gods which seize (upon man) Have come forth from the grave The evil wind-gusts Have come forth from the grave To demand the payment of rites and the pouring . XI. the evil Demon. Devils. the reference to ghosts.. <T.' 25. of libations They have come All that is evil of forth 'from the grave 1 . a name for Eridu (cf. cf. neither stand nor sit. 63. the earth have the Pure earth they are not understood. it and the soul should find nothing to eat or drink.' The last line refers to the patient ." 3 this latter text. Sabbat. Tablet Y. . From From come forth Abode unto earth they have come In heaven they are unknown. The "Pure Abode" . however.ASSYRIAN GHOSTS. 67 . xv." 2 Or another " The evil Spirit.' Tablet 'CO. One legend 1 of the most interesting passages in the Gilgamish describes the raising of the spectre of Ea-bani I have adopted Hehn's correction of my previous translation " "jene Sieben [in der semitischen Zeile ihre Gesamtheit=sie alle] : . On They He In cannot eat food nor drink water. (Siebenzahl 2 3 und ii. IX. 5). 7 Now if the attentions of its friends on earth should cease. those seven Hath come like a whirlwind.

the story of Odysseus raising Teiresias. Egypt. a dwelling-place wherein those who are there remain. Give care no room in thy heart. 53. 1 to the If offerings were not 5 Utukku Cf. they wake no more to see their comrades. which Jensen translates du. he was obliged to wander into unclean places to eat such filth and drink such dirty water as he might find in the course of his wretched wanderings. Follow thy longings by da}7 and night. : Book of . but I pine for the water that is by me.8 ASSYRIAN NECROMANCY. An Egyptian stela puts into the mouth of a dead wife the following adjuration to her living husband "0 my comrade. the leavings of the spirit resteth not in the earth man whose spirit hath none to care for . to be drunken. see his friend is The Babylonian hero Gilgamish attempts to Ea-bani. and the god Nergal to restore directed by Ea Ea-bani to earth. to hold festival. Tamur Egyptian Dead. to enjoy the love of women. from Hades. 15. is the Assyrian word used in this instance. " Cf. they see neither father nor mother. but I suffer with thirst. ! See Wiedemann. Job iv. of the dead man underworld " The man whose corpse lieth in the desert Thou and I have often seen such an one His 3 The Thou and I have often seen such." also the condition of the neglected spirit paid to the deceased in Egyptian theology. * And This last according that which is is cast out into the street are his food. Water comes to him 'that I long for sojourns on earth. The shade 1 rises through an opening made by the god " like the wind. their heart does not yearn for wife and children. Realms of Bead. 2 3 * 5 Then a spirit (breath) passed before my face. the 44. chapters 52. sehe ich. They sleep in their mummy forms. For the West land [a domain of the dead] is a land of sleep and darkness. my husband Cease not to eat and drink. who has died. an one The dregs of the vessel." " sahst atamar." a transparent spectre in human in the earth 2 then describes what he has seen in the Ea-bani shape. On earth each drinks the water of life." Tablet XII. it feast.

thinking he had been called to judgment. quoted Conybeare.' At his call all men come unto him.HEBREW NECROMANCY. . . For the name of the god who rules here is Total Death. 1 The very name " Raiser of of a class of magicians. grant him [dreams. Sam. The Realms of the Egyptian ' . and dishonour the souls of those long dead .. were believed to percolate through to the supernatural beings under the earth. cf." among the Assyrians. sacrificial blood and libations.Q. She brings up Samuel out of earth. 7. . muselu 2 edimmu. ii-iii. praying: "0 mountain. When Ea-bani and Gilgamish desire a dream they ascend a mountain and dig a hole and pour an offering of upuntu-me&l into it. 7th ed. ii. r. Koran.. 2. and he pays no heed to him who brings gifts to him" (Wiedemann. 20. He makes no difference between gods and men in his eyes high and low are equal.L. see Potter. In Mohammedan tradition Christ raises Shera. . None comes to worship him. . Sale. the departed spirit. the story of Lazarus for the raising (see Encycl. bring a dream 1 [to Ea-bani] 1. 2 3 Cf. xxviii. as an offering to the mountain. 9 A spirit similar belief in necromancy is shown among the Hebrews. . 21.. shows how great a hold such practices had over the people. " " whereas men did not after grow grey in his days the son of Noah. It is clear that offerings of Dead." raising up. trembling with fear. Arch&ologia Graca. -god] (v. Bibl. of Yahweh bringing down to Sheol and W. 28). translated by Hutchison. who. 51. . came out of his grave with his head half grey. 1 Sam. cols. when poured on the ground.. . viii. 6. Tertullian says (De Idol. . which he immediately died again. and he answers the questions which Saul wishes to ask. note to Surah iii. of jugglers. " . they smother young boys to make them gasp out oracles they play off marvels with the trickery J. 3 the breeze on the bank of the river to soothe my heart in its woe. ii. for he is not gracious to his worshippers. for Saul goes to visit a " at "woman with a familiar the En-dor. 1 46). 604): "The magicians call up ghosts (phantasmata). He shows np favour to him who loves him he carries away the child from his mother and the grey-haired man alike. 2744) of the dead among the Greeks.A. For the Palestinian belief.

19.. Assurbanipai relates how he desecrated the tombs of the kings of Elam by carrying away their bones and causing their rites to cease. 348 most The grave is always the . Rouse. 16. a. nor have son or seed. 1 W. saith the i. 3 4 Lehmann.3.. blotted of Eshmunazar the Phoenician king has inscribed a curse all on those who shall disturb his rest " : May they have no resting-place with the Shades. Jer. 61. On the other hand. ii.A.S. ff. and was compelled to roam about the earth homeless. which had. the spirit at once became restless. s 6 C. In 1906. nor be buried in a grave. among the Bisharin Hadendowas. 3. when I was travelling likely place to see a spirit. quoted Jeremias. one of the Soudanese servants. 21. 8. ff.." cast out that it may may his corpse be On the sarcophagus out. been 3 forth from In Egypt Cambyses its tomb to be abrogated. 6. v. declared that he had seen a ghost rise from a grave close by and approach him. v. 1 had Amasis' body dragged 2 and burnt. who was left in charge of the camp for a few nights.A. Vorstell. carried home by Moses.10 DESECRATION OF GRAVES. It was usual to curse future his desecrators " : May his name be destroyed. . W. 4 may have no tomb. that their spirits might have no rest. may seed be his life be ended in want and famine. 48 ff. 70 2 ff.I. the digging of foreign tombs for bones see Note also that the bones of Joseph are xiii. . 1 On 54 Jeremias. If the bones of the dead were removed from the tomb.I. Vorstellungen vom Leben nach dem Tode. i. and sole in the Eastern provinces of the Soudan." 5 And there is evidently some idea of this in Jeremiah's prophecy 6 : " At that time. Samas-sum-ukin mangled relates that he reinstated the rites and libations to the kings who had preceded him. Samassumukin. Herodotus. for a time. iii.I. . 1. Exod. 47. viii. Greek Votive Offerings.

. and the bones of the prophets. and whom they have worshipped all the host of heaven. fate carried him off." Similarly. in the tomb inscriptions of Hejra in Arabia. they shall be dung upon the face of the earth. it was by the best advice that Lord Kitchener caused the destruction of the 2 Mahdi's the battle of Omdurman Whether stolen * in 1898. written in Nabatean about the beginning of our era." give away. the Assyrians believed in kismet is uncertain. 197. Guide Euting 2. and whom they have loved. the maker of a family vault frequently calls down curses on. 11 the kings of they shall bring out the bones of Judah. for nor be buried . or pledge it inscription thereon. . or any bury therein any except those whose names are mentioned. it. [109]. and the bones of his princes.I. In the legend of Zu. as the haram of the Nabateans and Shalameans. out of their graves: and they shall spread them before the sun. : they shall not be gathered. Egypt and the Sudan (Murray). Simtic is the usual word for and a common euphemism for 'death* is to say simtu ' ubilsu. Hall.' 1 C. and the moon. they whom they have sought. we read of the Tablets of Destiny being fate/ by Zu from Heaven. future meddlers. and the bones of the inhabitants of Jerusalem. Lord. 2 No. to See H.S.DESECRATION OF GRAVES. R. for this tomb and inscription are l haram. Huber 29. and served. and the bones of the priests. and whom have and after whom they have walked. curse or all "May Dusara and Manuthu and Kaisah who it shall sell this tomb or buy out for hire. or let it or write The ancient superstitions on the effect of disturbing a grave reappear in the modern Mohammedan body after opinion .

is to A possible reference to Tablets of Destiny be found in Exod. 4 2 3 4 Martin. D. of Islam. 164-5. The mother that bore me hath gone return.T. than of any predestination. Gilgamish. Keilinschr. in Gilgamish saying that he will eat of it and return to He finds the plant and comes on a pool of manhood "). Beitr. youth. Diet." But Sit-napishtim lot. 9. him a that he cannot escape the common issahir but there wonderful plant called to sibu amelu ("the starts old man made young search of his it. woe hath tells is my body I fear death. v. . 1. indeed. 10. v.. ff. prematurely in a day that of ' la simtisu** shows that the idea more the allotted span/ here at any rate. zur Assyr. a denizen of the spring. Among the Arabs Al-lauhu 'l-Mahfuz is preserved tablet on which the decrees of name for 'the God are recorded with reference to mankind. 5. will I blot out of my book" the (of Yahweh). 2 " that all determineth the fates of the gods. " Whosoever hath sinned him ' against me. destiny hath carried him off. After Ea-bani's death. xxxii. 33. in terror of such a fate." But the phrase is ina um la simtisu urruhis imtut (Sennacherib. but a snake. 11. Ahuraku " I rest alone zarii simtum ubtil Agarinnu . 203 . Bibliothek. 109. which he bathes. goes in search of Sit- napishtim entered " : I." l the father.12 DESTINY AMONG THE ASSYRIANS. " he died 2). . Textes Religieux. Gilgamish Epic see Jensen. 375. will not die like Ea-bani . 3 The possibility of avoiding death is the subject of an incident in the Epic of Gilgamish. Hughes. to the land whence none Marduk is the god musim simate sa Hani kalama. Hehn. leaving Gilgamish lamenting over 1 its loss. alitti ittar kur-nu-gi. scents the plant and darts out and carries it cool water in off. 285.

." 3 We may see in these last lines one of the reasons for the great desire of the Semites for children. left no posterity. It was clearly a Assyrians it is the same with the Hebrews among the " I have not eaten thereof in my mourning. the bodies of viii.e. neither have I put away 1 In the O. its each severally described with the reason of return. a ghost with none to pour libations. this is not it surprising when it is remembered how universal a custom is to sacrifice to the dead. . . a ghost with none to make offerings." i. a universal rest that its departed spirit can find no so long as body remains unburied. men hanged were buried carefully (Joshua 2 3 Devils. literally " that hath no naming of a name. with the duty naturally devolving Semites as upon the children.T.GHOSTS. as has been explained elsewhere. Or Or Or Or Or Or one that lieth dead in the desert. Tablet IV. 13 soul of Under never certain circumstances the a dead it man is entered belief the underworld. The last line. col. a ghost that none careth . uncovered with earth a ghost unburied. It is as common among belief : among other nations. one that carries on the family name. . particularly males. "that hath iv. . for. . the For instance. 1 In the Assyrian incantations we find long lists of ghosts exorcised. i. 29). 41. Indeed. to perpetuate the family name. may show that he knows the name of the particular ghost he is exorcising. " Whether thou art a ghost that hath come from the earth Or one that lieth dead in the desert. 2 The reason that these lists are so long is that the sorcerer. a ghost that hath left no posterity." is a translation of zakar sume la isti. .

4 v. Das Leben nach dera Tode. that he to may not bark at the dead. apparently thinking that they would thus be rendered unrecognisable. and also pouring custom of of on the fire. or fresh and dried for burning them libations all night the dead. meat. i. . iv. Anthrop. and cook sweetmeats. 4 ghosts of their The Persians used ancestors were feasts (Tabarjan). 145 ff. xxvi. Hall. 14. Devils. 198.. xv. 31. Asiatic Studies. On offerings to the dead among the Hebrews see "Are we to think of the Schwally.14 OFFERINGS TO THE DEAD." 2 In the Nestorian burial service 3 are it An is said that the dead more abundantly helped by kurbdne and requiems and alms which are done in their behalf. 840). " and they attain rest of their souls and expiation of Tisri. See also Frazer. 232. that the souls of the dead came back from the nether world and went about the city.. They had also a curious burning the thigh-bone of a camel for the "Witch "Dog the " (Hekate). Cf. ii. being unclean. 4). Golden Bough. first parents were forbidden to wash during the days of the mourning for their dead 1 Deut. Tablet 'A. ! Thy Assyrian text describes the feast of an evil spirit food is the food of ghosts. The people smeared their houses with pitch. 1899. ix. or of some form 2 3 of worship as in Isa.. 5 believe that the in the habit of returning to one of their Among the later Hebrews. for ghosts and the disposal of the dead body. Inst. mere unluckiness of anything connected with the dead (Hos. Die Ssabier. Frazer. all sorts of food.' 17 Isaac H. On the worship of ghosts in the East see En-Nedlrn. 19 ?" (Encycl. Bibl." Among in the the Sabians a feast used to be made to the dead month Each man would buy fruit. 5 Mohammed Abu-Thaleb Dimeshki. 31. nor given thereof for the dead.i. Rebraica. without doubt. 88. quoting a peculiar belief of the Athenians from Hesychius. Chwolsohn. 64 ff. ff. Lyall. viii. 7." " : thereof. of their sins. ibid. iii. Joum. thy drink is the drink of ghosts.

250. i. if they have no mourners should eat with neighbours in chamber but the any neighbours. 7 (6).. xxii. and the)' tell stories of the way in which departed returned to spirits left to shift for themselves have their descendants 1 Berakhoth. in the impossibility of least they should turn. 2 Ibid. where the expression used Saturday : replaced. . or. in for eating. In default of this. Bibl. Kaddish said man's death. It it is on the couch that hence at death should be turned up." and not on the likeness. ed. ii. but on the turned up again. unless rest. he cannot The modern Arabs and Syrians consider that a man has obligations towards the dead which must not be neglected. doing even this. the parents were excused from reading the Shema' and the wearing of There was also a custom of turning seats phylacteries. 1. a birth takes place . Among the 3 the Jews is Palestine after a at the present day. f^&O. Schwab. as the As long upside down "in sign of mourning. as long as the corpse is above ground the is to . I think the idea prevent the ghost returning to sit in the house. some separation between them and the dead should be made. earth. customary diningroom. child. at towards the opposite wall 2 in the room. 45. 13. 3 Masterman.THE RETURN OF THE GHOST. 1 15 body remained unburied. face upwards death as a punishment for sin (3) hence the couches should be turned up. Similarly. iii. (2) God gave in form in His now turned . Three is " they sat with a him. World." This was done as soon as the dead was carried out of the house. eve of On the Saturday the seats were evening they were (1) From explanations were given by the Rabbis for this an explanation of Job ii. Notwithstanding these elaborate explanations.

under the impression that We they were feeding the ghosts. 217. their camel was tied to their sepulchre. at 1 in night. P. cit. and accompany them to the other world.. 1893. 6 In Palestine concave to the tombs - sometimes made in the allow the rain 7 water accumulate there that the dead paralleled vefcvta may drink. have therefore ample evidence that the Semites generally paid rites and made offerings to the dead. when they died. seven sheep being the full substitute for one camel.E. xi. 178. 99. may is." that the dead. sect. 206. and so left without meat and drink to perish.. the blood thus shed tops nourishes of and are to satiates them.F. nay. Among certain Arabs.. 208. Notes on i. that the souls of the dead " are pleased with. Loc. 4 sacrifice On the day of Korban. i. require sacrifices at their tombs. Sem. each Arab family kills as camels as there have been deaths of adult persons last during the year in that family. i. the Bedouins and Wakabis. 3 According to Curtiss. in chapter Ma'an to the Djouf Arabs. 5 his Palgrave explains. 2 4 Ibid. lest they should be obliged at the resurrection to go on foot. in which the ghosts drink greedily of the sacrificial blood. 3 5 6 Koran.. 8 Baldensperger. dreams duty. 7 33. Prim. reproaching them for their is lack of sacrifice sacrifice filial Among the Nusairiyeh there at a for aod a parent " redeem soul by soul. say the redeem the soul of the animal to be killed as dead man by 2 the soul of the victim.. 8 These are of the Odyssey. and . 206. Sale. . and 1 Curtiss. Burckhardt. an Arab often leaves a sum in his will to be expended in the sacrifice of a victim in his behalf.16 OFFERINGS TO THE DEAD. Eel. the great many on Mount Arafat.

.K. A. but can be restrained by driving a new nail which has never been used into the ground at the spot where the murder was committed. thronged thither with and immediately the neighbouring Arabs hammer and nail.S. . " And whosoever 2 a sword . ii. Num. . 11. on the grounds that the ghost would thereby be released. 389. the little proprietor of loeanda showed me a which had been driven into the paving of the porch A few years before.. . 17 that if they ceased to offer sustenance to the souls of their ancestors they might render themselves liable to affliction or even possession by the hungry rest souls of the departed. made up a journey round the inland districts.A. a native had been murdered to close the door.. Cairene Folklore. xix. in the open field toucheth one that is slain with shall be unclean seven days. 1 W. .. He He that no grave covereth that lieth uncovered. . The king's son that lieth in the desert Or in the ruins. after the proprietor attempted to remove the but he was at once prevented. 16." l Among his the modern Arabs the soul of a murdered If a man must be nailed down. Cf. Some time nail.NAILING DOWN THE GHOST.. But there are many other accidents which prevent a soul : from entering into " He that lieth in a ditch . Sayce. 6.I. The hero whom they have slain with the sword." ii. Whose head is uncovered with dust. Haupt.. "While for I was waiting for Italian my caravan to be the nail floor. afrit rises it man is murdered in Egypt from the ground where his blood has been shed. 17. ii. Folklore.T. 2 I met with such a case in Tripoli (Barbary). and thus secured the freedom of the place from being haunted by the dead man's soul.

Misc.B. in the Golden Bough. 1 3 fol. in subject nailing down his a demon. He showed his disciples a hole in the wall. the 2 quotes other instances. While on the method quoting. 2. col." But in addition to these ghosts we find that the souls of men and women who had to died prematurely were compelled rest. a very tall According to Baldensperger.. " soul. 1 Frazer. 33-4.. .S. 149. one spirits (from Leared) of a house in Mogador haunted by were finally and devils who threw stones about. Feb. The second is mentioned by Lane. 4 Hershon. appears chiefly where people have and the Mohammedans use big iron or wooden pegs to prevent such ghosts appearing. Talm. 217. On the Mared appearing where a murder had been committed. 327. saying.. notably two among Arabs. 1906.E. these haunt mankind until they were laid to we find mentioned in Assyrian spells Among 2 See my article P. Emeh Hamelech.F. see G. similar to the cure for headache that I met in laid Mosul to . the Mared. 1899. thus patient's head and then drives a nail into the obviously transfixing the devil therewith. 11. yf. P. similar belief may be traced in the story of Rabbi Isaac Luria when he was passing the great academy of A Rabbi Yochanan in Tiberias. but by a holy man pronouncing an incantation and driving a nail into the wall. Robinson Lees. Village Life in Palestine. 80-1. In this stone there is a transmigrated 4 and it cries that I should pray on its behalf. ghost. Arab been killed. is the vogue for curing a headache at Mosul lays worth The shekh comes and hands on the wall.18 NAILING DOWN THE of SPIRIT. the people of Cairo suffering from migraine used nail knock a into the great wooden door of the old 3 South Gate. quoting Kabbala.A.

just as it was among " a the Greeks purification for you to whom it is meet and right. 22 ' ff. 622). telles sont la femme : qui allaite. iv.. 141.K. a certains moments." ?) 2 " A (sacred harlot (that hath died). seem to point to a similar meaning. 21 ff. 19 He He that hath died of hunger in prison. two other ghosts.. v. That it is not mentioned specifically that they are dead is no stumbling- block. A man (that hath died) unmarried. la mutir irti and idu nu-un-da-ri-a. According to Eustathius {ad.S. p. . phrases describing is distinctly favourable to in Besides. i. Harrison. la femme morte d'un cancer au sein. 60). II. xxiii. 2 Tablet IV. devenir dangereuse . the ill-omened mention of death was in many cases thus avoided. 3 For the 'weeping woman' Ibid. ' 22 ff.e. although the evidence such a translation." i. in token that the dead among the Greeks it was customary to who died unmarried a water-jar called had died unbathed and without offspring (J. clearly understood. and Haupt. E. that hath died of thirst in prison. place on the grave of those Loutrophoros. in his The hungry man who (food). whose body is sick. A. La prostituee est exorcisee comme un veritable demon " {La Magie.GHOSTS OF THOSE " WHO HAVE DIED PREMATURELY. Harrison. Haupt. hunger hath not smelt the smell of He whom the bank of a river hath let perish. i.. the dead (J. 17. A woman (that hath died) with a babe at the breast.K. ' a dead woman who was 11." 1 died. and he hath He that hath died in the plain or the marsh. A weeping woman (that hath died) with a babe at the breast. Tablet V. E.S. cit. It was." ' This list further elaborated by the details that it may 1 be the ghost of ii. He whom the Storm-god hath submerged in the plain. loc. 51 ff. ii. I think. An evil man is (that hath died).T. explanation that they are all ghosts of dead people to be a better one than that of M. " A woman (that hath died) a virgin. 1293). nursing W. Fossey " Enfin une personne ordinairement inoffensive peut. 50). i. 11.A. and further. : . A.T.. absolutely certain. et la femme enceinte. virgin meaning of and See the notes as to the actual unmarried. A woman (that hath died) in travail. Devils. 15..' which cannot be said to be 45-6. Prolegomena.I. I venture to think the I would suggest that her babe has also died.

seeking her lost child through the ' ' ' ! ! wilderness.. 367) .. It is Ymgebas Ymgebas wailful woman. cast (rummu)." Spirits. and Evil Tablet IV They are that which . German ed. also the beginning was spawned in the creation of Anu. 345. bitter. ii. again. " Fruhgeburt. and needles in the palms of the hands. scorpions. a female To prevent this. i. to a woman die in childbirth she is supposed become a langmyar. ispu kubu sa . 2 The untimely a ghost. whose breast was sweet. 35. 2 3 Jastrow {Religion. This stops the dead woman shrieking.. " that . a hen's egg is put under the armpits. seems to have been counted as Now this is curious ghost. 340). which doth not complete the month of Devils (?).T. which was turned into if this forlorn bird. Ibid. universal. . 4 woman who has died in Doughty relates how in Arabia the .S.K. . i. or of a woman with child. 11. . i. or flying demon. . . glass beads are put in the corpse.) against which a magical cup will be efficacious by its virtue (Reinaud. 305. etc. ii. 3 birth. whose womb was healthy. or her child. 13. explains museniktu sa ina mihis imut as one that has died of carcinoma.. wounded l . ulcerated. 4 5 See Frazer. they are that which a woman in travail [hath brought forth dead ? ?]. Haupt. loosened (patru). 360. or not healthy. a The hareem said.. Zeits. Monumens Ifusulmanes." The sa explains this as may be the beginning of a translation of the corresponding Sumerian itu nu-til-la. . the Malays. childbirth.. fur Assyr. mad dogs. children of the earth they were born. waving her arms. he " heard scratching owls sometimes in the night then the nomad wives and children answered them with mocking again. Arabia Deserta. which an evil foster-mother [hath ].' " 5 Among familiar. xiv. or opening her mouth of the 1 tuli Oefele." ' ' : Cf.20 WOMEN DYING IN CHILDBED. Golden Bough. A.. Among modern Arabs the bad milk of nurses is held to be one of the things (along with the poison of serpents.

. 2 Arabic lore the owl is a human incarnation. 5 to a The Sakai of Perak. it is if a woman dies supposed to be undesirable for her sake and that of the congregation that the foetus should be buried with the body.E. ear. and similar. 157. return to the River-banks ' . as the In more ancient sorceress (the owl) would take the child. Rise.' return to the outcrop Pluck out with spells and neutralise again and again the . 325. 3 WeUhausen. like the Lilith of Rabbinic tradition. 1893. Mati-anak. 212. Mati-anak of the River-banks. What is the origin of thy existence ? Demon of the blood of a person dead That is the origin of thy existence. demon Mati-anak. article Superstitions. and a shofar blown seven times in her then give birth The corpse with many groans dead undeveloped child. therefore. the Egyptian eagle owl childbirth. night.. Skeat.F. to the ghost of which Doughty speaks." 1 2 4 Malay Magic (quoting Sir William Maxwell). 4 Among pregnant.. Baldensperger. repeat this invocation : "OM ! Die. Descend. who possesses baneful influences over Neither the name of the child nor the bird must be mentioned within a few days of the birth. neutraliser of mine. and after The corpse is therefore bathed at midof the dead is half an hour the name will called seven times. P. Encycl. Mati-anak of the outcrop. 1 IN CHILDBED. buried under the earth heaped up for the Roadway. 3 and Laila took this form in flying from the grave of her beloved. an enchanted woman. in childbirth. poison of the Mati-anak . is Among the Arabs of Palestine. the modern Jews of Lemburg.WOMEN DYING hands. Ibid. 21 to The original langsuyar was supposed be a kind is of night owl. when they make a necklace-charm. 5 Jewish 183. Eeste.

3 a curious story current in Mosul about a woman This who in at died and was buried before her child was born. 1906. 345. This latter rite brings it into connection with the tabu against pulling up plants. when a cries. It is the custom among the Jews in Palestine. Crooke. her son was born and lived and grew up in that tomb for about ten years. 4 it story I heard in Mosul. Pagan Races of the Malay Peninsula. 269.82. the ghost of has died in childbed cannot go away to Panoi or ghostland. Greek Votive Offerings.S. i.. for she cannot leave a the baby behind. Mosul. his father or uncle.22 WOMEN DYING IN CHILDBED. Among the Greeks. P. Feb. if a woman die in childbirth. the clothes of women who died thus were left at the grave of Iphigeneia in Halse (House. The story native of goes that woman was buried in a tomb. xxii. which must be made of plants pulled up. in the Banks Islands. 252). jfn out. when he was found by a man digging into the grave. to keep the husband out of the room (Masterman. and lived to a good old It is therefore to be presumed that during his childhood the tomb the boy was fed in some supernatural manner 5 that would seem to imply the return of the mother's 1 spirit. fed and clothed. and I learnt that was also told Baghdad when I was there. her spirit comes and the child 2 " Give woman me There is In India the same ghost appears. ii. 5 World. when Luxor some time after. Popular Religion and Folklore of Northern India. or two instances from other than Semitic Melanesia.B. and Kubary). if her child lives. an Arab boy told me that a near it relation of his. i. Bibl. 249). and not cut or dug 1 up. " ! woman who In the Pelew Islands. has died in childbed. Golden Skeat and Blagden. had also repeated after the to who was a him. To quote one nations. 153. . Bough (quoting Codrington. and curiously enough. The boy was taken age.A. 2 3 4 Frazer. The magician then spits twice on the necklace.

391. Rabbinic traditions. v. and. for forgiveness and mercy. ed. Hughes. they were supposed to be wedded to incubi or who claimed them The ' after their death. it is laid down in the Talmud that the dwellings of heathens must be considered unclean." it l We may Jews believed to be the result of some ulterior cause. . that the Assyrian words used to describe such ghosts show that full-grown and marriageable people are intended. 1 4 Talmud. and pretended that by his prayers he would obtain of God that it should be a son in Adam's likeness. Rodkinson. Dead discuss ABORTIONS. Rodkinson. unmarried. Zauber Bibliothek. because it was supposed that they buried their miscarriages in their houses. " an infant cut or torn at birth. belief Diet. 3 viii. from all the evidence. the Arab about Eve's child is interesting. According to the legends of the later Jewish demonology. Malay Magic. ed. to 3 Mohammed said to have ordered prayers be said over an untimely birth. 4. Ebel Rabbathi. or born alive at the eighth month. when supplication should be made for the father and mother. devils are not so much fallen angels as is immature creatures or abortions. if they would call him Abdo'l-hareth instead of note to Surah When the child was born it died (Sale. a miscarriage. ii. ' untimely birth or abortion. a legend worth mentioning. and men who noted. 2 4 Pesachim.DEAD VIRGINS. Koran. In Malay ideas deformed children may be the result of violating certain animal tabus (Skeat. carried. is an extremely probable ghost. 14. Abd Allah. of Islam. 349). first As Horst. When Eve was she pregnant the Devil came to her and asked her if she knew what He appeared again. or born dead at the ninth all the religious ceremonies therefore infer that the do not apply to it. die 23 virgins later. it seems likely that succubce. 2. viii). 2 Again. if the restoration of the Assyrian text According to is correct. we shall Be it however. and not immature children. and suggested that it might be a beast.

in some way connected with him in this world." ." . without giving or receiving anything. he merely threatens be made to the dead until the Tablets IY and of the " Evil that spirit Y " Spirit render this quite clear in Assyrian tradition. A. gave and garments to the naked forth on the wall of Nineveh. promises. No. the question of vengeance of the dead. anointing. ii. col. i. . I buried v. 11.24 CLAIM ON FRIENDS.. to it demand the in which would give drinking. or less. rest. the man was compelled rites if it to suggest that he would pay in peace. On : his head from above and broke his skull (was not this the vengeance of the defunct?). or clothes spirit l sharing of food. 58 ff. a gutter fell on Haupt. it its due left him no The living man. 34 ff. or contact had been brought either visually or by The chance with the corpse. makes no offerings leaves series shall him free. thus tor- mented. act which gave the after during life constituted an death a claim to return to its friend rites or even casual acquaintance. col. have drunk. Now to any one of these disembodied souls came back earth for some reason. cf. 298) Has not R. iii. was enough reason for the ghost to single out his victim and seize upon him until. 3 (ed.K. and 2 the incantation seems worth putting in in full : " Whether thou be one with Or with whom on a day Or with whom on a day 1 I I whom on a day I have eaten. have anointed myself. the mere act oneself of eating. in I almsdeeds to my brethren .T. Tablet IV. i. perforce. Tobit i. my race dead. 2 if I saw any of him.S. dressing company with another person. " notice the story in Berakhoth. the Lord himself intervened in his favour. 16 : "And . Nay. since it was the question of a great wise man. Tablet V. the days of Enemessar I did many my bread to the hungry and my Cf. Papa related that someone having despised Samuel. and cast 11. Schwab. 16. Devils. it might fasten itself on any if mortal who had been into relations oil.

Nor with river water shalt thou be covered. Gibber not against him. the man. the son of his god. Or with whom I Or with whom have anointed myself with oil when I was sore. Or Or Or Or Or Or with 25 whom on a day I have clothed myself. nor with pond water. have entered and clothed myself. with with whom whom I I have entered and anointed myself. Until thou departest from the body of the man. whether thou be one with whom I have entered and eaten. Thou shalt have no wings If thou wouldst lurk in ambush on earth Thou Unto shalt secure no resting-place. whether thou be one with whom I have I eaten food when I was hungry.DESCRIPTIONS OF GHOSTS IN ASSYRIAN. . Or with whom I have drunk water when was thirsty. come not nigh. my creator. Turn not round against him. Nor with bad water. Thou shalt have no food to eat. the son of his god. nor with sweet water. Into the chamber enter thou not. Thou shalt not stretch forth thy hand Unto the table of my father Bel. Nor with Euphrates water. Into the house enter thOu not. Place not thy hand upon his hand. (Whatever thou be) until thou art removed. with whom I have entered and drunk. If thou wouldst fly up to heaven . Neither with sea water. Through the fence break thou not. In the midst of the city eu circle him not. nor with Tigris water. Near him make no circuit . ! Get thee hence Place not thy head upon his head. With thy hand touch him not. when I was cold I have clothed myself with a garment from (?) his loins. Lift not thine eye against him. Place not thy foot upon his foot. Thou shalt have no water to drink. Look not behind thee.

2 Rttualtafeln. There are other ghosts mentioned in these lists less easy of " One that hath been torn from a date-palm " (Tablet IV. Make Thou . and sorceress . . Become become become bright ! may he be cleansed. Ea. May the man. . . Three times a meal thou shalt set before Samas. chief of the gods. the son of his god. . Thou shalt spread out shining . Like a vessel of butter may he be clean Like a vessel of lard ! Unto Samas. v. commend him. 100) thinks that it refers to one that has fallen from it while climbing. shalt cause to take oil dress them. 164. 1) may possibly be the origin of the belief in Pes. lay down upu?itu-mea\ *. and Marduk. thou shalt pour forth corn kinds.26 By TABU ON SEEING CORPSE. the translation appears to be correct. 3 Written ba-bad.." l Through Samas. upon Thou must sanctify the dwelling (?). Before the sun thou shalt sprinkle the kisar with pure water. . pure. thou shalt set clean seats for the god . thou shalt set three adagurvessels. that it is dangerous to walk between two palm-trees. explanation. . . May his welfare be secured at the kindly With regard the whole is : to the mere action of seeing a dead body.. clearly in a ritual tablet published laid 2 down by Zimmern " When a man looketh 3 upon a corpse and the spirit (edimmu) seizeth him . hands of the gods. the word of Ea clean. chief of the gods. . Dates. 1 a very probable explanation. . an altar [thou must place] for the god . . with fine with clothes for each day thou shalt anoint [them] . Boissier (Textes Relatifs. figures of the sorcerer . Three censers of incense thou shalt of all set. col. Ilia. . Although this is an unusual expression. . . . In the morning for nothing evil a sorcerer [and sorceress] . . (?) garments. ater-me&\ thou shalt pour forth.

its flowers. SPIRIT. 99. Burckhardt. Notes on 4 Baldensperger. 4 The dead. v. 143. . the Hebrew and Mohammedan laws show this distinctly. but among it is interesting to see these views on this subject.F. i. formula of prayer on the passing of a funeral procession. 2 . 1894. both Semites and other races. 2 The x dead body of course. 4. Near the lamp are placed a cup of water and a towel. is. 43. P. 5 we were in 1905. take possession After a all is death. days Should it be accidentally extinguished. recite a prescribed firstfruits must of the season and voice if. iv. Sale. It was interesting to see how anxious my as leaving Baghdad cession which was about to cross our path. 27 left of the offerings thou shalt For the ghosts of a seat thou shalt his family. Cf. and also on his seeing the again. or death may ensue to both mother and child. Koran. xxii. Among the Arabs a woman in childbed must get up and go out of the house when a corpse is carried past. he cry aloud "O ye people of the grave. to get Mosul servant was. on the left For the ghosts of the family thou shalt pour libations and It is offer gifts. for seven a lamp must be kept burning the time. may peace be with you. in itself tabu . it being thought that wandering spirits might of it. Prelim.. of both sexes of the Faithful." unnecessary to point out the universal tabu." 5 Jews in Palestine a dead body is not for left Among a the moment alone. With the Pilgrims to Mecca.THE RETURNING For the ghosts of his family. as 1 Lev. 3 The Arab. will hear his : on crossing a cemetery. on the set a seat. on the dead body. it is said. it considered a bad sign. just ahead of a funeral pro- Hadji Khan. Discourse.E. the Bedouins and Wahabis. 3 2 sect. on the left of the ghosts set.

xxii. ii. 1 Masterman. spirits it is when man dies in have been an accepted belief that transferred to water. Biblical World. 255. is shown in the Shi'ah tradition a Muslim gaze into a looking-glass before saying his prayers he will be guilty of worshipping his own likeness (Hadji Khan.. Return Pour it cup and forth in the broad places this water to a .' Rev. Pestilence that hast touched the man for harm. s 4 Devils. : may be connected with the idea vessel Every open unclean " which has no a covering bound upon a tent. 256-7. Like a tile may they break it. Tablet T. 1. water in the house is poured out and all looking-glasses are turned to the wall. 1 all As soon a death has clearly occurred. Like water Or in one of the "Evil Spirit" texts: evil spirit (and) " The ghost that appear in the desert. Tablet V. 2 This fear of reflection if ' < . That the broad places may carry away The evil influence which hath brought low (his) strength. for instance.. 42)." 2 in This superstition of water " Numbers 15 xix. Ibid. Ibid. . 60 ff." 3 Or in the Tablet of the ' ' Ban : may they pour Like a goblet may they dash it in pieces. So may the pestilence in his body trickle away . Bring forth a censer (and) a torch As the water trickleth away from his body." 4 it out. 3 ff. With the Pilgrims to Mecca. among be might It seems to the Assyrians we find an incantation for a sick man made over a " little figure of dough thus : Put water upon the man and Pour forth the water of the incantation . " lest the spirit see itself reflected in the glass.' 1.28 it SPIRIT TRANSFERRED TO WATER. supposed that the as is spirit comes to wash there.

cols. soul pass into 3 To drink him. and that when the water the pot broken all the evil poured away and influence will be dissipated. Bliss. Tablet ' ii.F. quoting Kabbala. P. 214. 17." After several responsive sentences he drops three drops of tallow in the water." in his to The idea of the magician exorcism is that the evil spirits have been transferred has the bowl of water. 3 Hershon.E. and. i. upon the earth as water and the meaning he is continually rolling on and on without any let Therefore no man drink (direct) from a running tap or spout. . at the same time praying that the Lord may drive out every evil spirit and Satanic wile from the water. 1892. ' . they be poured forth like water.SPIRIT TRANSFERRED TO WATER. after lighting a candle. 4 JYiddak. The after the church bearing the child. 1." 4 If a man C. 328.' col. 2 The Rabbinic migrating to idea is of the soul of a murderer trans: water is the same. and that the soul of a wicked sinner." water drawn overnight is one of the things (along with sleeping all night in a cemetery or throwing one's nail " sin against parings into the street) which cause a man to himself. fol.. drinks water at night he exposes 156. 2. Talm. 1 May May they be broken in pieces like a goblet. 153. 1.. 16) Ye rest. and. 1. approaches the into it. 2 i Ibid. shall pour is. The Tongue that is 29 banefully fastened on the man. font and various ceremonies. They say xii.. " The mystical sign of this it indicated in (Deut. lest a but from the hollow of his hands. fol. " that spirit to depart from the water pours water he adjures the evil it may be a fountain causing eternal life. col. Misc. Emeh Hamelech. rite been This priest is the idea in the Maronite enters of baptism.

Encycl.30 SPIRIT TRANSFERRED TO WATER. iri. ri. in a white cup/' On the eves of Wednesday and the Sabbath one should not drink water except out of white vessels. " I am " . if jug and address himself by of his mother. 12. sign of complete submission to her in Palestine husband. Abodah Zarah. 3 Lane. himself to the power of Shabriri. Misc. 2 The Jews of Galicia break a pot or dish in front of a 3 away the demon of convulsions." and when she steps into the house she must call on the name of God as she passes over the lintel.. 2. quoted Hershon. xi. but. the the risk of diverging from the this chapter for moment it is main subject of worth an examination. 1 fol. quoted Jewish Encycl. is 4 the touch of unclean beasts show a parallel . child to drive it customary to break a piece of pottery behind his The Levitical laws for vessels rendered tabu by back. 5 Now and at it is to this transference of evils that we must refer the peculiar custom in vogue at weddings in the East. riri.. but those of earthenware are to be broken. some are to be put in water. when any evil is apprehended from a person. . See Introduction. xi. 600. 232. Jew. 29-38. and among the Arabs. 324. he should say. Manners and Customs. and after having recited Ps. or other magical formulae. xxix.. sub Demonology. with some one alone. for it is on those nights that Agrath bath Mahlath is abroad with her train of eighteen myriads of messengers of destruction.. the If he thirsty is demon of blindness. " of Shabriri. saying. else. col. 3-9. 2 3 4 Pes. Talm. A jug of water is placed on the head of the bride at an Arab wedding the new when she reaches the door of " as a house. 3a and 1126. he must tap on the lid of the his own name and the name has bid thee beware * Thy mother briri.

" Surely this a custom. by breaking a large jar. and the prophylactic sword rite iron) can only point to an ancient of exorcism over the devils who are always ready to attack newly folk by transferring them to the bowl of water with a " word of power." and then dispersing them by the destruction of the pot. who was present at a wedding at Siloam. Notice sur les Yezidis. it is takes drink from the hand as if he had drunk from the hand 1 Baldensperger. the bride put a little leaven to her forehead and fastened some to the doorpost of the holds a sword over her. Biblical World. He According to Spoer. Both of these actions can be referred to customs of driving demons away. cause the chandelier to fall." the breaking by the bridegroom. 31 jug also as she passes. Lane.E. 127. note 44. for is the bride on her arrival at the house of her struck betrothed by him with is a selala (small stone). 138. for instance.. quoted Arabian Nights. throwing it The bridegroom strikes the down and breaking it. iv. 13. vol. . "divert lest an envious ej^e should the attention of the spectators . 1 new house. because the Jan live below. 1894. A. "symbolizing her future duties. wedded the marriage customs seem to throw some additional light on this.jar 2 on her head. 136. signifying that " she should be compassionate on the poor. Spoer.. and entered the room with a water. of the pot (i. Manners and Customs. Among the Yezidis." 3 A remnant of the jar-breaking reappears in symbolizing that she the Cairene custom of hanging large chandeliers in front of a bridegroom's house and.e. xxvi. J. .SPIRIT TRANSFERRED TO WATER. vii." said 4 In the tract Callah it is by the Rabbis that whoever of a bride. 1896. P. Chabot. is not the proper explanation for so peculiar calling on the The " name of Grod. under his power. 3 4 2 Hans H. and again by a loaf of bread.F.

He who receives a cup from the hands of a bride and drinks therefrom has no portion in the world to come. after a libation. or with none to pay it rites. a twin. 2604. beginning " : When : sister.. to be kneaded into a paste libation in the horn and a poured into 1 Hershon.32 of a harlot. ] 293 (Harper. 6-8). a spell folk. No. . Compare the ghost of a man's father appears. 2175 . 11. 152. LAYING THE GHOST. or one that hath died by fault " " the (col. 45. or anything for evil" 23). that he brother's in order that the magician may show " knows the or or of of 4 name of haunting spirit ghost. the hoof of a dark-coloured ox.B.. 1 There are special dispensations allowing to wash their faces on the Day of Atonement. 461 ) in clay. then. . flour of roast corn. ! : The flour and leaven are of another ox. Ritualtafebi. 1906. 236. i. why ye appeared unto me 1 Ye are a crowd of ghosts why do ye I will not come to Kutha " cast your enchantments upon me ? ye dead whose . loc. Tract Callah. and a there is little leaven 5 are necessary . 4 It is also possible to translate here "or of an evil brother or K. Letters. 1. cit. long formulae containing the descriptions of all possible apparitions are prescribed.S. The ceremonies appointed : the laying of the spirit are as follows Seven small loaves of roast 5 corn. As usual. "0 cities are heaps of earth. or ghost god or sin of king the A one (col. Nov. Misc. . 219 ff. 9. or of a brother. See further.A. unburied." " The figure of the dead man and K. No. 2 fiancees There laying of is another 3 Assyrian tablet dealing with the ghosts. Meissner. 3 see my article P. or one unnamed. under Royal Tabus. whose are have sorrowful. 1. one slain by the sword.. i. Talm. On this translation see the footnote." 5 But cf." followed by the necessary rites. also K. 224.

let Kutha be glad ox. at [thee]. [ While thou (and) tiest it] thou shalt sprinkle the them..S."' Cf. 33 a hole in the earth (just as Gilgamish pours his offering into the earth when asking a dream).A. Nino (F. 1906. March. p." The ceremony begins with the following directions: " Spin a variegated and a scarlet thread together. earth from the spittle of the roots of the caper. it was to place an ant in the hand of a new-born . man. C. Compare the story in the Armenian version of the Life of St. Nino) and from the root of a cedar (or pine) sapling by the rose-bushes thou shalt take earth. the leavened dough. 2 earth of ants. and give it to them to eat in the name of 2 : 1 ' : the Lord. 5). man]. earth from an old grave. a custom with the Arabs child. it occurs in the story of the Descent of Ishtar. and tie thou shalt mix together oil of cedar. In the same tablet is a prayer entitled "Prayer for appeareth unto a living man for evil. (St. "Enter. 75) about the childless couple * And a luminous man said to me Go into the garden. Lady. to turn him back that he appear not. Bibl. where the porter of Hades says. P. thou shalt repeat incantation bind on the temples [of the it. No. also ibid. seven knots in it when a dead man . v. knots with this this. of ants.LAYING THE GHOST. with an incantation to Samas. in this incantation. 180. Thus shalt thou tighten until the darkening See King.B. 103. Conybeare in Studia Biblica. Kutha. a tortoise's (?) mouth (?)." according to Bochart. Babylonian Religion. i.. 23. and With regard He will give to the "earth them offspring. with a prayer that he might grow up wise and sagacious In late Hebrew magic "dust from an (Encycl.. is the underworld . ant-heap" put into a written charm and hung up in the workshop brought prosperity in business (Folklore of Mossoul. a thorn (?). 176)." is 1 After further ceremonies the leavened dough the hoof of the first to be placed in and another libation poured out.

the dead who have risen and appeared.34 of LAYING THE GHOST. . Yet another method a is given in the same tablet " : . a libation of sesame-wine must be made. lord of the dead. The spell is to accompanying " be recited : Sun-god. dead man appeareth unto a living man thou the shalt left make and [a figure] of clay. and a censer lighted for the Sun. whether the ghost of my father or of my mother. king of heaven and earth. to await him at his rising. In the early twilight the kisar must be sprinkled with pure water. thus typifying the the ghost burial of the body of and the cleansing of the living man. or gum . and libations made before both then the figure of the dead grave. and write his . The latter part of this incantation prescribes that figures of the dead man and the living person to whom the spirit .god. burning burasu-wood. When . judge of what below. name on side with a stylus its horn face . the white part of the face and the whitening of the dark-coloured part of the face takes place " x . Thus will the dead be stayed. Or of my sister. is above and Sun-god. . has appeared be made. and in the thou shalt put it in a gazelle's shade of a caper- bush or in the shade of a thorn-bush thou shalt dig a hole and bury it. . . ruler of the living. The last passage is somewhat doubtful. let them accept this. and that of the man is to be buried in living man is to be washed a in pure water. or the ghost of my brother." 1 For the difficult words in this passage see the whole article. and a libation of asses' urine poured forth three times. . and leave me free " ! Then the following ceremony morning at is to be performed. .

OMENS FROM GHOSTS.
If a

35

with
will

attacked by a ghost, 1 lie is to be anointed various substances, and " the hand of the ghost "
is

man

be removed.

Even the

fright from a ghost can be

assuaged by

certain prayers. 2

It is also among the charges brought against the hostile wizard in the Mdklu -series, 3 that he has made a figure of

the enchanted person
are being performed),

(for

whom
it

the health-giving rites
it

and has delivered
it,

to a corpse, or

allowed

it

to look at

or laid

near or on one, or in

a grave, or he has put the sick man's water by the side
of or

on a corpse.

From these latter texts it will hardly be necessary to adduce further proof that the ancient Assyrians were firmly convinced that they might actually see ghosts, and that
there was no doubt that this might happen to any man.

Yet

if

any more evidence be needed, the omen
4

tablet

K. 8693

will furnish

it.

This text gives a
if

list

of the

probable occurrences to be expected
the house of a man.

a ghost appears in

"

When
When

a ghost appeareth in the house of a destruction of that house
;

man

there will be a

ditto speaketh and hearkeneth (for an answer), destruction of that house, the man will die and (there will be) lamentation.

When

ditto standeth over the bed,

overthrow of the bed and house."

The same thing will happen if it is under the bed. We thus see that it was counted an evil omen, if an apparition
1

2

K. 4075. K. 3398.

For both

see Bezold's

Catalogue of the Kouyunjik

Collection.

Maklu, Tablet IV. " When a ghost gibbers in the house of Compare also S. 392 a man in the middle watch," or "in the morning watch."
4
:

3

36

PARALLEL FROM MALAYS.
itself

showed

in

a

house,
;

either

silent

or

gibbering

in

expectation of
for the belief

some answer

further,

we now have

evidence

among

the Assyrians in the ghost which walks
to the bedside, a universal tradition.

at night

and comes
is

There
the

Dyaks

or Malays If one

an interesting parallel to these rites among of some of the western tribes of
of these natives
falls

Borneo.
believes

to

vomiting, he
is

that one of his deceased kinsfolk
to

responsible,

and he repairs

a wise-man or a wise-woman for help.

This exorcist pulls out one of his hairs, and calls on the names of his dead relations the name at which the lock
;

gives forth a sound

is

the

name

of the guilty one.

The
:

physician, generally an old woman, then says to the ghost " Go back to what do you come here for ? your grave
:

The

soul of the sick
will

man

does not choose to be called

by

you, and

remain yet a long time in its body." Then she puts some ashes from the hearth in a winnowing fan, and moulds out of them a small figure or image in

human
the

likeness.

Seven times she moves the basket with

little

ashen figure up and down before the patient,

taking care not to obliterate the figure, while at the same time she says " Sickness, settle in the head, belly, hands, etc., then quickly pass into the corresponding part of the
:

image," whereupon the patient spits on the image and pushes it from him with his left hand. Next the beldame
lights a candle

and goes
all

to the grave of the person

whose

ghost

is

doing

figure of ashes, calling out

the mischief, and throws thereon the " Ghost, plague the sick man
:

no longer, and stay in your grave that he

may

see

you

1

E. L. M. Kiihr, Schetzen uit Borneo's Westemfdeeling, quoted
i,

by

Frazer, Golden Botigk,

267.

THE EXTERNAL
To return
seen to
to our subject,

SOUL.

37
soul.

the departed

Having
remains,

how

great an extent the ancient Semites believed
it

in the individuality of the soul after death,

now

as a corollary, to look into the question of a belief peculiar
to savage races, the separation of the soul

from the human

being during
believed at
soul in

life

;

that

is

to

say,

whether the Semites

all

in the possibility of a

some other place than
his

his body.

man guarding his On this subject
where
is

Frazer, in
story
of

discussion

of this savage idea, quotes the

1 Seyf el-Mulook in the Arabian Nights,

the Jinni's soul

is

in the crop

of

a sparrow, which

in

a box, in another box, within seven boxes, in seven chests
in

an Oriental parallel he 2 compares the story of the Two Brothers in Egyptian. For other examples among the Semites, we may mention
a
coffer

of

marble,

and

as

a Syrian Arab story, 3 where a Princess Hisn says to a

Jew

:

"
it

I

beg of you, tell

me where your

soul

is,

so that I

and

may
to

said

be company for each other during the day." her: "In the wooden lock of the door."

He
She

put a bunch of flowers on the door, and began to act as

The Jew came in the though she was talking with it. He said to her and saw the door decorated. evening,
:

I beg of She said to him are you crazy ? " " In the her to He said is soul ? where your you, She began to laugh at him, so that he would broom."
!

"

What

"

"

:

:

The third day she said to him think she loved him. " "I He told beg of you, tell me where your soul is ?
:

her that his soul was inside some cotton in a
the foot of a lame gazelle.

little

box in
shall

She said

to

him

"
:

How

1

3

Golden Bough, iii, 378. Huxley, J.A.O.S., xxiii, 287.

2

Papyrus WOrhiney.

38
I get
it ?

THE EXTERNAL SOUL.
"

He

"
replied
:

By means

of three hairs

from

my

beard."
story of

The

Samson guarding

his strength in his hair

seems to have something in keeping with this belief, and another passage in the Old Testament, Ezek. xiii, 18, " "Woe to the women that sew is noteworthy pillows all and make kerchiefs for head of the elbows, upon
:

persons of every stature to hunt souls."

Mohammedan
and
last

tradition, the soul of

Adam

According to had been created

thousands of years before the making of the clay body,
it at first refused to enter its human At dwelling. God forced it violently through Adam's nose, which caused him to sneeze. 1 In Assyrian there is an incantation

directing the sorcerer
11

Bind the head of the sick man,

And bind the neck of the sick man, And bind the soul (or life) of the sick man." 2

The remark
is

of an old Fijian chief that a

newborn child
come
3

scarcely a
it,

human

being, as its spirit has not yet

to

is

We

very suggestive in this connection. have now to turn to the second class of

spirits,

those
exist

that are entirely

inhuman and supernatural.
and
as
it

They

in the fertile imagination of the Semites in countless hordes,

and

their

names are legion
Semitic

;

is

impossible to

compare accurately the
respective

roles of each separate

demon
will

in the

languages,

the

best

way

be to

examine the characteristics of each successively.
Jewish Encyclopedia, 1 78. M. Fossey, in his La Magie Assyrienne, ii, Tablet IX, 1. 80 ff. " un euphemisme pour designer le suggests that this is peut-ltre
1

2

Devils,

.

.

.

membre
3

viril."

Fison and Howitt, Kamilaro and Kurnai, 190.

THE UTUKKU.
Again taking Assyrian
lies

39

as the base, the first matter that

before us in

the oft-repeated line

Utukku limnu, alu

limnu,

edimmu

limnu, gallu

limnu, ila limnu, rabisu limnu,

"Evil
evil

Spirit, evil

Fiend."
alii

Demon, The edimmu we have already
class,

evil Ghost, evil Devil, evil

God,
with,

dealt

the
the

" evil

belongs to the third "

being half human, and

God

yields

but

little

more than
to
treat

its

self-

contained idea, so
'

that

we have
1

only

of

the

utukku, the gallu, and the rabisu.

The utukku
dead

is,

once at

least,

used of the wraith of a

man coming back
fact that

to earth,
lies

but

it is it

not easy to say

wherein the difference

between
it

and the edimmu.

But from the
taking the

we

find

only once, with certainty,

place

of
it

the edimmu,

we

shall

probably be

right in ascribing to

a far wider scope.

It

was certainly
of

a spirit that lurked in the desert, 2 the

common home
it

many
have
evil

Semitic devils, lying in wait for man, or
its

home

in the mountains, sea, or graveyard, 3

might and
4

would

befall

him on whom

it

merely cast

its

eye.

The following

text describes the province of a spirit whose
lost,

name

is

unfortunately

through a break in the
it is

tablet.

It is possible, however, that

the utukku

:

"The
The The The

evil Spirit

5

robbeth

.

.

.

and roameth over the

land,

evil Spirit evil
evil

which shroudeth the land as with a garment, Spirit which against the man angrily Spirit is a devil which heareth not,
.
.

.

1

The Gilgamish episode
Devils,
i,
,

;

see

King, Bab. Religion, 175.
11,
i,

2 3

Tablet III,
ii,

1.

28, p. 5.
3.

W.A.I.
Devils,

17,

i,

3

;

and Haupt, A.S.K.T.,
1.

*
5

i,

Tablet

C,'

179.

The Sumerian word
ditto-sigii.

is lost,

and the Assyrian translation represents

it

by a

40
The The The
evil Spirit is evil Spirit is

THE RAB1SU.
a devil which hath no shame,

The

a devil which spawneth evilly, evil Spirit which bringeth woe on the land, evil Spirit which hunteth over the land,

The evil The evil The evil The evil The evil The evil
water,

which chaseth living beings, a pestilence which the hand, which the hunteth Spirit fiercely land, Spirit which fiercely raiseth trouble in the land,
Spirit

Spirit is

.

.

.

Spirit Spirit

which receiveth not

.

.

.

which draweth up the

little

ones like

fish

from the

The The

evil Spirit evil Spirit

which casteth down the elders

.

.

.

which striketh grey-haired old men and women." l
sexless. 2

The

gallic

is

It

is

a word used in

classical

Assyrian as a
to

term of abuse, being used by Sennacherib
Babylonians in
the phrase galli
3

describe
'

the hostile

limnuti,

evil devils.'

The

rabisu, as its

name

implies,

is
4

a lurking

demon which
Job
iv,

sets the hair of

the body on end,

just as in
face
;

15

:

" Then a spirit passed before
flesh stood

my
'

the hair of

my

up."

This
a

*

lurker

may

be compared to the

Syriac

bar

egdrd,

demon who
came out

sat

on the roof and
house, the

jumped on a man
so afflicted being

as he

of the

man

known

as d'bdr egdrd?

1

Ibid.,
2
3

ii,

127.
Spirits,

Devils

and Evil
v,

Tablet V,
1.

col. iv,
6.

1.

17.

G. Smith, History of Senn., 114,

4

W.A ./.,

50;

i,

51.

I

once heard a Suez Arab in the Sinaitic

Peninsula explaining how he could always tell whether a black man was a demon or not ; his hair would always stand up on end of its own accord if the negro whom he passed in the street were a supernatural
visitant.

|L.| JO, Payne Smith, Thesaurus, 31, "daemon lunaris qui quo vis

mensis lunaris

initio

luna exagitatur (lunaticus

fit),

necnon

is,

qui

a luna ad lunam cruciabatur a deemone qui

eum

cruciabat."

THE LABARTU.
The
labartu, labasu,

41
triad frequently-

and ahhazu are a

found together.

of incantations written against her.

Of the first-named, we find a whole series She is a female demon,
and she makes her home in the
Children were

the daughter

of Anu, 1

mountains, or cane-brakes of the marshes.
particularly exposed to her attacks.
It is curious to see

how

solicitous the Semites

were in

guarding their
lamia.

babes from the malign influence of such

For

instance, the spells against the labartu include

an incantation to be written on a stone and hung round the child's neck

"

*

The The The The The The

Labartu, [daughter] of Anu/ is her first name second. Sister of the [gods] of the streets
'
:

;
'

;

third,

Sword that
'

splitteth the
' ;

head

'

;

fourth,
'

Wood-kindler

fifth,
'

Goddess of awful mien

'

;
' ;

sixth,

The
'

trusted, accepted of Irnina

the great gods mayst thou be exorcised " the bird of heaven mayst thou fly away.' 2
seventh,

By

;

with

Gaster 3 has published a

Hebrew charm
write

as follows

:

" If

thou wishest to protect a young babe from an

evil spirit

and from the host of

Mahalath,

these
4

angels on

a tablet of gold in Assyrian writing (Ashuri)
it

and carry

with thee, and thou needst not fear any evil either In the Testafrom (for) a big man or a small child."

ment

of

Solomon Obizuth

is

the

name
and

of the female spirit
if

that visits

women

in childbirth,

she

is

lucky she

1

Haupt, A.S.K.T.,
W.A.I.,
iv, 56,
i,

11,
;

iii,

59.
Zeits.

2

1

Myhrman,

fur

Assyr., xvi, 155.

3

4

P.S.B.A., 1900, 340. I.e. square character in Hebrew.

30. On Byzantine amulets Hanauer relates (P. who often takes the shape of a cat.. 4 Zwemer. 1892. but this precaution was temporarily Byzantine." happened answer.'' child. Jewish Quarterly. to and worn Cyprian in their It is inscribed with a prayer to St.. It concern pd her grandmother at the time that she gave birth to a child. from in things animate or is lurking inanimate. A cat mewed It came to the bed. in food or drink.witch is Their equivalent for the called Umm-el-Subyan. wear it. 44. see Schlumberger.42 1 strangles the babe. This put on a child who is afraid of ghosts. if a child wish to be delivered from nightmare its and terrors. and then dashed out As of the house to see a cat crossing a field with a babe in its mouth. he must say to Allah. in the street and the jar became a cat again. " took the baby and went to the window and said. female demons. 283. 266) the tale told by The woman who was nursing the sick mother left the room. who at once noticed the baby was not in the cradle. Melanges d' Archeologie 1904. or put it houses or on beasts. It is a custom that for nine days after a birth neither mother nor child should be left alone in a room. THE LABARTU. xi. Arabia. Throw. . 117. a Spanish Jewess about the spirit of La Broosha (a form of Lilith). and the cat then threw the baby out of the window and omitted. In order not to alarm the mother she explained that she herself had taken the child. describes a leaflet folded in a piece of leather as a charm. disappeared herself at the entrance of the nurse. the mother of this Jewess. 3 " I take refuge in thee from the evil of Satan. all preserve who read it.* 1 against Conybeare. 318. to Hadji Khan. Among the Arabs. 2 3 P. With Pilgrims Mecca. " Shall I throw ? " the same said the cat with This thrice outside. from the shadows of night. The Maronites have the same ideas Bliss 2 about hanging prophylactic amulets on children. she pursued she uttered a form of adjuration which forced the beast to drop the child.KF.KF. that they may be safe from the Evil evil spirits Eye. and when she returned the patient related a dream of a great black cat having come into tlje room and turned itself into ajar.

and giant tread. or is described " " Evil Spirits begins the sixteenth tablet of the as " The evil gods are raging storms. etc. Tablet L. name for either a guardian deity or an evil spirit. three-headed..-Babyl. 3 cry go forth therefrom unto the street 2 Ed." 7 It is exorcised by the sick " man ! Spirit (sSdu) that standest close at hand.. Tablet V. the Dragon of the Testament of Solomon has some of these characteristics 2 " There came before me : a dragon. Medizin. before ' the 'Evil 6 an 'evil genius (sedu). 11.. of fearful hue. xi. At my xii. J. 43 Doubtless the Dragon of Revelation. 31. the sMu and lamassu. 28. and Eye'.THE SEDU AND LAMASSU. that unless the former and the labasu practically nothing is considered to be the same in as ahhazu ' described ' the medical texts. is to be placed under this head. 5 Ibid. Ruthless spirits (sedu) created in heaven's vault. and I make them deaf and mute. Ibid. 8 ff. at any rate. col. Conybeare. And I questioned ' him. .' " ' Of the ahhazu. * 6 Kuchler. 5. 4 of giant strength. As a a power of evil " Spirit (sedu) it is which minisheth heaven and spirit found in an invocation beginning earth. Assyr. 60.. 4. where man may be filled by a disease of this name. 30. 3 Two others are mentioned in the cuneiform magical The former may be the texts.' 1. 29. he answered me. 1. 1 which stood before the woman in travail. 1.Q." It is 5 also found in a list of spirits. whose activity in three twirl I blind children in women's wombs and their ears round. 7 Ibid. 1. Devils. ' Who But art thou ? ' And spirit. iv. is I am a caltrop -like (TpifioXalos) lines. which minisheth the land. ' 346. which minisheth the land. Tablet XVI. is seizer/ known. Tablet XVI. 1.

Eodkinson. they have wings. some. i the daughter ' of Lamech... iv. Tablet G. ]j\ . Prelim. Koran (quoting Zohar). Sale. i Cf. Tablet < N. 123. 2 before the Flood. spirit and fiend.44 THE SED1M.. foreknowledge of the future. 124." 3 The raging is genius. * 5 6 Tallqvist." * It in its quality as an evil spirit that the surrounding Semitic nations borrowed It the word from the Assyrians. and die and can traverse the world from one end just like the other. Spirit that standeth near. were begotten by two angels named Aza and Azael on Naamah. 9. ed. i. is occurs as D^Tfe? in Deut. and in Aramaic X"V>J. 3 Tablet 1. 37. men do. three of among the the Talmud 5 to Rabbis. multiply. Aboth. being able to see without being seen themselves. Ibid. 136. 1. 6 Ibid. (ix)." l It also takes its place with the utukku " and rabisu The great genius (sedti). the evil demon. to For instance. Maqlu.' col. and Ps. possess six qualito the which belong man. At my cry go forth [therefrom unto the street]. 17. and three angels. in later times it the subject of much discussion the sidim are said in fications. Others say that they the angels. also i. genius (stidu) for ever rampant. they Indeed. for as though they eat. And none " can [resist him]." 2 evil spirit " The hath lain in wait in the desert. 1. 14. Ibid.' 1. to to drink. sect. vii. cvi. Which roam the broad places for men. xxxii. according can assume any shape and form they like. . unto the side of is the man The evil [hath drawn nigh]. Discourse.' T.

discuss it will be more expedient to further on under the broader view of super- natural beings. 205. ii." " When I draw near unto the sick man. 96. N. xi. it is appealed to at the end of invocations. 9 . op. May a kindly Guardian {sedu)." 4 1 Devils. The sedu. l A kindly Guardian {sedu) marcheth on my right. a kindly Guardian {sidu) stand at his head. A kindly Spirit {lamassu) marcheth on my left.. With the lamassu. Tablet 1. 149. however. both being frequently invoked present after the evil spirit has been cast out. cit.. . a kindly Spirit {lamassu) stand at my side. Tablet ' L. the patron of Kullabi. ' 1. for instance. of the Deep may stand at the side of May May May the evil Spirit {utukku) which hath seized him (the sick man) stand aside. 45 term in late inasmuch as this became a it generic times for devils generally. Ibid. a kindly Spirit {lamassu) stand continually at his side.' 1. Ibid.GUARDIAN ANGELS. But. thus approximating to the idea of guardian angels. will to be The ban the evil spirit thus: " May For the god Dubsag-Unug-ki. .. Tablet III. was also looked upon as a beneficent spirit. a kindly the man.. Ibid. the son of his god. which appears always as a kindly spirit. 1. ' 220. For other instances 1. 88 2 ff. 27 vi. 1.' 1." 2 The gods perform the Incantation " That a kindly Guardian. 15 . my life and health follow after me . cf." 3 " Spirit. 3 i. to return to its Assyrian phase. When I lay my hand on the head of the sick man. 1. exorciser.' iii. K.

46 GUARDIAN ANGELS. Until thou departest from the man. come not nigh : . 3 ff. at one is on each shoulder. They write down every deed accomplished during the daytime. or ' ' angels with evil spirits. son of his god. Disc.. or as long as the person is awake." and cuneiform religious texts.F. P. see Jewish Encycl. 5 i. 284 ff. quoted Jewish Encycl.. Sale. it will here be fitting to look into the question of guardian angels." the latter occurring frequently to this. The former is to be found in the incantations. his spell with a prayer to The magician ends Ea " Oh that thou wert my guardian Genius (sidu) i And my guardian Spirit (lamassu). 4 have to consider. to the peasants of Palestine. greeted turning towards them. of " " Unto the man. sub voce.. . vol. the son his Thus such phrases as " 5 god. 37. ii. ." While on the subject of guardian spirits.E. Tablet III.. Ibid. On the question of the relation ' ' of messengers Devils. " his god and his goddess. Tablet IV. 16a. in relation We so constantly occur in " the man. iv.. 1. Koran. 6 Ibid. * Hag. to see how far the Assyrian beliefs tally with those of the other had The Rabbis maintained that every man two guardian angels who accompanied him'. 309. the son of his god " . Mohammedans say that two such angels attend on every man to observe and write down his actions 3 according . 2 The Semites. Baldensperger. 55 iii. sub Angelology. 1893.. right and and they are the end of every prayer by left. Prelim. 3 3 i. vi. sect. the two phrases which in the so-called Penitential Psalms. 6 Tablet V. and seems to be used to indicate that the evil man really has spirit who is being a god as his protector against the exorcised.

! Nor male nor female are they. " Seven are Seven are they they In the Ocean Deep." "He that hath no 2 god. 47 From the man." Assyrian demons known by distinctive Seven Spirits ' which combine in names. we may perhaps assume that the aegis is thought himself to be under the of such god as formed a component of his name. seven are they ! ! ! Heaven. Tablet IX. when we consider the extraordinary number god- names used in composite personal names. They hearken not to prayer or supplication. 2 Ibid. They are as horses reared amid the hills. 194. "Headache will seize on his body when he walketh in in literature." we are told in an incantation against Headache. iii. and afarit. It likely. common. that we shall the street. the * son of his god. But are as. there are the In addition to the ' their persons almost all the traditional Eastern ideas of jinn. . no son can they beget . No wife have they.THE SEVEN u SPIRITS. aghwdl. seven are they Bred in the depths of the Ocean Battening in .. god to ma}' they depart but the reference the doubtless a particular whom man of has attached himself either by local influence or family tradition. are from is his body... if man more ' we are to see any reference to ' guardian find angels it in Assyrian the phrase "his god and his goddess. The Evil Ones of Ea . They stand in the highway to befoul the path . 1 Ibid. Knowing neither mercy nor pity. 47. Throne-bearers to the gods are they. or.the roaming wind-blast." to etc.

col. Demons that have no shame. tread. forerunner of the baneful storm.48 THE SEVEN ! SPIRITS.. 4 Devils and Evil Tablet V. Spirits that minish the land. and this superstition continued among almost all the Christians of the Middle Ages. ii. Alex. evil are they Seven are they. tempests. Seven Seven evil evil demons. 65 ff. 1. quoting Clem. i Ibid. they grind the land like corn Knowing no mercy. Seven are they Knowing no care. they rage against mankind. evil blast. 2 Maury. v. mighty sons. 268 (ed. Magie.' Spirits.. Evil are they. heaven and seven on earth. ii. Seven gods of might. . Twice seven are they " ! l " Destructive storms (and) evil 3 winds are they. La 3 ' Literally beholdeth. vi. Throne-bearers of Ereskigal.. 28. says that pestilences. Seven gods of the broad earth. great ghosts. Ghosts that break through all houses. Potter. col. 1. ! . They spill their blood like rain. Of giant strength and giant Demons (like) raging bulls. Of giant strength. " Spirits that minish That minish the land. 102. 2 An An evil blast that heraldeth the baneful storm. They are the flood which rusheth through the land. seven are they." heaven and earth. i. 754). Tablet V. Seven robber (?)-gods are they. Heralds of the Pestilence. Stromat. Seven evil gods. 4 Seven in demons of oppression. and hail were regarded as the work of demons. are They mighty children.

Estranging the wife from the embrace of a husband. are the bitter venom of the gods 2 .. They " are the evil spirits that chase the great storms. 1. 49 They are demons full of violence. sucking their veins. i. . " They They are the children of the underworld. 12 ff. Ibid." " From land to land they roam. That in a single (?) spawning in the creation of Anu were spawned . bringing destruction below. ceaselessly devouring" blood. Driving the maid from her chamber. They make the chamber to stink like mice. 1. Expelling the son from the house of his father. 24 4 ff. Ibid. 4 5 Snatching the child from the loins of a man. Ibid. no son do they beget 2 Sense they know not. col. In the city like a snare they are set. . Literally 6 knees.. iv. col. 8." Through the gloomy street by night they roam. Hunting the pigeons from their cotes. Ibid. Through the door like a snake they glide.. 6 They give tongue like a pack of hounds. Making the swallow fly forth from its hole. 3 Bringing a blight on the land. Tablet IV. Sending the man forth from his home.' 1. Driving the bird from its nest. They are the roaming wind-blast. ii. wind they blow.THE SEVEN Devouring their flesh (and) SPIRITS.. gibbering below." l " Warriors twice seven are they.' C. col. 60 ff. No wife have they. Tablet 213 ff. iv. [Smiting] sheepfold and cattle-pen." Through the hinge like the " They creep like a snake on their bellies. Smiting both oxen and sheep." Rending above. col. Loudly roaring above. 3 s 1.. Ibid. The land [as with door and ?] bolt they [shut up]. 1.

wall. : What The Asakku It casteth hath filled the down mouth in the horses' stable. 6 " The evil demon.L. 18. 1. and estrangeth their matrix. Breaking through from house to house No door can shut them out. destroying the resting-place like nusti. waterless saith. oT the asses with dust. "[For'] the/old of cattle.50 They They They That THE SEVEN SPIRITS. . and taketh more evil than himself. passeth through and finding none. places. no bolt can turn them back. 10. in the creation of Anu were spawned. : when he is gone out of the . 2 Tablet V." l These Seven Spirits reappear in later times. are the children born of earth. " " ' ' 2 Seven accursed brothers. Luke (xi. he I will turn back unto my house whence I came out. is col. to him seven other spirits a still more curious Spirits almost which describes the Seven exactly as they were known to the earlier inhabitants of Mesopotamia. evidently a similar charm in Assyrian for cattle is given in W." But we have tradition in Syriac swept and garnished. . accursed sons ! destructive ones. it And when he is come. sons of men of destruction ! " along on your knees and 1 move Why do you creep upon your hands ? ' Ibid. Unclean Spirit in the Gospel of St. Over the highest wall and through the thickest Like a storm flood they can pass. 24) un" The unclean doubtedly echoes this Assyrian poem spirit. the evil devil seek the resting-place (for sheep) in the desert. seeking rest man. are the great storms directed from heaven.A. iv. i.. he findeth Then goeth he. both in The tradition of the Syriac and in Palestinian magic. are the owls which hoot over a city.

87. the Son. so that ' We " * " vented we may drink blood/ As soon as I saw it. Selection of Charms.. " that you approach not the sheep nor the oxen of the ' finish * ' " ' person ' who carries [sc. take the urigallu.. Gollancz. nor : " " your journey.] : Go. ride . and the Holy " ' Ghost. 2 In Rev. The The ass in foal. . my son.. . it In their fold [bringeth] woe. open the pen. saying May you not proceed on your way. when he cometh. May they " vanish as smoke from before the wind for ever and " ' Amen/ " l ' ever. and I cursed and bound " them in the name of the Father. the ass that beareth. I bind you by that hair ' angel " " who judged the woman that combed (the of) her head on the eve of Holy Sunday. xv. 6." In Arab lore beasts are able to perceive the approach of spirits. . The . . and cut the veins of your neck.' etc. .' [Ea hath answered him . 151). 1 H. passed (?) and to the side climbeth (?) Marduk. son of Eridu. the Plague-god (?) ' roameth the desert ' like a hurricane. I prethem from devouring. '[Father]. eat flesh. 7. so that we may and we crawl along upon our hands.THE SEVEN " " SPIRITS. Reub. . 2 quoted Charles. Cocks crow and asses bray.. and the sinews thereof. and may God break your teeth. 2. . little ass yet unweaned it will not [let suck] the milk. these writs] ! I bind you in " " the name of Gabriel and Michael. and with this Wellhausen compares the story of Balaam's ass {Reste. Ascension of Isaiah. it maketh cast their young. A kindly spirit (?) in the pen hath . 51 And ' they replied. Testament of Twelve Patriarchs. casteth a glance at this sheep-pen and Unto his father Ea. go on our hands.' . Beliar sends seven evil spirits against man. : What I. unto the house entereth and saith . .

describes evil spirits was due the of the The sixteenth tablet of the series " Evil Spirits " how the Seven Spirits attacked the Moon-god and 1 Rev. Their predilection for human blood. from thy servant.. lxix. 66. will called Throne-bearers. Cf. 6. 12. iv.A. 1073. . 4 Moreover. Littmann. 35. xi." eclipse 6 To the seven moon. who will then bear the throne of God above them. there a class of angels in Mohammedanism.S. 5. Gk. who are to be at present four. but on the day of be strengthened by an additional resurrection they 5 four. of Islam. Apoc. in the late theology. Surahs xl.O. Rel. J. eat flesh demons and evil spirits who and drink blood : who crush drive the bones and seduce the children of men . between the seven Assyrian spirits and the seven devas or arch-demons of Zoroastrianism there must undoubtedly be some connection. which are .." and we may some echo of the seven These things saith he that hath the seven " l " And there were Spirits of God. 3 5 6 Koran. Klein. Hebrew is who said carry God's Throne. see Tobit xii. 3 The curious description of these spirits as throne-bearers explains the tradition of the Hayyot. . iii. and the seven stars seven lamps of fire burning before the throne. Encycl. 2 Eev." 2 Again. perish. " evil spirits in the seven Spirits of God. as described in the cuneiform incantation. an invocation all is thus made : In an Ethiopic charm " Thus make Lord. by and by the prayer of thy holy them away. mention of " seven angels surely see that had the seven plagues. Lord. 4 On the subject of angels carrying the prayers of men to the Throne of God. 15 Baruch.52 there THE SEVEN is SPIRITS. the power of these thy names Disciples. xxv. also v. Bibl. 1. is in keeping with all the traditions of the grisly mediaeval vampires. Cf.

quoted Jewish Encycl. 4th ed. so also the Peruvians . Hadash. Macedonian Folklore.. The modern it is Semite a as certain of this as were his ancestors. rational explanation of this text. 66. La Magie. (1618). and the South Sea Islanders hold that the Sun and Moon have been swallowed by an offended deity whom they induced by liberal offerings to eject the luminaries from his stomach (Tylor. which. i. iv. *Ao/ar. 520). Maxime de Turin 4 it evident that even the it Christians of his time admitted that was necessary to hubbub during eclipses to prevent magicians hurting the moon. The Metawileh have swallows the moon is curiously this superstition (Fallscheer.E. Golden iii. Primitive Culture. ii. 1 5 The belief in a dragon or fish that widespread. as the Assyrian text runs. Frazer. this is probably due to poetic licence. 53 doubt that this was dimmed his light.trumpet (Yalk. 329 ff). 329. 298. 47.. Pagan Races. The later Hebrews drove off the Md\m at funerals by blowing a i... 182. Prim. and to the not a serious bar all. a portent of bloodshed. 91 . 4 Homil. 4th ed. it Although against the is must be admitted that their attack of is made crescent the moon. Tylor. 130) . 72. Bough. meet it with reports of firearms. saw the housewives making great clamour " " to of pots and pans in its help the labouring planet spirits attacking the moon. 3 is From raise a St. Mita. 3 Abbott. 2 Skeat and Blagden..ECLIPSES. P. and common custom nowadays away the for the township to turn out with every noisy kitchen implement they can lay hands on to drive Doughty. 2 and the Mohammedans of Macedonia..F. considering an eclipse eclipse. quoted Maury. Cult. while at Teima. 1889. 1 In the Malay Peninsula the Besisi do the same. and there is little a popular explanation of such a phenomenon. after only reiterates is the common savage belief. 703. When it is remembered that Jonah was swallowed by the "great fish" for three days (the period of the moon's disappearance at the end of the month) the . 289. 5 On noise driving evil spirits away see Arabia Deserta.

One had the form of a lion. Workers of woe are they. and another had the appearance of a wolf. Compare the devils sent to St. A nthony : the Fathers (ed. that the dove was not sacrificed (Robertson Smith.' Al-Nadim. ." Jonah is the Hebrew word for is worth considering. In the foundation of heaven like lightning they [flash]. and all the others were in the forms and similitudes of serpents. The sixth is a rampant which against God and king The seventh is an evil wind-storm which . quoting dove." . the deluge of the Storm-god.. . and [straightway] phantasms of this kind caused a phantom earthquake. Stalking at the right hand of the Storm-god. casting darkness over the brightest day. and another was like unto a panther. Rushing wind-gusts. Dense clouds that bring gloom over the sky. The second a dragon with mouth agape. The Assyrian " text runs The Evil Gods are raging storms. is The third is a grim leopard which carries off(?) young (?). their stand for evil. 1907. and entered therein in a body from all sides. To wreak destruction . the king. . Ruthless spirits created in the vault of heaven . . i. They take coincidence ' and none oppose. To wreak destruction they lead the way. Enemy to create apparitions 14) "Now in the Syriac Paradise of it is very easy for the and appearances of such a character that they shall be deemed real and actual objects. Religion of Semites.. and they rent asunder the four corners of the house.. . . In heaven's breadth. Bearing gloom from city to city. 1 294). Forcing their way with the baneful wind-storms. the city sacred to the Moon-god. and of vipers. the king. .. . Tempests that furiously scour the heavens.54 ECLIPSES. and of scorpions. These seven are the messengers of Anu. . That each day raise their wicked heads for evil. and it was at Harran. That none can [withstand ?]. . the home of Anu. . Budge.. Mighty destroyers are they. The fourth is a terrible serpent The fifth is a furious beast (?) after which no restraint (?). .. is Of these Seven [the first] the South Wind . * .

After this the tablet becomes mutilated for ten and. 55 The tablet goes on to relate how these seven spirits attacked the Moon. Magic and Sorcery. the message which he summoned his son Marduk and conveyed to him the tidings of the Moon-god. heaven hath been grievously bedimmed. xxv. against the evil of an eclipse of the moon.god. eclipse of the moon which in such and such a month on such and such a day has taken place. in the evil of the powers." Nuzku brought. it gives the directions for the man's treatment. sick when it recommences. evil and not good which are in my 1 The following is a prayer offered palace and my land. and bit his Ea heard lip in grief .ECLIPSES. Tell unto Ea in the Ocean Deep The tidings of in Who my son Sin. the brother been foretold from preceding events of Assurbanipal. or at any rate that mankind was peculiarly susceptible to such attacks during the moon's disappearance. indeed were the prayers made to avert the evil from an eclipse in certain of the " Prayers of the Lifting " we find the phrase " in the evil of an of the Hand Many . and Bel. Evidently this connection of an disease lends itself to the explanation eclipse of the moon with that certain sicknesses were due. Bab. indirectly at least. . the Moon-god." up by Samas-sum-ukin. which has apparently : 1 King. to such phenomena. Nuzku my message unto the ! Ocean Deep. hearing of the mischief they had done. of the portents. lines. sent his servant Nuzku to take counsel with Ea against them u Bear my minister.

great lady. . and I fear.' 1. (And) amid the desolate places of the earth they lie. Through the caverns of the earth they creep. THE SEVEN . 2 3 Une Saison de fouilles. . . servant of his god." There is a long tablet which gives more details of these is seven demons which the Fire-god his friend supposed to relate to Marduk " Those seven were born in the Mountain of Sunset. the king. . fixed for the fifteenth day Of the I of Shebat. evil. Scheil. i. 1907. 2 in heaven nor earth are they discovered. Those seven gallop over the Mountain of Sunset. evils of the signs Which have occurred in and omens. horses. and 1 3 many horsemen. Budge. ii. SPIRITS. 96.nt me or my house from me and receive my ! l prayer. Nowhere are they known. Devils and Evil Spirits. heaven art mistress Samas-sum-ukin. live. And amid Unknown the desolate places of the earth they in heaven and earth. my palace and my land. Tablet ' K. 208. Vicegerent of his god Marduk (and) his goddess Sarpanitum.56 *' . and I am afraid. kindly mother. Ed. The Paradise of the Fathers. tremble to ! Let not these evils draw near Accept the upuntu--p\a. And were reared in the Mountain of Dawn. Amid Thou I. the many stars of . Of the evils of the eclipse of the moon. They dwell within the caverns of the earth. And on the Mountain of Dawn they cry . 84 ff. are arrayed with terror." In the Syriac Sayings of the Holy Fathers certain monks hear the voices of devils in the air as they are praying with the sounds of armour. baneful. vol. They have no name in heaven or earth . They Among the wise gods there is no knowledge of them.

3 but are outside the pale of man's society. in time of drought. such as that of an ostrich or snake. a solid carcase remains. no friendly or stated relations with men. Rel. more like beasts than men. 128. Klein. a jinni is If killed. ." species. and imagined that these assumed the forms of goats. 88. 67. Religion of the Semites. Guide to the " Perplexed. They are corporeal beings. Makrizi. 66. and frequent savage and deserted places far from the wonted tread of men.. On the S'irhn But see p. the Sei'ar in Hadramaut. and when they are offended they can avenge themselves by sending disease or madness. 120. 6 propagate their so and are even subject that they correspond to the 1 Hebrew sedim in certain respects. or of temporarily 1 assuming human form. says : Some ' Maimonides. De Valle Hadramaut. or have some of the various animal shape. * 6 ' goats xlvi). Queen of Sheba. who She had hair on her ankles and was thus shown to i. worshipped demons. They can eat. for the most part. be a jinniyyah by descent {Jewish Encycl.THE JINN. Sem. 1894. 137. 19. 4 quoted married Solomon. Robertson Smith. Studien.. but they have certain mysterious powers of appearing. to and death. and called them therefore see Baudissin. 2 Robertson Smith. drink. nocturnal monsters (lillth). sects among the Sabeans " (iii. in his 605). 2 "They have. Religion of Islam. which haunted waste and desolate places in fellowship with jackals and ostriches. See ibid. It appears from several poetical passages of the Old Testament that the Northern Semites believed 4 in demons of a precisely similar 5 kind. for they are ordinarily represented as hairy. can change to were-wolves. Compare the Mohammedan story of Bilkis.. 3 But they do meet on certain grounds. Inversely. 57 The Jinn and kindred characteristics spirits of the Arabs have all the demons of Assyrian times. hairy beings (se'irftn).

4 Mas'udi. God peopled it with Jinn before of fire clear placing Adam 3 "He are created them 4 them was Iblis. 50. re-starting is order to propitiate him. 253. Arabia Deserta. Surah lv. lest the workmen's still should be endangered. but not until they have killed a sacrifice at the entrance to the 8 spirits.58 THE JINN. 1126 {Jew. EncycL. . husbandmen sprinkle new ploughland with similarly. 259. 516). vii. Tablet P. said that Agrath bath Mahlath myriads haunts the air with her train of eighteen messengers of destruction on the eves of Saturdays. 8 Curtiss. 2 3 5 7 Pesachim. When inhabits the natives there.' Doughty. ' i. to create their when x the to 2 Sabbath their and he did not create it is them. i. and among Half of the Jinn are good and half from smoke." malignant beings. and they inhabit the seven stages which form the edifice of the underworld. soil is ascribed by the Arabs to the ground demons or earth- folk. xxi. cit. of Hamath a repair the the in largest water-wheel they sacrifice before ram to it. i. when they build the 7 they sprinkle blood on lives stones. 136. and was about set in. Koran. someone sure to be 1 Bereshith Rabba. Afrit who the sluice." As of numbers. when the people of Kerak go into the harvest-fields they often occupy caves. so that the blood of a peace-offering.. Doughty. op. Again. 5 just as the 6 Malignity of the Babylonian demons lived in Ekurra. ii. Wednesdays and After creating the earth there . had created bodies their souls. The demons of the Rabbinic tradition {sedim or mazzzkin) " He are said to have been created by the Almighty. 6 Devils. Prairies d'or. while on the subject of sacrificing to Jinn. World. Bill. Otherwise.

Manners and Customs. 203. which can be heard at the mouth of the cavern near the exit of the hot stream are the groans uttered by Pharaoh the place of and his dead host writhing on the the damned. who to is a welt. thereby asking permission or craving pardon of any Jinn that An will they go a-whoring. Kinship.F. 205. 198. who fear to scald the " little devils. 1 Curtiss. A. by the wheel in the sluice-way." 3 According to Palestinian tradition. 89. Prim. Baldensperger. Rel. * 5 6 Sihah (quoted Robertson Smith. Sem. P. after Egyptian pouring forth water or other liquids on the ground. Bel.THE JINN. Sem. 5 keep There is a rather different tradition concerning one of the hot springs in the Sinai tic Peninsula. 1893. killed 1 59 Leviticus xvii. Persia.. who lives below the ground the the fire going which heats hot spring. 1890. s'irim. will sometimes Arabs the to refuses a herd of camels drink. Prim. Curtiss. and porcupines. a certain man was killed by the Jan because he passed water on their heads through a fissure in the field. 246). it is gazelles. 12.e. avoid the hare because beat the male beasts on the back to drive away the Jinn. coals in The Jinn ride on foxes.E. V. 7. 2 and this reverence is to be found among the Yezidis. . 4 At also Calirrhoe called (Zerka Ma'in) there is a jinni. but 6 When supposed to menstruate. Jinn). 198." " " when commonly exclaim Destoor whom might be there.. 2 3 Lane. : i. This is the Haramam Faraun and the grumblings and mutterings (' Pharaoh's bath'). " And has some bearing on this subject they shall no more sacrifice their sacrifices unto the he-goats (or satyrs.. Williams Jackson.

iii. but in shape as the ostrich a foot as the entices ass' the sex 6 is only feminine.B. 3 Hughes " Iron ! that the Arabs this. fledgeling wings. 3 See Conybeare." 6 5 . calling them is over their the waste by this their names. ix. the demons with donkey's legs. so that they think it own mother's or their sister's voice. Diet. 100 many demons as live in dry places and have their bodies rather dry as are. they say. long neck. 461. dead upon the land Certeux and Carnoy. and hence the is word in a madman the Palestinian belief is stated John x. long beak of jaws. among the Bisharin. The Bedouin of East Africa stab the centre of a dust-storm with their creeses in order to drive away the evil spirit which says iron is believed to blast.Q. iii." to The ghoul another Arab as According " Doughty 5 her appearance follows : A Cyclops' eye set in the midst of her human-like head. be riding on the exclaim Madid! 4 hadid! " ! when doing ' The Jinn may maj'nun. mad.. 2 4 Yakut.60 THE GHOUL. J. 53 see the picture on 54. quoted Frazer. quoted Conybeare. hoof and a foot as an to She passengers. 1 Eccentric movements of a dust whirlwind are to be the visible signs of a battle supposed between two clans of Jinn. in the ends one or two great sharp tushes. her arms like chickens' . i. are who riding them and frightening the females. 2 and in the Eastern Soudan. a person. Jewish Quarterly. ix. possess . : Arabia Deserta. 136. 20: is "He is hath a devil. 1 is of the Jin kind." One of the lie Arabs had seen " which beast. 129.. VAlgerie Traditionelle. . and spirit. the fingers of her hands not divided the body big as a camel's. she has ostrich. I have heard these tourbillons of dust called eructationes clcemomim. " As Cf. . O. of Islam. Origen. 478.

. 1 2 . it. loc. which are called of paradise/ and burn them until they become ashes. feet. it ' without its any white in . to books on sorcery. Lees.. see Blau. and wings. It away a bride.. (modern) which I bought in Mosul. P. take sifted and sprinkle them and in the morning he will see marks as of cocks' itself : He who of wishes to see them must take the foetus of a black shecat. 149. tails. the daughter a firstborn fill and burn it. fire. 1893. Jewish Encycl. wishes to know about them must by his bedside. 11. a tall which generally appears when someone has sprinkled 5 been To lay the Mared. in the Arabian Nights. demons proverbially had cocks' feet. cit. 6a references are given for demons having cocks' feet and no shadow. in the story of Abu Mohammed the Lazy. 3 MS. 217." 2 The ashes of a black cat are a popular form of magicians' stock-in- trade in directions the modern Arabic run. and take nothing of but birds heart then to take swallows.THE MARED. their right foot being a claw and the left a hoof. This ash will be of the greatest service in magic. ii. article Asmodeus. and the of take a black cat.. xxxiii. where Berakkoth. 5 * ibid.F. 218.E." devils in 61 the Jeheyna This is rather like the picture of the Ethiopic in the Lives of Mabd Set/dn and Gabra Krestds (ed. deep blackness. 1899. it in the his eyes with and be will and pulverise it. Das Altjiidische Zauberwesen. According to the Hebrew tradition. a black one : a first-born. upon a time when he rode with a foray marches. and see them. which have horns. 3 Of other spirit killed. 1 "He who ashes. . Robinson Lees. 206 Village Life in Palestine. dust his is by the snatches manslayer over the blood of victim. 4 Arab demons there is the Mared. Baldensperger. Budge). p.

servant had lost three mejtdts (about nine shillings). he recovered his speech. . 1899.. and may take the form of a man. There is a story man in Safrie being told by an Algerian that a stone but it his courtyard contained a treasure. ibid. the gold came forth. and. 1893.S. 1 The Rassad with young of a in generally the guardian of some treasure. . colt. The Kird is another spirit. 1906. 206 . says that on the landmark rock el-Howwara in the plain of hands. on the blood dropping thereon.B.. him to But by the Khatib of the perspire and read the pain away is village ordering for seven days. My and. One day arrived it sat upon the village shoulders of a man. This was a piece of paper inscribed cabalistic figures. kill They her..A.F.62 THE KIRD AND R ASS AD. but while she was killing a cock for supper she cut her finger over the stone. 81. 149. 206 . and when he at his he was dumb. but remained a stammerer. on this subject. having found to do. ibid. cit.. then on the 3 1 Baldensperger. if it had been stolen by human thief would they write the name of the 4 paper. 1893. or chicken he haunts almost all caves. cock. a See my article P. 2 The idea that devils are guardians of enormous treasure is very prevalent among the Arabs. a Muslim a sorcerer that understood what obtained charm was from him. with various invocations and to which be left near the place If the demons who where the money had been lost. and I met with it at Mosul in this wise. P.E. February. Doughty.. 149. 1899. could not resolved to be obtained without his wife's blood. inhabit the air had taken it to add to their treasure. they would return it at midnight. Loc.

MONSTERS. . 1906. the body is that of a Suh fish. full of stars.A. ornament. its and think we mistaken in seeing cognate in the modern Arabic (jwJ*l5. from an anthropological the picture of Nin-tu. 15. the opinion of the a turret-like stone chamber The 'horseleach' of Prov. whose description is fully portrayed in the cuneiform tablets. She wears a the of a man being open. is nothing more than a flesh-devouring ghoul the Hebrew word is 'aluJcdh. his mouth being beslavered with water the ears are like those of a basilisk. That it means a some kind I quite clear from shall not be the determination in its ideogram. . One." 2 More important. inclining towards her right arm . her breast In her left arm she holds a babe sucking . standpoint. and lamattu = dL*J my note in P. 149. 63 in Medain Salih a great treasure Moors in the Kella. . ii. his horns are twisted into three curls. the base of his feet are claws. ordinarily a kind of fly of fly. he wears a veil in his headband. trickles. she is her breast.B. girt about the loins.S. the sole of his foot having no heel. from mucus . although is what means here doubtful.1. lies. is Mali. xxx. " The head (has) a fillet and a horn 3 She wears a head veil. To this class of beings we must add some peculiar forms of deities. just as almattu in Assyrian (see = the Arabic <L* . 3 This word it is lamsatu in the is text. 2 Devils. a sea-monster. as was pointed out 1 by Wellhausen. she wears a fist fly (?). sealed in in the keeping of an Afrit.. from her Reste. the equivalent of the Arabic 'au/ak. a ' form ' of the goddess . a is ' form ' of Ea. is thus described: his nostrils "The head (?) the head of a serpent. a mosquito. 149. The word translated ' form ' appears to be fairly certain. . 226).

etc. . who plays such an important many mythologies.' See Devils. and the Virgin a form of mother-goddess part in Mary among Oriental Christians. ii. 151. J. . in his Textes Religieux.. xi. is Samas. 516. . has published the translation of a text for a man desiring to know whether he will have male issue the lady N. a demon who reigns from 10 in the morning to 3 in the afternoon from the 17th of Tammuz head of to the 9th of Ab. and we shall not be far wrong in considering them as votive offerings 2 made by barren women who desired offspring. described as having the a calf with one revolving horn in the middle. Ad ad. In Jewish demonology we find Keteb Meriri. lord of the vision who hath dwelt for long under his protection hath borne only girls. JSTin-tu doubtless occupied among the peoples of Mesopotamia the position which Hathor held among the Egyptians. his wife. 3 Jewish Encycl. 4 5 ' heureusement. hair. and eyes 3 .64 head to THE MOTHER-GODDESS. .Q.." It seems extremely probable that we have here the model for the numerous little clay figures which have been found is a snake are visible her navel from time to time during excavations. Conybeare. lord of judgment. Ed. . her loins the body is that of a naked woman . from the loins to the sole of the : foot scales like those of * composed of a circlet. iv. . and the curious reader will see many points of similarity in Assyrian texts kindred to those that are quoted above. the whole body being covered with scales. possessing these characteristics.. 4 The form Testament of sea-monster seems to find a parallel in the of Solomon 5 in the demon which has the 2 Martin. ' preferable to Martin's salmes. sinniidti) as sad. and there is no male (issue) and his heart I have translated sal-mes (i.e. 21. 33." girls/ as : " O . and an eye in the breast.

Going back again for the third time to the Assyrian the earliest systematised beliefs. it is not merely from the interest attaching to their nature that they are valuable.SEMI-HUMAN DEMONS. 29. it seems very probable that we have one akin to the polymastoid Diana of the Ephesians in the Assyrian Queen while of Nineveh. (?) Assurbanipal. but the beliefs in their origin throw such light on primitive ideas as cannot be reckoned too The evidence that they were a very popular highly. ina pika iakna II tennik II tahallap ana panika. The second first. those that are half human and half supernatural. on the subject of the mother-goddess. form of phantom is so well-attested afford a firm base for to and convincing as to certain theories on tabu that I hope bring forward. From for the stand- point of their peculiar existence. as first we must of all discuss an interesting triad of ghostly visitants liliiy the lilitUy and ardat lilt. two thou didst with two thou didst cover thy face. whom placed the breast of the Queen of Nineveh of the four breasts which were put to thy mouth. incantations. is it obviously is the feminine counterpart of the but difficult i irbi zizi sa The line in question runs See Martin. whom at I left in charge of the Queen Nineveh I . 65 "a sea-demon rather looks who creates a destructive wave. . of " Thou wert the Assurbanipal. We now come to the third class of spirits." suck. described (ostensibly of Assurbanipal l And by Nabu) in the prayer babe. Testes Religieux. thou (?) wert the weakling." But this like a plagiarism of a Greek sea-horse. they must be accounted the most interesting of the three species. . shape of a horse in front and behind a fish.

'Lilith/ was very natural.66 LILITH. relations human the beings than the and she takes over is functions of the Lilith of the Hebrews.e. probably unmarried ones if there is anything the comparative folklore more nor in of the Arabs. in " Rabbi Jochanan regard to the relation between Judah and Tamar This view also held angel of lust was known : said that Judah was about to pass i. lili female demons. there no to difficulty in referring them at once to the words lalu." lust. by [without noticing Tamar]. which obviously etymological equivalent less of lilitu. to present . which always femininity of the ardat has reference to the ardat lili woman of marriageable age. the libidinous disposition. the It is from lilu this that we may . Guide to the Perplexed. the especially being emphasized by the word ardatu. by reason of her desire which forces her to roam abroad until she find a mate. Both the latter however. These functions are no than that she becomes the ghostly wife of men. or from a Sumerian is * word If it be the former. c. Textes Religieux. for the nature of this In a of two list of phantoms we : find the following mention made 1 demons is by Martin. 1 and t lulu. ii. J"!//. of the and ardat lili. night/ with Hvv. quoted Maimonides. vi. night/ they come from a Semitic lil. lxxxv. but God caused the angel of himself to him. find a derivation for words with and lilitu they are ' certainly as not connected either the Hebrew root lailah. lasciviousness. but in view of the Assyrian or Sumerian origin of the word this is now untenable. 25. That an to the Kabbis is apparent from Bereshith Rabba. Let us now examine the evidence triad. closer The with the seems to have had much lilitu. discriminate accurately between the lilitu to characteristics are. wantonness/ ' be abundant/ That the Rabbis should have compared Jl/v.

n*V) hke a woman. is the true equivalent of the the best known.. v. i. a maid that cannot menstruate (? cf. 49. %aaj) " . The idlu lili that hath no wife. 41. and the ardat lili. He whom . with a rare counterpart. occurring only here as far as I know." l The latter is merely the male counterpart of the first.. /".. He whom a great devil hath smitten. ardat lilt ina apti Another text gives the following amplifications a kima $a kima sinni&i la arihatu ameli izzika ardatu la iimta | \ sinnisti la The ardat lili nakpatu (Sm. four phantoms of this nature to discuss.. the lilitu. the idlu lili. He whom an evil demon hath enveloped in his bed. the lilu. He the hair of whose body an evil fiend hath set on end. a maid untimely dead (?). A. then." 2 / 1 2 Haupt.K. 1376).T.LILITH. This is amplified by the prayer to the Sun on behalf of a possessed man " He on whom an evil spirit hath rushed. He whom the ardat lilt hath looked upon. ii. the ardat Lilith. We have. He whom a robber-sprite hath afflicted. we find from the text quoted that she has no husband. with stress laid on its masculinity. idlu being the word for a grown man of full strength. The Assyrian of these two $a ardat lili lines runs : ihiruhc. Bezold. [a hag-demon] hath seized.A. W.S. that hath no modesty like a woman. therefore. 30. He whose limbs an evil god bath racked (?). The man with whom the ardat lili hath had union. Catalogue. Leaving the last-named alone lili. for the present. 11. and the Assyrian incantations are quite clear in their descriptions of her character. First. idlu $a ardat UU : ikrimuhi." (? cf. He whom an evil ghost hath cast down in the night. attacketh the man's dwelling. 50. 11 67 The ardat lili that hath no husband. He whom [a ghoul] hath cast down.

" succubis. were exposed to the possibility In late of marriage with Jinn and other invisible powers. question lilu lilitu . i. that women in Semitic religion are liable to conceive through supernatural means. Xeyo/nevov. n. 3 Compare the idea of the Greek Sirens. born of human and immortal parents. in which (p. 2 Jewish Encycl. E. (Disquisitiones. Harrison.. inasmuch it which occurs is composition made up grimoires but when it . illi quidem exercere. solent Malefici et Lamise actum Venerium cum daemonibus. concerning the semi-human monsters. are written only from the male standpoint (doubtless verbally altered in exorcising sickness in women). The and I know. 2 attested belief of the Arabs. these Assyrian incantations. 1599. first x airat. 203). lilt. hee vero incubis. " Axioma incubi proles nasci. it absolutely certain that whether we consider the fellow of the ardat lilu lili. remembered.b LILITH. 588. lili I was inclined to think at that the idlu invention of the scribes. At any or idlu rate. must have had something of the same the character. and that. parallel to the ardat as this text in was nothing more than an academic lili. I. of phrases occurring is merely a grammatical in cuneiform first. existence there are the strongest possible grounds for the of a male counterpart of the ardat lilt in the phantasmagoria is of the Babylonians. as much as Hebrew tradition Lailah is prince of conception. 178) : who are very similar (J. men. 1. It was laid down by Martin Del Rio " Axioma I sit. as we have them. 3 That Jinn can intermarry with human beings is a wellSuch folk are always solitary 1 Devils." II potest etiam ex huiusmodi concubitu daemonis About two hundred years later Francis Barrett published The Magus. On . UU to have been called the fact remains that women. although we know very little about them then arises as to the idlu which as far as is. Prolegomena. xxxii. i. 23) the curious will see the beliefs current among those who held that magic was a true science. secondly.

nous nommons prestres. (Damascius le Diadoque.' then recounts the daemons which Thracian affects to despise. 116. 37). 'And are ' there daemons. and once on my asking if daemons were capable of animal passion. et lui aparassoit en forme de feme. superflui autem seu excrementi nescio quid emittunt hoc mihi asserenti credito . who on mingle and generate with human beings. on the ground that deest enim Dcemonibus semen. Francois de la Mirandole (quoted on p. Les Premiers Principes. There are many descriptions of many said he. Marcus ' ? I asked again. Quemadmodum et sperma nonnulli eorum emittunt et vermes quosdam spermate procreant. inquam excrementi quicquam daemonibus inesse. lequel par l'espace de plus de quarante ans avoit couche avec un Daemon. vi. speaking in his barbarous vernacular tongue. . in his Dialogue on the Operation of Daemons (ed. Quoted Sale's Koran.MEN MARRIED TO and unmarried. but " quotes a species Leliurium. Hypotypose des anciens dogrnes des Chaldeens. Sprenger {Malleus Maleficarum. ergo nee semen poterunt movere localiter de loco ad locum" (p. which men Jallalo'ddin l SPIRITS. aage de septantecinq ans du nombre de ces sacrificateurs que : . hujusmodi nulla insunt. Zauber Bibliothek. so that the air is full of them. vasave : . " who really was an initiated these magical practices he afterinspector of daemonic phantasms wards abandoned as worthless and deceptive. 229). 1579) says " J'ay conu un homme nomme Benoist Berna. 288. inquit illi. See also Wier." Psellus (eleventh century). " name which signifies Igneous. which he answers " Daemones non vivificant aliquod corpus." This the author of the book published in 1650 denies." On demons generally see ed. the earth and the Marcus sea are full of them. : Histoires. 326 of Jean Wier's Histoires. underwent a course of instruction at my hands he accordingly told me many and extraordinary things about daemons .' said he. and assiduously applying himself. Collisson. Surah vi. 69 explains that the advantage their received from Jinn was raising and incicbi. 118 quotes a discussion about them in a book published a hundred years after Melancthon's Physik (1550) on the theme that some think that " Demons who have assumed human shapes can the belief in succubi and p. a Psellus. and having made his recantation. . and ' ' of every possible variety of figure and conformation. attached himself to the true doctrine. qui lui estoit familier. iii. 1580) has a chapter headed An per dcemones incubos et succubos detur hominum procreatio (p. both that above and that around us. 30-32). 39). which we profess. Chaignet . relates of a conversation with a monk in Mesopotamia. At incredibile est. * spermatica et vitalia vasa quidem eis. Not a doubt of it. see Horst. and the lowest subterranean depths.

. 1893. Cairene Folklore. Yakub. and lilin (the Assyrian lilu). . 6 Eisenmenger. One day. "Whoever slept alone in a room was likely to be beset by 1 Robertson Smith. Sem. Kitab al-ishtikdk. Folklore. 5 Rabbinic literature bore to is full of the doings of Lilith.S.F. quoting Ibn Doreid. who 6 Adam devils. P. 2 3 4 33. 2 Sayce quotes as father. satisfying their lust b. 413.B. where early he saw a died. 205. woman and loved her. their appetites.70 MEN MARRIED and TO SPIRITS. Rel.E. The clan 1 of 'Amr Yarbu' was descended from a or she-demon. cf. Egypt. spirits. i. and two days later he that in It should be added marriages are the rule. 83. when incidentally (and entirely spontaneously) one of the men. bachelors who have reached the mentioned by Baldensperger. who had already borne him three children. and I met with the At Mosul it there was the same tradition. who became the wife of their human it also. 1900. P. who was unmarried. Entdecktes Judentum. 1899. si'ldt. and used to strike him half dead case. told me that he knew a man a beautiful in Mosul who declared that he was visited at nights by a spirit in the form of woman.. Palgrave cites an instance that " about fifteen years ago there was a man in Cairo but had an invisible ginna as wife. xi. 4 was that of an epileptic servant who maintained that a female jinni was in love with him. prime of Another life are believed to be married to 'afarit or ginn.. 388. 50. 1906. and he was so pleased with this menage that he scorned a conventional marriage. while discussing Jinn one and kindred subjects on the mound of Nineveh evening. 149 . ii. Feb." 3 to ground. 139. however.A.

called Hurnim bar 1 Lilith 2 (Talmud. it is unknown which. xi.' 18).. too. that a man might have children by allying himself with a demon. yet when that man was dying him they would hover round his bed. Bar Shalmon. after marrying his daughter. AM ' {Devils. the legendary son-in-law of Asmodeus. Eodkinson. consumed with desire for noble virgins is upon earth . 421. Conybeare. 12. how he saw Hurmiz. Ibid.. ed. which Another demon of the same kind named Ornias kills him. 5 sa ina maial muH amelu ina Sitti irihhil atta Tablet B.. 425. but deserts her. these I strangle. * Jewish Encycl. . 6 7 See Jewish EncycL. 17. . 3 This was their explanation of the ba'al k'ri. 203). but begs a final kiss. which they had carefully put away in have been worn by female spirits during relates Kabba Sabbath." it In Palestine is said sometimes that women find that their best gowns. the demon. Das Altjiid. cit. 1516. But in case there no disposition to sleep. There is also a certain person or demon. a princess.LILITH. Whenever men come into a to be enamoured of women. to hail as their father. the 5 Assyrian demon alii owes its parentage to a human being. i. op. 2 and although they might not be visible to human beings. I metamorphose myself comely female. 3 At the funeral of a bachelor the Jews of Kurdistan cast sand before the coffin to blind the eyes of the unbegotten children of the deceased. 1 71 The Eabbis believed. xi. Zauberw. 510. the daughter of Lilith. Baba Bathra. The princess then pretends to renounce him. Eisenmenger. 6 is described as saying (in the Testament of Solomon) are : "Those who . their bridal chests. Jewish Quarterly.. I am changed into three forms. her. 4 Similarly. 600. v. becomes the father of a son by her. quoted Blau. and I take hold of the men in their 7 sleep and play with them.

Bibl." u welche ihr grosstes Vergmigen daran sinden.. Get out. Presumably the female spirit bedecks herself with a wedding gown. their confinement. Hercules. 3 Lilith " (Buxt. 1140). Whatever view may be held the B'ne Eldhim.M. World. and on the and JY/V Y)T] TVlT}) D"7i^ "Adam Eve. P. und dadurch die Martin Del Rio Menschen in peinliche Verlegenheit zu bringen. xxvii. 115. Scott. To the subject of the B'ne Elohim Cf. in order to attract his attentions. . Seruios Tullos . 2 On from the other hand. Hunnos ex Arlunis Sarpedones. . see Z.Moncrieff.. Studies in Ancient History. present day write on the bed of the four walls of the chamber: 461 ff.S. and a fragment of looking-glass." daughters of men Examples of such fabricated genealogies will be found in McLennan. D. Rel. 249. 2 of a See also P. for a photograph Hebrew amulet (inscription) from Morocco. Rel. strigibus Gothicis et Faunis natos..B.(Eneas. .. Sem. worship in Mesopotamia. 180) remarks.A. when its proper owner is separated from her husband. see Jewish Encycl. Lilith (or the evil eye in general) a charm over averted from the bed by hanging consisting of a special cabalistic paper in Hebrew together with a piece of rue. who took wives of the daughters of men 3 1 Curtiss. Lex. amulets hung up against Lilith. women are equally open to attack of demons.. wo man's am wenigsten vermuthet. For pictures of Hebrew Masterrnan. 50 fragments of old mythology which have been transplanted unaltered into the Hebrew Scriptures.. Anglia. 26. Among is it the Jews in Palestine. 1905. . "vetustas obtrudit suos semideos.72 DEMIGODS.D. ii. ihre Excremente an Orten abnulegen. On the first possible Sabbath all the relations assemble in the patient's room and make a hideous noise to drive away evil spirits. Sem. ch. bk." etc. The Jews of the woman in childbirth. ix. On Jewish Lilithix. .O. 391) adds the so-called " Scheiss-Teufel. Pannonia. : " In one of the few Robertson Smith. garlic. we read of the sons of gods who took wives of the such a hero is the Izdubar of Babylonian myth." (1599. because they did not utter the 1 name of God in locking them up. ii. xxii. Prim. Merlinum . sub voce Amulets. Horst (Zauber Bibliothelc.

as well as other gods. but In Assyrian mythology the amours real father goddess Ishtar with to human beings are too well known need repeating. . it is the Angel of Yahweh foretells the birth of tradition. Cain's 5 one of the demons. 73 seems only reasonable to connect this legend with superstition). 603. ii. 6 5 On c. Jewish viii." 2 who Again. article Son of God. 44& .OFFSPRING OF (and this it WOMEN AND DEVILS. is The parentage there is of Isaac thinly disguised. 1. xxi. In the Book of Enoch.. 3 the Virgin Mary. xxiii. 4690. 7 " And the Lord visited Sarah Gen. hesitate to introduce this conception as a figure of it it may only be reasonably supposed that an earlier time found natural that Yahweh. xxii. Sale. 6 wicked spirits are said to have been born of women and the 'holy watchers/ and Justin Martyr says that demons are the offspring of angels 1 who yielded to the embraces of earthly women.. 4 In Pirke R. Koran. was not Adam. human beings see Jewish Encycl. 2 Encycl. where Yahweh " This marries two sisters and begets children by them. angel intermarriage with sub voce Fall of Angels. both these cases are quoted by Conybeare. form of Hebrew but tradition undoubtedly 1 shows an acceptance of this belief. is an allegory." : : 2 3 See Encycl. it According to Mohammedan was Gabriel's breath.EL of the xxi. and the Lord did unto Sarah as he had spoken. 597. 7 Apol. Bibl. 4692 as he had said. Bibl. 3. But when even a late prophet does not speech. 4 Judges xiii.. that caused the conception. xv. r. and bare Abraham a son in his old age. and a remarkable story in Ezek. n. which he breathed into Samson. Quarterly. Surah xix. should have children by graciously visiting women of his " " choice. And Sarah conceived.

appendix viii) is the true rule. nor in the nature of . note to Surah iii). meaning of Paul's 3 Tobit iii. except Mary and her Son. everyone is touched at birth by the devil. who imagined the angels of God.Q. is first appears in the the in Book made responsible for marrying Sarah. Sale annotates the remark " " They say. between whom and the evil spirit God placed a veil (Sale. 17. but also of the to be the daughters pagan Arabs. Koran. 4 Ibid. the impure for and no evil-doing demons who love adultery there are males and females amongst them." 1 men danger Raguel. or Ezra.. as Dean Farrar admits (Life of Christ. 3 phrase "for a devil loveth her." 2 Asmodeus.74 THE STORY OF TOBIAS. the demon. Die Schatzhohle. vi. . ii. the daughter of be "bound" before Tobias can wed his bride. 14. This. my of (of angels having intercourse with mankind) spiritual "is neither in the nature beings. 579). If the devils were able to have intercourse with women. J. and know that this been " Now see." In the Koran. viii. who of Tobit. According to a tradition of Mohammed. God hath begotten children . to be the Son of God). nor has there been even one added to their number since they fell. Paul believed that demons could be warded off and their influence repelled by the chalebi or headdress of the Jewish women. too. they would not leave one single virgin undefiled in the whole human race. and he must The 4 together with the whole 2 Surah Bezold. the seducer and In the Slavonic Book of Enoch Satan is paramour against of Eve. 18. God forbid : ! with the explanation: "This is spoken not only of the Christians and of the Jews (for they are accused of holding Ozair.. that women should veil themselves in church "because of the angels" (Conybeare. The very their fact that ecclesiastics argue ! this belief in writings shows how strong " : the belief in them must have brother readers.

off so that they leave them. quoted Frazer. when they have wives of their own. story. Lilith. . as being dangerous to From this it seems apparent that the antagonism of Asmodeus towards the newly-wed arose primarily from the idea that he jealously guarded that to himself some kind of jus prima noctis. Dr. ff.THE STORY OF TOBIAS." Testament of Solomon called Asmodeus made "I am is Asmodeus among another. 94 5 Tanna d. 20. 120 2 J. 75 shows how great a hold the belief had obtained. Ethn. xix. 4 Azazel was familiar to the Rabbis as the seducer of men and women. and I waste away the beauty of virgin women. one of the 1 4 P. And Ashmedai According to say. xi. 366.. who prowls if unseen. Gaster has published two hitherto 1 the Tobit which relate that " unknown versions of Legend Tobiyah remembered under the clothes smell the words of Raphael. and estrange their hearts . so that they I sever may not know one And . iii.. who is a noxious being called Molonga.. . I transport men into fits of madness and desire. and he took the heart of the fish and put of fled it on a censer and burnt it Sarah. and would kill men and violate women certain ceremonies were not performed.Q.S. by night and day describes his to others that He seed own parentage as being belong to from an angeFs the counterpart of and go other men. ch. 5 In the Testament of Solomon. and my business to plot against the newly wedded." 2 3 by a daughter of man. Yishma'el. Golden Bough. b. Bibl. is received to the the and he instantly.. R..B. mortals. ii. them utterly by many calamities. Roth. Studies. He was women. and he was always ready to attack harim. anyone who should tribes of interfere with his possible His functions are the same as those of a demon of some of the native Central Queensland. 37. xxi.A. quoted Encycl. 3 Ibid.

by men. J. in the story of the Second Royal Mendicant. and she Among a a was acquainted with no man but me. because she dreamed she had received a visit from her dead husband. woman may . 21. 2 Cognate with this was the action of a barren woman who rushed up to the corpse of a man after he had been executed for murder. And she on whom I have leapt goes heavy with child. Sem. Curtiss. but only dragon. There is a tradition in munities that a be married to the dead {Jewish Encycl. demons is described as having the form of a dragon with am the so-called winged I with and chamber not many women." x Nights. xi. 3 Somewhat similar to Asmodeus is the Arab spirit called Karina." modern Arabs the belief goes still further.76 SPIRITS MARRIED TO WOMEN. if a wife : be guilty of incontinence. a female demon accompanying every woman. This woman when she was twelve years of age.. which possess the name the face and hands of a man. 31. with a few that are of fair shape.Q.. of xuliy of this star. and no reproach was ever cast upon his mother. "I And I pair with them in the guise of a spirit winged in form.. 115-16. I carried off on her wedding-night. Prim. coitum habens per nates. the woman "But since such offspring cannot be in question breaks wind. Bel. Die Verbreitung der Anthropophagie. carried 2 3 xi. 116." some remote (Jewish) com- Ibid. and In the Arabian that which is born of her becomes eros.. that dead husband may revisit his wife. to put her to death. Bergemann. A certain man in Nebk was currently believed to have been the offspring of such a union. it is allowed us by our law. the " efreet says man. On the superstitions of eating corpses of men executed see 599). and 1 Conybeare. It is said that woman in Nebk took the bath of ceremonial purification.

I make husbands love other men's wives. I make them barren. She may appear as an owl. Dsemonibus natos infantes offerunt. I make put women miscarry. 99. many the stories point a materialistic conception. 141) * Quod obstetrioes maleficae conceptus in utero diversis modis interimunt. . that origin of such we must not suppose that the primitive a belief arose from any ideas of abstract 1 " steal Presumably in the same way the Assyrian demons (Tablet K ') away desire (?) and bring to nought the seed. l is destroy the creative to men the and to make women barren. fire. et ubi hoc non faciunt. 1899. in short. about witches (p. or a black man. There is a story that Solomon once met a singular-looking woman and asked her whether Karina. a Jewess.." That barren women among the Semites believe in divine intervention to give them children is evident from the Old and Indeed. 206 1906. She answered that she was the she was Jan or human. ." Cf. I make men impotent. and door without naming God. so does the Karina admit of no dallying with said to other of women. Sprenger. or to quench the a camel. New so Testament. to do the same for each man. "I hatred between husband and wife. 2 I do all contrary to the happiness of wedded life. her is power due epilepsy as the penalty for pouring water over the threshold of on a Friday. just as people." 2 See Baldensperger. She is very dangerous to that is pregnant women and newly married say.THE KARINA.F. to Asmodeus becomes She jealous of interference with his rights. having Lilith 77 Just as as many children as her counterpart. evidently Karina is intended. 149 1893. aborsum procurant. of as well as from other to sources. ' : Malleus Maleficarum (1580). women other women's husbands . P. in one of her phases (that of bearing children).E. the took the place of Eve. .

In a certain family in Nebk to the wife. but the apartment is occupied by a female. considers wrong refuse a ' holy man. whom the Chaldean priests affirm that their deity selects from the whole nation as the object of his pleasures. 1884. 25 miles 5 6 Bk.. Sem. apparently with the consent of her it husband.' 6 1 Gen. lips of women. A similar assertion is made by the Egyptians temple of the of Thebes. 21 ff. clxxxi-clxxxii. west of Damascus. Prim. a two women it woman in like manner sleeps. 2 And Yahweh saw xiii. as well as the Nazarite Samson. a perfectly respectable woman. for in the interior part of the Theban Jupiter. 1 or Leah. To this village of Bludan. When Yahweh 3 visits Sarah. in Curtiss. Herodotus has handed down the belief which was current about the Temple of Bel at Babylon. xxix. ch. Sem. 1. Lyall. Bel. They have a tradition which cannot easily obtain credit. 4 2 or the angel of Yahweh comes to Samson's mother.78 answer to prayer. 113. and the sons of Leah. Note On saints in India see . tradition we must surely see a remnant of bearing on the divine origin of Isaac. i. " xxi. that Leah was hated. the same oath is heard on the Curtiss. nhdti. DEMIGODS. and he opened her womb " (Gen. that their deity enters this temple and reposes also at night on this couch. 3. Eel. 3 4 Judges In the day Moslems at Hamath swear by Dei penis. Prim. 31). which is composed of Greek Christians of a very low type. and harimdti worth mentioning in this connection. Asiatic Studies. 5 u No man is suffered to sleep here. Of these is is presumed that neither of them ever introduced to the other sex." The is existence of the Assyrian kizriti. 150..

It is showmen of every at this festival that some of the honourable first women vow to the use of their bodies to the one who Sexual excesses were practised happens down to quite modern times at the annual festival of the 1 approach them. xxiii. is the most usual aim of these childless pilgrims. called Abu Rabah. either with a tceli." when there were upwards of half a million persons present. or hero. festival of Seiyid Ahmed the most el-Bedawi. Herodotus speaks of the custom devoting themselves to Venus among the Babylonians cxcix). virtue of procreation. They really regard 1 Ibid. Prim. at the Baths of Solomon. there is a special therein. and Sozomen speaks of an ancient custom of yielding up virgins to prostitution when on the eve of marriage to those to whom they had been betrothed. v. and kind. a famous shrine. "probably popular saint in Egypt.BARREN WOMEN. 327. saint. the is first night that the water allowed to flow. Curtiss. jugglers. 3 is At Kiriaten. 117. 10). holy man. 2 is What is throws more light on this peculiar idea belief to the ubiquity of the abundant evidence among show how the modern Arabs. Libanus of the 3 (Eccles. One Hanna Khizani and of 79 Hamath visited Tanta in Egypt. and barren women stand waiting for the so-called onrush of the water. . In some of the channels of the Orontes. ibid. ch. bk. Running water which has some sacred connection. Sem.. and Cyprians (i. World. women Hist. There persistently the childless women its cling to the belief tnat a visit to a sanctuary (in broadest sense) will remove the stigma. for women who desire children. 154. on temporary marriages. near Mount 2 See this and other instances. Eel. at Heliopolis.. Prophet Elijah. saw the great annual including singers. Bibl. within the enclosure of the monastery on the top of Mount Carmel. dancers. Curtiss.

26. fur Assyriologie. Ret. 5 In Palestine. in which is a pool of water. . . etc.. With thee is the generation. Bibl. If it should be born. each with a child on her arm.80 BARREN WOMEN. : Amat " Unto the sea it ilu Marduk asurrakkw idallah. 6 ff. 100. Jidlal /TV3y see Baudissin. a man who has not had a child promises a fedu if only he may receive the gift of one from a certain saint. Curtiss. 98. and barren is women bathe therein. 4 6 5 Ibid. 6 3 Ibid.. and visit the shrine of and hundreds bringing a sacrifice. titudien. Beitr. With us is the conception. Prim. 332 see 336. Abu Rabah! To thee come the white ones. This story of the which troubled the water bears analogy to the Assyrian text about the word of Marduk ( W. Sem. when it is several days old they put the blood of the sacrifice offered in 1 payment of the vow on Ibid.A.. xxiii. and the sea heaveth Unto the marsh it penetrateth. iv. To thee come the fair ones. Compare John v. penetrateth. such as of Eshmunazar. Zemzem at Mecca. 1. Hehn. . Marduk troubleth the river-bed. Paneas. 119.. 154. World. male '). . is 2 " l There is a cave at Juneh. to which the same power Tell-el-kadi the barren attributed. 3 Sa'dadin at Jeba. and the word of . 4. appearing the following year. 201. v. 2 its forehead. Ibid." On I other holy wells and springs. 4 The shrine of Chidr at Beirut contains ' in its court a well of holy water (called deker. and the marsh groaneth Unto the Euphrates flood it penetrateth. 4. o If they conceive a child he called Chidr.I... saying "Oh. 332) Ana tdmti uSarma tamtum si gait at Ana susi usarma surd idammum Ana agi Puratti usarma spirit . the well of the shrine as the father of children born thus they allow the hot air to stream up their bodies. At the stream of women bathe with the same object.

Cairene Folklore. ' Devils. 143. Seven Tablets of Creation. when the connection of men and gods by way of totems was much closer than it grew to be in after times? At any rate. . " And the shapes of the locusts were like unto horses ix.' ii. the line of night in on a bed thou art an evil alu which the man hath created " of demons the had same idea as the Rabbis procreated sleep bearing prepared for war gold. and which disappears as soon as he awakes. and dog. through 3 5 k'ri. slinking through the streets at night like a pariah It lies in wait for the its unwary. men \ with the to faces of ravens/' which the gods created ? l Are we or assume that these were formed out of clay by some such handicraft. iv. there is no doubt whatever about the semi-human parentage of the Assyrian spirit alii? It is a demon which hides itself in dark corners and caverns in the rock." " Whether 2 The incantations are explicit on this point. i. Again. 50." or. 11. 387. should they dare to close their eyes. Sayce. * W. a nightmare " which throws itself heavily on a sleeper. preventing him from moving or opening his eyes. 44.I. Cuthaean Legend.. 10-11. to what of 81 class of beings are we to refer the " the the people Scorpion-men Gilgamish legend. and who had the bodies of birds of the holes (i. ready to rush out from hiding-place " to envelop him as with a garment. haunting ruins and deserted buildings.e. or are we to refer them to a more primitive period.A. This was one form of the ." 5 1 Cf.THE ALU. bats). it steals sleep away from men by threatening to pounce upon them. 3 "The man whom bed call an evil alia hath enveloped on his "4 shows the Babylonian belief in what the Arabs the Kabus or Kabus en-ndm. Folklore. Tablet B. 7 : and upon their heads as it were crowns like unto and their faces were as men's faces. King. Rev. coming into the bedchamber by night.

. and consequently also their speaking. man. With the Open-horned unto the Big-homed it hath descended. you will from the bones. beside a man. Jean Wier (in his Histories. ii." 2 This peculiar idea of a personified disease having its home needs in the mountains " reappears in a Syriac charm against lunacy go forth [O Evil Spirit of Lunacy]. yet none can [see it]. Devils. on the illusion of the incubus. yet none can see it. Disputes et Discours. which prevents their breathing. From amid the mountains it hath descended upon the land. From From the ends of the mountains the fields not to return it hath descended upon the land. 1579. With the ibex unto the Open-horned flocks it hath descended. 11. hath descended. clothed with fear It roameth through the street. such that those that there is in the art of medicine a malady called Incubus by the who are attacked by it believe themselves to be supporting a burden in their sleep. Enveloped in terror. 2 Ibid.. l it goeth forth [from the house] not perceived. His is an interesting book on all sorts of 1 discussions of this nature. It hath come forth from the dwelling of Bel. it filleth and Girt with dread brilliance the broad earth. devils to be exorcised same Headache. from the sinews. it With the mountain-goat into the fold it hath descended. Series Ti'i. Latins. and The evil Fever hath come like a deluge. these in actual demons various diseases were the all such like were " Incantation : Fever.82 Besides personified FEVER. . from incubus which so exercised the minds of the mediaeval demonologists. Tablet III. it is let loose in the road It standeth beside a It sitteth . way. des Illusions et Impostures des Diables. 284) says." Or from one " of the " Headache tablets we learn " Headache hath come forth from the Underworld. its When When it entereth the house appearance it is is unknown.

HEADACHE. Flashing like a heavenly star it cometh like the dew It standeth hostile against the wayfarer.. 128. and Like one with heart disease he staggereth. a menstruating woman) merely the more use of this word as general word for sickness. Like one bereft of reason he is broken. 'month. his eyes are full of cloud. ." 3 Dimetu is another disease personified.god. ii.B. Gollancz. Selection of Charms. or some more specific ' 5 the personification of menstruation. scorching him like the day. 91. from Abdallah the son of Hosein. bound in death. 3 2 4 Devils. Headache roameth over the Flashing It cutteth off desert. 67. 4 the Namtaru. Like that which hath been cast into the fire he is shrivelled. Away from me. and from stone (you will pass on) to the mountain.' meaning in Hebrew. is also addressed in the In the one in which the physician is figure directed to make a of his patient in dough." 2 The Ninth Tablet " Incantation : of the Series " Headache " is similar. . This man it hath struck. Like a wild ass .F. 1889. and from iron to stone. P. connected with arhu. possibly having this signification. the flesh. so 1 H." x A runs : Metawileh charm. p. in accordance with the special On arihatu.. 83 hair from the skin.. The question arises whether we are to see in dimetu (as connected with the Hebrew ^P[. his thews. which is kept in a leather purse fever. 65. blowing like the wind. Fallscheer. him who feareth not his god like a reed. On himself he feedeth. Like a stalk of henna it slitteth It wasteth the flesh of him who hath no protecting goddess. Plague. like lightning it is loosed above and below . and from the ground (passing) to iron. see supra. incantations. and from the unto the ground. "I have rested upon God.

84 that the Plague-god is NAMTART7.). are two inscribed with the legend of 1 another spirit of pestilence." At dawn make Turn the atonement for his body. King. Plague-god that hath no hands or feet. evil That the Plague-demon which hath seized upon him " l May vanish away from him. That hath bound his members. his face to the west.. 99 great Namtaru. Pull off a piece of clay from the deep. Fashion a figure of his bodily form (therefrom) and Place it on the loins of the sick man by night. girt with dread. Namtaru rabu L." . Marduk hath seen him 'What I' (etc. His god is far distant from him. ramd. that wandereth by night. xi.). Plague-god that tormenteth the man like a pestilence. ii. fur Assyr. Plague-god that roameth like the wind over the desert. iv. Zeits. 54. That hath brought low his full strength [At night] on his bed he cannot sleep. It hath subjected It hath seized . . Perform the Incantation of Eridu. done to this day by many tablets 2 the British Museum TJra. he : thus described " Incantation Plague-god that devoureth the land like fire. may be induced to leave the is man he : tormenting and enter his image. These have sa rasubbatu Devils.I. my son (Marduk).A. 27. on his loins . 4. [like a plant (?)] .. the Assyrians the custom existed of hanging In up amulets of inscribed clay to guard just as is the house from nations. Plague-god that teareth the sick man in shreds like a leek. W. Plague-god that attacketh the man like a fever. (etc. His goddess from his body is afar. W. . 'Go.' Among evil. * " cf. 50. Plague-god that seizeth on the man like an evil thing.

all of you. and contains an address to Ishtar Ishtar. evidently intended the tablet should is be hung in one case inscribed. thus: and on the upper edge. her lady. and beneath this and on the reverse an inscription dedicated to Nabu by Assur-risua in gratitude for the preservation of the lives of himself and other men. power the gods. etc. . with many gifts to Ishtar. with a list of the offerings presented (houses. 130). to my words . above the word " God " " May " the shrine of Assur and Melam (?) be over this house : ! The inscription on the tablets is a quotation from the legend of Ura. which these beneficiaries have given to the god (Nimroud Gallery. . which has the same projection " To for suspension." In the British Museum is a bronze plaque of a similar shape from Nimroud. . . 263 Rm. Catalogue). . the Plague-god. Case 'A. . . * Pay heed. .URA. the destruction of mine enemies. great whose of the and Anunnaki. . by which was up. my desires. queen Igigi 1 : What fathers. the attainment of Arbela. have increased all .' No. For a tablet similar in shape this means is doubtful. all those that went before him Then Ura opened his mouth and unto spake . dwelling in my lady I present. a at it 85 rectangular projection the top which is pierced that horizontally. . . .). the Anunnaki. . .2. very much This upper projection after the irregular manner of the charms of the Middle Ages. . land. beginning " When Ura was appeased The gods all of them The Igigi. . compare (Bezold. with a mythological scene figured on it. .

His understanding will increase. many Angel of Death. cit. the plague. The singer who chants it shall not die in pestilence. I evolved in my former sin is evil.' " my l The legend of Ura.spirit. Ura. Yet the dagger of pestilence shall not approach it. . . King. In the Old Testament he the Lord who xix. In the house where this tablet is Tho' I.' 2 Now to how great an extent are we to compare the the Angel of Death (Sammael). 2 kills of the See King. . xii. set. is described as Rabbinic traditions of a decrepit old man. . 16. chant " Ura was angry. and the 2 Sam. . The Rabbis found him in or loc. of and the other demons of this kind? The Satan. Immunity shall rest upon " it. Shall have none to oppose him.000 Assyrians (2 Kings "the Destroyer" (Exod. in an Arabic Midrash. appeased him That he abandoned [his wrath] And thus spake the hero Ura . is possibly to be seen in the Angel of angel in 1 185. heart I was angry and the people I cast down. But unto king and noble his speech shall be well pleasing The scribe who learns it shall escape from the foe In the shrine of the peoples where he cries my name continually . be angry or the Imina-bi gods bring havoc. In his shrine may plenty abound . when sent to take Abraham. . 35). First Steps in Assyrian^ 219. : 'Whosoever shall praise this song. he rule the four quarters of the world shall . . Whosoever May magnify my name. 23). and determined To ravage the whole world. Whosoever shall proclaim the glory of my valour. xxiv. . contains an interesting But Ishum.86 That which In THE ANGEL OF DEATH. his counsellor.

J. In Ps. La Kabbale. although in Arabic the root meaning 1 ' to oppose ') is a distinct personality mentioned iii.y vi. sub voce. xxi. 4 298). being about 519 which are post-Exilic. can deliver from his hand. 325 i. of frequent occurrence This etymology based Rabbinic writings. This. 3 3 . ed. Ps.' on the belief that the Angel of Death puts an end to man's existence by the infusion of a drop of gall or In late Syriac tales 3 the Angel of Death wormwood. Der Neu-Aramaisch Dialekt des Tur-'Abdin.Q. 6.C. On the Angel of Death see Bender. and probably Ecclus.. J. ii. all of B. In Zechariah he obviously (from the rebuke administered to him) in an inferior position. it is a is human adversary referred to. sub voce. Satan (for which there is apparently stn occurs. to the Satan is not in any distinct manner opposed in Chronicles. 169. no root in Assyrian. Das Transcendentale im Talmud. The whole question of Talmudic angels and demons is gone into carefully by Brecher. only three times in the Old Testament (Zech.C. vi. Chron. in Job the subordination is still clear.SATAN. vi. he becomes 1 See Jewish Encycl. see also Franck. 331. seeing the angel of death. The whole . xxi. 1850. 329. 2 is often described. and the Jewish Encyclopaedia. at the earliest. Prym and Socin.. 48. article in of this description of Satan has been taken from the Cheyne's Encyclopaedia Biblica. lxxxix. J. in Chronicles the independence of Satan has become as complete as it ever did. generally supposed to be composed is of DD 'poison' and 7tf 'God. See also Bender on Satan. ' ' . the earliest and the last 300 B. 4 God. (p. In one of them a young man shares his bread with the angel 1881. that is 27. cix. The tempter is an advanced stage even in Job. 1). 89. 87 is where the Targum translates " There * no man who his soul in lives and. Job i. far less in Zechariah.Q.Q." is Sammael.

The curiously persistent belief Eye for harm was as real it is in in the power of It the Evil Mesopotamia among is the Assyrians as among the modern Arabs. an evil eye." And 4 ' the exorcism ends Thou man. it Directed unto earth. in Melusine. afar. . Cf. Tuchmann " vii. 2 can throw down a house. make persons sick or kill The simplest cure for plants. U. Evil Eye 2 J. The iii. like And wood cut for kindling (?) it hath bent his neck." . as well as animals or a stroke of the Evil the person that has object. May May Gunura Ba'u smite it with it] flax(?). Hath looked on the It and vanished afar. them. and vanished It hath looked on the wanderer.88 THE EVIL EYE. Mark lasciviousness. remove Belief in it is from thy body. .' On the whole subject see Elworthy. salt. Eye hath looked on the neighbourhood. and it is described thus : " The roving Evil vanished afar. ii. incense. son of his god. So may Ea. or a piece of palm from 1 Devils. The Eye which hath looked upon thee The Eye which hath looked upon thee for harm. frequently mentioned in incantations among the possible causes which have rendered the patient sick. and tamarisk Mohammedans Tablet ' are concerned). and vicinity. for evil . a rag or other and burn is to it below the person struck. break a plough. hath looked on the chamber of the land. Another method (if place pieces of alum. ." It 1 universal in Palestine. [smite with a great oar (?) Like rain which is let fall from heaven. king of the Deep. 22. railing. to take a bit of clothing of Eye is had the bad quality.

Arabia Deserta.EF. 5 a In the Sinai tic Peninsula young camel its is protected from by a hollow stone hung roung it neck. will take the child a room. 214. 211 . 6 is Among to take the modern Jews of a handful of salt New York." It is rather a question.THE EVIL EYE.F. Kobinson Lees. whether this custom has not taken its origin in the idea of repelling the Evil Eye from It is the child.F. in such a case. 205. . 1893. " Fie on thee.. Village Life in Palestine. is something cracks in the pan the spell broken." 4 In Arabia the possessor of the Evil Eye can it strike down a bird flying with his glance. or to prevent eye disease. place on the and then collecting will ! some dust in a shovel from each of the four corners throw it on the fire. Gollancz. Selection of Charms. 319. Bliss. a personified in Syriac charm " : The Evil Eye went forth from the stone of the rock. and the Angel Gabriel met her. Jewish Encycl. 7 Jennings Bramley. and is remainder over the to 7 threshold.. Doughty. 1 If some European should pat the head of a child in the presence of a native nurse. While 1 I was riding from Aleppo to Der-ez-zor in 2 " Baldensperger. in a it pan on the as soon as fire. for the after mother each kiss her child three spitting kiss. P.. sub voce Superstition. G. the antidote and pass round the head in of the bewitched child. exclaiming. the into woman on it reaching home floor. 548. 1892. and take the child round seven times. 3 4 5 H. Another times.E.. 1906. P. i. 150. Evil Eye " 2 Charms in the shape of a silver eye are placed on the heads " with sore 3 of children eyes. Palm Sunday (for 89 Christians).E. P. 93. throwing a the little each corner. 1899.

. Reste. purpose. is a very common custom . ii. 1890. baths. thou that dwelleth in ruins. 6 Ibid. and . 2 of demons are deserts. 203.. 149. 1904. 3 " voices the tradition of all peoples that have ever believed in ghosts. Devils. 1 The usual haunts ruins. the ombashi (sergeant) of my escort complained of an injured wrist.B. Die Wellhausen. It is quite the usual thing in Mesopotamia to protect children objects to from the Evil Eye by fastening small blue their caps. Lane. ' rocky places abound with 41). 6 The modern The ghoul of to travellers in Egyptian believes that the Jinn inhabit rivers. 7 the Arabs lives in the desert. and appears 1 2 Lane. 458. Quoted Chwolsohn. 236. ovens. get thee to thy ruins. G. wells. ruins. ruined houses. caverns. which he declared was probably due to a certain woman having cast an evil eye upon him while he was doing some work before he started.90 THE HAUNTS OF DEMONS. thou evil demon. and even the latrine.' L 55. The aborigines of Australia believe that every thicket. Similarly. Maimers and Customs. 3 and all iii. Manners and Customs. to " the door of the house an over with the hang aloe-plant In Cairo " it idea of securing good luck. Ssabier. Maimonides speaks of the demons and ghouls that dwell in the wastes. 157. . Tablet B. most evil spirits (Oldfield. turn thee to get hence . watering-places.. 4 The old Arab belief is that the ghosts of the dead dwell in graveyards. quoted Frazer. the owners of valuable mares will ward mane of off evil by knotting small beads into the In the houses they suspend small bags leather containing charms from the ceiling for a similar or tail. and desert 5 places and the desert is full of spirits... 4 5 7 i.

194) quotes the Rabbinic belief that demons lived in deserts or unclean places. and expels the same afar On graveyards as the to the place of judgment. 296). said it could not leave the cemetery. 1. dungFrancis Barrett (The Magus. in groups of nine. cemeteries and and bread-crumbs cast on the ground. iii. and one invited the other to perambulate the world to learn what punishment is to be inflicted upon men. because it had been buried in a bed of reeds (Berakhoth. however. 4 the Arabs as Haunted houses with are as Western peoples. or near ruins . nut-trees. while the soul is in the next world. iv. waterless places. a friendly guise in 91 lose their order to make them way. 2nd edition. 102) explains in all seriousness that the best places for ghost-raising are churchyards. or even better than these. 49. cloaca. 1801. 1902. under water. 516." haunt of ghosts. the place where some dead carcase that came by violent death which is not yet expiated. There he overheard two spirits speaking to one another. 2 The Unclean Spirit of Palestinian tradition passes through Rabbinic literature the particular spots haunted by demons are caper-bushes and spearworts. or. . Maury (La Magie.. and his wife scolded him so that he preferred to pass the night in a cemetery rather than at home. see Jevons. where they dwell in groups of sixty. heaps. i. Talmud of Babylon. 24. " for the expiation of those places is likewise a holy rite duly to be adhibited to the burial of the bodies.HAUNTED HOUSES. where criminals have been executed or where a " great public slaughter of men " has taken place . Matt. 1 Christ goes into the wilderness and there meets the devil. For authorities see Jewish Encyclopaedia. The Talmud tells a story that during a famine a pious man gave a dinar to a poor man on New Year's Eve. The second. shady spots on moonlight gutters. privies . 4 and often prohibits the soul returning to off* its body. ed. 3. oil. 318. Introduction to the History of Religion. Luke xi. better still. especially the roofs of houses. Schwab. 3 In where they form nights. iv. and obscure places. common among and anyone who has lived in Oriental towns will recall houses of which the rent was 1 2 8 Mas'udf. Prairies d'Or.

in one of is The Syriac legends are full of it. and is become a habitation of devils. his went to see what had happened to him. for it prescribes recited. of death tale a certain at through suspicion of their While in Mosul I was told the common pitch by fright from to man was challenged imaginary ghosts. devils sprang and they entered him and convulsed him. Budge.S. the door to spring out on any who The man set out one evening. ed. the belief being that the demon waited behind should knock. 599.92 HAUNTED HOUSES. fallen is Babylon the great. told friends in English of the from fright because his clothes have got entangled in the coffin of a dead man. to down the lowest being haunted. probably to be " at the front and at the doors if thou wouldst is enter into a house which old or in ruins or unclean.. and a hold of every unclean spirit. 2 told that the story " while a certain man was passing at night along the road by the side of a fire-temple of the Magians which had been a ruin out upon into for him in the form of black ravens. 4 1 See my article. Schwab.B. some time." 3 One ruins of the reasons given is by the Rabbis for not entering to avoid demons. 2-5. and on his not returning. 82. ii." 3 Budge.. 1 The same type of story is. 2 Ed. and a hold of every unclean and hateful bird. Compare Rev. certain glorious names. Nos. and found him dead at the very door with his abba caught on a nail. I believe. how visit a haunted house night. 2 " : Fallen. 4. 1906. 227. dies man who The belief that spectres inhabit ruins is universal in Semitic ghost stories. Berakhoth. P.A. i." In an Ethiopic magical prayer written for 'Ahita Mikael the same belief appears. 216. . 4 Lady Meux MSS. the anecdotes in Thomas of Marga's history. xviii.

demons. the ghost or spectre of a dead reappearing was and is as vivid in the minds of all Semites as in other peoples. A spirit its might return of power to inflict own might be raised from the dead. droughts. ix. goblins. just like their confreres of later periods and other climes. we have seen that the Semites believed in a wonderful phantasmagoria of spooks. 64.. the sorcerers. i. . and. J. born either of a human father or mother. 35. and fiends of hideous and horrid shape unsurpassed by the fertile imagination of the Middle Ages.. That say. believed that their exorcisms could ' ' lay such perturbed spirits. or semi-divine beings. 34. is to This belief was universal among the Semites. and affected The and localities by is their presence are temples shrines. which Thirdly. 2 the slaughter of victims being in itself enough to lure them to heathen temples. in order to secure the payment of its dues.. 1 and cause most plagues.. 31. According to Origen. as the most important class (in view of certain deductions to be made in succeeding chapters) those semi-human spirits. down to the present day they have believed in 1 C. Cels. finally. it accord to haunt men it had the .SUMMARY. iii.Q. and the character of such wraiths was markedly similar to most popular superstitions of this kind. 3 We may man therefore briefly : sum up the contents of this chapter as follows First. quoted Conybeare. Ibid. we must account brought sickness on mankind. But even without this they can be attracted to a place and laid therein by the use of certain incantations. 60. Secondly. harm or disease on those whom it attacked. 93 air demons haunt the bad seasons. vii. where incense burned and blood-offerings made. 2 3 Ibid.

a visitation from supernatural beings selves temporarily with a man or woman. if at all from the superstitions of other peoples. of spirits differs hardly. it Further. who could ally themchildren. . and have in the former case to inhabit the ghostly.94 SUMMARY. classic Instances of such so well and men in mythology are known as not to need mention. unseen world. and in the second alliances of gods to be born on earth. throughout the whole discussion. has been obvious that the Semitic idea all.

But the reason why tabu existed demands the most searching scrutiny into the early records of folklore. no discussion. earlier than this anything that we yet possess on subject. of full That the principle the tabu actually existed savage force at among all Semites in requires its one time or another. for its presence has long been recognized. borrowed by anthropologists from Polynesia. and the next step in succession possession in its is the question of demoniac tabu.95 II. relation to This latter word. is used to define that peculiar ban which savages lay on certain actions or states. In the discussion of be considered is this question. In the preceding chapter we have seen how all forms of devils and spectres exist in the minds of the Semites. but also in the customs of the modern nomad Arab tribes. The cuneiform tablets again. the first point to the view that the Semites held of the origin of disease. may help in places where the customs of savage races offer no clue to their origin. at least in . it is obvious from a comparison between their laws and those of of more savage civilisation races who have not attained that pitch which admits of a veneer to cover over their primitive customs. DEMONIAC POSSESSION AND TABU. from an idea of either inherent holiness or uncleanness connected with them. not only in the literature of these ancient nations. despite its civilised polish. and it may be that Semitic literature.

which will be seen be only another that name for spirit obsession in its widest sense. it the to cuneiform unravel the tablets should be possible later more elaborate mysticism of the first Semites." Cf. to that the object of these incantations was suffering heal people to from disease. and we through approach fundamentals more the Assyrian exorcisms than by other shall means. it is the hand of Ishtar on the necklace" (S. "when (a man) is smitten on his when he is smitten on the neck and his neck. 1 of With before the simpler literature us. it is the hand of Adad breast hurts him. a comparatively unedited form. referring to the Wright." (ed. .. Exod. 2 Cf. divine bull. is due to spirits see Tylor. And as all the people had sinned. and he is smitten with a sore sickness. No one can read much of the incantation literature of the Assyrians without recognizing to the attacks of how sickness was ascribed 2 : Jinn or spirits of different forms 1 On the universal belief that disease ii. 19 "This is the finger of God. viii. will appear clear. to quote one instance out of many from the medical texts. xxvi. Das Altjud. 951). Blau. 4th ed. Ishtar curses Gilgamish after he slays her potent in this respect. Zauberw. to were presumed by the very reason of their sickness. drawn from the series of cuneiform spells which were it quoted in the Introduction. doubtless in con- sequence (King. all of them were smitten with the plague. and hence the task is to deduce therefrom such of the Semitic super- stitions about disease as will afford a base from which to go further afield. 17) puts the matter quite " year of Alexander. 164). Babylonian Religion. By gradual and successive all pieces of evidence. 127.. Primitive Culture. Naturally it is not only to demons that sickness is primarily due the gods of course are omni. have incurred a breach of tabu. Joshua the Stylite tersely. and such people. : It is apparent from this incantation to the star Mustabarrti m&tanu : . I think. afford the most valuable evidence of nearly all. and. 14.96 SICKNESS AND DEMONIAC POSSESSION.

have committed a I sin.) greatness. that the anger of thy heart (Scheil. " Evil fiends are they. sigh. Venom (and) wickedness have settled upon him.. ^JS-OiOdat sickness. Jfustabarril^intitdmi. The Phantom of night (HI A) that in the desert roameth abroad. by shaking the pall on his tomb. body'. I. that he should make her recalcitrant lover. The evil Ghost.. A sickness. \ An evil disease 2 " Incantation : r That taketly the hands. 23 ff. 1 2 Devils. am afraid of the glory of the face of thy divinity. Tablet III. or have risen in rebellion . Thy slay^ ej mourn. and the saint visited him with sickness. merciful god. A frequent name for the sick man in texts of this kind. my body. i. can inflict sickness as a punishAccording to Curtiss (Primitive Semitic Religion. H . on hy s body they have cast. May Even the water of my be appeased. 168) a woman appealed to a saint (Abbas). return to her.his body they have cast.SICKNESS DUE TO DEMONS.' Unto the side of the wanderer have drawn ' that like a cloak en^hroudeth the man. I call Against some god known or unknown 1 to thee. from the They are the messengers of Underworld thfcy Bel. the evil Devil tha# seize upon the The The evil Spirit that in the desert evil the^orld. An evil plague hath fettled on his body. in modern Arabic belief.n evil an the seizure of the god [Nergal ?]. the extolled that givj^th life to the man. 1. I fear. fire. An evil venom on . baneful disease ." saints. fever in with me. great lord. hatr^ Evil (and) sin on his body they have cast. Jjn my couch of mourning . nigh. a A. . The marriage ceremony was concluded at his shrine. . I 97 have gone forth. 95. for whom she had made her husband divorce her. ment. line Saison defouilles & Sippar. [thy] grief reach thee. . Demon smiteJfeTthe living man. lord of The Hag-demon (and) GhouJrtW smite the body with sickness. (mamit ) of evil ^ath settled on his body." A ban Casting a woeful fever /ipon his body. groan. the brave who looseth charms. Utukku-demon. An evil curse settled on his body. Samasjts Um u ki Dj servant of his god.

Be thou removed from before me!" 2 of The fourth and fifth tablets the same series are entirely taken *up with descriptions of demons or ghosts. When I recite an incantation over the sick ifaan. or any evil. When I bring low the strength of the sick r nan. 178 ff. sick man upon whom Fever (hath taken up) its seat upon fiim. Or evil Pestilence. . Or an evil Ghost or an evil Devil. Or Handmaiden of the Phantom. or Wraith of night. or Or an evil man. or evil face.98 SICKNESS DUE TO DEMONS. Or Headache. Or Hag-demon or Ghoul or Robber. which have attacked the of his god. - x Again " The in the same tablet sickness hath seized. or noisome Fever. One text is of the nipst important ' points ! to notice in this to the use o mamit. When I examine the muscles of the siclt man. or sorcery. or evil tongue. or sorcery. or any evil. an evil Spirit or an evil Demo. Or pain. . ' the tabu. .ick man. the son may they depart from his body. When I compose his limbs. \ When I sprinkle the water of Ea on the s. When I subdue (?) the sick man. iii. May a kindly Spirit. a kindly Guardian be present at my Whether thou art side. . 1 man " : From the man.sprite. Or an evil God or an evil Fiend. or evil mouth. or Shivering. \? Or \ evil spell. When I (the magician) draw near untc> the sick man. (?). 2 Ibid..<n. Or Phantom of night. or Terror. and from his is The exact meaning of this word discussed at length later in this chapter.' in parallelism diseases. When I perform the Incantation of Eridu.

food can he eat. Disease (Namtaru) unto the man. 5 Namtaru. Demon against his breast hath drawn nigh." 5 who inflicts aches and pains and ailments Ibid. 48 ff. against his head. God against his foot hath drawn nigh . col.. too.SICKNESS DUE TO DEMONS. body may they issue forth destined the evil 99 tablet is " ! x The sixteenth eclipse. so is it with Headache (tf'fi). stomach. against his hath drawn nigh. hath drawn life. 1. which is reckoned a demon coming forth from the Underworld. unto the man. 1 ff. vol.' . and they are exorcised so that they depart from the body of the sick man : 41 Fever. 52. breast. 2 3 11. His body as (with) a consuming fire they devour (?). 5 . has A " (Until) this No man revolteth against himself. ii. ed. is But with woe each day he sated. These seven together have seized upon him. v. and compare " they spare not in 1. Ghost against his belly hath drawn nigh. Asakku (translated provisionally Fever at any rate it is the name of some disease). See preceding chapter. feet.' See Tablet 'K.. to avert the evil which an caused by 2 apparently brought upon a man." 4 As with Fever. Devils." But series devils in general are combated as sickness in the ' ' . cf. p. nigh.. An An An An evil Spirit against his evil evil evil neck hath drawn nigh. ' ' 3 Tablet begins with a description of the demons " " like a flood are who gathered together spirits. 7. iii. Primitive Culture. : We apportioned each to a deity there. of New Zealand folklore the parts of the body forehead. in 1. of an idea 127. another 1 6 disease. also 33 4 4th -of Cf. " hear. no water can he drink. is similarly considered personified. Tablet XI. Tablet < 6 P. Tylor. etc. Labam ff. being Ibid.

S. et morbum sacrum. 11. 15." 3 Leaving the period at which these cuneiform texts were edited (i. 73. to was another which could bring " : disease. the conceptions are of a similar nature.. eldest Eridu. clean water. and descending to New Testament times and thought. Conybeare gives a detail of his results in the examination of the " (1) The world is demonology of this period as follows full of evil demons presided over by Satan.100 THE DEMONS OF THE NEW TESTAMENT. invisible .. from the seventh century under the patronage of Assurbanipal until the decadence of the later Southern empire). be exorcised in the son of following terms May Marduk. Spirit of the Evil and the Eye has been discussed elsewhere. be clean let the evil rabisu demon go forth and stand away from him may a kindly times. be present near his body.. Haupt. sprinkle man) with pure water. Assyr. etc. sedity a kindly lamassu.. entirely. 60. 1 Even be in medical texts. Medizin.. Without flesh : or bones they hover in the air or haunt the earth. 11. Chaldaei vetustissimi jam opinati sunt. 16") remarks in ilia. " : 11. quoting "Stanlei philos. (7) Before the advent 1 See p. although free from the black art.T. Simeon Lindinger {Be Ebrceorum hist. deemones irrepere creare furorem. 73 ff.-Babyl. (2) They cause in is man all sin and disease and death .e.. 88. 31. . 30." . c. bright water. especially its waterless places and the neighbourhood of tombs. veterum arte medica. 2 The rabisu. some form same name devil as one of the demons. A. a man may of disease bearing the by ahhazu.. with the water twice seven (the sick him he may be pure. limpid water.. 2 3 Ktichler. To be sick to have a devil inside one . ii. (3) They are as a rule to another.. too. by no means filled which are comparatively. 28. (4) They will pass from one person and from human beings into animals. that .K.

dasheth him down and he foameth . viii. 2 and madness being all ascribed to Jinn." spirit. . command trances. and he will be defeated. : and one of us must enter her so that she become mad and make herself the naked. Reste. Jewish Quarterly. a certain monk of Der Mar Elia (a mouastery about an hour's distance) was appealed to by a woman who said she had been abandoned by a caravan and left on the road. he came out. and the modern Jews of Jerusalem 1 Bemonology of the New 2 Wellhausen. brought and whereso- I taketh him. his lamp. Then Christ rebukes the unclean I " Thou saying." l to flight. xvii. straightway brought him unto him the spirit tare him grievously and he fell on the ground : : and wallowed foaming. . but when . for instance. fever. so we must go to the daughter of the Sultan. dumb and deaf spirit. the case of ix. come out of him. Then certain demons took counsel together and said " He will not sin with her. but this time he entirely refused her admittance. And having cried out and torn him much. and enter no more into him. of the 101 Messiah. and Mark 14 the " : epileptic son in Master. . unto thee ever it my son. According to the Mosul tradition. long time said. which was repeated to me by my servant Mejid. the Jews knew names. but hearing her approach softly he kicked her out of the monastery with one kick. epilepsy. 588." The old ideas of the Arabs are the same. Presently she came back in the guise of another woman. How he since this hath come unto him? it And From a child.THE DEMONS OF THE NEW TESTAMENT. aud she prayed for leave night came he blew out He admitted her. is it And he asked his father. Testament. 155. Matt. which hath a dumb it spirit . at the which over the possessed. thee." And so it fell out. to use naming of But no name Take. the demons took Jesus of Nazareth authorized his followers but his own. epidemics. 14. and when to sleep there. and grindeth his teeth and pineth away And they and when he saw him. And oft-times hath cast him both into the fire and into the waters.

barley. and in the four corners of the room. I beseech you to pity.102 are in no wise THE DEMONS OF PALESTINE. and some sweetmeats or sugar. and have mercy upon the soul (or life) of your servant (or slave. reciting in a whisper as follows : " My Lords. brotherhood. and the water and salt to establish peace. milk. on the threshold. the patient (giving the name). the holy man shut his eyes When when he drew near and successfully exorcised the demon. friendship. the son (or daughter) of your maid (giving the mother's name). an everlasting covenant of salt between palates. and put devil's head. his all room is washed. or the like. (or if he (or have sinned and done sins any . They did so and cut off his head. and. the monk commanded that they should bring one of the large stones used for crushing burghal. she scatters some of the mixture round the sick bed. (or her) a barren woman. it on the . more advanced in their present treatment of snch diseases. and overlook his (or her) she) trespass. if it be a woman). these together at midnight. and let this honey (or sugar) be to sweeten your mouths and wheat and barley to feed your cattle and sheep. mixing all eggs. she adds) Open her womb and his health to restore lose to her the fruits of her body. the us and you. When a Jew is afflicted with madness." Here she breaks the eggs and pours the Sultan sent his servants to fetch the monk. holy books being removed. water. salt. (If to those who young children) Give life to their sons and daughters. honey. and the patient may not pray or mention holy words. the demon came forth. the cleaned and white- falling sickness. evil and you. The witch-doctress prepares a four or six little wheat. to forgive and and pardon his restore (or her) give him her) (If life and strength. compassionate. love.

south of hyena devil. This would seem incredible facts. 186. and began running about on all fours she was then seized by the bystanders. a peculiar form of so-called demoniac " I had the satisfaction of seeing in Gaffat possession in Abyssinia This term is given to a phenomenon of mental a case of bouda. but the neveris failing a mixture of some obscene filth. Goodrich-Freer. xv. trifles of any sort. One woman fancied she attended would like a little donkey-flesh ." from Jerusalem. but thousands of corroborative put it known to Abyssinian residents beyond a doubt. 1 in order may restore the life of this patient. These . Some : Jeioish Folklore There is abstraction. " The power of possessing persons with the devil is attributed mostly to Jewish blacksmiths and women and children are terrified when . and a bouda doctor having been called in. by her teeth to the hinder part of one which happened Off went the astonished beast at a pace that nothing in the form of persuasion will lead him to adopt for the gratification of with her teeth to his haunches. " They have one is several cures for this strange attack . how long the spirit would be in possession. all fours to where it is whereupon the woman is said to go directly on and swallow it. which the natives explain as being possessed by a devil. morsel. Only force would induce her to forego the tender man. too. kisses the : ground several and prostrates times. 103 places. must be strictly Abyssinia. A. which concealed in some part of the house. began questioning her as to the person who had possessed her with this She said he was a man living in Gooderoo.THE DEMONS OF PALESTINE. as cases of this kind sometimes end in death. kneels. this individual . 2. which the fingers were clenched in the palms of the hands. went Off. the eyes glazed. the idea of their hyena identity to such an extent as to attack any animal that may happen to be in the way. food. in a solitary place. All their demands for dress. a blacksmith who is a Jew. in Afterwards she commenced a hideous laugh in imitation of the hyena. so to satisfy her strange taste she seized hold to be near. the nostrils distended. Her symptoms began in a kind of fainting fit. and also told and what was required In the height of the frenzy they will sometimes carry out to. Folklore.' The case I am about to mention happened to a female in the service of ' one of the Europeans. and proceeds life with these words that ye 1 " Here I offer you for life. and the whole body stiff and inflexible. same in the aforementioned herself. they meet. clinging tight the frenzied girl. Great care must be taken of persons thus afflicted. to expel him. 1904.

she convulsively grasped the unpaved wet floor. burst into loud fits of laughter and She tried to bite. whilst with the other he made her smell a rag. Life in Abyssinia. . eytv ^ouv Kal elhov egidvra pekava Kat Ka7rvivh)j ttjv "^poiav. 2 Prim. in which the root of a strong scented plant. ." The cure was as follows. 154). Stern describes the if endued with the power of changing the " (Dufton. 300). Philopseudes. 6 he opKovs iirarfwv TreiaOeitf Kal egeXavvei tov hai/uova. eic ch. kick. Rel. and the paroxysms of a raving maniac.7rei\u)v fiapfiapl<ivv oOev av avrb<s y el oVws he jurj re Kal odev e-rrr^XOev e? rov avOpwirov. a form of possession allied to the bouda. boiled on this food the embers. . 6 Saijutvv 3e airoKpivetai EWnvt^ivv y d. and some other abominable unguents were bound up " ( Wanderings among the Falashas. the Now epileptic Arab belief stitions are in the East. The exorcist "with one hand laid an amulet on her heaving bosom. tear everyone within reach . oaovs TrapaXafiilov Kara7ri7r7ovTcvs jrpbs aekyvnv Kal o(f)daXfiw hiaa7pe(f)ovTa<i Kal a(>pov 7rtjii7r\ap:ei'ov$ to ajofia o/lkvs aTroirefxirei aviartjai km ap-uowi eirl juligOiv /u. The Source of the Blue Nile. A Journey through as symptoms of the bouda "The possessed woman. and in imitation of the hyena gave utterance to the most discordant sounds. shows how tenacious such superCurtiss 2 tells of a boy who had felt " The boy the spirit coming up through sorcerers are also said to be shape of the object of their incantations Abyssinia. eveihav <ydp e<s c7riaTfj Keifxevois Kal epyrai oOev ecae\ij\vOaaw to awjua. 1 fits. The bones and remains of the meat are burned with fire. after the devil has been driven out " a sheep or a fowl is killed. and not go on and bother woman (Parkyns.104 THE DEMONS OF PALESTINE. and the fragments of the bread buried in the ground.. o fxev voawv avros rj avoir a. 153. The patient's friends partake of when the devil goes out of her. and when she found herself foiled in all those mischievous attempts. Sem. . In exorcising tigritiya. 16. a bone of a hyena. 167). All these quotations are taken from Hayes. These are so left for the devil. the 1 " It is interesting to read Lucian.eyd\iv a7raWda? twv heivwv.vpou t6v riys Ha\ai<TTiu)j<? ibv eV< tovtwv riiv <ro(pi(TTtju. struck by a magnetic wire. 286. 44 : A\\ tw 7ravre<i Haaai tov ~S. that if he should come back to the place he may remain and feed. and eaten with bread.

Antony floated of itself from the altar and touched her whereupon the devil left her. near by. who ghost-books and.. 1892. to begin with. and She was struck dumb by terror.. stories are told. devils are said to be cast out in the village churches.' 'Come forth of this 'I will not/ I have fire here and will burn ' Where shall I go out?' From eye.E. . you and your cross or may call out to crowd. of the evil the priest. the little toe/ 'I would like to come out by the by the nose. . 214. P.F. ' . In one case it is said that the priest beat a girl on the head with his shoe for two hours before a very impudent spirit came out of her. "Many spirit. etc/ 1 Bliss. . Abu Darwish. but at length the picture of St. saying.E. The Sheik gave the boy such a heavy blow on shoulder as to make a wound through this wound him.F. lips. began questioning Who art thou ?' (Ghost) (out of the woman) ? ' 'A Jew/ * thou hither ' I was killed on the spot/ ' 'How cam'st Where art thou come from thou killed?' ? 'I am from Nablus/ When wast woman thee/ ' ! 'Twelve years ago. with ludicrous remarks." Among the Maronites. but could show only by signs that woman living next field to by a man wrapped in white.THE DEMONS OF PALESTINE. who promptly and runs. 144. was fetched. 2 P. for which she had not touched relates another instance 2 : two weeks." l Baldensperger ours in Jaffa was seized with a pointed cap on. 105 the the spirit came out of him. and ran into the house. 1893. burning ' the time. and she asked for food. ' who may mock Gfet out of my the sight. " A skeikh from Saknet Immediately a something extraordinary had happened. brought his sacred books he administered a severe flogging to the patient incense all then. turns proposing to enter this one or that one.

Harrison. and they "creep into people who make use of such things " (J. 2.. is supposed to have been struck on the head by S6da y 1 For another instance of the Masterman. woman lay down and recovered her speech. being a vegetarian. through which the Jan cannot penetrate. Demonology of New Testament. Barnabas. In the Greek Papyri 3 there are directions for driving out a demon by pronouncing the name.Q. he . Papyri Grceci. Prolegomena. By these means. Earlier tradition shows the same thing. i Leemans. fled by the toe * . he drew out the evil demon through the man's nostrils. 5 168). 152. 5. Porphyry. whereat it will cry under the seal of which was one of the roots recommended by Solomon.. 594. if a man falls in a fit or a faint. speaks of the Black One getting a chance "of creeping into us" 5 and in Mosul to-day. Sem. Prim." Similarly. and applying sulphur and bitumen and go forth. Curtiss 2 tells another story of a girl "The holy man commanded by an evil spirit. viii. . which was well waxed with beeswax. possessed ' out of her head/ ' ' But " if you do/ last said the holy man. 1. Josephus 4 relates how he saw Eleazar draw out a malignant demon by holding a ring under the nose of the possessed man. After long disputing. 1900. you will destroy it/ At the spirit proposed to come out of her toe. see 2 3 Bibl.106 THE DEMONS OF PALESTINE. 269. Rel. 100. in the epistle ascribed to him. says that those bad spirits (the Keres) specially delight in blood and impurities generally. to the nostrils. and this was permitted. with magical incantations. J. ii. He replied. E. Quoted Conybeare. 30 ff. the ghost with a terrible shake of the exhausted the body and the leg. viii. I will come the spirit to come out of her. An amulet was then written and put in a small leather bag. Ant.. devil of a possessed person coming out of the big toe. World.

and to insanity iEschylus. Arsacius went out meet him. 40a. Hist. and surround him with water. 2 3 am indebted to M... Pesik.. a shekh comes and lays a knife on the patient's head. 1906. ch. 845. the v. Ethiopic method is published by and for the Egyptian see the Littmann. xvi. ed. ch. Encycl. after spitting on them. iv.A. xxv. man From 1 these instances the relations between devils and See my article. i. iii. many diseases were healed and demons expelled at his tomb. ed. 396). vi. J. and at that name the demon was expelled. Abdullah Eccles. bk. P. burn them under him. xiv.A. the cure for and Plutarch. Arde'et.B. An . with a demon once ran 2 Arsacius was endowed by God with with the power of exorcising demons. then dates are brought and a black fumigated with incense. crates.. 1071. of Mosul. Bibl. Bibl. near Gaza. 362. and called upon him in the name of Christ.. a native of Thabatha. he gives them to the patient to eat. A man fled possessed through the market-place The people from him. 1 According to Sozomen. 3 There are the SaLfioov germinal ideas of possession in causing a wasting refers Homer. arvyepo? Scufiovav sickness in (Od. In the same town. Encycl. 4 a In the Palestinian possessed was to take roots of herbs. 107 case of epilepsy in the demon.O. Buber. 32 story of the Possessed Princess of Bekhten. and then. 5 4 On the Greek ideas of epilepsy see Hippo- It is the lepa voao?. At the tomb of Hilarion. 77. tradition.. Littre.THE DEMONS OF PALESTINE. whereupon the 5 spirit would flee.S. Euripides. Ibid. I Michael. for the latter exorcism. a naked sword in his hand. the magician meanwhile uttering various chants over them. and the whole to city was in confusion. Aristophanes. and the man restored to sanity. .e. though in this case female. the divine. bk.S.

are In the primitive communities of modern savages there always certain internal restrictions. the next question that presents itself is that of the tabu. arising.108 disease. lest ye be consumed in all their sins. exercise an influence (in the widest sense) over such human beings as the thus incur the risk of their visitations. in the broadest from the fear or The study of this branch with our increasing knowgrown steadily ledge of the customs of savage tribes. or things belonging to him. religious. of folklore has inexplicable in the religion of the peoples of the Nearer East. not far to seek the primitive conception of contagious tabu arose from the savage argument from the particular 1 A most in Num. not only SAVAGE TABUS. and their treatment demands a magician or priest rather than a qualified doctor. head- ache. and that person thus tabooed can communicate his dangerous state by contagion." . fits. Now. both social and sense. but also fever. xvi. The reason is for the origin of this secondary superstition . there is not only incurs the idea of primary danger to the person who a first the tabu by his actions. and touch nothing of theirs. and it provides us with a means of elucidating much that would otherwise be respect of the supernatural. convincing indication of this among the Hebrews is shown " 26 Depart. 1 and will. from the tents of these wicked : men. but there is also secondary contagious ban to which anyone may become liable from communication with the tabooed man. The savage believes that supernatural beings can in their more hostile character. and minor are plainly very closely connected in the savage Semitic mind. madness and ills. in this custom of tabu. I pray you. Having established this proposition.

His fellow- tribesmen can then explain his death in two ways. and will It is immaterial. the chances are seriously in favour of his contracting the same disease also within a short time. man in his innocence meddles with the corpse or takes the infected bed to his kraal. but from very case that the savage probably argues that all dead bodies and their belongings are dangerous. just as he or are carried off by disease. Either it is the ghost of the dead man returning to plague the careless savage who a or has now. This will be the more apparent if we take the obvious case of a of man who If savage has died in his bed some infectious disease. 1 See p. established that connection which must always exist between spirits and mortals its before rites . and probably primitive in man would distinction. which view we have some take. assumes that dead bodies are potentialities of the souls for evil. distinction He probably draws no rigid between those that die naturally in their beds Hence. through the so also will he consider unclean any bed on which people have died capable of transmitting clear that the soul of a dead man can bring has had some connection with him during life. whatever the savage explanation may have this been. where it is sickness on a man who . ghost the is in a * position to demand due man has attracted the hostility of the the evil spirit who overcame dead man. brook no interference with his prey. by his act. from the standpoint of the origin of contagious tabu. and so the corpse of the one is as much tabu all as that of the other. this holds good only in the case of the it is man who has died of sickness.THE REASON FOR THE TABU OX A CORPSE. 24. to 109 the general. Of course. difficulty making any certain contagious tabu must have arisen in some such manner.

belongings of such persons also who are under these tabus are unclean and dangerous. particularly as they are found in the Old Testament. the supernatural at the base of this It ' is ' easy to assume that a breach of some of is the unclean laws the un pleasing whole of of to . The foregoing short explanation has been offered as a standpoint round which the evidence brought forward in this chapter may centre. ' then. By the analog}^ in the case of the other unclean tabus. to discuss the similarities of modern unclean tabus with the ancient Semitic laws. what but comes the to the same thing. the cuneiform authors. particularly in Biblical legislation does not account for the but this theory even these. the fear of transgression against the for divinity. 153. we have is to deal with The tabu of holiness the outcome of or. and we shall be better able to see to what degree the Semites had evolved a systematic of uncleanness. is 1 As Robertson Smith assumption a later development to be found in the Levitical Law. distinct from that the other. respect uncleanness the godhead. this the the far wider scope the savage points present day. The and the writings of Arabic and Syriac tabus on holy things are comparatively 1 Religion of the Semites. not to ordinary mention tabus of out. tablets. although fear of also. because be has contagion arise in the special case of the disease-infected belongings. and workable theory concerning the tabus It is naturally the tabu of uncleanness. different tabu of has a very is origin. that of holiness. . seen the dangerous tabu. in particular. the tribal god.110 UNCLEAN TABUS. ' We savage have.

. the god and his worshippers form a single community primarily. 3 "The civil. 150. and natural habits in which he must not be molested . the god has natural relations to certain physical things. 146. The following in his Religion tabu. 2 p. ." Among 1 p. He goes into the question " that holiness is essentially he shows other early races." Semites. moreover. But. it is at once necessary that there should be rules of conduct towards them and their surroundings. let us suppose. religious -atuas or or penalty for the violation of a The religious penalty inflicted tabu was either by the offended : form of a disease spirits generally took the the offender . says of the two forms of and uncleanness. 151. and it is Ill the ' unclean ' tabus which are still somewhat obscure. and these must be respected also. well known. Semites. and this they are able to do by knowing and observing the rules of holiness." "When men with the powers that haunt a spot. have two aspects. On the one hand. p. These rules. very thoroughly a restriction on the licence of man in the free use of ! and that " the ancient like natural things. a community of kinship and so all the social laws that regulate men's conduct towards a clansman are applicable to their relations to a god. In all their dealings with natural things men must be on their guard to respect the divine prerogative. on the other hand. which prescribe definite restrictions all 3 and limitations in their dealings with the god and natural things that in any way pertain to the god. he has himself a natural life .ROBERTSON SMITH ON TABU. deemed 2 holiness to be propagated by establish relations physical contagion. holiness are quotations of the from what Robertson Smith.

new factor in the interpretation of Semitic texts The that translations of Assyrian had of not. his act or condition is somehow associated with super- natural dangers. 152. precautions 1 against contact with spirits and the and it is with these latter that we are concerned. god. a pitch sufficient accuracy to be trustworthy nor was enough material at swelled up and died." 2 be avoided by that have to do with Since the publication of Robertson Smith's erudite and scientific work. and are separated from human in Semitic society. art. view that uncleanness all is hateful to God and must Him. reached . In in of holiness the motive it respect for the rules of uncleanness is primarily fear ultimately. " p. as of an unknown in or hostile power. childbirth. at the time he wrote. as savages. Brit. " Women after so men who have touched temporarily taboo and a dead body. we see the Levitical the law of clean and unclean divine may on be brought within the sphere of the ordinances. appear all tabus do not belong to religion proper. 153. forth.. regarded as holy. the notion being that the alua or emissary (often " an infant spirit) had entered into him and devoured his vitals (Encycl.. just as the same persons are unclean In these cases the person under taboo is not religion. Tabu). the study of the cuneiform inscriptions has provided a religion. 1 p. which are shunned rules an infectious is . common savage spirits from the like presence of formidable disease. he says. for he is separated from approach to the sanctuary as well as from contact with men but . though legislation.. arising. .112 CUNEIFORM TABLETS AND TABU. according to the explanation. but in evil many cases to be like.

or even necessary to society. as this study cannot be over- series of beliefs they represent probably far more ancient than the epoch at which the tablets a which we now possess were actually written. and the value that they have in estimated. and often innocent. we shall see that.TABU ON MAKRIAGE. which 7- . the woman in her courses. and. during her courses. and explain some of in the arcana of exorcisms and magical invocations that we may hope to find material to the difficult questions of the tabus of uncleanness. and taking savage beliefs as handmaid of our investigations. Starting with the this clue. hand to enable ETC. Marriage. as Robertson Smith says. or the man with an are are all birth of a child (with the risk to which all babes appear liable until some time after birth). . Further. besides the tabus on the dead. afford The whole of the Assyrian religion to is therefore a comit is paratively fresh source draw from. most important But since then hundreds of tablets bearing on the subject have been made available to scholars. the uncleanness that rests with a all sexual functions 1 is most marked. but simply because birth and everything 1 Particularly the first occasion. curiously tabooed. not out of any the gods. 113 him to avail himself of this branch of the science. and partly because Assyriology has made rapid strides in other branches in the last two decades. issue. nevertheless The savage. " often involuntary. and on regard touches corpse. imposes or a a taboo on woman in the man who a for childbed. the translations are now much more trustworth} partly because of the large number of new texts now published. ample means of explaining doubtful phrases by parallel passages. accordingly.

man were tabu for thirty days. Tobit. or if any of them looked on a corpse he was unclean for that day. Prelim. Among in the Israelites. Num. frequently met with in Semitic literature. lest the act should be nefas. 446. and might only then enter The Nestorians were accustomed. see kind. the dead were put outside the camp the and Mohammedan religion ablution necessary after 3 approaching a dead body. Disc. to lay the bier 1 Religion of the Semites. 2 Num. all that were unclean through so as not to defile is 2 it. seem to him to involve the action of superhuman agencies of a dangerous 1 It lies with us now to follow this line of thought. after having buried a corpse. ii. cf. but in the theories of the Atonement and of the first-born. connected with the propagation of the species on the one hand. sect. and stones were there piled on them. ix. not only in the more obvious precautions against demons. 4 Tobit ii. The tabu on dead bodies and one that is is the most obvious at first sight. 9. In old Israel kings were buried near the temple. xliii. 3 Sale. sleeps by the wall of the courtyard The dead Galloi priests of Syria as one who is polluted. were borne to the bore them were not allowed to enter the temple for seven days after. and disease and death on the other. ed.114 TABU ON THE CORPSE. - 5 Lucian. but after that day he might Those who belonged to the family of the dead be cleansed. iv. 4 suburbs by their companions to be Those that buried. De Syria Dea. 7-9). and not ' allowed to enter the temple. 682. Koran. and how it affects the Semitic religion. thus defiling it (Ezek. 6. in with shaven head. v. 5 going out of the village with the corpse. Joannis Benedicti. 1 ." and why this should be. In the Apocrypha. .

. in 115 a clean ' place and there perform ' 1 fully three 'untn.TABU ON THE CORPSE IN ASSYRIA. For the same reason the a orifices of the body.d. 8 For a etc. 1 subsequent evil was full sure to attack the victim. the danger of tabu from a corpse amply vouched for by the cuneiform tablets. 2 On iron as a protection against evil. as it is in the atonement ritual for the Hebrews and Assyrians. 1907. or a pig. Hebraica. Here the of clean place is. 5 7 Sabbath. Religion of Islam. 199. if he meets a murderer. a piece of iron or a sword its " to placed on the belly of the corpse prevent swollen. 1735) published by Isaac H. closed. see Goldziher. are shut. 7 and if a hostile wizard laid the waxen effigy of a man near a corpse. not a euphemism is an 'unclean place/ but a spot where there of the presence of demons. See p. 286. 5 it is said that if a man who has just been bled goes out ground (a likely haunt of devils) and meets a corpse. whereby ghost might force entrance. description of the Nestorian ritual for washing the dead. i. 6 Ibid. * u 3 Arabia Deserta. See p. (a. 35." which presumably means that the becoming always 2 iron. all his contemporaries objected. powerful in magic. Rodkinson. ed. his face will . 82. 4 and when R. always funerals. 147. 26. the bound up. he will become Among is the Assyrians... Klein. Jossi went into unclaimed with cotton wadding in In the Talmud 6 his ears. vi. Arabian Nights. Archiv fiir Religiomoissenschaft. note . To look on a dead body demanded a purifying ceremony. the eyes to and the nostrils tells jaw being and other openings stuffed with cotton. become yellow if . see the MS. ii. 126. least likelihood unwelcome visitors at is With the Arabs. 3 Doughty of a man who refused descend a well haunted by Jinn before filling his ears with cotton. Lane. iv. he will die scabby. 8 ii. will prevent the return of the spirit. 41. Hall.

Compare : Sale. but more probably to the return of the ghost. 319. 10 The rules of sexual i See p. xv xxii. Prelim. from the fear of the ghost returning. 5 etc. 18. " If ye be sick. Reste. who brought forward evidence of the tabu on menstruation 4 from the Koran.. 4. and this explanation understanding of the tabus on long ago clearly shown will be of service in a fuller the sexual functions. for the Arabs. 19-24. 8 9 10 Rel. 1. 7 while it is hardly necessary to quote Leviticus and Numbers 8 for the Hebrews. 1. xxxi. Sem. 1 whom never has been connected in its The departed spirit is very far distant from seen. 7 222. the Assyrian literature which shows the clearest of is that the spirit may return to attack those with life. Hence arises the tabu on corpses. Disc. and. 3 These exist sexual tabus were to among by Robertson Smith. and find any no . his illness is supposed to be due perhaps to the devil who will has killed his friend. See Wellhausen. Koran. 332 ff. Frazer quotes Num. . 2 resent The ghost becomes its a malignant spirit who any meddling with body. 9 among the Arabs. Fihrist 6 for the certain of the Semites Syrian heathen. iv. sect.. or have touched women. 5 ii. 24. 446 ff. as we have a man contract a disease after touching a corpse. or will inflict disease its on its descendants or connections in order to obtain due rites. Sem.. if earthly remains. Minasans. 454. 24. Golden Bough. and Hebrews. 3 On the question of tabooing a murderer among savage tribes see It seems clear that the man is tabu Frazer. i. i 6 Bel.116 It all it TABU ON MENSTRUATION. v. 2 See p. or on a journey. It was said also that the black stone of the being white) by the touch As Robertson Smith has shown. 170 ff. there were special tabus against sexual intercourse at certain definite times Caaba became black (from of a menstruous woman. or of you come from easing nature.

Shilleto. if beginning between two men. According one of the Talmud. uncleanne8s for these latter are very Testament laws are full of them. and particularly under the camel itself passing between two camels. and the tabu against approaching Sinai after such an act (Ex. or enveloped in a cloth (Berakhoth. 4. 18. 4 Talmud. if he is impure from venereal connections. ed. 3 In Horioth 4 the following ten objects interfere with one's studies " : passing under the rope . at the same time. .. Against Apion. Lev. Schwab. were Josephus says allowed to enter the court of the to 2 Temple except menstruous women. x. quoted Frazer. first even foreigners. xix. of a camel. Rodkinson. xv. between two women. Lev. Iamblichus. the passing of a woman between two men. yet. 223. likewise. do not hear him who invokes them. of her period passes them .AMONG THE HEBREWS. 117 and the Old To add a few more examples to those quoted by Robertson Smith. Mergel. Schwab. 9-10 Though the Gods. Surah v). without Compare accompanying it with anterior or posterior benediction. ed. ed. 1895. unless this be placed in a panel ten spans higher than the bed. In Berakhoth (iii. G. ed. Die Medizin der Talmudisten. For the ba'al tiri (man unclean by iii. xv. On the Mysteries. take fine clean sand and rub your faces and your hands therewith " (Sale. 27. 4. 15. 16. Sexual intercourse is forbidden in a room wherein 1 is a Sepher Torah (Roll of the Law). she thereby kills she passes between them towards the if a woman at the end of her period." and " why is it requisite that the inspector [who presides over the sacred rites] ought not to touch a dead body 1 " 2 3 8. Koran. iii. we may mention that that everyone. ed.. 1 strict. nocturnal pollution). 63) the ba'al k'ri is directed to make only a mental recitation. passing through the obnoxious odour of a carcase. 15). she causes them to quarrel violently. 68).B. passing under a bridge where nature has water. they do : " not refuse to lead any one to illegal venery. Taylor. i. 2nd ed.

I used to eat and drink with him. Aboth. because (Lev." It is to be noted that Niddah (a woman means in her courses) is to Piel from the root H*!^ which lay under a ban/ in In Palestine at the present day. 12." ? " " asked Elijah and she answered. xviii. According to Rabbinic tradition." in the first days of thy separation me with his . 2 ibid. Talm.' 2 " 1 There " is a story in the Leaflet Callah I entered of a I woman saying. Rabbinic laws elsewhere demand that a all a corpse. and his intention of body touched mine. When there sequently my my bridal chamber was a Niddah. drinking from a well streaming through a cemetery. i (ix). but with else. " Rabbi. Quoted Hershon. it " Blessed is written 'Shalt thou not approach. said the prophet." woman during if the days of her separation shall be as story is under a ban. little Rabbi. "was his wont with thee prime of " What. 19) Then said Elijah. 6. and this son was (born) to me. 44. menstruation and the pain of primse noctis were part of the curse of Eve. 11." no anything be the Omnipotent that killed him. not been running for forty days. the eating of halfbaked bread. and a Ben hanniddah. he did not even touch " " But in the last days ? finger. Thus it was found that the boy was a bastard. of meat taken out with the spoon with which skimming is done. looking on the face of Almost everyone of these is an obvious tabu. died in the A told of a woman whose husband life. and she made plaint to Elijah.. women in their separation are not allowed into the presence of a woman in childbed. husband kept away from and came unto me a wedding guest. Jfisc. Tract. and to sleep with him fully dressed on the bed. 1 Ibid. . and conme.118 AMONG THE HEBREWS..

present general in to even at the East. Zeits. See Chwolsobn. for the people think that whatever she might 2 One of the three important prepare thus would not keep. B. this coincides with the admonition of Berakhoth (iii. birth. among the few in still left of the Magi.. In the Talmud ( Yoma. "for it may happen that a shoe be torn and he be interrupted in this religious duty. the menstruous flow. Schwab. 2 Eijub Abela. as 119 follow very serious illness is believed to such visits. the other two being to throw a of the lump of dough on the fire on the eve Sabbath and to light the Sabbath candles. "lest she catch cold" by But the reason is probably from leaving them off as other folks must. P. 483. xlvii. the danger to others who tread in her footsteps. duties among 3 the Jewesses in Palestine is to attend to the special regulation for their sex regarding ceremonial uncleanness.F. 129. the next how far these tabus have been met with in the Assyrian religious texts. ed.IN PALESTINE. that one carrying a dead body should go without shoes. 3 224. iii. Guide to the Perplexed. v. 1. World. 1 We have seen that Baldensperger. Darmesteter. was keep a menstruous woman a house by herself. at a least in its According abnormal manifestations. Vereins. ii. 1894. viii.E. latter was unclean in the eyes of the Sabians. Bibl. to burn that upon which she treads. xxi. Zend-Avesta. iii. xcii. Palaest. it is a question whether ed. quoted Frazer. vol. Schwab." to Zoroaster. 247) it is the woman in childbed who is allowed to wear sandals on the Day of Atonement. Die Ssabier. is work of Ahriman. To neglect these means suffering in childMaimonides 4 says that " the practice of the Sabians. 5 to Arguing from the known question that arises is the unknown. the . 0. or the devil.. 277. as this passage from Maimonides clearly shows. 1 In Syria a woman that has her courses may neither salt nor pickle. 111." . On the other hand. 59). i. 4 5 Masterman.. vii. and to consider as unclean everyone that speaks with her even if a wind passed over her and a clean person. des deuts.

(b) the maid (who has died) before her time." do. 19 . among the Arabs. Simtu is destiny. savage exist tabus on all circumstances connected with . as a kind that mentions cumulative evidence. or there would have been no significance girl in mention of the such a of list of ghosts. it is ' Now. There cantation is. simta appears to be an apocopated phrase. (a) The ghoul h'mta (lilith) works harm in the dwelling of a 2 man. and the others mentioned on p. and hence (c). said of month. thing to prove the same Indeed. Diet. the inthe " woman with unwashen Text quoted Bezold. the tablet. (d) the maid in (c) who hath no is womanly modesty is The word ' be connected with arhu. See also p.. evidently describing ghosts. and will all be ghosts of into the some kind. Catalogue. they are maidens mystical of this dead through some peculiarity. to With regard S. 67. 1376. menstruate as (c) the maid who cannot probably to women (?). although nothing (a) any tabu here. a lexico- graphical text. and there are (a) mentioned (b) ardatu therein la ardat lilt ina apti ameli izzika (c) ardatu sa kima sinnisti la arihatu " (d) ardatu sa kima sinnisti la nakpatu. (b).' and there is a phrase ina urn la simtisu urruhis imtut. 1 2 La ' . " he died before his time " (see Muss-Arnolt. Hence some was clearly attached to the absence monthly function. the woman in her courses. clear that in (d) a spirit is meant. sub voce). Syrians.120 the birth AMONG THE ASSYRIANS. and Hebrews difficult it should therefore be no superstitions in Assyria. the extraordinary thing would be if the law of the unclean tabu were not the same in all the Semitic tribes. As a matter of fact they come same category as the ghost of the nursing mother. It is 49 1 throws some light on this tabu. the sacred courtesan.

. ." but there literally. " |"When are in] cohabitation a man and woman . 132. 2389 prescribes the ceremonies with which the Assyrians cleansed themselves after marriage or the k'ri. in one of the to Headache tablets laid is down that it is be an * old woman ' (parsumtu) who to to bray certain vegetables together with clean hands make man. . 2 3 ix.hul . is wise woman ' cord. . who became thus patriotically abusive. or when 1 See p. . or .. How much reliance must be placed on this statement a is consonant with the improbability of woman The in childbed tablet K. having anything to do with sacrifices. barl(?) (8) ma enuma amehi hi mu-du-u hi la mii-shi-ii - tnim - tulu-su msati pl nam . zikari pl u sinni- sud^ ana a -ha -mis . They run as follows (1) [Enuma ina (?) ] : na hi ziliarii u sinnistii hi ina musi hi ina [ussii] NIM musi (2) hi .bi . either in the night. of the night. Ibid. . On is the other hand. 75. . 3 no need to take this It does show that the writer.TABU ON MARRIAGE IN ASSYRIA. it must be of admitted that no limit 1 given as in to the the age the magic spinning employed In the Apocrypha 4 it is said of the Babylonian gods that " the menstruous woman and the woman in childbed touch their sacrifices. the ' fashion Semitic 2 euphemisms it is further. hands " . . . 4 Baruch vi. risk a medicament for the aching head of the sick This can only mean that she is past the age of from such tabus. after the text does not of ' an ulterior meaning.. or in . 129. ilu siptu Samsu sar same(e) ina sutti inim hi ina . enuma ina maiali-su sindti-su u irsitim(tim) hi '. 121 l it is clear at least that women if particularly might offer in some fashion be unclean.bul . was well aware of the uncleanness of such a proceeding. 29.

' on his bed his urine [goes forth] Incantation Sunof heaven and earth/ for when a man god.. Catalogue.. and it is evident that both cohabitation and the k'ri were reckoned as unclean among the Assyrians as among created other Semites. the a/w-demon may is be "on a bed of night in sleep. A ceremony men and women who . the corpse the dead man becomes tfri i. either in a his breast dream or in a vision (?). seem quite probable.. Moreover. 11647. The restorations. that holds good for 1 the same form of argument . on the analogy of his Rabbinic traditions that the ba'al had had union with a restless spirit who would bear him children. by saying of among the Babylonians and Arabs every act sexual intercourse was immediately followed by a fumigation and an ablution. 2 i. . for distant (?) . Moreover... For the tabu on childbirth. to free from to one another . That such evil rites exist is enough to show that and some supernatural had to be guarded against.. two tablets 3 seem to throw These give the various cerelight on Assyrian beliefs.. With regard to the proof to Herodotus that 2 adds additional our tablet. it requires little acumen to to deduce that a woman in such a state was held It is be in close relation with demoniac influences.e. king Prayer . 1 cohabitation-tabu. 3 K. 2413 and K.122 TABU ON CHILDBIRTH IN ASSYRIA. when it is remembered that one of the Assyrian ghosts is the woman who has died in giving ghostly dangers equally birth to a child. see Bezold. 441 and 1183. hence the fear of risk in childbirth was associated with among the Assyrians as by other nations. evil." and this good evidence for a tabu in such a case. witting or unwittiDg. 198. monies and rites to be performed for women in such a condition." which I have suggested.

childbirth. As it is now clear. escape for evil." the corn-god. just in the same way that the mediaeval sorcerers stood within a similar charmed It ring when invoking spirits. A A snare without escape. a ghost.THE MAMIT OR TABU. Or Hag-demon. to the discussion we can now proceed in of tabu as indicated the Surpu-series by the word mamit. or Handmaid of the Phantom. Which hath attacked the shining waters of Ea. Which no god may annul. or Fever sickness. particularly in a tablet beginning " Ban ! Ban ! Barrier that none can pass. or Ghoul. or Kobber-sprite. or evil Ghost." Water and flour appear to be used in the 1 against the set charm. spread for evil. set for evil. is used as a defence against vampires. or Night-wraith. or unclean Disease. net whence none can issue forth. . potentially malignant the body. 11 obvious. Or evil Plague. or marriage. " " The shining waters of Ea and the net of Nisaba. menstruation. In the Assyrian religion the importance of the mamit (which may be both a ban and an oath) is one of It is sung of the most conspicuous ideas presented.J it . See Introduction. or evil Fiend. which is 123 to those that meddle with therefore held to be tabu. Ban ! Ban ! Barrier that none can pass. Barrier of the gods. Or Evil Devil. Nor god nor man can loose." being the description of the holy defence which the gods are able to provide for the faithful " a snare without powers of darkness. and the connection with the Holy Wafer or Host. Whether it be evil Spirit. that the lie Semites in general considered a tabu to issues. I think. on corpses. Barrier of heaven and earth that none can change. or evil Demon. seems to have been the custom to fence about the patient (or perhaps the magician) with a ring of flour or meal as a magic circle. or evil God. May 1 the snare of Ea catch . Or Phantom. that none may break.

. At dawn to a place of sunrise may they take it " . . circleth Or which it . 119. ii. a bar immovable. Into a place without escape may they bring Or which is shut in by the house door. Into a house without exit may they cause it to enter . The barrier of heaven and earth. the great gods curse it which attacketh the house. Like water may they pour it out. * Again. Or that which passeth the door and bolt. way through bar and pieces. The Devils. round about. Or which hath assailed the meal of Nisaba. may they withhold Or which bloweth in at the threshold and hinge. Or which passeth over the Its wall. Into a closed dwelling may they cause it to enter . With door and bolt. . . Or which muttereth in a chamber. With a bason without opening may they cover it Or which at dawn is darkened. which is largely devoted to spells for its removal from the sick man who 1 has appealed for release. wing may they cut off. Its mouth may they shut Or which roameth loose in an upper chamber. May May Or the great gods entrap it. goblet may they dash it in tile may they break it .124 THE MAMIT OR TABU. Let not the barrier of the gods. . let it go Or which reverenceth not the great gods. Or which Like a Like a forceth a it . May Or the net of Nisaba entrap it . which hath broken the barrier. free . Its throat may Or which looketh Its face may they cut in at a side chamber. . Or which [lieth] in a chamber. . they smite . this word mamit occurs constantly in the Surpuseries. latch.

' Of the following iii. he has eaten something or drunk something. ' Prolegomena. and theft are all considered tabu. loose th. we find in one tablet of one hundred and sixty-three transgressions of every possible kind of mamit. affliction describing the hapless plight comes to him as a punishment for sin. according modern convention. any rate in their present exorcised are guise.. 2 Marduk. or walked in some road the divinity forbade him " (J.THE MAMIT OR TABU. tablet : This is the beginning of the third " The mamit of all kinds which hath seized on the man. and many a time he strips himself and rolls about naked in the mud he accuses himself of sins of omission and commission. then. vii). 517).. of the same class of ideas as those tabus against contact with unclean latter. E. to try and nelp him. murder. Mamit ina kasi (?) la sariptum 3 mi sattt. which the man may have incurred. Some are obviously much older than others. we find the 21. 2 Zimmern.' . To this end let us examine this and the other tablets of the same the at series which deal with mamit. of the man who ' thinks that . which pretheir earliest sumably simply are in and are briefly and set forth." 1 Compare Plutarch {Be " Superst. yet in the form in which to they are they not. We dress may therefore begin with the simpler ideas of uncleanness." If these mamit be considered in detail is it will at once be recognized that the Polynesian tabu of the a near equivalent Assyrian word. vessels. Adultery. He sits girt about with foul rags. It is useless to speak to him. 3 Sariptu is literally \ unrefined. value of 125 cannot list these Surpu for tablets in this matter a be overestimated. unclean ' tabus. " Tabu of drinking water from an uncleaned cup. 12. the priest of the gods. Harrison. 1 and Marduk can remove. Ritualt. : simple.

Usurtu is the word translated barrier in the second line of the Tablet of the Ban quoted above.e. " 122. ' quite possible to hold this other view. Tabu of touching a man. 23). ' mahar ilu Samas aradu." Mamit ina " usurti " 114. in the Surpu. Mamit rihiti tami satu. 103 wash his fingers until he has first licked them whoever eats a dish and licks it afterwards. Mamit mi tami sat4. Samas is used in this tablet as we ' ' should use the word sun (cf. that 3 translates it Zauberkreis. when *V)5?.' " 2 The translation of usurtu here." " When anyone eats he must not Cf. Tabu of making prayer to god or goddess. Tabu of holding converse with one who Mamit akali bel ami akalu." " 119. however." " lieth under a sin. when one 'banned. Zimmern. when one is ' banned." Mamit akaU tami akalu. Tabu of holding converse with one under a ban. 1. I think. " 120. the dish says to him May God free you from hell as you have freed me from the devils licking me. " 116. it is i.' " 3 " Mamit tamu katsu ana Hi u ilu Istar tarasu." " 121. of Islam. or whether it is a prohibition against appearing when unclean. Mamit riheti nadanu u scCalu. Mamit itti tami dababu." Mamit itti bSl ami dababu. on which the sense of the line 1 : .'" is 117. Hughes. unclean. Tabu of drinking the water of one under a ban. ' : depends. Tabu of eating the bread of one who lieth under a sin. THE MAMIT OR TABU. Tabu of drinking what one under a ban hath left.' . is uncertain. " 118. Tabu of eating the bread of one under a ban. Mamit tamu amelu lapatu.'' Tabu of going before the sun 115. It is not certain whether this is to be referred to the savage custom of preventing women in their courses and sick men from in the Sun-temple ' ' seeing the sun. the dish intercedes with God for him whoever eats from a plate and licks it afterwards. . Tabu of giving or asking the lees. Diet.126 22.

" " Mamit abut bel ar[ni sabatju. He hath sat on the chair of one under a ban. stool. Did you overturn the jug and spill the drink prepared from the maize ? What ? have you imprudently given the flesh of a tortoise. Introd. stag. It is well. at his first coming the physician overwhelms the sick man ' ' : Where were you yesterday ? says he." kussi tami ittasab. to Hist. couch. the tabu of chair." tami ittatil. that lieth under a sin hath left. Ill. l " He hath drunk out of the cup of one under a ban. 2nd " calamity." " 104." " 101. One under a ban hath come Ina ersi before him." From these primitive conceptions of tabu we can of life readily arose. Tabu of drinking what one of one who lieth under a sin. Mamit mi btt ami I Tabu of drinking the water Mamit rihit bel ami ht4. Ana 'pan tami itesir." This tablet of the Surpu-series is paralleled by the description of a sorcerer of the Abipones (Jevons. Itti mamit kussi subti ersi maiali u-tamil.." Ina Jc&si tami iltati. 127 " 124. bed. of Religion. and one under a ban (may they free him). man may be tabu from the following causes: 99. we have discovered the cause with an hundred questions 'what roads did you tread? ' ' ' of your disorder. In the case of private ed. or boar [totem gods] to be devoured by Should the sick man confess to having done any of these dogs ? things. " 102. understand " Breaches how of the ordinary moral code social order are recognized as offences 1 " From See also Tablet VIII. He hath Ina slept on the bed of one under a ban. quoting Dobrizhoffer).THE MAMIT OR TABU. " 100." Or the ii. " 103. He hath gone before one under a ban.' " . 44." " 125. Ina passuri tami itakal. 1. 123. Tamu ana panisu itesir. Tabu of making intercession for one sick that lieth under a sin.' replies the physician. He hath eaten out of the dish of one under a ban.

the reason for disease (else the Surpu would never have been written). and C^ 7^H . among other remembered (such as Isa. Mel." etc. theft. 154. 5 Line 10 runs " : Father. and the development of law and morals sanctions are to still is made possible. in their breach. the tablet. all The very commingling of such tabus. although no mention more probably the made 3 of the 1. and even the stirring up of strife. 8 (?). Tablet ' ii. Sem.. throws much light first on the relatively high danger from unclean contagion. Are we to consider any of this uncleanness due to ulterior causes. is the savage tabu in is power. In another mamit. when we find side by to side with contagious of un cleanness what is us the more moral side of holy tabus adultery. by the belief that the human licence. and secondly the conception of in the Semitic mind. which are necessary to are well- the god maintenance of a good understanding between himself and It is to this. 2 And incidentally the probability of the composite character of this list 3 of tabus Devils. his magician hath trodden in something poured out. that we must his worshippers/' being. against the holiness of the deity. from 10) has come under a tabu of uncleanliness 1 Robertson Smith. 2 sin as it originated I have gone thus fully into this meaning of mamit that there it may be no doubt as to the actual sense of the word all its . at a stage when human wanting. man (or priest. which were believed to be. murder. AA. conditions imposed by the for l refer the reason for the heterogeneous tabus in the Surpu tabus tablets. lvii. and the whole of the Surpu. therefore. or too imperfectly administered restrictions social on have much power. for which the scribes have employed euphemisms Semites are ? When the euphemistic synonyms frequent *]*.128 THE MAMIT OR TABU. as from the deadly ' ' sins.

which rests upon he will not depart until water is the hands at night. that the evil spirits which hover about man in the night-time may be washed . xi. is prescribed in K. or Encycl. 1. The evil spirit Bath Chorin. etc.. Or his hand touched one of unclean body. Evil could always be washed from the hands with water. or the by which a demon may enter. trod in something that had been poured forth. 1 15). which is the : eighth tablet of the series luh-ka." The ka-luh-u.. ' Unwashed hands may or a polypus. and in Galicia it is recom- mended not to leave a tank of water uncovered during the Passover. "While he walked . (i. 9) as advisable if the god vouchsafes no answer in the omens which the seer is observing. a purification body washings ceremony. with them. . According 109a (Hershon. foulness of breath. 72). quoted Jewish It is dangerous even to borrow a drink of water. 77b. " I am innocent of the blood of this . Or he came in contact with a man of unclean hands. over water step poured out (Pes. probably the same as the tablet quoted above. hands before the multitude. 2519 (Martin. while he walked in the street. 220. Or his hand touched a bewitched woman. who leave their hands unwashed in the morning (Hid. 1 to Shabbath.e. Or cast his eye on the water of unwashen hands. . iv. 517).[da]. 600). as is clear from p. Yoma. or He He put his foot in some unclean water. 205.. says May (the tabu) be poured like the water of thy and the of the hands. off {Jewish Encycl. Tctan. It is taught that Rabbi Nathan had said. first the without having washed them." it frequently) closing does not seem impossible. especially children. saying. or the nose. even while pouring water therein (which should be done through Pilate washes his a cloth) (Jewish Encycl. cause blind- ness. Textes Religieux. or the mouth. 129 in the street. 1903. On the other hand. deafness. orifices than to touch the eye.. Ilia). 1 Or glanced at a maid with unwashen hands. bringing croup to persons.THE MAMIT OR TABU.' in the morning they should be held downwards and extended. Or saw one with unwashen hands. Shibbeta is a female demon. is very strict " When the fingers are washed poured upon the hands three times over. article Superstitions). for the man " under the tabu. 43) " it were better to cut the hands off ear.. Or came in contact with a woman of unclean hands. While he walked along the While he made his way through the broad places. streets and ways. the ceremony of the Eighth Tablet of the Surpu (1. 107b.

130 UNCLEAN TABUS.L. eating that which dies by itself can be removed by washing (Lev. that it is death for any but a priest to approach the tabernacle (see Robertson Smith. . .T. and so great a crime Timarchides relates a story of one Asterius who was struck dead with thunder because he had approached the altar of Jupiter with unwashed hands (Potter. Hebrew. not merely clear directly.says ittura sent amsi jcataia. xxvii.. May - it be carried . away down-stream. the taste. 516. The evidence before then. 1832. us. 1 but by coming in contact with another person ' charged with the contagion. i. ( W. the side generally accepted is that water. or smell of which has not been changed is to be considered as In the Levitical law the tabu of clean (Klein. with the water of his body. Among the Hebrews this is paralleled by the law of Num. 1. i. shows that the primitive tabu on uucleanness existed as as much among the Assyrians It is among the Hebrews. and other Semites. xvii. the washings from it And may Ban ! his hands. it would be no great deduction absent assume that primitive tabus were no more from Assyrian theology than they were from to beliefs." hands were tabu in classical worship is clear from Porphyry. 262). off . 122). Arabs. ii. however. I have washed my hands. . " The That unwashen morning hath risen. Religion of Islam. system of Indeed. Arab. or other Semitic righteous col. But the basic man " (Matt. who says that there was a programma fixed up that no man should go beyond the TrepiflpavTrjptou till he had washed his hands was it accounted to omit this ceremony that . 143) the man under the ban . O. colour.series were written for people who had incurred a tabu. Among the Moslems there are various opinions which conflict with one another on the subject of the cleanness or uncleanness of water.A. the river carry By heaven be thou exorcised. that these quite mamit in the Surpu . The following Assyrian text throws further light on this belief 15). On the whole. 24) and in the 3/aiiu-seriea (Tablet vii. iii. in Jewish Church. Archcuoloqia Grceca. body of N. 229). 51. by earth be thou exorcised " ! . . when this highly developed Assyrian contagion from tabu is taken into account with the universal similarity of such tabus in all parts of the world. . 5): " All which exists in the evil.

have already seen. 26. and accidental emissions were tabu in Babylonia as in other parts of the Semitic East. 1 Secondly. the girl who cannot menstruate in a regular supernatural " hands can beings. we know in that there were rites 2 childbirth. that discover by what process of we may reasoning primitive man evolved a system of tabus which are practically the same all the world over. 121. These facts prove childbirth. all convincingly that dead bodies. 3 See See p. J See See p. The these next point which all. We know that the corpse is tabu. 120. 3 4 Thirdly. . should purify himself. It remains to 1 See See p. as has been mentioned before. p. facts 131 of as to we such customs are apparent from several tablets. and "the a priest way is mentioned with woman with unwashen Lastly.UNCLEAN TABUS. is that at the back of the savage brain idea in the ever-present these tabus of some formidable attack any is man who ready to should transgress the limits of what spirits admitted as the peculiar demoniac right. menstruation. It is a recognized fact. for a purificatory ritual was incumbent on any Assyrian who touched or even looked upon a dead man. p. 19 * 5 6 p. It is consequently this problem of apparent unreasonableness that remains to be solved. 5 marriage as the and the k'ri demand that the Assyrian. 122. demands or consideration is why tabus existed at why man are for the should have established a series of laws which most part apparently unreasonable. sexual intercourse. without our being compelled deduce them. 128. to be performed for women and that the woman who died in giving birth to her babe became a ghost. as 6 much other Semites. render unclean.

not the only peoples who admit intermarriage between as deities and mortals. also are be loved by male demons. Hastings Diet. crijjple. the semi-human offspring of a devil is probably an malformed babe.132 be seen TABU ON THE K'Rl. it is an unclean tabu arising from fear of evil spirits. how far we can trace in the tabus on the aforeevil spirits 1 mentioned functions the connection of and the Hitherto savage logic which has deduced such a theory. 2 Now the k'rl explained as evidence of " 1 Possibly we should regard as an extension of the law of issues the uncleanness of the human excreta " (Peake. 829). abortion. who have since license is and power to them. the From can visit preceding chapter we have seen that it is a widespread belief among men and marry them This is the Semites that female spirits . such as were restricted from the . for 9 the explanation given as the reason k rif by the Rabbis. the Assyrians. who will await them next world. of the Bible. that they can in the bear ghostly children to them. women afarit. which can return In other words. 1 of demons entering the body through one of its 2 orifices. or temple ministration. In this case the tabu may possibly be connected with the idea iv. and the Arabs. indeed. of gods with women and goddesses Similarly. to afflict all that meddle with the corpse. and even approach divine beings. believed to with men. The god's son by a woman is a hero or demigod . and presumably we shall not be far wrong in thinking this The Semites are explanation to have been widespread. with heroes. we have seen that the tabu on a dead body is due to the dread of attracting the departed soul. ' ' The proof in other of the to existence of such an one is ample encouragement proceed on the same line of investigation unexplained tabus. Naturally the family descent is preferably traced rather to a god than to a demoniac mesalliance.

so do they recognize the supernatural dues in marriage and acquiesce in the right to a share in the women of the tribe. Discourse. xxvii. 3 them This desire for sweet scents is a peculiarity of Orientals. Prov. Similarly. burn incense for a sweet savour. sect. and what more natural one than that she was thus obviously admitted into the ghostly harim ? When a man became tabu through k'ri. v). to gods. often for a long time. 2 the divine beings were with other passions which their worshippers Just as the faithful share the sacrificial meal of 3 slaughtered fatlings. As is seen from the frequence with which women are vowed accredited satisfy.TABU ON THE NIL D AH. gods or goddesses. a woman became Hence tabu from fear of a jealous god 1 or demon. 133 with a concomitant tabu on the man. Of. instead of sacrificing them. . Is this to be explained through the idea that the sun is susceptible of attack from roving demons - ? The Arabs of the Ignorance used to bury their daughters alive (Sale.wife or lilith. by incense or unguents. the visit of a lilith. 1 and she becomes tabu These tabus at once again on each successive occasion. or anoint the stone which represents the deity. From the first time when this the woman is carefully segregated from the rest of the tribe. made him dangerous. arose the idea of separating such They were frequently precluded from seeing the sun. The condition of a woman niddah demanded an explanation. Prelim. It becomes increasingly clear that the divine or demoniac appetites are not satiated merely by food or libation. hostile to others. Koran. show how fearful men were of interfering with the harimrights of either male or female spirits. it was because of his spirit. far more than among Westerns. whose presence. we may surely see a corresponding superstition about the woman occurs in her courses. 9. presumably thus offering to the harim of their god.

46). " canopy may be made for dead A . Reste (2). and burnt it under the clothes of Sarah.A. too. viii.Q. of folk from the remainder the tribe. And Ashmedai received the 2 Ibid. 127). 1896. Among the Yezidis cohabitation is forbidden on the night of Wednesday and Friday Noteworthy. vii. goes in terror of the devil which also loves her. 14. to plot against the newly wedded {Test. lest their presence its should provoke an attack from the spirit in nocturnal wanderings. 2 The case is brooking no attempt to share his harim. who regards himself as a constant lover in this case. With the Pilgrims to Mecca." Among the Arabs it was held especially necessary to take precautions against demons on the consummation of 3 marriage. seems very probable. J.. and he took the heart of the fish and put it on a censer. too. Two Unknown Hebrew Versions It is the business of Ashmedai of the Tobit Legend. custom among the later Hebrews.S. P.134 TABU ON MARRIAGE AND CHILDBIRTH. In another version " Tobiyah remembered the words of Raphael." the But after the wedding he away The previous husbands have been slain by the demon. nor do : we know him . 3 Wellhausen. the story of Tobit offers the best possible example. and he fled instantly" (Gaster. 1 Tobias. Among modern Arabs a wedding must smell. and the Jinn came and prevented him. the best time being between the 26th and the end of the lunar month (Hadji Khan. the same in the story of Nur-ed-Bin and his Son in the " Arabian Nights Thy father thou knowest not. Journal Asiatique. If there be any truth in this explanation there should be some similarity in the tabu on marriage and childbirth. for the Sultan married her to the hump- backed groom. 1 Tobit vi. xi. able to drive demon with various evil smells. of Solomon. xix. " which hurteth no man but those which is come unto her. is the (Chabot. before his marriage with Sarah.B. 37). 2.. 20).. 155. not take place when the moon is under an eclipse or in the sign of Scorpio. In the case of marriage This.

^i widow before remarriage (Robertson Smith. Sem. who married several women. 254) of a Palestinian Jew. unripe nuts. the wedding-ring being actually placed on the cow's horn. There is a curious story told by Masterman (Bibl. note 39). quoted Lane. xi. Strings of fish. The cow was then killed. xxii. traditionally a clean vessel and sprinkle the water in the corners of the chamber. however. ed. as whatever hangs on the canopy.. but not when they are ripe. ed. 30). 422. for instance. Rodkinson. Thinking of a that he was under some magical spell. removed. we may also add here a quotation from Pesachim (ibid. Meir. The danger which the newly Pesachim. Sefer Hastdim. and flasks of Arabian oil. nor ripe pomegranates. World.REASON FOR UNCLEAN TABU. R. which will be spoiled after they are thrown on the ground" (Bbel Rabbathi. no benefit may be derived from it. quoted Jewish Encycl. may be thrown before the dead bridegroom or bride in the summer.. Arabian Nights. with Assyrian parallel in the Records of the Past. said : Only unripe things viz. pieces of meat. that a blessing may result from this (Nuzhet el-Mutaamil. that it was permitted to a bride to avert her face from the company while eating the paschal explained because of her bashfulness. 1 or on intercourse with a woman in a bed 2 where a child sleeps. 232. Note also the custom in Arabia of making a bird fly away with the uncleanness of widowhood . nor flasks of sweet oil. should the later Hebrews have laid an embargo on two sisters marrying on the same day. lest the evil eye fall on the parents. iv. unripe x a tongus [sic] of purple. Rel. 30) . all of whom died in childbirth. . 601. and either eatable or uneatable things may be hung on it. ix.. Jehudah. but not in rain-time and even during the summer they must not do so with cooked fish or other eatables. as he thought. 170). Rodk. he went through the form of marriage with a cow. the curse having been. 151). but quite as probably a survival of the fear of her presence attracting malignant It is a Sunneh ordinance that the bride wash her feet in spirits.. So is the decree of R. married bride incurs from demons in passing the threshold of the 1 2 new house has been already discussed (p.. v. 135 ceremonial What other reason can there be for all this uncleanness of marriage except that men feared to meddle with the rights of spirits or all who had tribe? a prior right to any of the women of the Why. sacrifice. and the man immediately married again. lest the child become epileptic ? bridegrooms and brides.

make a noise. incurs the risk of attack from female lobar tu. and she dies in giving birth to her child she becomes a ghost which will return for its babe. .136 TABU ON CHILDBIRTH. xii. however. 2. and the from ten minutes to half The hubbub lasts for anything an hour. or be anxious for in the advent of their demon-child untimely birth. and the meaning of the latter is equally clear when i the demoniac origin of epilepsy is remembered. too. La Magie dans VInde Antiqice. and are hovering near on such child. considers that Lev.. such to as the lilith. 1 : 2 Victor Henry. intelligible if to visit The former becomes of we recognize their the power disappointed demons revenge on the parents for a too great loss in one day. an occasion as the birth of a hostile They may an because the babe is not theirs. gathering round her. lascivious incubi. 19 the law of uncleanness of childbearing might be an extension by analogy of the older law of the uncleanness of menstruation (C. we may infer that the danger from spirits which renders the thousand woman unclean such female may be demons as may be from the either due to the jealousy of be supposed to have had con- nection with the father and resent her bearing a child to him . 2 Hence demons. is Among the Orang Laut a great clamour made as soon as a child is born to them. the lamia. All present unite in shouting will and in beating anything which greater the din the better. 1904. being especially intended Wellhausen. the same if ' Again.R. The spirits infant. 140. who account themselves either be the lovers of the woman. 148). or the According is Indian folklore the to woman a in this condition exposed exceptional perils. implies xv. or it may incubi. in the case of childbirth of tabu attaches to the uncleanness ' woman.

she this. to drive 137 either away any evil spirits which might otherwise attack mother or child. Dialogue on the Operation of Bcemons. ed. with the hair dishevelled. 5 Jewish Encycl. also. Golden Bough. 2 a woman. 39. i. The bystanders thought she spoke in Armenian and when she recovered she declared that " a sort of spectre. 600. fell growing more vituperative. ii. 1 To quote a story of somewhat earlier date. hid. and. 5 by In Syria the woman in such a condition must get up and go out of the house when a corpse is carried will be lengthened or troubled 1 Skeat and Blagden. affected to be angry . quoting Journ. . . and the woman answered him. 4 Minsk. Frazer. with the " tongue his and upbraided her much in his own (Armenian). or away evil spirits. 3 4 Tylor.. 4th ed. standing very old bald-headed man brought with his sword drawn beside the bed. 3 spirits and witches will have power over her. On invalid. she was overcome and asleep. Pagan Races of Psellus the Malay Peninsula. 26. Collisson. ii. they are dangerous to the people who approach the woman. " a who. muttering in a barbarous tongue. Prim. such being the case. 195. ." sprang Whether the upon demons are incubi or jealous spirit-wives. darksome resembling her. 2 (eleventh cent. if to the modern Jews of According you go alone to call a midwife your course devils.).TABU ON CHILDBIRTH. is tabu. Archip. Many modern Malay superstitions throw light on fires The tribes of the Peninsula light near a mother at childbirth to scare In the Tyrol it is said that a woman in childbed should never take off her wedding ring. 402.. Cult. Psellus tells of a woman who in her confinement was very ill and raved So they extravagantly. xi.

E. xxii. A lucky day. male and female could manifestly intermarry in the and such persons as gave evidence of demoniac or divine selection were carefully tabooed. 1894. 143. to set a chair in the middle of the for Sitt room assist.. festival evil "The of seventh day the second Elul) the Marduk and The shepherd Sarpanitum. It is an old custom among the if labour is protracted. Miriam (the Lady Mary). he become is the representative to figure-head details of the There no need are give the of savage customs. nineteenth. 2 well known. Spirits both us. who is is invited to come in and but as soon as the child arrives as hurriedly invited to retire (Masterman. twenty-first. and twenty-eighth day Tabu occur of the month . or Semites. therefore. We may leave these tabus to pass on to the instances special tabu of the Royal Tabu. among the that well-recognized custom among savage their chief shall be subject to special tabus a which are not binding upon the common people. P. . that is to say. that we have before of the that this is solution seems to prove problem. acts from which the king must abstain on the seventh. 248). fourteenth. 1 Sephardim. races It is on kings. tribe.138 past. Bibl. and require no further Among in the ' the Assyrians traces of this Royal ' There are certain hemerology texts. which elucidation. every seventh day with the forty-ninth (seven x is seven) day from the first of the preceding month. (of For instance. for in primitive times the more prominent the chief is the more does tribe. or ROYAL TABU. An day. World. Jewish Customs. 1 The evidence.F. death may the ensue to both mother and child. Baldensperger. 2 The whole matter of savage tabus on royalty is set forth in Frazer's Golden Bough. lest communion with them should bring down the jealous spirit wrath.

cit.ROYAL TABU.. pi. getrockneten Weinbeeren (Rosinen. It is unfitted for making a curse. before going further. and must not speak a 2 loudly. " On the Often hemerology texts mark this in different form " seize will nineteenth of Iyyar he who uttereth a ban a god upon him see on work on On tabu the Jevons.. 9) says that the Essenes strictly observed the rules to cook no food and light no fire on the Sabbath. prayer will be acceptable to points to the Two important notice in this hemerology. Terebinthenbeeren." Ishtar. 65 ff. and Chwolsohn. ed. of the widespreading peoples 139 eat flesh that has 1 must not been cooked over coals nor bread cooked in ashes. holy days (W. der Danionen und der Gottheiten. Bread was not to be put in the oven or a cake on the ashes unless there was time for a light crust 1 form on the surface before the beginning of the Sabbath. 48). Sie machen viele Aschenkuchen aus Mehl. 25. iv." prohibitions on cooking probably arise from some tabu against fire " Ye shall kindle no fire throughout your compare Exod. xxxv. place. ii. Golden 3 Bough. : . that uo meat. (Frazer. x. 2 To raise the voice is tabu to a murderer among the Omahas Vulgate. The secret must not make enquiry in The physician must not lay his hand priest on the sick. i. : Introduction.. Die Ssabier.. ii. or egg should be put to roast on the eve of the sabbath. 8. wie die Hirten zu thun pflegen. unless it can be finished cooking that day. 1. 340. Schwab. The (or white) clothes. Zibeben) These und geschalten Niissen. 2nd ed." and Lev. 3 In the evening the king should to make his offerings and offer sacrifices Marduk and god.I. D*SH t For the use in magic compare the instances given in Devils. king must not ride forth in his chariot. zu Ehren der Genien. . 2. it is the Hebrew 18) T\ty the panis subcinericus of the to . 3. He must not change the raiment of his body. The Assyrian word for 'bread cooked in ashes' is akal tumri (Devils. are the two phrases Compare the tabu in Shabbath. Jud. ii. where the offering of strange fire meets with the punishment of fire which comes forth from Yahweh. quoting Dorsey). Talmud. onion. nor put on clean He must not offer a libation. habitations upon the Sabbath. Josephus (Bell. v. 27 (Tammuz) feiern die Manner ein Mysterion des Schemal.A. " Den 27 loc.

3597 is another tablet prescribing things which the king must not do on a certain day Jna u?ne-su same ana tinuri (J)-u ul ikarrab saltiS ul itame . day. The two antithetic " " the for in accord with this. it is not unlikely that we have here a text that is a recension from two different versions. are epithets day quite K.' as seems quite probable." and the distinction is " "a and " an evil lucky day between the king and some person who called " the shepherd of the widesp reading peoples.140 ROYAL TABU." If this latter is merely an equivalent for 'king.

and brides are allowed of 1 141 faces on to wash their the Day Atonement. along with the also * ' ' ' beasts. on the ninth of Iyyar rendered men liable to sickness in Syria the eating of fish. to eat fish . 1 The quotations are from W. . 48. if times were tabu to the Assyrians.. Bel.I. 1 For instance. was held of ulcers. But these. 2 Robertson Smith. v. and bring sickness. which to result in a sickness were sacred to Atargatis.A. 449. swellings. its This chapter will have served purpose if a case has been made out for the is theory that the dread attaching to the sexual functions due to a belief in jealous and lustful spirits. ' tabus do not come within the scope of this Holy Under this heading must come many of the tabus book.. mentioned in the hemerologies. Even dates at they were eaten on certain forbidden days ophthalmia was supposed to To cross a river on the twentieth of Ab would result. and have no place here. among the Assyrians.OTHER TABUS. belong more probably totemunclean to the sacred tabus. and kindred others. or 2 wasting disease. Sent.

4th ed. power of what Tylor exorcist obsessing describes to it. by the recognized rules of magic. 125. In other words. This is the more intelligible when. he employed a form of that peculiar wizardry which is known as sympathetic magic. as u the proit who to talks it. or even his name.." Much of the magician's art con- sisted in his ability to transfer a spiritual power from its abode into some object under his control. . ii. and induces to take up its abode in some other. nails pins. and then pierced with fire. coaxes or or it makes offerings entices it drives out of the patient's body. or melted before the that their human counterpart may by these means be made to suffer all kinds of torment. as an additional connection 1 Primitive Culture. It is a species of sorcery which shows itself in crudest form in the use of small figures of wax and or other plastic materials fashioned with incantations in the likeness of some enemy. or earth from his footsteps. but of power evil for the magician over the human provides him with a means of attack or defence against or such spirits demons as may be arrayed against its him.142 III. Hitherto of the the discussion has its been confined of 1 to the nature it demon and the remains to treat ceedings threatens of it. mankind. it is considered more effective to obtain some portion of the victim's nails or hair. SYMPATHETIC MAGIC. This force is not merely a source soul alone.

definite In or this case the sorcerer to possesses something foe.WAX FIGURES. Thereupon Hor makes certain a litter of wax for four runners. On Hor this is brought to court into the presence. into 143 whereby the wax figure may be brought affinity still closer with its prototype. LI. 138. Egypt and bring back go up with them Pharaoh. In the second a is Khamuas. written he Demotic Egyptian. promising all kinds of rewards if he succeed. For instance. made a crocodile in this wax which was tale of devour his enemy. satisfactory to enough by itself. . Harrison. tangible belonging his and although. negress.C. and the Viceroy commands him to perform this feat. who is to be beaten with five hundred blows of the stick and taken back to Egypt within six to to he commands them 1 F.. among the ancient Egyptians the use of wax figures can be traced back as far as the old kingdom. 55. to overheard say that would send his magic up land. the mere image over which the exorcisms is will be repeated more is obviously hold in possession something which This specifically identified with the person in question. A story in the Westcar Papyrus of relates that a certain official in the reign a king of the third dynasty. Griffith. and thus overcome the king of that reaching the ears of the Viceroy of Ethiopia. and on reading " makes them live " then formulae over them he . to about 3830 B. yet it is form of magic appeals especially to the popular mind. and there are abundant traces of its use among civilized peoples from very early times to the present day. E. and superstition continued in Egypt down to quite in late times. Stories of the High J. this to Egypt. Prolegomena." certain " son of the Ethiopian named Hor. such figures among the Greeks see On Priests of Memphis.

i. write upon the man's name. I adjure you that just as fire the figures of N. No. set up the image in a stalks at it. in order to unite and disunite them. take clay from : it two river banks and make an image therewith. adding The Jews of Mosul have 'Destroyed be N. as described by Ibn Khaldun (14th " saw with our own eyes one of century).. 8.. (so) shall not be quenched in the heart of N.144 WAX FIGURES. and thou shalt see with regard to the enemy : that thou wouldst. In late Hebrew magic the same procedure is imitated "If thou wishest to cause anyone to perish. and his name.B. magician afterwards pronounces some words over the image which he . son of N. son of N. son of N. and which represent by means of symbols the names and the qualities The of the unfortunate victim.. on the altar.S. the qualities of which bear a certain relation to the intentions and the projects of the operator. Sword of Moses. P. and this is what thou shalt write Apapi Akpis Akpisin continually devoureth it 2 Athsamis. The Folklore of Mossoul. 7. 548. shoot the and with every one say the prescribed words. No." Or the waxen image 1 is to be pierced with needles.A. then take seven stalks from seven datetrees and make a bow with horsehair (?) .. and name of his mother. sorcerers of the : We These images are composed of things. had the same practices these individuals making the image of a person he wished to bewitch. convenient place. stretch thy bow.. No..'" l in their magic-books similar directions it " : Take new wax and make of the in a a figure of the enemy. 68. which begin with D^THp^ and end with ^DID'lS. shalt bury it in a grave three days old all (?). 3 For another instance in Hebrew of making an image Ibid. The Nabatean to kill a man see Gaster. and make box of wax and put the figure in the box and write and thou these names and put (them) under its head . 3 Jewish Encycl. sub voce Amulet. 1906. and holes then pierce it with a thorn many and fill it with fine black glass.. 2 Lower Euphrates. 103.

which it supplies is an intelligible and workable base wherefrom gradual development in easy to observe a the idea underlying the whole principle of sympathy in magic. is and such as an addition to the quite as common in has just placed before him. 30. and which is a real or symbolical representation of the person whom he wishes to bewitch . Golden Bough. and at the same time makes those organs vibrate which are used in the utterance of this malevolent formula next he holds over this symbolical image a cord which he has prepared with this intention. 569. Many evil spirits then descend. examples may be from the believe of customs in this various its savage races.WAX To come down cited FIGURES AMONG THE MALAYS. then he blows and emits from his mouth a little saliva which had collected there.parings. quoting Slane. Magic. for Chald. thereby the to power to 1 assimilate the nature of It is enemy all waxen image. making a knot in it to signify that he is acting with resolution and persistence. magical figures. unnecessary to repeat of this the numerous well-known cases form of superstition. . and the result of all is that the magician he is To causes the victim to be attacked by the desired evil" (Lenormant. The whole performance over is accompanied by giving his spells which are chanted magician the the figure. 2 spittle. The Malays a figure simplest form. See also Origen. 177). these processes and malevolent words a wicked spirit is united. i. and to show that . collecting of dust. On this subject see Frazer. 1 Skeat. 10. spell. nail. 2 Malay Magic. and this then melted over a flame or transfixed with pins. of moulding deserted their enemy as in the his wax a honeycomb and mixing therein other parts of nail-parings or such is him they can obtain. to quite 145 modern of in times. acting with a determined resolution to consolidate the charm. i. The like. vi. that at the moment when he spat he made a compact with the demon who acted as his associate in the operation. which comes forth from the operator's mouth covered with saliva.

1906.. modern ritual as in the ancient. and make it into a cake and ' throw this it the house of thine so enemy. the wizard in his camp.. saying. and a thread which she hath bound on him(?). p. 280. Lumholtz l says in order to be able to practise his arts against black man.B. . and put the coriander-seed upon 1 Among Skeat.. 5 Another Hebrew that charm. be slain/" is the dust from a temple In an Assyrian charm an ingredient. No. must be in possession the Malays.A. and : take water from three wells which are not in sight of into each other. 2 3 Malay Magic. Al- Sameri. and hang the cloth in a place under which the man is. Cannibals. which immediately became animated. son of N. when he the golden calf of the Israelites.146 the that. such as his hair. Martin. i. and threw it into the 3 mouth Similar " of is the calf. the is of any some article that has belonged to him. NAIL-PARINGS AND DUST. Textes Religieux. 568 ii. took dust from the hoofprints of the horse of the angel Gabriel. 2 According cast Mohammedans. and a little coriander-seed. and knead the dust with the water. or the food the left Among soil from footprint of the intended victim to the recognized as useful in charms. . charm for killing an enemy of a the late Hebrew Take dust from the grave murdered man who hath been slain with iron. P. 12. and thou shalt put them in a (piece of) cloth and bind it with the aforementioned thread. may N. 243. 73. quoted Elworthy. this time for a " : woman has been separated to from her husband through rejoin him. and dust from beneath her feet. 281 ff. As lord of 4 the dust was slain. Evil Eye. runs enchantment and wishes Thou shalt take a hair of the woman. Koran. Frazer. * 5 Folklore of Mossoul. 104. 1889. Golden Bough. Sale. Surah note.S.

Reste." 1 P. swiftly. at once. Arabia Deserta. 49. 2 4 Wellhausen. Again. brought her wretched babe and bade him the child's sore eyes. fol. at once.NAIL-PARINGS. at once . 142. 230. burns these righteous man 6 man. and then shall she come without a doubt. with speed. 5 Ameimar says witches told : " The superior of the me that when ' : a person meets any of a potsherd of boiling ! them he should mutter thus May dung the be stuffed into your mouths. 389.B. daughter of N. and Frazer. swiftly. i. you ugly witches May hair with which you perform your sorcery be torn from May the wind scatter your heads. the use of spittle in magic is well known from the miracles in the New Testament. Talmudic Miscellany. 6 Moed Katan. AND DUST.A. No. i. 28. with speed. quoted Hershon. i. swiftly. away the may spices ! ! saffron you ' hold in your hands for the practising of " sorcery said nails ! Again. 3 5 loc. .' " * The Arabian solwan. 4 In the Talmud. Pesachim. quoted Hershon.. i. do ye subdue and bring N. col. cols. so that ye become bald the crumbs wherewith ye do your divinations May your wind the blow and be scattered. Talmudic Miscellany... fol. 527. Golden Bough. 18. among the respecting finger-nails is the Rabbis.. 3 many instances of its use are given by on Doughty relates how a young mother. ii. with speed. or draught that makes the mourner forget his grief. HAIR. for mischance might follow should a female step over them.S. the ' 147 Anusin Anusin Atetin man. and thou shalt say: Atetin. 110. three things were " He who trims his : and buries is is the parings a a . consists of water with which is 2 mingled dust from the grave. he who but he who throws pious them away a wicked man. cit. an Arab spit woman.

increased power to the magician." " I do said he. 404. Aborigines of Victoria. Golden Bough. by the power Save us. J. to shrank from allowing the Englishman write down his name.A.O. i. write not " 5 The modern Abyssinian believes in demons my name ! Khalil. which is widespread. xlvii. 40. 1 prayer in Ethiopia published by Littmann. R. who and skin with sweat and the nails of our hands and the hair of our heads and the nails of our feet and with the hair of our eye [brows] and the hair of our eat clothes and the hair of our girdles. The Arabs have ideas Doughty one Tollog. Thy names from all keepers of magic soul and who make poisons with art. shrinking 1 2 Arde'et.S. i. this : whatever is separated from the body." Just in the same way. tell unwilling to of sorcerers. unclean. be he a knowledge of the name of gives enormously natives of their human are or spiritual.148 KNOWING THE NAME. as hair. one's enemy. 5 Arabia Deserta. shows " Lord our God. i. Introduction to the 4 History of Religion. nail. 3 The to many names modern lest savage tribes afraid disclose some enemy should hear it and thereby lay them An Australian black is always very under a spell. turning over the leaves of to see the pictures. the same fear : A of these corrupt the pillows. 413 . . iii. xxv. our whole souls to and bodies. pray thee. is "another custom. the Moahib shekh. who.B. " with a sudden apprehension. 60. 469. 425. quoted G. whilst he was handling his medicine book. Brough Smyth. i.. doubtless similar through fear . 2nd ed. Guide to the Perplexed.. tells 4 his real name. or blood. Jevons. and where of we and drink. out the Sabians." 2 Among is according still Maimonides.. 3 On this see Frazer.

34. will High name and seal which I have in this box. and his to call him gives is by a sort nickname which mother for this him on leaving the church. . being constantly if 149 a to on 1 the watch it to steal Christian's name real they can. Life in Abyssinia. and a is the custom is conceal the name by which only person of baptized. Palestinian demonology the same thing is apparent in the " Art thou come to words of the Unclean Spirit destroy : us ? I know thee who thou art . the Holy One of God. . into the fire after writing his name upon and casting 4 and in . Luke iv. and put box " with brimstone. 78. 300." 3 Among it the ancient Egyptians the monster Apep it could be destroyed by making a wax figure of him. destroy thy will burn them with unquenchable fire. Magic. " I. E. . and bury them of the Most . Eg. if In the magic of the to a demon was slow he rendered appear at the to command be of the wizard. 4 5 Budge. in unending oblivion. 199." 5 In the Assyrian incantation against the ghost 1 of a dead 2 6 Lejean. The Booh of Black Magic. Voyage en Abyssinie. Waite. who am the servant will excommunicate thee. Parkyns. because his of master knew name and of seal/ In one is the books on to magic the student the seal of the it sorcery recommended write into a demon on a piece of parchment. The reason that the bouda (or possession) cannot act upon a person whose name he does not know. 171. himself liable cursed his and buried ' in oblivion. he must then exorcise the demon stinking perfumes" and threaten to destroy him. 2 Middle Ages. A. asafcetida. and other .KNOWING THE NAME.

66. man. * For if I tell his to name I render myself incurable. laid and thus bring his antagonist's power If an Assyrian imagined himself bewitched or under a spell in consequence of some sickness which had befallen him.Q. In the Testament of Solomon the king asks a demon to tell him the name of a certain spirit. 34. at midnight. " I cannot tell thee. p." Origen every demon must be addressed by his local name. For they have choked my mouth with herbs. he had recourse to a magician counter who aided him with or charms and incantations against the witch wizard who had obtained power over him. An My I enchantress hath enchanted me . dawn . v. and the following incantation recited over " I them : cry unto you. C. Cf. 26.150 WAX FIGURES IN ASSYRIA. 147. 2 In the same primitive form this custom is found among the Assyrians. xi. Over the sickness (?) wherewith I am stricken.. Cels. god and my goddess wail over me. figure of anyone whom he desired but it was also the recognized means of counter attack that the person so assailed should figures. ix.. . 3 And with upuntu have stopped my mouth. and at For a sorceress hath bewitched me. 45. and not by one According translated into another tongue. make corresponding to nought. quoted on p. through the night. and the demon says. Figures repre- senting these were moulded. 3 2 quoted Conybeare. I/cry at eventide. J.Q. Not only was it possible for a man to make an enchanted wax to hurt. 1 Ed. stand sleepless night and day. the veiled bride . the figure is made in clay and the dead man's name inscribed on it. I cry Unto you gods of night.. J. Conybeare.

WAX
And my
Rise up,

FIGURES IN ASSYRIA.

151

So that they have lessened my drink, joy hath turned to grief and

ye great gods, and consider

Give judgment, and take cognizance I have fashioned an image of my sorcerer or sorceress, Of my wizard or my witch.

my delight my cause, of my way.

to mourning.

And I have placed it beneath you and I plead my cause. As they have wrought evil and sought out the unclean
So may they
die,

but

let

me

live

"
!

1

Further on in
spell thus
:

the tablet

the magician

continues his

" I close the pass, I shut the wall,
I restrain

the magic of the whole world.

Anu and Anatu
'

have sent unto

me

:

Whom

shall I send to the Mistress of the Desert

'

?

Put a gag on the mouth of my wizard and my witch, Perform the incantation of Marduk, the leader of the gods.

They They

shall cry shall

unto thee (Mistress), but answer them not.
;

speak unto thee, but hear them not If I cry to thee, answer me, If I speak unto thee, hear me,
the

By
"

command which Anu and Anatu and
These are figures of

the Mistress of

the Desert have spoken." 2
[Incantation.]

my

wizard,

These are figures of

Of Of

my witch, my sorcerer and my sorceress, my wizard and my witch,
I

...

know them

not.

Evil [sorcery, magic, witchcraft], spells.

1

Series Maklu, Tablet I (ed. Tallqvist).
Boissier,

The Tablet

K 249, published

Revue Semitique, ii (1894), 135, prescribes the necessary " medicinal plants for Enuma amelu uptiu limutti ilammi$u, when evil sorcery besets a man."

by

2
3

Maklu,

i,

48

ff.

Here follow twenty names
Six mutilated lines.

for possible foes, witch-doctors, etc.

*

152

WAX
[Fire-god], judge,

FIGURES IN ASSYRIA.
defeatest the wicked
!

who

and

hostile,

overcome

them that I be not destroyed They have made [images like] my images, likened to my form, have broken my neck, They have seized my have fastened on my loins, have attacked my They weakened have taken away my courage, have my They have enraged [the gods against me], have weakened my They
. . .

,

.

.

.

,

.

.

.

,

strength,

They They They They They They

have have have

.

.

.

,

have

me made me made me
filled

they have bound my knees, with and pain,
.
.

.

eat

.

.

.

drink
.

.

.

.

have poured on me have anointed me with a salve of
. .

evil plants,

As a

They They have enraged against me

corpse they have looked upon me, have laid the water of my life in a grave,
god, king, lord,

and

prince.

Thou, Fire-god, that burnest my wizard and my witch, That destroyest the iniquity of the seed of my wizard and
witch,

my

I call

thou that destroyest evil. on thee, like Samas the judge, Give me a decision, judge my cause,
It
is

Burn

Devour

my wizard and my witch, my enemies, dissipate my

foes

;

thy dread light reach them, Like water from a skin-bottle in a leak(?)

May
to

may

they be brought

an end,
off.

may their fingers be cut By thy mighty command, that cannot be changed, And thy true favour, which cannot be altered.

Like the hewing of a stone

Perform the incantation."

The ceremony ends by burning the
1

1 figures of demons.

is also accused of having delivered the figure of the sick a corpse, or of having shut it within a wall or under the threshold, or at the entrance (?) of a wall, or in a bridge that men might tram>le

The wizard

man to
;

or of having buried it in the hole of a canal-digger (?) or in on it a gardener's channel or of having delivered it to the power of Labartu, the daughter of Anu, or to the Fire-god, the son of Anu (iv, 27).
;

HAIR, SPITTLE,

AND RAGS.

153

that the man's hair or spittle, or rags of his have come into the possession of his enemyshould clothing, is clearly indicated in one of the prayers to Nuzku
fear
" Those

The

Who Who
Torn

who have made images in my shape, have likened them unto my form,

have taken of

my

spittle,

plucked out

my
"
!

hair,

my

garments or gathered the cast-off dust of
l

my

feet,

May

the warrior Fire-god dissolve their spell
is

What
as

more,
in

we have
magic

gave help

in
is

a full description of such vestigia " an incantation text
:

The

sorcery of spittle which

spat forth evilly

by

the mouth,
'side,'

the bond of sorcery bound evilly, the shaving of the
ditto of

the body, the parings of the nails, rag
'

(?),

strip (?),

an old shoe, a cut lace;

refuse

'

which hath 'made atone-

on the body, food which the body of a man hath digested, food which in eating hath been rejected, water

ment

'

which hath been

left

over in drinking, evil spittle which
the air of the
desert
2

the dust hath not

covered,

hath

The entire point of this passage Tallqvist, Maqlu, Tablet 1, 1. 131. has been missed both by Tallqvist and Jastrow (Religion, 286) the
1

;

latter, following Tallqvist

(Maqlu, 39), translates

"

Who Who

have taken away my breath, torn my hairs, have rent my clothes, have hindered my feet from treading
for these lines is

the dust."

The Assyrian

riCti-ia ilk A sarti-ia

imlusu

ulinni-ia ibtuku etiku eprdti sepi-ia ispusu.

But the last phrase (literally " the passing of the dust of my feet ") surely must refer to the common custom of taking the dust from the The meaning of the word footprints and kneading it into the image. is from but uncertain, Sapdsu epir hpi-ia sapsu (W.A.I., iv, 57 i, 55) Muss-Arnolt seems to have 'to gather' seems to be fairly correct.
;

found the right idea in aufwiihlen. 2 Or, with the Sumerian, to the
'

desert.'

154

MATERIALS FOR FIGURES.
1

not carried off(?)."

In a

list

of plants

which appear

to

have a magical significance, one of them is prescribed " in the dust of a man's tread," probably as an amulet, " in the dust of the great gate kameti (or and another
2

kasipti)"

The suppliant might use

tallow, bronze,

clay,
little

bitumen,
images,

dung

(?),

wood, and other materials for his

and these were then cast ceremonially into a brazier, that the Fire-god might consume them
"

mighty Fire-god, dread light of day, That guidest aright both gods and princes, That judgest evil men and women,
Rise

up

in

Grant

me

judgment with me, like the Warrior Sun a decision, judge my cause,

;

Burn up my sorcerer and sorceress, Devour mine enemies, bring to nought

my

foes,
3

And may

thine awful light o'ercome them."

The

third

tablet

of

the

series

Maklu, from which the
elaborate

preceding

charms are taken, contains a more

ceremony than either of the two preceding. The same images are made, but they are to be placed in the model of a ship which was then broken to pieces, probably after
being placed in a basin of water.
" She

who hath bewitched me, hath laid me under a Hath cast me into the river flood, Hath cast me into the river depth, Unto the witch hath said Bewitch,'
'

spell,

1

Haupt, A.S.K.T.,

11,

i,

60.
11.

2 %

C.T., xiv, pi. 44, cols. 1-2,

12, 9.

Cf. pi. 42,

K. 274,

11.

22, 28

(?).

.Maklu, Tablet II. A psalm to Ishtar, published by L. W. King, Seven Tablets, 222, although full of phrases such as are found in the so-called Penitential Psalms, shows what the intention of the sick man is (1. 55 " put an end to the evil bewitchments of my body ").
:

CEREMONIES WITH A SHIP.
Unto the enchantress hath
said
' 5

155

.

Enchant,

May

this

be as her ship,

Like this ship may she be wrecked, May her spell be wrecked, and upon her

And upon her image may it recoil, May her cause fail, but let mine succeed."

"My

ship the Moon-god hath fitted out,
its

Between

masts

(?)

it

carries

<

Release,'

Sorcerer and sorceress

sit therein,

Wizard and witch

sit therein, sit therein."

Enchanter and enchantress

" Apparently from the mutilated line which follows, [and now] the rigging is cut," the bewitched man here begins
to

destroy the ship,
it,

with the figures of his tormentors
is

inside

and

finally it

cast

into

the

fire

and burnt.

This method of making a ship full of one's enemies was
not
confined
of of
to
it

Babylonia,
related
of

for

there

is

a

very curious
the

instance
traditions

Nectanebus

in

Ethiopic
to

Alexander the Great.
this

In addition
which
this

the

ordinary charms of

magician possessed, such as influencing

Egyptian Olympias by means of a figure made of plants with magical properties and inscribed with her name, 1 he was able to overcome his
enemies in the following manner
this

character

"
:

Now

as

concerning
lifted

man

[Nectanebus],

whenever

[his]

enemies

themselves up against him to do battle with him, he and did not march out against them with soldiers,

and an array of spears, but it was his wont to go He into his palace and to shut the door, upon himself. then took a brazen vessel, and having filled it with water
armies,
to

resemble the sea he muttered over

it

certain words

which

1

Budge, Life and Exploits of Alexander the Great,

ii,

16.

156
he knew.
to

RITUAL BEFORE BATTLE.
If the

enemy came

against

him [by

sea]

he used

make models
to place
to

of ships out of

and

upon the
sea.

wax [melted] over a fire, water these waxen ships, that were
ships
[of the

[intended]

represent the

were on the

enemy] which Then he muttered over them the names

of the gods of the country, and other awful and terrible

names, and then he set the waxen ships on the water in
bis basin, in resemblance
sea.

of the ships

which were on the

If the

enemy

rose

the

waxen

ships to sink,

up against him on the sea he made and he thereby also submerged the
to

ships of the

enemy who wished
if
it

come

to

do battle with
against

him.

And
in

happened [that the
to

enemy came

him] by land he was wont

make models

of the horse-

men]

wax

like unto the soldiers of the

army who were

coming to do battle with him, and having muttered over them the awful and terrible names [which he knew] the
soldiers of the
face,

enemy were suddenly overcome before his and the enemy went down before him, and submitted
,

unto him.'

l

Budge, Life and Exploits of Alexander the Great, ii, 4, 5. Are we " Take thee a to consider Ezek. iv, 1, 2, a parallel in any way ? tile, and lay it before thee, and pourtray upon it a city, even Jerusalem
1
:

and lay

and build forts against it." Among certain savage tribes demons are expelled by being sent
siege against
it,

away
is

in vehicles of various kinds.
little

Frazer says that a

common one

a

ship or boat.

For instance, he quotes

Valentyn, Oud-en nieuw Ost-I?idien, iii, 14, who Ceram which takes place when a village suffers from sickness.

(iii, 97) Francois describes a rite in

A little

ship is made and filled with rice, tobacco, eggs, and so forth, and the sicknesses are addressed in a valedictory incantation as though they

were demons, and adjured never to return. The ship is then carried to the seashore, and is allowed to drift away. Similar ceremonies
are in vogue in Timor-laut (Riedel, Be sluik en kroesharige rassen tusschen Selebes, p. 304, quoted Frazer, Golden Bough, iii, 98) and in the

RITUAL BEFORE BATTLE.

157

A
his

similar story

is

told of Aristotle in Ethiopic, for

it is

related that he gave

Alexander a box

filled

with figures of

enemies with their swords bent and bowstrings cut,
face

placed

downwards

and
1

nailed in,

the

whole being

secured with an iron chain.

Among

the Babylonians the proceedings which took place

before battle were very closely akin.

The

ritual is

worth

giving in full
" Ritual
:

when an enemy
shall go forth

[attacks] the king

and

his land

.

.

.

The king
water,

on the right wing of the army, And thou shalt sweep (?) the earth (?) clean, and sprinkle pure

And

set [three] altars,

one for

I star,

one for Samas, and one for

Nergal,

And offer each a loaf of wheaten meal, And make a mash of honey and butter,
Pouring in dates and
sheep,
. .

.

-meal,

and

sacrifice three full-grown

island of

Euro

(Riedel, op.

cit., p.

25)

;

and see many other interesting

forms of the same ceremony. Note also the end of an incantation against spirits among the Malays, in a boat ceremony, which bears a great resemblance to the wording of
the Assyrian spell on
p.

25

"Go

ye to the ocean

And And
But

which has no wave, the plain where no herb grows, never return hither.
ye return hither, be consumed by the curse,

if

Ye At

shall

sea ye shall get no drink, Ashore ye shall get no food, But gape in vain about the world."

(Skeat,
100.)

Malay Magic, pp. 433-5, quoted Frazer, Golden Bough, iii, Compare also the annual expulsion by boats in Frazer, iii, 105

;

and
1

for similar superstitions in China, Elworthy, Evil Eye, 438, quoting

Public Health, 1894, 376.
Ibid., 362.

Koran." Smith preparations for battle among the Ruala. Bend backwards his face with a cord The Eunuch (?) of the king. and sprinkle the blood on the merkab of the camel on which She perfumes her the shekh's sister or daughter rides into battle. Sprinkle upuntu with cypress on a censer.158 RITUAL BEFORE BATTLE. 1894. and the Arab tradition Curtiss (Bibl. and swme-flesh thou shalt offer. 37) quotes 1 Sam. in which effigies of the soldiers. " " their faces be confounded saying May ! they immediately turned their backs and fled.S. For other instances of throwing sand or stones we may compare a xxv. 97) describes the us against Morad. . Vedische Opfer und Zauber. i. 2 Sale. iv. which relates how the disciples came to a place where in their many demons were assembled." l The method against a foe provided by a Hebrew manuscript from Mosul is interesting from its similarity to a story of Mohammed. Surah iii. and threw it towards the enemy. .. and scented (?) Then shalt thou make an image of the foe in tallow. J. Abu'd-Duhur that he may come and help them to victory. 30). whereupon 2 The Frazer (Golden Bough. a similar custom among in pieces. . Shall . Sem. Mohammed. And make oil.A. the Carthaginians with " Yaghuth went forth with Philip of Macedon. 14) quotes the Hindoos from Hillebrandt. . Lord. oil. the robes (?) of the king . at the victory near Mecca in the second year of the Hejra. . and it is around the merkab that the sacrifice to how they battle rages. . 173. a libation of [honey]. 7. and then pulled 1 Zimmern. by the direction of Gabriel took a handful of gravel. xxiii. For other Semitic customs before going into action Robertson (Bel. with the prayer " Disperse.O. Shall stand before the preparation and repeat this formula before Samas.. but on their taking up sand hands and looking up to heaven. elephants. exposes her bosom. Ritualtafeln.. wine. horses. Mesh of the right thigh. and chariots of a hostile army were modelled in dough. a subdivision of the Aeneze. hair. Arde'et. butter. World. hinsa-fiesh. who is named like his master. puts antimony on her eyelids. story in Ethiopic (Littmann. and makes herself as handsome as possible.

" * The wax-figure procedure is also used in an inverse way for a sick man to rid him of the devil that possesses him. he casts a stone against it in opprobrium. : the name of Loki Yoel Antsel. son of henceforth and for ever ' until the wrath pass. This was by fashioning an image of the patient in clay. Amen. i. 2 wax. when an Arab passes the mound Jewish Encycl. the Haj pilgrims throw pebbles on reaching the Jamratu'l-'Aqaba shortly after sunrise. Yah all kinds of fighting for brigandage against N. 3 Devils.A. " " was to be made. that piece sea-clay of the should be and moulded into the likeness patient and placed on the Plague-god might be " atonement for his body " Further. 89).' .WAX FIGURES ATTRACTING THE DISEASE-DEMON. so may the will be. a For instance. P.. Malay Magic. of Abu Zenna. Tablet * R. Folklore of Mossoul.. Similarly. or dough. 1 . (Another book) Antsel and Mehothiel Miskathiel Yoy Hia Abniel Ahamnel Yiol Wahi Yokiel by your purity that ye may bind IN". 2 Dough is also used by the Malays (Skeat. A similar text all their demons who beset us by the power of these. at dawn the expelled. Seven successive times each casts a pebble at the pillar in order to confound the devils cf. 21. and they shall no more be and this is what thou shalt say able to make war In left foot ' .S.B. Religion of Islam. who are supposed to be there (Klein. Thy holy names. close mouths and destroy their power. is 159 Hebrew charm under thy as follows : " For war : Take dust from and say over it these names and scatter it against them (the enemy). casting the sand against them. his loins at night in order that and the man's face turned to the west.." they annihilated the demons by . the Incantation of Eridu performed. 170 In Sinai. 1906. No.. and with the proper charms the magician hoped enter directs to induce the its demon of to leave the human body and one tablet taken 3 waxen counterpart. 105. 452).

and under them the : following conjuration I conjure thee. for this is an (or. then draw the picture of a man on virgin parchment with both hands outstretched . angel appointed over variant. and write on his shoulder on his forehead) Lahabiel. 57. probably some kind Marduk goes out also in this way. Ea. and at his feet draw the image write on his shoulder Ariel . or from any of the things mentioned.. with the following directions " As Bring forth a censer and a torch. or from folly madness'). . of another man.A. Raphael. help (a advised : of to fever. So may the pestilence in his body trickle away Return these waters into a cup and Pour them forth in the market-place. and Set a king over him and Take his hand before the Sun. and Repeat the incantation sar-azag-ga. . 50. and whose name 2 Ibid." 1 The Asakku. (' or from an evil spirit. it with red ink. allowing : it to trickle down. thou and thy servants 1 who ' are called by thy name.) Another thing : late Hebrew charm prescribes the same kind of " If thou wishest to heal a man from enchantment.' W. the water trickleth away from his body. but draw fire. Tablet T. for is common device in this class of texts). image to directs the is be made in dough. and the physician to bring water to the man. was driven his father. and thus " Fashion an image of his form in dough on the ground. under the right hand draw the image of a little man. ii. and 2 [Pour (?) ] water on his head [and] (The remainder is much mutilated.I. v..160 WAX FIGURES ATTRACTING THE DISEASE-DEMON.

that thou healest so and all hurt and all evil spirit. be the earth with the left hand until he tread on it.. so enemy provides that pounded rest. that door would open by itself (Gaster.B. 193... The clay figure is Gaster.L. Amen. Or if an image of an angel was drawn (in a love-charm) with the 'Thunderstone (eben barafc) and placed on a closed door. midday. either 107. and evening.A. Lahabiel. the all name illness of and so from Azbuga. 339.B. Ariel. white bread. Z. No. P. from Mosul (Hebrew) if a figure of an enemy be painted in saffron on parchand put in his with ment name. e.A. Die Labartu-Texle. Sela.CHARM AGAINST THE LABARTU. P. it is to be buried in the corner sick 2 of the wall.. with various signs inscribed upon it.A.. . 5 xvi." and twelve cakes of some peculiar meal laid A black before her. 2 W. is 161 included in their names. in prison. and a salve-box (?).. Sela.S.A.S. 55. 20. and the figure is to be put at the man's head for three days.S. in viz. and a libation of water poured out. Phaniel. and then finally it no have and be smitten the shall with a hammer. as the day draws to its close. The incantation which accompanies this ceremony is to be repeated at dawn. Sela. and on the third day. In a mutilated tablet a prescription is given for healing some disease or plague. 1900. day or night (The Folklore of Jfossoid. Amen. and an offering made of bahrufruit.A.B. and then binds "the hair of a white goat and the hair of a black goat round his head. P. Myhrman. 1900. a quite as effective as wax 1 : The picture of a man was reckoned modern MS. 344). r. the heart of a young pig placed on her mouth.g. Rahabiel. i." 1 Amen. 32). 1906. iv. After the recital of a long chant the sorcerer makes a small figure of the patient in clay " (?). " dog must then be added to the figure. One of the rituals in on the or ' the series Labartu directs that first day in the morning the figure of a labartu ' as one that (is bound) hag-demon shall be made.

little which more will be seen The Malay magicians have a practice of making images of dough of beasts. One of the tapers is made to stand upon a silver dollar.162 PARALLELS AMONG THE MALAYS. blowing They to 1 Devils. and throws away the untied knots outside use of 3 the house. intended for the removal of the devil. and " tapers. and as soon as this has happened the magician " looses three slip-knots and repeats a charm to induce the evil spirit to go. set it aside. together with a few of the leaves of seven or nine different trees and plants. birds.' Skeat. 1 A curious parallel its to be found among the Malays. Tablet ' S. enchantment. they read a after on the water. Indian conjurors to remove from seven or nine different places. and the patient's face is then turned to the west. then laid on his body. . They take water put it into a new if earthen pot." 3 2 The charm begins : " I have made e. its both from similarity to the preceding of and also in use of particoloured cords. and read once over it. 569.g. certain chapters. which are placed on a sacrificial tray together with betel-leaves." The supposed to enter the images. and by these means the evil influence is is removed. and the other end of this is given is the patient to hold while the necessary charm devil is being repeated. with the end of a piece of thread particoloured thread inserted between the dollar and the foot of to the taper.. cigarettes. 432... etc. Similar are the methods of devils. ibid. chapter and. or if etc. later.. a substitute for you. the Incantation of Ea is performed." 2 The this particoloured cord occurs elsewhere in Malay sorcery. Malay Magic. change bad luck.

loins. who in world is generally an old woman. This dummy the 1 : demon if is recovers" (Graafland). the substitute is carried to the spot where supposed to have entered into the man. they repeat the aet-ool-koorsee over each. of Dama. then bathe him with the above-mentioned pot of water. after the physician has invoked the spirit as follows O devil. or that human . There it is set upright on the ground. the doctor makes a doll of palm-leaf and lays indeed prettier and better than he it. Release the soul of the sick ' man and " plague the image. Frazer (Golden Bough. In bathing they necessarily dig the place a the water being absorbed into the earth little. . knees. before whom . in Celebes. 348 ff. and sickness. then place in front of the patient a of 163 figure. flowers. back. patient's head. they deposit cocoanuts. while she says This image serves to take the place of the sick man Then with some rice. 1 Jaffur Shurreef and Herklots. etc. and half of an empty egg-shell on the Lured by this bait the demon quits the sufferer's body and enters the palm-leaf doll. in the island (Ruhr). who subsequently " In certain of the western districts of Borneo. placed on the head. fashions a wooden image and brings it seven times into contact with the sufferer's head. pass over into the image. Qanoon-e.) quotes many instances which throw light on the " The Alfoors of Minahassa. 258. salt. Hunnoman (the monkey-headed god) tie to its neck one end of a cord formed of three kinds of coloured thread. taken suddenly and violently sick. between New Guinea and Celebes. ii. " some betel. a piece of yellow cloth. and taking nine limes. and the other to the patient's waist or neck.' a is man this part of the ' : . which the wily doctor thereupon promptly together with decapitates (Riedd). supposed to mistake for the sick man. rice. and feet of the patient respectively .PARALLELS IN INDIA.Islam. . will Assyrian incantation sometimes transport a sick man to another house. while they leave on his bed a dummy made up of a pillow and clothes. to allow of for should auy other person happen to put his pot on the water the same misfortune would befall him as did the patient. shoulders. for " it is Similarly. and divide them into two. where sickness is ascribed to the agency of demons. here is an image which stands instead of the sick tobacco in a little is the evil spirit ' : man. basket. the physician.

one or twenty-two knots on it." l or other over is it fastened to the Now is this use of particoloured threads in Eastern magic a distinct reminiscence of the Mesopotamian wizardry. and let him go and stand with one leg on each side of it. the use of the blue ribband prescribed as necessary in the Hebrew fringes in Num. paper. Again. and with his left hand from under his right foot. which is a blue neck-thread against fascination (Sat. worn by all classes. and and then take some wool. writing of certain incantations performed for the purpose of freeing a certain Encolpius from a spell.Islam.worn en ' ' . The Moollas making each knot. and burn them .164 PARTICOLOURED THREADS. There are curious parallels from the more ' : Petronius. many of them do not so much as know the name of take " three different coloured silk or cotton plain or twisted. root of grass. 59. xv. in it. The Source of the Blue Nile. 262. to be of which several instances are found in Assyrian a incantations. Sat. and take with his right hand some mud from under his left foot. the red part of the inside of a palm-tree. The man must take a together . There are two curious charms from late Jewish sources (Barclay. and the badge of Ethiopian Christianity. either they form twentyor Seeanas. . in order to drive out demons from women the following is part of the procedure. dip them or let him in vinegar. 38. that is. roll them in ashes. and put them into his nose. The " are an illiterate class of (who people fairy.. writers. J. read some incantation and blow upon it. As an example we find development of 1 Qanoon-e. The Talmud. and then he must twist two threads of wool and dip them into the mud. for bleeding at the nose. Western " and bound it on my neck tying threads of many " and Persius speaks of (Petr.. 31). Cf. 250). God ") thread. 58. 20) saffron. which include a double thread. says She then took from her bosom a web of twisted threads of various colours. Both these instances are quoted by ii. 131) colours on the necks of infants as a charm ' . in Indian magic. the cord of an old bed. and form gunda. (mateb) of silk or wool (A. Elworthy. and when finished neck or upper arm of the patient. and twist two threads. Hayes. and put them into his nose look out for a stream of water which flows from east to west. Evil Eye.

Then before the sun rises the plant must be torn up by the roots and 1 On the power of Marduk to release mankind from all tabus see p. A cord to overcome the Ban. (?)." Here again it is evident that the disease is transferred by the power of the magician's spell to the twisted thread. possibly a kind of cucumber. woman on a couch. spindle. may he be commended. exactly similar . to a clean place." and after covering his head he must make a meal-circle round it. cord. With 1 Marduk. the Prince. by binding to his limbs a double cord of black and white threads which has been twisted on a spindle. the hand and foot of this man. 165 sympathetic magic in the sixth tablet of the Surpu series. He On hath bound it on the head. which is tied on the patient's limbs and then cut off and thrown away. the son of Eridu. That she may spin white and black wool into a double A strong cord. That the evil Ban may stand aside. . where directions are given for removing a tabu from a man. May And this man may Into the favouring hands of his god be clean and undefiled. If a man have a headache the procedure is is the magician to go out into the desert at sunset and find a certain wild plant. " which springs up by itself. his undefiled hands cutteth it off. a twi-coloured cord on a A cord to overcome the Ban : Against the evil course of Against a divine curse. human Ban. 125. " He hath Hath turned his [steps Ishtar hath sent her seated the wise to a Temple-woman ?] Temple-woman (?).TYING KNOTS. a mighty cord. That the Ban its cord go forth to the desert.

" By tying knots and at the same time chanting some magic words a wizard or witch could cast a tabu on an enemy. 5 Or stand round. Bind (therewith) his Bind up his limbs .I. on to the head and neck of the sick man with the hair to from a kid. of the series 4 2 3 The meaning Or * of the Assyrian ' " Headache. Go round 6 his couch. Tablet IX. on the right side. 50. and at eventide this is to be " that the sickness of his cut off and thrown into the street head fallen may be assuaged. as is clear from the Maklu tablet.166 tied TYING KNOTS.' . Another . 34a." words are not quite certain. That the headache may ascend to heaven 1 Devils. woman it spin it . Tablet soul. and that the headache. and the headache will go. 6 ' iv.' W. And double on the left Bind twice seven knots And perform the Incantation of Eridu. her sorcery is brought to nought. Bind (therewith) the head of the sick man.' P. Cast the water of the Incantation over him. never " like straw which the wind whirleth 1 away. 1." return. may be removed. Bind (therewith) the neck of the sick man. ceremony is prescribed elsewhere for the same complaint the head of the patient must be bound with a bundle of 2 twigs with magical words. 4 fill the desert. which ends one incan: tation against such malevolent beings with these words " Her knot is And all her charms loosed.A.. 5 life." In driving away a headache the following spell was used by the priest " : Take the hair Let a wise of a virgin kid. 49. which hath 3 upon the man like the dew. Devils.

Cf. the son of his god. Place it of the land like the Crescent of the as a glory on his head. Like the smoke of a peaceful homestead. but end directions are given spinning a threefold and tying twice seven knots in it. Tablet IX. camel's hair that he might make it into a charm He himself. being ignorant of the method by which this him. " son of his god to " " the king. iv." 1 A further use of the cord in headache cures is found in the same tablet. the hair of a virgin kid Upon Then the limbs of the king. . . thread When the was finished. The change from the more usual " the man. 2 at the 3 Unfortunately the beginning for is lost. modern Persians daughter was sick of a fever removing came to him with a handful of it A among woman whose for her.PARALLEL FROM PERSIA. The headache will then go. 4 1. AVho holdeth the Moon-god. 180. 74. life it . 230. . 0' Donovan the the story of a similar method in use for fever. i. like the lees of water poured out 167 And It may go down into the earth. was of considerable length. 1.. : Another incantation " for the sick runs Weave thou a two-coloured cord from and from the wool of a virgin lamb. 2 Ibid. 3 ii. 12. forming the Incantation of Eridu this is to be tied on the head of the sick man. bind shall the king. Eccles. and after percord. Tablet XVI. son of his god. Like the new Crescent of the Moon " 4 . the Khan it the time droning some verses from the Koran or some necromantic chant. and 1 Devils. handed " means of a over to a Khan who was with By spindle the camel's hair was spun all to a stout thread. Devils. 1. should be done. son of his god tells is interesting.

' and an Arab commentator on the passage explains that the knots refer to women who practise magic by tying knots in cords. once upon a time. which he then hid in a well. ii. and the prophet recited over revealed to it certain charms. Monumens Musulmanes du Due de 325). carrying.. 2 two The Frazer. Then he Before proceeded to seven knots upon the it. surdt of the Koran which concern the blowing into knots. and then blowing and spitting upon them. ii. A. are Blacas. etc. itself. quoted on a talismanic plaque brought from Egypt (described Reinaud." " river. Bevan. ' "In those the Koran there puff into is an allusion to the mischief of who knots. Golden Bough. which were specially him for the purpose. Each day one of the knots was to be untied and blown upon. by an Arab boy 1 Oasis. 397. So the prophet fell ill. it folding three times upon itself he respun tie it. He goes on to relate Mohammed how. string. the Among hold the Semites other than Assyrian the same ideas good. i.168 PARALLELS FROM THE ARABS. and nobody knows what might have happened if the Archangel Gabriel had not opportunely revealed to the holy man the place where the knotted cord was concealed. The trusty Ali soon fetched the baleful thing from the well . At every verse of the charms a knot untied a certain relief. drawing each knot hard he blew upon This. a wicked Jew bewitched the prophet himself by tying nine knots on a string. was to be worn on the wrist of the patient. . tied in the form of a bracelet. quoting Professor A. and when the seventh knot had been undone the whole of the thread was to be made into a ball and illness thrown into the with it. given me on (Nineveh) mound Merv of Kouyunjik 319. as was supposed." the 2 A and the prophet experienced charm against fever.

TYING KNOTS. saying "I tie I tie I tie up greediness and unbind generosity. Gaster. On 41. who was by way a magician.B. seven knots in it. . in the hard labour ensuing during confinement. Ibid. if the fever still . 600. In Kovno. 3 601. up Satanism and unbind Divineness.. 392. obviously much deeper down. the unmarried girls of the house should unbraid their hair and let it loose on their shoulders 2 .. 118. in South Russia. xi. case of 1 Among modern Jews. P. which was explained but the root-idea certain of the is me as a kind of thank- offering. Order of the Bakhtashiyah (founded by a native of Bukhara) use a mystic girdle as their symbol. which they put off and on seven times.A. of having a reputation as similar to those in to was one which is strikingly is quoted above. 4 Ed. Golden 6 Bough.." 1 2 Folklore of Mossoul. 80. quoted Jew. i. he it away. Dictionary of Islam. continue. up hunger and unbind (spiritual) contentment. The physician who ties called cure a patient takes a thread of cotton. up anger and unbind meekness. 169 named Shekho. Rumania. 1906. up ignorance and unbind the fear of God. in making a shroud they avoid tying knots. Fncycl. single and not plaited threefold. putting it on the After seven or eight days. must keep it on but if it passes he may throw He must then make bread and throw it to the to dogs." the According Hughes. up passion and unbind the love of God. the whole subject of knots see Frazer. I tie I tie I tie I tie up avarice and unbind piety. 3 catch a lion In the Sword of Moses? in order to by the ear "say No.S. and patient's wrist. 91 and make seven knots to 5 in the fringes of thy girdle and repeat these words into each knot and you will catch him.

and be brushed into the pupil of the eye of the dog. leave N. of The Talmud (Sabbath." l 2 Abramelin. the patient's leg and the other to a children clatter ! and then : let a potsherd after him. c.pw -series. and then eat them on the town- man ! middens . Lowe 1 The Book of Sacred Magic of Abramelin. son of N. the Sage. Zimmern. in osier causing willow divorces. 4 The tablet S.. declares that in Austria he found an infinitude of magicians who only occupied themselves in in killing and maiming men. Directions for loosing knots are given in the 3 *S'w?. calling out ! ! " Old " He must then collect seven fool cock dog from of meat seven houses. the later Among for Hebrews the following is given as a cure night blindness. and the white one to the sound eye. and set them at the pieces cross-bar of the threshold. 1). an incantation repeated during the process. 69. ed. and during the knotting an is to be muttered the thread 3 of black hair . son of N. i. v-vi. 4. a Hebrew MS. the sage. col. 1301 (for some sickness ?) directs that a black />*-stone be tied into a black hair or thread with seven knots. fol. . * W.. the tying and untying of knots on the Sabbath. 1 " Hershon. Mathers. then to be fastened to the sick eye. with seven for incantation is and seven knots tied therein.A. quoting The Fragment (Gift in. 15. 20. Meaning of the Assyrian word rather uncertain.. In an Assyrian exorcism threads (or hairs) are to ophthalmia black and white be woven together. and bind one end to dog's. Take a hair rope. 29*. xv) gives regulations for 1458. H. and tying witch-knots or branches to stop the flow of milk in nursing women. Talmudic Miscellany.. then he must untie the rope and say : " Blindness of N. " of W. 35.170 PARTICOLOURED CORDS. iv. and the whole bound on the left hand.L. in putting discord in among married people.

to a him with directions Mekkan handed was to given talisman-monger that a bit of paper. Nor spells that are not good That they may not lay their head Their hand to his. Ibid.. Rel. and to untie a knot which . Golden Bough. nor magic. 525) in his article Rote Farbe im TotenSee also kulte considers the use of red to be in imitation" of blood. Nor evil ghost. " O Abdullah-ben-Jafar.S. on the right A ritual against sickness runs thus : Bind white wool doubled in spinning on his bed. 55. ibid. take not the . . 11. should be borne to a neighbouring cemetery and buried near the entrance. Their feet to his. nor evil god. . Nor sorcery. " 2 " ." 3 " Elsewhere the priest is directed to say over a sick man Ea hath sent me " three times.. ii. has been tied then the sick man is to go home without 1 Sonny {Arch. Nor incubus. 99 ff. nor robber-sprite. not to look behind you. f. front and sides. but immediately he heard thunder and the voices of the dead crying. i. Haupt. nor evil fiend. Look ahead. 45. and your life will be safe. to his. magician having to bring back a handful of the sand. see this prohibition against looking how on returning.PARTICOLOURED CORDS. Bind black wool doubled in spinning on him. Nor hag-demon. That they may not draw nigh. nor phantom-maid. nor witchcraft.. 171 Another eye-charm.K." The story goes that he buried the paper and took up the sand. 104). nor calamity. for amarrikanu or 'yellowness/ pre" l scribes binding pure strands of red wool which have been brought by the pure hand of hand. A. inscribed with a few words to the dead. nor ghoul. It is curious to backwards recurs in ancient One of the charms superstitions (see Frazer. nor evil devil.. nor evil demon. 58. 1906. Babylonian Magic and Sorcery. the " Be careful. Von Duhn. iii. nor succuba. for if you do so you will be torn in a million pieces that will be distributed among those that lie there. 4 King. Rot und 2 3 Tot.T. on his left hand. That there may enter no evil spirit.

else you will be cut in bits. son of Sitt el-Kull. twisting his words.I. 13). the (? Thy) servant Thejir in the presence of Gharib. while the demons gather round. or even the tongue or other members of human sand away. and confined the moon and confined the stars and confined the winds in the midst of heaven.172 TYING KNOTS. without making a officers shall true charge. A. Amen. he turneth " not. to a cemetery.. lord. against Thijar. and lay it near a grave at night. Thy . nor looketh back again (Devils. or uttering backbiting. of justice is The primitive Eastern court described in the cuneiform tablets in a way that seems to bear on these knots " When a man hath an enemy that bringeth an accusation slanders. The tying of his tongue as 2 There is . A parallel to this tying of knots the binding of evil spirits. 79).A. a Coptic charm which shows this clearly " In the name The tying of the tongue of (?) Gharib. without turning to look round." is 2 etc. 55. that he be not able to move his . 2. of God. ! ! ! : 1 W. against or him. 1906. Stop Stop Stop " and he shuddered and lost consciousness (Hadji Khan. who hath confined the sun in the place of his setting. with a piece of inscribed paper tied to it. It is possibly also found in an Assyrian incanP.B. to up and him and are angry with evil him for the accusation then shall l he loose the knot which. " The tation angry. who hath bound the heaven and bound the earth.. to her (?) the (?Thy) daughter. quaking storm [which if one] seeth. A similar idea was current in Mosul. With the Pilgrims to Mecca. ii. ) " God. iv. God. (?)." 1 (The following magical signs would stand for the name*. enmeshing him with the magic of unknown If god. lips and speak an evil word against (sic). . etc. rise the palace they are opposed (?) . 278). my servant Mejid telling me that if a man desired a charm he was to take a dead hoopoe. He shall (or may He) bind the mouth and the tongue of Gharib. daughter of my lady (?) by virtue of these names ' here. If he should look round the demons will have power to attack him {Folklore of Mossoul. son of Sitt el-Kull. and in the gate of evil sorcery. He must then read some book. Lord God.S. king. do Thou confine and bind the mouth and the . prince. son of Sitt el-Kull the speaker (?) shall not be able to speak. he hath knotted.

was directed to eat nothing but the raw liver of a male camel for a fortnight. there are endless forms magic which bear the stamp of homoeopathy.. wedding ceremony was taking place. shows the same idea..A. 394). I conjure the seven broken seals. 1906. until I adjure you. Jennings-JBramley. the most useful for our purpose being the belief in the Middle Ages in Europe that the consummation of marriage could be prevented by anyone who. son of S. 262) says {Notes immediately on rising in the morning swallow whole draughts of camel's urine because a physician (i. that ye . ii. .e. I conjure (you ?). siru sa ana sa?ne u irsitim tarsat (W. " 4.HOMOEOPATHY. you. in the belief that this form of sympathetic prophylactic will render him invulnerable to 2 It is no different from the superstition scorpion poison. that he be not able to have power to speak an evil word against Thijar. 173 Many i. " (Crum. P. either locked a lock and then threw the knot or the cord away. . 119. 2 .. Wahabis.I. In the Sinaitic Peninsula an Arab will give his child of sympathetic burnt scorpion to swallow. depart from him. He says that a net.. daughter of my lady (?). I adjure thee. saw that he an Arab Bedouins and on the i.A. Another. in the last stages of consumption. a barber) of Mekka had advised him to do so as a certain remedy for oppression in the breast. beings. 197. by the voice which went up from the cross. w. P. 44). 1 ban ' with a net snare in keeping with a mighty Amat-ka soparra iv.S." addressed probably to Marduk. .B. Besides waxen figures and knots. while the or tied a knot in a cord. from its affluence of knots. e. has always been considered in Russia very efficacious against * sorcerers. 329).. Thy command is net over heaven and earth. spread 26. and or the connection is of the Assyrian this. instances are quoted by Frazer (Golden Bough. 1902. tongue of Gh.RF. Nothing is too Burckhardt abominable to be drunk or eaten in magical charms. 1 Devils.

our purpose. for such the reticulation between the lobes of the liver of the dog 3 It is the old a of the " hair malady. 35. need not. viii.174 in ancient Greece SUMMARY. Arabs for and kneaded with vinegar. Zmiberw. should be used by the 2 Talmudic medicine recommends hydrophobia.A. xi. the other a witch first that a neophyte learning to become 4 practises her enchantments on dogs. Leclerc adds that the canine tooth carried on the person is useful against hydrophobia. Ibn Zohr... Ibid. 6." tractate for rabies . 384. Enough has been said to show the principles of transmission We by which the sorcerer expels the demon from his patient For into some body which will give him control over it. however. 3 1 Tom a. story of the dog that bit one. 1 Blau. Two is reasons are given in this one is that an evil spirit passes into the beast. quoted by Camussi. 1888. 5. or that the head of a dog burnt and reduced to ashes.. and Rome that fields sown with seed can be protected from mice by scattering the ashes of cats 1 upon them. Dr. 2 Das Altjud. such magic is principally important because of the bearing: it has on one side of the atonement ceremonies. Z. . go further into the subject here.

J. on the 'kappara' (whatever language this may be) see ibid. The word used in Hebrew for performing the Atonecorresponding Syriac ment ceremony root ' is 132 kipper.. explanations of the rite of 'atonement' the following are noteworthy: "Dieser Siihnritus bedeutet keine Verbundung zwischen Gott und Mennschen im naiven Verstande des Alterthums. . Silnde und Gnade " soviel wie wegwischen.' imreLleben. mit dem Siindopfer des Versohnungstages. als Veranstaltung Man empfand den des gottlichen Willens bedeutet er ein Mysterium. origin due to demoniac possession of spirits all obsession * that ' the of it operations and the technical uncleanness . so steht es mit jedem Eine pracise Siindopfer und uberhaupt dem gesammten Opferdienst.. From tabus are the preceding chapters it will ' have been seen that ' which are other than holy or in their . x the meaning to wash away/ . THE ATONEMENT SACRIFICE. wenn hier im Blute des Sundopfers die Aber wie Beziehung zwischen Gott und Volk neu geknupft wurde. 317. Cf. Schauer des Unverstandlichen. in point of fact. 1891. St. The next of the elucidation employ these deductions the Biblical system of Atonements step is to which plays such a part in the Jewish religion.IV. it is clear that the magician reckons among his most excellent treatments the transference of devils all from such as are obsessed is . 38 1 ).VdQo T \&. from sick people whose trouble due to the initiative of some in spirit. Koberle.. For i ' . . and render the tribesman capable of taking his part again in the social life of his clan. C. nach Zimmern und ahnliche Ausdrucke mehr. Kr. On his views on sin as sickness see ibid. . . The word in Arabic See Robertson Smith ( 0. From the illustrations of sympathetic magic in general. 20 205. T. on this subject." He quotes also Schmoller. the tribesman are is inseparably connected and that the priest-sorcerer's part to remove these.

dem Priester in derselben wie konnte auch die Minha. 1894. 63 ff. us is knowledge and intention that he has offended God its the notion that guilt. Leviticus. vii). (Begriff der "Auch Riehm : Riehm beruft sich namentlich darauf. brennung noch integrirender Bestandtheil der Opferhandlung. a not inconsiderable class of what we regard as moral offences were included in the category of We have difficulty in realising that taboos requiring purifications. can be contracted without and that the first intimation a man may have . is that he suffers the consequences (dsam). so wiirde sie gewiss am Heiligthum vollsogen werden.. dass das Thier an reiner Stelle ausserhalb des Lagers verbrannt werden solle.. wozu die Priester verpflichtet sind. 1893. it is incompatible with his . Bibl. Arch. says of uncleanness "Whereas originally it was a physical thing whose evil was in itself. that misfortune is the evidence that he has offended without knowing how. Gott in voller Beruhigung freuen. Uncleanness is in this light a moral wrong and involves guilt." Nowack. S. warum die Eorzu kommen.) hat sich gegen die Satisfactionstheorie erklart. geworden war. wenn die Gefahr. ed. dass der Gedanke der Communion mit der Gottheit im alten Sinne fur die Juden unmoglich Antwort auf wusste man Bel. und nur dann konne der Sunder sich der Wiederherstellung seines Verhaltnisses zu seinem halb des Lagers. derung. Diet. hat aber docli das Siindopferthier als Gegenstand des austilgenden Gottesfluches ansehen wollen es werde durch den austilgenden Eifer Gottes vernichtet. 1 This occurs four times in the Koran (Hughes. On the other hand. like uncleanness. 417. of //dam 259). wie denn der Opferdienst auf Gott entwirke. Dillmann. entweder durch das Essen der Priester oder wenn dieser selbst an der zu erlangenden Siihne betheiligt Ware diese Verist durch die Verbrennung ausserhalb des Lagers.176 for KIPPER AND KUPPURU. guilt was believed to have the same physically contagious quality as uncleanness one man who had touched herem i^T\Vi) cou ^d infect and bring defeat upon a whole army (Josh. dass das Siindopferneisch etwas Grauenerregendes sei. 4219. 1880. . Deutlich ist nur. Vielmehr als Hochheiliges gefahrdet darum muss es fortgeschaflft werden. als Sundopfer der Armen. Lehrb. ii. with converse. it becomes in the national religion a pollution offensive to Yahwe ." Smend. Almost equally strange to holiness . Altt. or more die Frage. theils durch das Verbrennen ausserd. damit in Beriihrung Aber wenn dem so ware. Weise zufallen wie jedes andere Speisopfer ? das Siindopferneisch die Menschen. beseitigt sei. 323. 233. and the holiness which he demands of all that approach him it requires to be not its consequences are not only natural but penal merely purged but expiated. schwerlich zu geben. Encycl. theils durch das Essen. an ' atonement ' of this kind is 1 kaffarah. Lehrbuch der Hebr. Suhne. : Moore." See also Knobel.

word kuppuru in Assyrian with In the Old Testament kipper is in undoubtedly an old word.service in that " Fedou means that it redeems the other. first. Deuteronomy. Tablet III. see Martin. commonly fidyah Desert. 426. robbery. the use of the word atonement* will have suggested that the Assyrians were 1 in the habit of performing some ceremony akin to that of the Hebrews. Sem. ii. (fedu). of the other. 4220) says that this word Church. 195. xxii. Religious Texts. my puhu which he hath prepared . F. It prevents disease. 2 and the comparison of 1903. and the sacrifice is a substitute for him. 135 {kipper) with it. this : latter word occurs cuneiform ceremony. The most of the striking coincidence is. . 747. in the Syrian one Hatib quotes a lecturer who leads the mosque. although than in the distinctively it priestly phraseology (Ezekiel and 'P') becomes more Its technical its other occurrences.KIPPER AND KUPPURU. 1 177 and according to Curtiss. For instance. and also Robertson Smith. . 381. 2 In the cuneiform texts the word kuppuru is found in the incantations against disease. . r. who Derwish of Der Atiyeh. Driver. Asakku Series. . 3. 5 ff. with a noun takpirtu from the same in a root." 3 1 Prim. subject is then the priest or sometimes the offering." 3 On takpirati Devils. " is not so common in old toroth as might be expected. It occurs with especial frequency in the old laws for trespass offering. substitute for the other. From the parallelism "May Ea puhua $a ukinnu of S. Moore (Encycl. Bibl. in place village. the parallel use the Hebrew kipper. 4). T. in Jewish G. Something is going to happen to a man. 4 (Craig. 0. . Bel. . thus " [Cast] his takpirtu to the crossways. Leave his puhu to the kurpi (ash-heaps ?) of the land. sufferings. ii." Both repentance and the fedou From a passage quoted above on p. 1. Textes Religieux. and enmity cover. 84.

' and if so.178 ASSYRIAN AND ARAB ATONEMENTS. which Now may have had their origin among the the Sumerians. especially when the Arab fedu is or ha far ah ceremonies are taken into account. this it On the other hand. ' Babylonians did not borrow the idea of the atonement ' ceremony from the Hebrews during the Captivity." The lines preceding these refer to From Tablet N the mamit or 'ban' which the man has incurred. (urisu ii).C. and the actual themselves from Assurbanipal's least Library show that such ceremonies existed in Assyria at Hence it is certain that the as early as 626 B. these Assyrian incantations. its parallel puhu will have a similar meaning. drew these beliefs from their common and primitive nomenclature (k-p-r) which shows how extremely ancient the custom must be. Marduk dinanua sa ibbanil lisamgir (?) make acceptable ?). for mankind") it is evident that dinanu has the significance of substitute. Hence this translation may be which will fit in with our context. are undoubtedly older its than the Priestly Code in evidence of tablets present form. and as such the ceremony will easily be recognized 1 ' as very primitive. iii." ' ' . taking into account that scapegoats and - atonements ' are common all over the of is unlikely that the Hebrews borrowed much form of exorcism in Babylon. {Devils. although perhaps they may have somewhat modified their views in accordance The most reasonable with the beliefs of their captors. explanation. " the kid is the dinanu sa dinanu 46 ameluti. that all the Semites ancestry. 45. To remove retained the an unclean tabu from a person by means of a substituted animal is obviously a form of sympathetic atonement magic. (accept my 1 offered provisionally : " to the cross ways. may dinanu which hath been made. [Cast] his atonement Leave his 'substitute' to the ash-heaps (?) of the land. other forms of world.

439. however. post-exilic date." a particular sin or course of sinful and " in the Levitical ritual both public and private." 2 Religion of the Semites. " Singular to say. were entirely of Israelite growth. when Ibid. 423). 1 2 the offence is and periodical character.. or of a divine wrath that expends itself upon the animal. efficacy. and the piacular rite has not a stated is directly addressed to the atonement of life. 179 Robertson Smith maintains that in the Hebrew ideas "all atoning rites are ultimately to be regarded as owing their efficacy to a communication of divine life to the worshippers. For later views on the Dfc^K see Koberle. cit.DEMONS ENTICED OUT OF THE SICK MAN. although all that we know of their technique is wholly of I do not think. exceptional and piacular rites are interpreted as satisfactions for sin.. He points out here that "in the older literature. . however. refer only to sins committed unwittingly" (p. we must divest ourselves of all theological preconceptions. op. The recent views on Babylonian sacrifices given in the Encyclopaedia Biblica (4120) are those of Jeremias. 81." . or even of a ratio vicaria. and put aside : all as the seat of sacrificial such notions as that of an atoning efficacy attaching to the blood life. who says "Here.." Further on (4125) he says. 416. At the same time it is significant and by no means accidental it has its roots firmly planted in the very nature of the religious ideas involved that everything offered with the object of averting evil of any kind whatsoever was associated with the notions of a propitiatory. . hattath . of course. that this second statement can be upheld for a moment and the language of the former is so involved and peculiar that it is difficult to see how far the author has grasped his subject. when we speak of the idea of propitiation as underlying Babylonian sacrifices. that (the Babylonian cultus) shows not the faintest trace of d$dm. and mainly in connection with the view that the life of the victim was the equivalent of the life of a human member of the religious community . cleansing." l and that " the conception of piacular rites as a satisfaction for sin appears to have arisen after the original sense of the theanthropic sacrifice for a kindred animal was forgotten.. but all piacula. and to the establishment or confirmation of a living bond between them and their god. we may assume that the sin and the trespass offering of the Hebrew Torah. purifying . always a definite one.

It is with the very greatest diffidence that I think. the a life of the victim was held to be the equivalent of of human member the tribe would certainly appear is to be true. That that this explanation cannot altogether be upheld. and so be brought into subjection. the study of the Assyrian This point exorcisms. clean places where no spirit comrades can lend their aid. or the jinni are safe corked up in the brass bottle by Solomon. We shall return to the redemption of the first- born later on. born. in point of fact a Leyden may a tabu. jar in which the malign influence may be isolated under It is all the same whether it is the devils who control. or cast it into the deep sea so that no meddlers can by chance free the evil demon. and the two owe their origin to two distinct and We separate practices.180 DEMONS ENTICED OUT OF THE SICK MAN. must be sent into the Gadarene swine. in view of the evidence which Assyriology brings forward. but I cannot believe that there life any idea of communication of divine with the god. are not now discussing the primitive redemption of the firstThis has nothing to do with the trespass offering or similar atonements. so They long as they can be enticed or forced by magic words into something which the magician can ultimately destroy He may then either burn it in or guard religiously. is emphasized by disease that the demon must be gently or forcibly persuaded to leave the human body which 1 to enter the dead animal or wax figure is placed near. point to 1 or confirmation of a bond The trend of evidence of seems to me to a primitive for the devil system providing a substitute- victim whose connection with the man has brought down In every exorcism of demons. it is necessary to have some object into which the spirit or attracted be driven. .

als Abweichung vom rechten Weg. die Hauptsache dabei war die Suhnung Nothfall in etwas Mehl) durch das Blut. likely that the two are of different origin. wenn die Siinde als Emporung wider die Gottheit. ersatzweise in einer Taube (und nur im . des priesterlichen Gesetzgebers nicht Modifikationen menschlicher Schwache. meist aus dem Ziegenvich. . sondern eher noch Modifikationen menschlicher und kreattirlicher Verderbnis . Siindig wird man durch Beriihrung Genuss u.. 381. w. vielmehr ist und Exorcismus-Akt. 1880. in the German edition of his Religion of the " Man rechnete mit der Moglichkeit dass Babylonians. . gefasst wird " (ibid. (an Stelle des Blutgenusses) die gelockerte Gemeinschaft zwischen Gott {Siinde und Gnade im rel. . wie es will." . of 181 the idea ' the removal of sin by and exorcisms among the Babycleansing-' atonements lonians. als Ubertretung gottlicher Gebote . leben des Volkes " Die unreinen Zustande gelten nun einmal als Dinge. Sie hat dort nirgends den Zweck.. . 319). 20). 318). den Menschen vor der Gottheit zu schiitzen. wenn auch nicht so deutlich wie sonst diese Korruption " als Folge der Siinde hingestellt wird " (ibid. von Dingen. die Eigenart der hebra'ischen Slihneriten eher auf die primitiven ursemitischen Opferformen hin. "War namlich der Zweck entweder die Suhnung einer bestimmten Siinde oder die Entsiindigung iiberhaupt. ohne Zweifel ist die kultische Siihne in Babylonien bekannt. bestehend in einem mannlichen oder weiblichen Vierfussler (verschieden je nach der Personen des Darbringers). Die zweite Tafel enthalt namlich eine lange Liste von Ubeltaten um derentwillen jemand in die Gewalt der Damonen oder Zauberer geraten konnte. Doch weist sie ein Reinigungs Heilungs . Compare also Dillmann's edition of Knobel's Leviticus. hardly 1 " Aber mag es sich damit verhalten. says die Angriffe der Damonen eine Strafe fur irgend welche begangenen . 1905. wonach die Siihne durch Blutbestreichung und Mensch wiederherstelt " Israel. Apparently to it is the blood-sprinkling which is his obstacle it is 1 But any comparison between the two. welche Gottes Sie sind im Sinne Heiligkeit verletzen und ihm missfallig sind. so hatte das Siindopfer einzutreten. wir sehen hier hinein in die primitivsten Formen der die tabu sind daneben finden wir auch den mehr religiosen Beurteilung der Siinde sittlichen Masstab. xvi. Auch hierfiir bietet die Schurpu-Serie ein beachtens wertes Beispiel. : Siinden sein konnten." Jastrow. but he does not apply it to the Hebrew procedure. s. 325.ASSYRIAN AND Koberle realizes HEBREW ATONEMENTS.

). Num. 3. and the scapegoat (Lev. corollary to these come the ordinances of Ezek. A plague is Cf. ' ' 1 On Ezekiel and the ff. xxx. commandxxii. then. Num. Der Pentateuch. the The Feasts (Passover. 1893. Lev. 1 ' ' (2) The Individual.). iv. (a) 'Leprosy. ix. Day of Atonement.). we sin. Num. deception. 2 a Nazarite touching a dead body (Num. . or any sin (Num. Cf. 2 (c) ff. xv. look into the specific cases for which the atonement. ' ' holy laws see Klostermann. or The Priestly : initiation to consecrate ' iv. xxviii. 10. ' 18 Cf. 4). . i. (3) (4) The Royal: 'unwitting' sin of the ruler (Lev. 368 . which have possibly arisen from a confusion with the ordinary There are also the sacrifice. ff. and the more vague Exod. classes (1) : will be seen that they fall into five The Periodic. 6). v. a woman after childbirth (Lev. etc. 5. xlv.). viii. . 24).). . (/) Having intercourse with bondmaid promised to another (Lev. iv. xxiii Num. robbery. 13 ff. Pentecost. holy things or v. xxix. . Transgressing against 1 the ments of Yahweh unwittingly unwitting sin (Lev. vi. 6). ff. Lying. 1 Cf. 13 ff. xvi. Lev.. 15-17 v.). 2 ff. removed from the tribe (Num. Num. (5) xliii. v. vi). Oaths (Lev. ff. ff. 20 ff. a man or woman with an abnormal issue (Lev.182 ATONEMENTS AND SIN-OFEERINGS. viii. xv. As a ff. 1. 18 ff. ' The Tribal : unwitting sin (Lev. 14). iv. Lev. 27). 46 vague atonements of Lev. 6 . v.' and the house in which 'leprosy' breaks out (Lev. ' 22 ff). Num. If. 9 ff.. . xvi. 1 ff. xvi. and trespass offerings it are prescribed in the Old Testament. xii. Ezek. also the Nazarite. (d) (e) (Lev. xxix). (6) Touching anything unclean (Lev. and Tabernacles). 27 17 . xiii-xiv). xix. xix. ' ' cleanse them (Exod. 17 ff. or finding lost things and lying about them (Lev. xv. and the atonement money of 15. vi. .

are driven away " from cholera-swept disease villages in Central India. he was to spill . died of Dravidian if a man has a race of South Mirzapur. infection away A confession of sins. we shall take each case separately and see how far it stands the test of com- parison with similar superstitions among savages. or even pigs as a last resource. of Sumatra have a ceremony which they call " making the curse is to fly away. Chickens daubed with He gives the following examples also. whence it might never return (Ellis). They say that the calf very soon disappears. the village priest walks in front of the funeral procession with a chicken in his hands. and a horse. and then send the animal away The Battas into the wilderness. 48. vermilion. goats." When a woman is childless. a sacrifice offered to the gods of three grasshoppers. A Malagasy was informed by a diviner that he was doomed to a bloody death. then the calf " The is never afterwards used for common purposes.SUGGESTED ORIGIN OF PIACULA. is recited aloud. same idea of this ceremony is that the sins of the deceased enter the calf or that the task of his absolution is laid on it. and that it is never after heard of (Harkness). Majhwar. marched it to the Ghats. the people of loose Jeypur made puja to a goat. the is set free. he was to the back of a bullock while thus mounted. a contagious disease. Golden Bough. but that possibly he might avert his fate by performing a certain 1 rite. 101). and one of them scapegoat. 183 Starting with the hypothesis that piacular offerings had their origin in the custom of providing a substitute to absorb the evil action of supernatural agency. when a death has taken place. In 1886. 418 Frazer. mount upon Carrying a small vessel full of blood upon his head. representing a head of cattle. that of the 1 Two goats are to be taken. I have taken the liberty of giving the salient instances in resume which have been collected by Dr. the blood upon the bullock's head. i. a buffalo. and for everyone. 14). Neilgherry set form of the sins of the deceased are laid upon a buffalo calf. may depart (Panjab Notes and Queries. Amongst the Burghers or Badagas of the Hills in Southern India. Frazer in his Golden Bough (iii. Take first that case of Periodic Atonement which is the most prominent instance in Hebrew folklore. during the smallpox. Then a swallow is set free with the prayer that the curse Among the fly away with it (Kodding). and let it . iii. which he lets loose in the direction of some other village as a scapegoat to carry the may fall upon the bird and (Crooke). in the hope that the . such as cholera.

. vi. perfume. The common people in hastening the departure . of California . or cohabit with a woman (Berakhoth. Note that pre-exilic worship knows no such day as is described in Lev. Frazer has shown how on the plains (Fawcett. Bombay. In the case of the Aymara Indians of Bolivia and Peru. Lev. iii. i. Sem. but was killed by being pushed over a precipice {Yoma. xvi {Encycl Bibl. among the Pomos and (2) the Mandan Indians who chased man l painted to represent the devil at their annual festival. the object of which was from the capital and its vicinity all disease and trouble. 384). (7) The Shans of Southern China annually expel the processions shouting. J. iii. ( Yoma. wash. or New Year's Day. An evil spirit is at this time supposed to infest the place. and on one day the ceremony of driving away the evil spirits from the village took place.. 4). 102). Rel. vi. . or March. quoted by Robertson Smith. and compares (1) the devils.184 SAVAGE CUSTOMS IN ATONEMENT.. (6) In Bali. generally on the day of the dark moon in the ninth month. Golden Bough. 418). According to the Mishna. i. year. the scapegoat was a llama (Forbes. of Guinea annually banish the devil from all the towns (5) Among the Hos of North-Eastern India. of Alaska. 237 Frazer. and the other sent away into to sacrificed as a sin-offering..e.S. 6 De Dea Syria. ' ' fire-spirit. put on shoes. lviii. 70 ff. (8) On the last night of the year there is observed in most a ceremony called " the exorcism of the evil spirit.. the Hebrew scapegoat was not allowed to go free in the wilderness. He embodied a goes on further to discuss scapegoats. xvi. (3) In September the to banish (4) Incas of Peru celebrated a festival called Situa. periodic expulsion of evils who instances (1) The is gone into at great length by Frazer. J. the wilderness for 'Azazel' bear 1 all the iniquities of the people into a solitary land. men dressed as devils chased to the mountains. January. the people have periodic expulsions. .A. February. iii. Esquimaux who choose the moment from of the sun's reappearance to hunt the mischievous spirit Tuna (2) The Iroquois inaugurated the new year in every house. the great festival of the year is held in January. 213 Frazer. ii.E. of the scapegoat used to pull pieces of its hair to accelerate its pace On the Day of Atonement it is forbidden to eat. 104). London. to the east of Java. The iii. (10) In Cambodia it takes place in March. Golden Bough. (11) Among the heathen Wotyaks of East Russia on the last day of the He quotes many other instances. drink." houses Japanese (9) In Tonquin a general expulsion of malevolent spirits commonly took place once a year.S. 4). and has to be driven out by The negroes with much ceremony.

as far as I is know. and. M. Fossey {La Mag ie Assy rienne. The origin clearly to be found in the principle of sympathetic magic. Fossey is correct when he says that it was killed {La Magie Assyrienne. Keilschrifttexte. scarlet. 86). this and Hitherto. peculiar to ample proof that it was not the Hebrews through some special revelation. chasse-le is not the right translation for u-me-tegur-gur.SAVAGE CUSTOMS IN ATONEMENT. son dieu (c'est-a-dire le patient)." . . however. and after killing one of the birds in an earthen vessel over running water. A. he is to dip the remainder in the blood of the dead bird and in running water. basing it on the cuneiform text published by u. and hyssop. 1903. which should be rendered by the Assyrian equivalent.' Consequently there is nothing to show that the bouquetin was alive. chasse-le que sa salive dans sa bouche coule librement (soit lachee) que le roi soit pur qu'il soit sain. fils do t6te du place 1 Haupt {Akkad. and from a comparison of similar texts in which the animal has obviously been slaughtered (see pp. Prince has put forward another article {Journal Asiatique. as he properly points out. Mr. . U. cedar. 203 ff. 104-5). and to sprinkle the man or the house seven times . Sumer. 1 The second class contains the remarkable rites in this for Hebrew atonement system of these spells is cleansing the 'leper* or the house in which 'leprosy* has appeared. 85) satisfactorily refutes Mr. . this yearly 185 atonement is a is regular custom among many savage tribes. : . Since then. but he shall let go the living bird out of the city into M. Fossey has answered ' it in footnotes to the ' same paper. 1-22). 1 make the atonement for. which he translates as follows bouquetin qui allege la douleur sa tte sur la malade du c6te du roi. . naturally valueless to prove that the custom did not exist in Assyria. this annual scapegoat has not been met with in the cuneiform but such negative evidence inscriptions. kuppir. 133) maintaining his previous proposition from the same " Prends le text. The priest is to take two birds. xxi. JulyAugust. Prince's theory of the living scapegoat in Assyrian which he put forward in the J.) it is plain that M. however.S. (1900.

5 A blood and bind them on the bird's foot and let it fly in the open . and stand before thee. 2 circlet (?) of diamonds ! Remove my temenos Let keep my life. in fact. very closely connected with this Levitical charm.A. One of the so-called Penitential Psalms. That the seven winds carry my my iniquity may be loosed (and) my ! my off bonds be cast my bane me cast off fish my evil that the bird may fly up to heaven with it. That the it may carry off my affliction. That That Let trespass be loosed. iv. . rev. Itti tumni sutika anni. for cleansing which a is. 59. Birds are used in later Hebrew magic in charms to make an enemy man had only to write certain words in a bird's become a fugitive. 1 AWAY BY BIRDS. a three-cornered house.186 the open EVIL CARRIED fields.I. 1. it receives 2 uncleanness in leprosy. stand at my head. i) enlarges on this in the following " All buildings receive uncleanness in leprosy except the buildings He who buys houses from foreigners must first inspect round house. that I be safe with thee ! Vouchsafe to me to see a favourable dream. W. a house built on a ship or on a mast.. May Let me Mahir. Be happy the dream that I see. even though it be built on four leprosy. the palace of the house of life. 10 ft'. 5 1 The Talmud on Leprosy : way (xii. the god of dreams." 3 Lussur kisallaka. be Turn to fair omen the dream that true the dream that I see ! I shall see. do not receive uncleanness in But if the house is square. of foreigners. receive my ! iniquity (and) the flowing water of the stream wash me clean me I shine forth as a golden . The Assyrian suppliant prays " god and goddess sin be blotted out. enter into E-sagila. That may (?) be worthy in thy sight as a guilt. or one built on four beams. off." 4 Birds are frequently used this way in Semitic magic. safe that I may keep holy thy my sin pass with my 3 evil. them. that the river may bear away. more probably a ceremony man from is tabu when he wishes to his to see something in a dream.2. field That the creeping thing of the Let may . A pillars.

he might tie his charm to the wings of a dove or other bird.*' 7 " And Lev. 4 Cf. that he be wandering about. 46. in so shall the sorcery 2 which hath appeared the (?). " and he shall take other mortar.THE HOUSE IN WHICH LEPROSY APPEARS. man's house. day thou shalt cleanse the house with water. 5 6 . plaister lI karpati sa su-luh-ha ta-kat-tam ina sepa -ka-ma titebbi. and then let it fly (Gaster. sunset shall be cast it 6 the man (?) that carrieth 7 shall not enter the house for seven " On the second a vessel (?). Or. xiv. No. Lev.. admit [its] bondage the plaister-liquid wine. as has been mentioned elsewhere. and say. (away 5 ?) . 3 destroying the house. Lev. for the priest to shut The Assyrian number may be seven. prescribed for in which sorcery cleansing a house (upsasu) has broken " As the water of as follows which runs the Sunout. and be unclean until the even. " I conjure thee. 10. . the vessel of the mixture (?) . xix. Pour upon and beer from corn 4 . 23). date wine. skin of a great ox. 1900. gi-ga-tu GAR-cm. thou shalt overlay with at thy feet and come into the river. In Arabia. and thy whole host that thou drive away So and So. . 38. he that goeth into the house all the while that it is shut up shall be unclean until the even.'" Num. ' of pure cfcVdal-plant.e. i. Moreover. 1 ' P. 1906. xiv. days. . . he would die {Folklore of Mossoul.S.' Seven days is the limit up the house until his return. 106. after drawing certain images and writing the name of the it man and his mother.'*' The words in Assyrian are a-im-par. still But there a closer parallel in Levitical ' ' : god is borne from the roof l (?) when he goeth down. 3 dupHkki isakan(an). " 5 he that gathereth the ashes of the heifer shall wash his clothes. 2 Susurat blti. 345).B." etc. Qaphsiel. a widow a bird fly 187 lets away with the uncleanness is of her widowhood. .S. and shall the house. i. this was a sign of the flight of the enemy .A. P. in the same manner as the Lord drove Cain away.A. to and fro.. if returned. dwarf-palm.e. 6 Uru. me gai. Cf. xiv.. strong copper/ If it flew away.B. 42. Assyrian to this found in an incantation magic. ginger fields. binu (-tamarisk). beam. ' in .

. 1. Her mutterings to air . Thou shalt Prayer when sorcery appeareth in a man's house. " And and with the running water.L. unless the text should read Cf. bdb an /-<* 4 That man shall sprinkle water. All that she hath done or wrought in magic May the wind carry away May it bring her days to ruin and a broken heart. v. 1 Thou 3 shalt overlay the of . Samas." 5 I cannot translate su-um en-na ud-da al til-la satisfactorily. Perform the Incantation." ki-dah-hi tu-sa-mah tu-gar-rib ? or tu-sa-kal 8 W. It may mean 6 " . Turn her sorcery to wind. That man he dwelleth . " 6 in water a black this offer ox. nothing approach the man. v. 1 Cf. And the Princess Belit-ili. the at whole house with bitumen. 52. ! ! . but let me recover May her sorcery." Then follows this spell : : " Incantation Break the bonds of her who hath bewitched me. and oil of cedar thou shalt set a censer (burning) cypress and the cedar." " and sprinkle the house seven times. and man who . Marduk. 8 he shall cleanse the house with the blood of the living bird. May it bring down her years to wretchedness and woe May she die. Bring to nought the mutterings of her who hath cast spells on me. PARALLEL IN ASSYRIAN.188 . " .A. shall sprinkle with water. ." Sippu. . and with scarlet. . By command of Ea. iv." 8 wash . (and) floor 2 a torch of eru (-tamarisk). and with the hyssop and with the bird. and with the the cedar wood. 51. each door [of god ] plaister. marrow of the palm. 3 Why Or. 59. the birbirrida-QOTB. her spells be loosed. incantation Repeat (and) seven times and the sorcery will be loosed. until the 1 ? day of his recovery. " this ilu is in I cannot explain. 4 5 . her magic..

doubtless from the magical also number three. the come into the same category as the ship. the the house built on four beams is not so easy it is explain. cabins of is always clean ' (Sabbath. World. and hence immunity to is and fighting-tops will be also clean. The round house The three- immune. however. the water being the safeguard.' the house will If. In Leviticus. and this recalls the wizard's circle. according ix. The amplification in the Talmud (given origin is is in note 1. Bibl. taking first those which cannot be called ' an indication we sins ' by any extension of 1 existed of no evidence that leprosy in the modern sense of the word the Jews at this period the nV") comprised a number cutaneous disorders. greenish damp retains or dry-rot. however. 2 beams be understood as piles. and the Levitical account merely the primitive beliefs. and we may instance the pentacle in comparison with its angular shape.HOUSES IMMUNE FROM MAGIC. There upsasu is 189 this evidently something to akin in (' Assyrian . the Talmud. then. This. (Schamberg. (sorcery) the Hebrew H$H or leprosy its 1 ). With may pursue our investigations into the other unclean tabus on the individual. ' ' ." which may or may not increase in seven days. that the for scapegoat the atonement the purification ceremony 'leper' and the this 'leprous' as house are ordinary savage magic. 1899. We and have seen. the house may show a plague in walls " with reddish. 2). apply to the house. This is clearly some form of hollow strakes. chief among which are vitiligo and psoriasis There is among . is cornered house the same. 186) also hints that the to be sought in hostile magic. when 2 particularized that a square house not exempt. to A ship. 162). on p. does not xiii. it Evidently the early house-builders associated with magic.

those wherein ordinary issues the function is perfectly do not require an 'atonement/ but This coincides entirely with merely a purificatory ritual. Abnormal and their are nature. abnormal issues. after is the lilit or lilith has departed. and demand an elaborate atonement to drive out the demon. who intends remaining. . To savage mind this is a certainty. are. UNCLEAN TABUS. by clearly due It is to be noticed that the tabus against demons. die. unclean ' will have latent is potentialities The woman of spirits in childbed infectious through the jealousy who are hostile because of the successful result of her marriage with a die man. on the other hand. clearly childbirth. demand piacular offerings. abnormal issues come under the head of protracted possession (disease). and she herself may even issues to from their attack.190 the word. whose power There is no question of disease is in the condition the tribe a peculiarity to which any subject member the of may is be without resultant hurt. that which for disease. natural or regular our knowledge of the ostensible operation of the spirits the ba'al k'ri and the to be * ' . because no man or woman nor permanently sick from such natural functions. diseases. Touching anything unclean or a dead body. by the lascivious demon. but may have given All physical these indication the effects of their hostility. woman in her courses are not supposed is possessed merely transient. But. and the succuba or incubus leaves the person. Similarly. or a woman risk after represent the tabooed condition of one who not only runs the of danger of from spirits. these cases. the corpse return may the so infect restless a tribesman that he invites the of ghost to plague is ' him with sickness. do they Hence. as in puerperal fever. purification the only rite demanded.

easily be traced to its The 'unclean' beast is the totem-beast unclean beasts and this which it is nefas to kill or eat. a hypothesis of the connection of sickness. but there are obviously many totems which are absolutely innocuous. (Lev. what the particular reason for the sacrifice? There must clearly be some physical and apparent result from his breach of tabu. otherwise the Levitical law would never describe the action prior ' ' to the atonement as an unwitting sin. There are surely a hundred that a or all breaches of tabu man may commit notably ' daily in innocence without knowing that he has laws. This is certain. primitive source. as this seems best point to discuss them. demands only purican 40). in actually the matter of broken any of the tribal If he has contagion. Hence. to cleanse him from this Doubtless many things.UNWITTING ' SINS. we must sins leave the explanation of the other special tabus until later. by applying demons with tabu and is the obvious explanation is that the man falls sick and at a loss to know what he has done that . except on great occasions. will done these bring his unwittingly/ how he know when is to piacular offering. and nothing more breach than purifins was necessary fication. A most important question in these of the ' ' atonements ' is the the meaning unwitting sins/ and. accidental experiment probably showed the savage that the spirit infection or divine wrath did not follow as a matter of course if he did eat it occasionally. Hence. and even then. 191 Similarly. were capable of making him very sick at certain seasons. but there is often nothing inherently unclean or dangerous to about its flesh produce sickness. without and scales. fication eating xi.

" begins with the line An evil curse (arrat) like a gw/Zw-demon hath attacked the man. and hence the only diagnosis possible sin or breach of tabu. are given in a hundred man may have broken The fifth tablet and title sixt}^- three forms in the third tablet each under the mamit. in treating his patient according to the rules the Surpu-serieB." and the aid of sympathetic magic is called in to drive it away. that of an This unwitting ' is clearly indicated in the Assyrian Surpu-series. that the man is it is is to a breach of the mamit or tabu that such disease 'sin' is ascribed. that may exorcise the particular form of demon which is troubling him. dates. An ahhazu-demon They smite the hath covered (?) the earth as with grass . torturing their bodies. overwhelming with dread. and a breach of tabu rendered a attention of man liable affect to attract the a spirit. which might in him with disease. folk of all places. Unto the four winds." It is therefore obvious that demons. tabu. and sickness were that all held to be in close relation to one another. The still more explicitly Dimetu hath gone forth from the deep. Mamit hath come down from the heavens. But. He therefore goes to the all priest-physician he the cannot remember priest is previous actions. hair. by shredding and burning seventh tablet begins " garlic. should have brought down such his a supernatural visitation. . and wool. although perfectly clear from the internal evidence of the text ill. The man the it has fallen sick. for so relief. The very fact that the sorcerer-priest. and it is the particular which the patient has committed which the priest The possible tabus which the sick trying to cleanse.192 CONNECTION BETWEEN SIN AND SICKNESS. burning like fire. and the in priest is to heal him with treatment prescribed is these tablets.

uncleanli: ness. in the one or the sin in the other. sickness. or else had not offered it properly. 1 905.s. . are pure synonyms. 3 " In the Babylonian religious literature the expressions. . so will he gabble off a string of trespasses. but he " sin must originally have been purely ritual. Heilung und kraftiger Exorcismus. demon enough. tabus .' as we have seen. If I understand rightly what is meant by ritual. diagnosis mentions the name of the case. c him." Cf. It is immaterial whether he knows which one it is provided that his . possession by evil spirits. it is We have. sickness was held to be the result of an unwitting* . Gnade. which demanded an sick ' atonement 1 ' to free the man from the demon he had attracted.three tabus. and as such appears throughout the Babylonian religious literature " (ibid. ample proof that in the Surpu-series was written the order to provide the magicians with the effect of means ' of cleansing sick From ' this ' unwitting unwitting sins. so Vergebung. shows that he does not know exactly what sin the man has committed. Krankheit und Verhexung zusammen gehoren. sin.UNWITTING repeats a SINS. Either the man had says. die Heilsverwirklichung eine Kur.' I cannot agree with . 2). in any one of Just as which the man may have been guilty. Befreiung. Losung des Bannes u. 1905. * breach of tabu. the result of the divine anger . " Wie 24) on the Babylonian ideas Siinde. an easy step to understand that the sins of Leviticus were always followed by it men from is some physical manifestation in the unlucky man or inversely. Errettung. 1 Here I should state the views of Koberle (Siinde und Gnade.w. Morgenstern's views in The Doctrine of Sin in the Babylonian Religion. . . Vergebung. arose from the breach of unclean the original idea was that a demoniac attack followed any . ' ' he will run through a long category of spirit names when he exorcises the demon from the sick man. Sin was thus originally merely the transgression of ritual laws. he had to be ritually clean. therefore. . They " denote an evil state of the body. Before the layman could bring sacrifice.. Many ' sins. : Der Sunder ist Patient. 193 hundred and sixty. neglected to offer his sacrifice. beziehen sich durchaus auf das iiussere Ergehen des Betenden.

The uses of the blood method of cleansing the sick from and fat in these atone* ments ' demand some research into their origin. it was entirely consumed altar. on the other hand. point to The next discuss is the distinction which is made The in * offering' the sacrificial meal and the * substitute.194 THE BURNT-OFFERING AND THE ATONEMENT. 3 Lev. neck broken. the expulsion of evil spirits. Doubtless an unclean man came to be excluded from the worship. 1 while to be sprinkled round about. Exod. xxix Lev. xxiii. fat. when he says. ix). while the etc. Sometimes the directions are for the to and dung be burnt outside the camp. and sacrifice the expiation of sin. said of the consumption of the sometimes the priests may eat it. the blood is are to be burnt on the altar. one of which is the more primitive their tabu. such a breach did not necessarily imply any immediate relations with a god.. was In later times. But the sin-offering is treated in several flesh. xxx . the burnt-offering and the burnt-offering is atonement/ the direct descendant of the sacrificial feast to invited. 6). his hypothesis that sin is due to a man not offering his ' ' duly or properly needs little disproof if the JSurpu-tabus be read with intelligence. iv. in common with all the tribe. . on the ways. nothing carcase 2 . vi. skin. xv. The best explanation of these apparent contradictions seems to be that there is a confusion of two systems. and the kidneys. or in other words.. Lev. At the same time he is quite correct. when the whole must be burnt. 3 unless some of the blood has been brought into the tabernacle of the congregation. and primarily concerned the danger to fellowtribesmen. the caul. are identical (ibid. and for we must find some hypothesis the reason its why the beast was slaughtered instead of having why the fat was burnt on the altar. iv . " the curing of sickness. but were entirely distinct. . but 'ritual' has nothing to do with the primitive ideas here. xiv. But. originally at least. " 2 Exod. is Frequently. I believe. however. and meddling with unclean persons. Again. 1 Lev. viii (cf. which the god.

and let the wind Tiamat. he cuts the throat of the beast which inveigle substitute. 3 ii. and apart from the shedding of blood there is no remission. iii. Tablet IV. xvii." That to the Hebrews the blood was the and Deut. 14. Seven Tablets of Creation. by eating man has something in common with . one from Maimonides 4 " Although blood was very unclean : his blood. the Assyrian exorcisms describe the " 3 There are two devils as ceaselessly devouring blood. Throughout the whole conception of the Hebrew idea it is the shedding of the blood. we find that the magician has the demon out of the sick person into the Since he knows that evil spirits are particularlyattracted by blood. all things are cleansed with blood. ix. I think. saying. 31. the spirits. in " nection. this con- 23. they nevertheless partook of it. Die Ssabier. that in the Assyrian creation-texts the gods their arm Go. Guide to the Perplexed. to be explained thus : we go back the the most primitive ideas. 131. Cf. dissociating our views from the later (and probably corrupt) customs of to Old Testament. because they thought it it was the food of spirits . which 11. I may almost say. which is amplified in Heb. King. 87. carry her blood into secret ' and when Marduk creates man he does it with places/' of Moreover. 132. The If ' 195 blood ' question to is. 2 in the eyes of the Sabians. 32. 2 4 Ibid. that is the life. xlvi . 49. . 22. 480. See p. and it is worthy of remark. xii.. life is shown in Lev. and cut off the life champion Marduk. xvii. "For it is the blood which maketh atonement by reason of the life" (Lev. is henceforth to be the receptacle of the demoniac influence.BLOOD IN THE ATONEMENT SACRIFICE. "and according to the law. 61 11. 11). Chwolsohn." quotations from later writers which are worth considering. which effects the atonement.

to the notion people have of There were. Are we to consider that these two writers are merely designating the gods of neighbouring worshippers as 'devils/ in accordance with local fanaticism. that love. just as the smell of newly-shed blood. But even without laid they can be a place and therein by use of certain incantations. quoting C. and friendship with the was established. that the spirits would appear to them in dreams.196 BLOOD IN THE ATONEMENT SACRIFICE. Cels.Q. and be favourable to " The The second is from Origen slaughter of x : victims is in itself enough to lure the demons that. and ate of the thing naturally disliked by man . people who objected to eating blood. them of coming events. inform them.. 34. however. we should see in the custom of burning the fat on the altar some similar design. in the Assyrian texts the beast shown not to be eaten. It seems quite logical to say that. because they dined with the latter at one place and at the same time. received the blood in a vessel or in a pot. Frequently directions are given evil influence... iii. the eating the flesh spirits . 61. according spirits. to the heathen temples. as a they killed a beast. Pursuing the analogy of the attraction that blood has for spirits. 1 Conybeare. or must we here see some reminiscence of substitution to demons ? What must means a is be recognized is that this slaughter is by no sacrificial meal . flesh of that beast.. . for it to be thrown away. as containing the and as such unfit for food. They to imagined that in this partake of idolaters ^were manner the spirits would come whilst the blood which was their food. brotherhood. J. attracted to . ix. . join him and which tell him future generally events. whilst sitting round the blood.

which seem most arbitrary in their differences. does not explain ment ' is so why. so will the sweet odour of it . . both in the Hebrew and 2 Further. the sorcerer could wheedle the most recalcitrant devil from his patient. in one case 'atonement' idea 1 (in is the first chapter of Leviticus). that can be offered in a libation from the reckoning sacrifice. " the fat of the omentum and the and near it. Rel. Devils can be rean evil as in the case of Asmodeus. 16. This. fluid. Ordinances are given for the disposal of the ' atonement sacrifices. in agreement with their other rapacious appetites. kidneys. to requires great acumen that the piacular offerings of the Old Testament are in an extremely confused state when they are compared with each other. and stench. the obviously confused with a sacrifice of Lev. or why for the holy altar of Yahweh see should have been the place however.. iii. other than blood. melted fat is the only Babylonian accounts. On the burning of fat see Robertson Smith. 2 seats of emotion. its which should be taken into account in holiness. however. and liver being the ibid. of Armed with the practical knowledge the irresistible attraction of blood and pleasant savour. just as is a sweet savour unto l Yahweh.BURNT FAT PLEASING TO GODS AND DEMONS. ' Nay." see ibid. On his views of the viscera. 380 ff. Sem. invites the presence 197 of devils." and this is to be from many savage tribes. 379. I do not think. paralleled "The fat is Yahweh s. 386. that it the sacrifice.. although the atonecharged with demoniac influence.. burnt fat act as a bait. pelled by the be attracted sweet savour of sacrifice. it occasionally ' became the priests'. We of shall not be far wrong in to all ascribing the possession a keen sense of smell the Semitic spiritual world. can by gods as happened after the Flood. or organs that lie in more broadly.

is a process universally admitted by scholars. for this confusion. 7. Biicher des Alten Testaments. The must be recognized that analogy.198 burnt - CONFUSION OF OFFERINGS. In Lev. 2. where a pig is killed " before Samas. 10. 210. Akt genommen hat. We may therefore presume that later magicians perhaps learnt that the substitute. denn gestrichen. offering. 11. Schliesslich scheint es nach der Unterschrift 7. 9 (vgl. 38. 9. dass hier als Siindopfer des Volkes eine Farre gefordert wird. 9 nicht gestrichen." . und ausserdem wird 29. von der schon der Nachtrag Lev. 15 auch beim Siindopfer des Hohenpriesters und des Volkes das Blut nur an den Opferaltar different : Es ist dies aber hier offenbar der solenne Ritus. which was supposed to have 1 Lev. es hat keinen Sinn anzunehmen. Kap. 14. vorausgesetzt. Lev. 4 nur bei den heiligsten Sundopfern geschieht. des "Ich will Hexat. a god aided in the atonement . 9 hinaus. 136 nur auf einen Punkt aufmerksam machen. die Steigerung erscheint auch darin. als ob die Uberschrift 1. 1899. und Histor. 16-20. fact and piacular have been confused with one another. p. 9. namlich auf die Differenz in dem Siindopferritus. Semitic folklore feasts One has only to compare the modern to see how entirely the two rites. 1-7 in die Stiftshuttengesetzgebung einzufugen jedoch wird die letztere sachlich cf. 20. sacrificial substitutes. Cf. 4 wird das Blut beim gewohnlichen Siindopfer an die Horner des Brandopferaltars gestrichen. On the contradictions in the atonement ceremonies compare Wellhausen. 1 Cor. 29 und Lev. dagegen beim Siindopfer des Hohenpriesters und des Volkes in das Innere der Hutte gebracht. einen Schritt uber Exod. 4 geht ist. 9.9. wie es nach Lev. Die Comp. 16) nur ein Ziegenbock. shall responsible l and that the Levitical injunction their sacrifices " they no more offer to devils ' " indicates into a natural desire to bring the ' atonement sacrifices accord with the ideas of dedication. deren Blut in das Innere der Hutte gekommen Also eine unleugbare und unauflosbare Differenz. um Lev. 15 das Fleisch grade so draussen vor dem Lager verbrannt." Of course. gemacht. xvii. ' ' . bei der Einweihung der Hutte sei ausnahmsweise drei Male eine weniger feierliche Form beliebt worden. an den Vorhang gesprengt und an die Horner des Raucheraltars Dieser Unterschied wird Exod. 1 erst spater zugesetzt worden sei. x. wahrend Lev. 12. vielmehr wird 29. Lev.

THE CLEAN PLACE.. Unclean 1 Ed. following him. no reason the desert. as a corollary. to is not unlikely have been loth to let a good lamb be thrown away. Meissner 2 ) that a euphemism for an unclean place. dieses am heiligen Ort und natiirlich auch im Zustand der Reinheit zu geniessen. An Oriental wizard.series. and perhaps have given rise to this * his surreptitious feast may alternative priests method of the disposal of the carcase. xix. that these piacular offerings as to we now have them sacrifices of burnt- had begun offerings. however. its bond go forth to There is. 55. and there was probably not much to choose in the matter of acceptance of perquisites between the priests of one nation or another arises.B. Meissner. Knobel. " man an reinen Orten (den Zehnten hatte jenes : an jeglichen Ort) und im Zustand der Reinheit. Tablet V. and that is." The Levitical phrase is exactly paralleled in the Assyrian Surpu. Leviticus. 1.L. as we learn from the apocryphal story of Bel and the Dragon." 2 J. 199 absorbed the demoniac influence. . Dillmann. a second explanation whicb will also include the use of the holy altar. that much of the atonement ritual had been brought into similitude with the traditions of the tribal sacrificial feast. 165. not too well blessed with this world's goods. 383 Cf. out of this. have next to settle what is meant by the ordinance We which directs that the ashes of the piacular offering are " to be taken to a clean place where the ashes are poured out. although several of the salient features remained. "let the tabu. Heathen ' were always under suspicion of battening on the deity's food unknown to the worshippers. 33. be so confounded with the and the real significance of their origin so lost. the clean place." x to suppose this is with Haupt (and. . ed. was not always so deadly as their ancestors had accounted it. 1880.

are we to see in this deposition of tabooed articles outside the camp an explanation why. 10. places as and the like. 2 virtue according to Robertson it it But may may is avoid all risk of contact with sacrosanct scapegoat which be only in accord with the idea of the sent into the desert.. quoted Jewish Encycl. In the rite of Deut.200 ' THE BARREN VALLEY. on going into an unclean place. if they trespassed This maintains in the spirit world on their domain. Ant.. to beg the two angels which accompanied him to wait until he should return. xxi. such of are inhabited by demons who would resent the approach any mortal thus ill-treating one of their number. are cemeteries. ' we irbitti. outside the camp/ the they put Rahab and her family ' remainder of the inhabitants being ' devoted'? 4 1 Berakhoth. 1. at the capture of Jericho (Josh. that flesh. before the burning. ' find kurpi indicated as the 177) Suk substitute after the ceremony. had to be brought to a very clean place (ek Kadapcorarov xwpiov. in order that the lose its may uncovered and Smith. p. iii. 846. Again. sub voce Angelology. Jeremias 3 quotes Josephus as saying that the second scapegoat. In an Assyrian text (see locality for disposing of the 4 ' 2 Ibid. and ' would doubtless help the devil imprisoned in the atonement. is.' is apparently the place where the ' atonement ' is . ruins.' The Rabbis considered that it was proper for a man. the reason for the " barren valley" being chosen according to Dillmann. the Semitic principle which a compels a traveller to obtain previous to foreign shekh'% permission crossing his territory. BibL. latrines. cross-roads. purifying blood . vi. 60&. 1 Obviously the reason is that these angels were not strong enough to cope with the local devils. not be and Keil. 23). 3). 4123. 3 Encycl. Ewald.

many services to render" (see Frazer. 534. J. Phoenician inscriptions do not throw any light. because " this is one of the Talmud ways savage anthropology. Presumably the cross-roads have some particular influence on this 'atonement' (the The wine is little more) in the same way as in the Assyrian text. the patient was to sit at a parting of the ways with a cup of wine in her hand. of the Amorite." The suspension "In The women tree of a particular kind (Citrus hystrix). v. otherwise these mischievous beings might get hold of the placenta. and thereby make the child sick " (Riedel. between New Guinea and Celebes. on for the issue of blood is . also I . which seven women. but the text is mutilated. 77a) as saying that the uterus of animals which have been selected for the sanctuary must be buried and not suspended from a tree or buried at the cross-roads. of placenta on trees occurs in the Babar Archipelago. Golden Bough. are difficult of explanation. Die sluik en kroesharige rassen tussche?i hang up on a Selebes en charm Papua. .. In Talmudic medicine. = ana mu-tu . i. 201 After this rather lengthy digression on the 'unwitting' sins we may return to the other special cases of atone' ments/ for oaths sin of For the moment we shall omit the . and in the Testament of spirits Solomon (Conybeare. . each of them armed with a sword. i. The ' cross-roads. and some one coming up behind her was to cry out suddenly. ways iii.' it is so purely conjectural that it affords no room for discussion. La Magie.S. for they are the resort of Hecate is often to be found there. ' atonements ' ? and ordinary 'sin' (cases d. e) the unwitting the ruler (case 3) comes under two heads. 1 76). The Talmudic merely an instance of sympathetic the cup of wine represents the blood. and the sudden start magic caused by the unexpected cry will cause the person to spill it. 26) the demon Envy says. 54).Q. the placenta are mixed with ashes and put in a small basket. 237. kurpi kurpi usabri.' on the other hand. .. the 'atonement' system in the text G. 'ashheaps. to the Perplexed. 3006). .. xxxvii) quotes the (Chidlin. Encycl.THE ATONEMENT EXORCISM. quoted Frazer. "Be Maimonides {Guide healed of thine issue of blood" (Creighton. Bibl.. The word occurs elsewhere in Macmillan's article in Beitr. xi. to heal an issue of blood. carry swords for the purpose of frightening the evil spirits . This is. " In the cross. iii. 252. as far as I know. have 80 Maury. of course. but the meanings of the words for sacrifices are not entirely determined. that of ' With regard to kurpi to be put. typical of what will happen to the issue. fur Assyr.I. the parts of the sacrifice to be taken by the offerer are mentioned. Golden Bough.

is as common among Assyrian the Semites as with this other the In folklore was one of commonest ways of exorcising a demon to go forth from the sick man. The Tribal ' which has already been discussed. and the 'unwitting' sin of the individual. Put two ' atonement shall hold '-vessels there ' . and this must be the explanation of Num. the Royal Tabu. pig or kid. and. Our next step is to substantiate our theory We from the Assyrian incantations. The process simple slaughters an animal. 1 ff. The Priestly Atonement of ' (case 4) is clearly to be accounted as a method cleansing the priest-elect from any unknown breach of tabu which must be removed before he can be consecrated. 137) gives the ceremony for purifying the king 1 One " of the Assyrian ' Thou shalt make pure ' atonements ' for the king. the it But certainly points to the principle of Royal Tabu. coax the demon. Atonement (case 5) for unwitting sin is ' ' ' of a similar nature. Bringing a censer (and) a torch to him. threaten ' it.202 THE ATONEMENT EXORCISM. the word in frequent use the same as the is : is kuppuru. . The king left one atonement '-vessel on his right and his of hand. as the priest Tylor says. what is more. 138." mutilated. Washing him in a water bowl . as a substitute for the sick man. The rest is Unfortunately the preceding tell tablet is lost. and the transference of ills to waxen figures or flies animals savages. Fill [two] burzigalsar-vessels with water from the bowl. have seen that the atonement of the Hebrews in ' which the bird away with uncleanness is ordinary magic. and we cannot why a purification is part needed. ' xxix. Putting cedar (and) cypress in the water. so that he may thus. radically word for ' atone ' in Hebrew. 1 explained on p. make offerings to atonements published by Zinamern {Ritualtafeln. as we have already mentioned.

for little magical Maklu ii. 113. 1 2 5 xxv. which is paralleled by the Syriac Mr** stercus. to induce it take up the to its abode in some other. dung). the reasons for adopting the meaning 'unclean' or are repeated here. Compare also iv. entice or drive to out of his patient's body. As the word is important. 3 Lu'u or lu. H (i. 3 Lay it down facing the sick man. ft'. mus-saprata nadi (?) salam kan.B. The connection will between obvious Hebrew and Assyrian anyone who reads the tablets.e. 1908.' parallel bitumen. possibly. Tablet XI. 464). intm-inim-ma. Feb. Notices des MSS. Prayer of uttering a chant (?) over a figure of hymns to this being recited over figures of in the same tablet. case of the asakku-dLisease. ^r** 5 regard to streets Lu'u has the particular meaning of 'filthy in sullUunu lu'uti. W. . 10.. It may also have the meaning of filthy ' 5 5 'excrement. Devils. ii. 374..A. refers. " (salmani) lu sa iddH [lu] sa titu lu sa U.g.B. H. bronze.1 atonement' for the evil eye. 8596). etc. 1. |Ji.2) 'dross of iron.j i. and the priest follows the sick in healing man l : "Take a white kid of Tammuz. : 5 ullila ' ' ' ' to another 14). Take out its heart and Place it in the hand of that man . the deluge of my fighting lcima li-e zumursicn ishup swept vi. some plastic material. ceremonies following are all be quotations from the cuneiform They exorcisms for persons suffering from some sickness. and there is also a group hartu-na = w-'-i' gi-ri-ti (Brunnow.. I cleansed their filthy streets (B. A classical text (Sennacherib. figures are It has to be it ' : made from 11 e.A. P.. 16) gives away their bodies like dung (Delitzsch. The kid whose heart thou hast taken out food with which thou makest atonement for the man . 73 Comparable with this is Xenocrates dictum that the blood of the kid was useful against epilepsy (Ibn el-Beithar.. 41 (figures) either of bitumen. in the Marduk is given the following it advice by his father Ea. For instance. it 203 it.S. quoted Muss-Arnolt. Perform the Incantation of Eridu Is unclean 3 . 93). for which see my article. No.

the priest must put one ka of leaven on the sasur-reed. Bab.' it (the unclean food) in the street. vomited). (unclean).e. * ' : 'food which a man's body has expressed' (less probably 'rejected. repeat an incantation. Akala li ina kakkadi-su sukun-ma. Which is in the body of the man. or It be removed and go forth from the house " ! (dung). be correct. (becomes) IVi-food. Invoke the great gods That the evil Spirit. pp. The Hag-demon. scatter Another such is Tablet T. Kiichler.' which seems less probable. Hostile magicians in effigy are not treated well. the fever or heavy sickness. 87. whereof thou hast taken out the heart. the evil Ghost. 246 (i.204 ' ATONEMENT ' FOR THE EVIL EYE.' becomes clear from the present text The kid. in Kuppuru is.S. 1908). ' ' ' ' .' set refuse-food at line 38 (ibid. and put the sick foot thereon. W.). K. of dung.' argument for the meaning excrement is found in // karummati Ita-a-an salam amsIu kassapi u 8al Make two meals kassapti akal li epus-ma libbi kurummati sumh-ma. and make invocation over the food.A. to place these ' meals right ' The directions finish with an injunction and left of them.' but this cannot In the grammatical text.B.' and the li is constantly used in connection with it.' Cf.' i. ' An ' Maklu 88 : ' to attain the desired object. Medizin) translates it by dough. ii. two unclean substances are mentioned It sa ina zumri kuppuru. one each for the figures of sorcerer and sorceress. the May or clay. in treating of this word. and make the atonement for the foot with the li (refuse) of the leaven. The latter must be paralleled by akalu sa znmur ameli mussudu. Surround that with meal. ' ' : The sense of this last passage atonement for the body of a man. Feb.. Perform the Incantation of Eridu. Again the use appears to be pregnant it will become refuse when it has done its work. the Ghoul. with which thou shalt make atonement for the man bring a censer (and) a torch. 207. Bring forth a censer (and) a torch Scatter it in the street . ' ' his head. shortly (in his Ass. as is now unnecessary to explain. and hence we may try a tentative translation refuse which has made connection. In an incantation against rheumatism (P." Tallqvist translates 'honig. and the most abominable food is set before them Delicacies are more likely to attract them than to drive them away. man evil Demon.' Tallqvist translates 'mache von leckerhafter Nahrung. 17). and then give them to 'dog and bitch. at least. 65. ' : .L. 169. additional viii.A. to make atonement. ' .' but this seems less probable. and hence the former must have a meaning.

Hath shown favour for his life Thou man. for evil. and thou be restored. The Eye which hath looked on thee The Eye which hath looked on thee for harm. is thus "The roving Evil Eye Hath looked on the neighbourhood and hath vanished far away. son of his god. May Gunura [smite it] with a great Like rain which is let fall oar (?). And hath bent his neck. It hath looked on the wanderer. different and three of each When they have been obtained he must fumigate them with incense.. May May the food which I have brought to thy head the food with which I have made an atonement ' ' for thy body. . The Evil Eye. Hath looked on the vicinity and hath vanished far away. kinds. . King of the Deep. Jer. xi. Hath looked on the chamber of the land and hath vanished far away. and repeat a charm overnight. to cast These limes must be of seven kind are necessary. 2 So may Ea. Hath brought food nigh to his body." A is ceremony so similar as occurs to be worthy of careful com- parison among the Malays. 19. May Ba'u smite [it] with flax(?).PARALLEL FROM MALAY MAGIC. Assuage thy sickness (?). Early next thicknesses morning three 1 of birah-leavea 2 must be ii. Devils. from heaven directed unto it earth. laid Cf. 113. the suffering Malay magician rubs him all over with limes in order out the mischief. which has smitten the exorcised : 205 patient. son of his god. That thy foot may stand in the land of life x . it like wood cut off for kindling (?) Ea hath seen this man and Hath placed food at his head. remove from thy body. Thou man. Whenever a person from the influence of a waxen image.

atonement ' for the ' man who has and puts (i. the pain-demon will be absorbed in it. It is then broken and the baneful obsession "Take a clean reed and is dissipated Measure that man. Devils.' trash ' must be the lu'u or akal U\ 'unclean food/ of the Assyrian incantations. i. and Make a reed-hat (?). seven loaves of pure dough form the medicine to remove the tabu. of the limes (after squeezing) leaf is "The in 'trash' at wrapped up and either carried out to the sea evening. And That break it it upon him. 3 Tablet VIII. be his substitute 2 . 2 Dinanu. Malay Magic. ii. it is to 1 Skeat. 1. That the evil Spirit. and the limes are be squeezed into a bowl and used partly for washing and partly medicinally. a kindly Guardian be present.' The 'atonement' the loaves) then to be carried into the desert to a 'clean place/ and there. and Make the atonement for the man. 431.206 CEREMONY FROM THE SURF IT-SERIES. and ." In another Assyrian text. 20 ff. col. the evil Demon may stand aside 3 And a kindly Spirit. under one of the low thorn shrubs which are scattered over such places. sympathetic magic forms the treatment a hat (?) of reeds is to be put on the man.e. . ' 1 a birah(into which it is dropped) or deposited ashore at a safe distance This ' from the house. the son of his god. and Perform the Incantation of Eridu . which is the part of the Seventh Tablet of the Sinyu-SQiies hitherto wanting and unknown. After various ceremonies with these \ the magician makes an fallen sick. his spittle is on the atonement. for the down patient to to stand on during the lustration. In the case of headache.

" ye shall cast it to torn" is the flesh mangled by wild beasts which were supposed to be forms of Jinn (see Robertson Smith. With regard to the use of bread. offering her a sort of twisted cake called colly ris . north of Beit Nuba.use. sect. and finding it dirty wiped it with a loaf of bread and threw the bread away. 209) about the stones called the Farde. there a curious story told by Baldensperger (P. Again (ibid. man and beast. Zwemer ill tells of a tradition there. The sacredness of the bread turned the whole procession. 126). " who used it with more respect than the Papists do theirs. sect. the Old Testament almost unnecessary to quote the leavened and shewbread of the influence of this is shown in the Talmud. compelled to it by famine. 1893. . Wilson. Other instances of casting bread to the dogs after a spell in Mesopotamia are given on pp. 207 be the left. Disc. sickness-devil.. which are traditionally a petrified procession. 103. the sect of Colly ridians in Arabia introduced the Virgin Mary for God. "And ye shall be holy men to me therefore ye shall : not eat any flesh that is torn of beasts in the field There is a theory that the "flesh that the dogs. especially in the form of paste or liquid. Peasant Life in the Holy Land. Hence the motive in both instances is practically the same the bread has absorbed the tabu of the : is . in the directions for searching the house on the eve of Nisan 14 to see It is : that no place contains any leavened bread {Pesachim. ii). 18. Sem. 1). i.. Hebrew has already been recognized in ceremonies. 1. 54. woman was just putting her dough into the oven when a procession A went by. flat that if a child is very the mother will take seven its 1 loaves of bread and put them under pillow. ed. T. 283.F. . vii. 169." presuming not to eat it till they were {Prelim. Its also C. In Sale's Koran i. The next morning these are given to the dogs. Schwab. She took up her child. is frequent in the Assyrian inscriptions.. Folklore. to stone. but there is a still more curious clean place survival of the Assyrian charm in the Hejaz at the present day. Rel. and the torn flesh has become contaminated (tabu) by is the afrit of the jungle or desert.c ATONEMENT The ' ' WITH THE BODY OF A ' PIG. On the sanctity of bread in Macedonia see Abbott. 31. making of cakes of bread cf. particularly to make the circle which is tabu to evil spirits. compare the On the sanctity to the queen of heaven in Jer. Macedonian v.F. 204. xxii. 1 Arabia. Al Mostatraf) it is related that a lump of dough was worshipped by the tribe of Hanifa. or worshipped her as such. A parallel occurs in Exod.

. and Give the pig in his stead and Let the flesh be as his flesh. fully "Marduk 'What . The most remarkable in parallel to this spell is contained the New Testament story of the Gadarene swine. may be in his stead . [Take] a sucking-pig [and] [At] the head of the sick man [put it(?) and] Take out its heart and .^ The if devils cast is He which possess the two men beseech Jesus Christ." 2 . When the devils leave 1 On these abbreviations see Introduction. 41 ff. 'Go. . them out. . That a kindly Spirit. That the pig may be a substitute for him That the evil Spirit. let him hold it . much more I'. Bring near him a censer (and) a torch Twice seven loaves cooked in the ashes against the shut door place. 2 s Devils. on the sides of the bed [and] blood [Sprinkle] Divide the pig over his limbs and Above the heart its Spread it on the sick Cleanse thou that man then man with pure . 1. .' . . .208 'atonement' with the body op a ' pig.' (Marduk)]. The next cuneiform as it atonement ' is one of great interest. his heart) [That the] . water from the Deep And wash him clean and .' col. my 1 son. ' is Wellhausen points out (Reste. Tablet 'N. to send them into the herd of swine which feeding close at hand. ii. . And And the blood as his blood. Let the heart be as his heart (Which thou hast placed upon And let him hold it . ii. 148) that the word N1Pl&P> used both of swine and demons. herd. of the sick man [put it]. the evil Demon may stand aside. a kindly Guardian be present. goes into details [hath seen.

L. 1900. Evil Eye. ii. Journ. 304 . i. Attis. Compare the views held about the pig Egyptian Book of the Dead. not from hostile intention. ed. see Frazer. and relates that Zwemer Arab patients would come 2 to him for a small piece to cure one in desperate straits. 193. see Frazer.-Bab. with savage beliefs idea is quite the disease-devil leaves the The man to at the command of a higher power. 35). if a man the if of swine on the 30th of Ab when moon invisible) boils will break out upon him. Arabia. Adonis. Swine fat appears to it is have been also nsed in Assyrian medicine. 86. 265). Collisson. in accord men and where they are drowned. according to the story. 5 W. ii. 3 and recorded in an astrological report that a sow farrowed with one of the piglets double. Manetho mention of marvels such as this. v. Golden Bough. On the sucking-pig sacrificed among the Greeks. Religion. 1 From to the Assyrian incantation ' is easy to infer that that it is the pig was not unclean ' in the way now held in The latter believe that be by Jews or Mohammedans. extremities the flesh can be used as a medicine. either dead or alive. but "from a vehement desire for animal heat" (Dialogue on the Operation of Damons. acts as it a substitute. 3 see . 333 ff. see Elworthy. Medizin. in atonement. Kiichler. . 281. the swine. with eight legs and two tails. 1843. 48-9. makes Reports of the Magicians and Astrologers. . of Phil. the 209 take up their abode in the herd. xci. go mad and rush down the hill into the water. Am. 4 In one of the hemerology texts eats flesh is 5 it is laid down that (i. note 2.A. the birth of an eight-legged lamb * 3 (Wiedemann. and is transferred some beast which.e. or he 1 Psellus' monk Marcus of Mesopotamia explains that the devils entered the swine. chapter 112. in the . The monster was promptly conserved in salt. Assyr.PAEALLEL TO THE GADAEENE SWINE. Osiris.e. character. 256 for other instances of pigs in on their unclean or sacred magic.

iv. It is Rel. (and) 3 a pig in the ritual: thou shalt imprison their sorceries in the body of the pig. Unto the Laid a kid at his head in front of him. ii. hath covered the wanderer as with a garment. col. An a great insult in Mosul to say that a man eats of their flesh. locusts. as also was the camel (Robertson Smith. and insects like the fly and the beetle (Klein. Sem. that treadeth pure fodder. making bright the field my : . It is well known that among ox also regarded as tabu as much as the certain of the Semites the ox was one of the tabu-animals. Fossey. worms in apples. 23. and both these latter are still so in Mesopotamia. When dead. are all clean and do not defile." Could anything be clearer ? In this next case. eats flesh of swine or on the 27th of Tisri various things will happen to him. It holdeth his hands and feet. 3 " K.. unclean.A. perhaps a reminiscence of an older totem-worship " the great ox. La Magie. pure hands pour libation before thee (W. The great Prince Ea. days are prohibited admits of the presumption that pork was lawful as food on other occasions. although the word kuppuru is not used. Of Ea (?) . the of the ceremony is similar. hath come to the meadow. Religion of Islam. Animals are all clean. except wine and intoxicating drinks. . fish.210 ( ATONEMENT ' WITH THE BODY OF A oxen l KID. It racketh his limbs. lord of magic. 6172. according to the Moslems.). Chieftain he spake (saying) : 1 It is interesting to see the pig. raising up plenty. . and approaches Arab ritual quoted further on : closely to some " Incantation An It evil Fever rests upon the body of the man. 2 The very fact that certain There is yet another religious text prescribing "Sacrifice a pig before Samas. Assyrian incantation shows some tendency towards the idea of paying respect to oxen. 1. mighty ox.I. 459. v . however. Craig. sowing corn. 2 Inanimate things. 122). except man. . i). all animals are except the dog and the pig.

Then they In visited and sprinkle is fire and patient with blood. quoted Jew. Tablet 'N. the man he giveth. head of the kid for the head of the neck of the kid for the neck of the breast of the kid for the breast of man he giveth. To cure sickness. man he giveth. 2 the son of Eridu [Let the Incantation of the of Eridu never] be unloosed. (quoting Surur. and smear with blood the chest." 3 Among the Algerian Jews there a custom somewhat similar. and bathe his face. Eight Years in Asia xi. 2 Devils. the Word of Ea Deep of the [ . . [of the kid for the By the magic of . 'The kid is 211 the substitute for mankind. 600. Curtiss. forehead. 3 of Baghdad). man] he l .. Prim. put " he giveth who was 1 It is uncertain how many more ' of the lines ending were originally in the text. light a fire etc. He is stripped to the waist. shall go to the shrine.PARALLELS FROM THE ARABS. the Indian Moslems who come thither on a pilgrimage offer sacrifices there " they vow that if a man who is ill begins to recover he . .' col... and the upper part of his body with the blood." Among the Moslems of the present day this form of still substitution holds good. 1. Sem. They wrap him in the skin is of the animal. Benjamin II. life The The The The The kid for his he giveth.. At the shrine of Abdu Khadir. the on some and some of the blood on her forehead. While the butcher first kills the animal the sheik repeats the also sura of the Koran. the largest mosque in Baghdad. iii.. . of the patient. 4 very morning we Palestine it the same. "The the shrine of Nebi of the Fudl Arabs Yehudah a goat was killed for a woman They suffering from fever.. Encycl. shoulders.' (?)]. ii. they go with an Arab sorceress to a spring. kill a black cock. 29 ff. a native 4 and Africa. Rel. giveth. Then two men lift a lamb or a kid above his head. 205.

World. Bel. puts a drop blood in each eye and gives the cock to some poor 3 person. a child The form of is : vow used for the restoration of who is ill '0 Nebi Yehudah. The head of the family must sacrifice the birds. son of his god. a chicken Every individual should provide himself with colour white. Sem. that a hen for herself and one of each sex for the unborn child to make sure he is represented rightly . Devils. me and * to all Israel. Amen. for if possible its male. and Curtiss. is.' He saying. I have deserved thus to die. xxiii. 4 A locality often prescribed as holy for taking water . 2 3 Masterman. my son. .' " x called Ed " el-jdj (i. World. Another Assyrian exorcism against headache runs " Take a bundle of twigs (?) and At the confluence of two streams 4 take thou water and Perform thy pure incantation over this water.212 wall of the EXORCISM AGAINST HEADACHE. and With thy pure exorcism cleanse and With 1 this water sprinkle the man. where is a man sick with ophthalmia its takes a cock and. cf.' is out on the ground (as The blood is poured done when the Jews kill). The ninth of Tisri have mercy on is this boy. 100. 141.e. . and a pregnant woman or she a cock and two hens.. Curtiss. i. . after cutting off of head. Feast of Chickens) on account of the number of chickens slaughtered by the Jews throughout a cock for every for the land. let to the bird die. he will recover. Bibl. exclaiming each time this cock (or hen) Let be an atonement for let life me then . xxiii. lx. 27. if At Musulleh. makam. first whirling each * : one three times around his head. let it be my substitute. but and happiness bo kills the bird. Bibl. Prim." a shrine good for sore eyes. always 2 and the chickens are eaten. a hen every female.

may be The " bundle fairly well of twigs " (the value of the translation is vouched for) occurs also in another incantation " Perform thy goodly incantation and Make perfect the waters thereof with priestcraft. and when the priest has counted on it the evils which may afflict the as a little grass. Ellis. Luh-ka. . ii. When Cast it he eats. P." 2 bead may That the headache. 213 .PURIFICATION IN ASSYRIAN. Ibid. who consider evil spirit.. 53 ff. . a sheep.. where the ' : ' tabu expelled to " a clean place : Incantation Pure water . 146. is an excellent instance of the removal purification * of ' by and fumigation. . The pure mouth of Ea hath purified it. the water with which the patient has rinsed his mouth. which like the be assuaged. 4th ed. and dew hath fallen. Pour the waters thereof on it. ashes. and the malady with it. . 63 ff." 3 The Malagasy. 2 3 4 Tablet series Ibid. .' 1. into the broad places That the sickness of removed. . Tylor. . . quoting ii. all disease inflicted by an have recourse to a diviner who removes the of a ' sickness by means faditra ' . upon cut his head . let it At eventide him be off and his 1 sated. Water from the Euphrates which in a place Water which hath been kept aright in the deep. Primitive Culture. vol. p. a patient and charged the ever. ii.. 1. 1 Translation doubtful. this is some object such pumpkin. it is ' faditra ' to take them away 4 for The following a tabu is thrown away. Tablet VIII. and With thy pure incantation do thou cleanse (the sick man) and Take a bundle of twigs (?). . Bind .

Repeat the incantation three times before the bowl of water. Before brightly shining. thou that purgeth silver and gold. That the Evil Tongue may stand Prayer : aside.A. O Ban. Thou Thou It is bringest light into the house of darkness. Fire-god.. chief. It is It is It is thou that repelleth the the evil that cometh by night. Before your mother Damkina. by heaven be thou exorcised. be clean . 14. Hero. he be resplendent as the midst of heaven the evil tongue (?) [stand] aside! Prayer for removing the Ban ! W. 2. son of the Deep. Fire-god. whom all (is) the Ban. May May May May May members of the man. high upon earth. limpid. be cleansed. cleanse it. .214 PURIFICATION IN ASSYRIAN. settest a destiny to all things named. That the Ban may go forth to the desert. make it Before your father Ea. whose attack like a demon Bindeth May it lands as the twilight doth the heights above. by earth be thou exorcised Prayer for removing the Ban Incantation : ! : fumigate him on the bank of a river. The Children of the Deep. he be bright as the heaven. be bright. Sam as. when he riseth. remove the darkness thereof. thou that meltest copper and lead. iv.I. They purify the water. that may not be held back in the house. a clean place. by thy pure fire. son of his god. high upon earth. May it be pure. he shine like the earth. : " Incantation The River God. thou that art the comrade of Ninkasi. seven are they.

then he shall bear his iniquity or if any one touch any unclean thing. in that he heareth the voice of adjuration. From the quotation from Lev. then he shall be guilty or if he touch the uncleanness of man. This was line. Britannica. whether it be the carcase of an unclean beast. and offer an animal to be exempt from the performance of any sworn act of devotion. then carried to the head of the family in the female who It ate it. a person under a tabu caused by touching a chief cannot feed himself until the tabu has been removed by his touching the soles of a superior chief's feet with his hands and then rinsing his hands in water. and it be hidden from him. a man need only admit that his oath was a rash one. if this were so. when he . v given below. whether he hath seen or known. In the Malay ceremony already ' quoted 205) the magician wipes away the tabu with the limes. the instances of purification ' 215 In by water ' we may perhaps see the original idea of in wiping ' tabu away. he being a witness. 2 it is plain These are quoted from Frazer's article Taboo. whatsoever his uncleanness : be wherewith he is unclean. or the carcase of unclean creeping things. what we are to this. and it be hid from him . he would on the following day rub his hands over with potato root or fern which had been cooked over a sacred fire. if he do not utter it.< WIPING AWAY' A TABU AMONG THE MALAYS. Encycl. When a Maori chief became tabu by touching the sore head of his child. In Tonga. as the Syriac k'phar. 1 We is can less now clear return to the Levitical tabu on rash oaths. or the 1 3 : carcase of unclean cattle. "And if any one sin. (p. understand as the real Obviously it is necessity for to an atonement for absurd suppose that the same offering would compensate for oaths involving undertakings of both extreme difficulty and extreme triviality . and he be unclean. or (if water is scarce) rubbing them with the juice of the plantain or banana.

1 J. has collected them r : " It is less obvious at why <rcf>d<yLa [offerings destroj ed] were always employed ritual in the taking of oaths . . the pieces of the oath-taker actually stood upon the slaughtered animal . .. . pieces ." . standing on u to clearly the the identification of oath-taker and The victim was hewn in bits. ." knoweth of it. Pausanias " says. that he shall confess that wherein he hath sinned and he shall bring his guilt offering : shall be guilty in unto Yahweh for his sin which he hath sinned.216 OATHS AND VOWS. or to do good. E. In the ordinary of the taking of oaths. that such oaths are reckoned parallel to the unclean tabu of contagion for which similar atonements to free the must be made swears to man from the ban . whatsoever it be that a man shall utter rashly with an oath. then he shall be guilty or if any one swear rashly with his lips to do evil. for a sin offering atonement for him as concerning his sin. Harrison. a lamb or a goat. does a man who perform a rash act lay himself under a tabu until he Take the instances in shall have completed his task? Greek mythology. then he shall be guilty in one of these things and it shall be. Prolegomena. 66. : when he one of these things. as Miss Jane Harrison. sacrificed a horse and made Helen's suitors take Tyndareus an oath.. .' Miss Harrison explains the custom of fragments of the victim as pointing sacrifice. causing them to stand on the cut-up pieces of the horse having made them take the oath. . . a female from the and the priest shall make flock. . so if l the oath-taker perjure himself will I venture with diffidence to put : he be hewn in bits. he buried the horse It was said Herakles had given an oath to the sons of " Neleus on the cut of a boar . ' With the men of old days the rule was as regards it a sacrificial animal on which an oath had been taken that " should be no more accounted as eatable for men. who recognizes the same first difficulty. and it be hid from him when he knoweth of it.

OATHS AND VOWS. Textes Introduction to the Relig. which a not used as food. Ret. 1902. The Greek is instances are at the very moment is the vow taken the oath-taker the beast.. offences Both in Leviticus serious and the Surpu -series indicating more to come swearing is under the influence of seven things (see Robertson Smith. 186). the sins committed ' ' wittingly (cases e and f) were all cleansed by an atonement. ed\. 2nd sibitti hi ana pan 64 ff.' and the person ' thus freeing himself so ' from the charge made against him does by voluntarily or making himself taboo. . influence. The oath-taker calls some supernatural power . feast with the god he has It is just made away with as charged with dangerous atonements are in the the * unclean Hebrew pertinent law. merely (to the savage mind) It is a savage analogy. l to witness he hereby renders himself tabu that he makes a promise for some reason. it does not exempt him from the necessity of carrying out his vow. Consonant with ' the rules for ' other unclean tabus. clear kills . Sem. ereb Samsi mamit Su-ut-me (Martin. and hence cannot shared as ' be considered as invoked.. ilu 2 Compare the Assyrian History of Religion. atonement to rid himself of this tabu. 28). but removes the contagious tabu which he has incurred by the act of invoking divine power. to he presents an admit of his continuing as an ordinary member it of society in intercourse with his fellows . possibly to repeat a promise seven times 1 The meaning of the Hebrew word ' for * ' . by eating 2 fetish otherwise devoting himself to the god. I think a plausible explanation. as the Levitical parallels show. 217 forward another explanation in view of the Biblical law." Lastly. 1900. (the magical number). Reste. Jevons' remarks " here Probably the : on oaths are distinctly earliest oaths are those of ' compurgation. 182 Wellhausen.

from ' the to wash away a demoniac or sin tabu in water. ' we may presume. misdeeds than the mere infringement of a tabu are placed uncleanness. and others are clearly offences tribal against holy things belonging to the are therefore open to us. which was intended the devil after he had been exorcised. the carcases of beasts * ' slaughtered as substitutes to attract the plague-devil became the offerings of last stage is men it guilty of presumptuous is ' sin. the demon was to be transferred to water and thus removed. of the atonement was disregarded. meaning of the word k'phar in connection with savage methods of cleansing tabu. god. and. as undoubtedly appears in the Old Testament. that the atonement ceremony was intended Originally. and in the Hebrew law both demand an atonement. men brought atonements for every breach of tabu.' The reached when the carcase eaten by the priests as though were an ordinary sacrifice.' Some are undoubtedly the direct descendants of breaches of the demon-tabus. The other is that as religious beliefs grew and by demoniac divine wrath were forgotten. then.' side by side with breaches of Yet in the Assyrian series either of sickness in ' is recognized as the possible cause man. arguing by analogy that they could remove the risk of punishment by what ultimately the ' ' origins The original object was regarded as a piacular offering.218 PRESUMPTUOUS SINS. Two explanations One is that every breach of tabu was visited possession. which was originally a beast substituted for the the demon had attacked. ' ' In addition to this we have the ' sin ' offering. man whom to receive . either directly or through the which caused angels and ministers to inflict their plagues on men. In other words.

. the males shall And . of flesh. One is of the most interesting problems in Semitic folklore the question of the origin of the firstborn-substitution. both thine (Aaron's) : man and beast.219 y. thou not redeem .Numbers the down womb. firstling which thou hast that cometh of a beast be Yahweh's. and every . nevertheless the firstborn firstling thou surely redeem. Yahweh is related to have said " Sanctify unto me all : the firstborn. THE REDEMPTION OF THE FIRSTBORN. which they shall be Every thing that openeth the offer unto Yahweh. or the firstling of a goat. according to thine estimation. " In .. 15 ff. > Exod. both of man and of beast it is mine. redeem with a lamb thou shalt break every firstling of an ass thou shalt and if thou wilt not redeem it. or shalt firstling of a sheep. for the money of five shekels. 2. after the shekel of the sanctuary (the is same the twenty gerahs)." l This is amplified elsewhere 2 " Thou shalt set apart unto : : Yahweh all that openeth the womb. and the And those of unclean beasts shalt thou redeem. then its neck " : : and all the firstborn of man 3 among law is thy sons thus laid of all thou shalt redeem. 12 xviii. whatsoever openeth the womb among the children of Israel. of shalt man that are to be redeemed of them from a month old shalt thou redeem. they are holy : thou shalt sprinkle their blood 3 ff. xiii. 2 Ibid. But the firstling of an ox.

13. beasts was clearly held to belong to the tribal god what from the passage in Num. In this cited. I Yahweh name the place. killed 13. 15. 2 xxii.220 TRADITIONAL ORIGINS OF REDEMPTION. child. unclean ' were the ' ' property of the deity. altar." l A second (Elohist) legend of the substitution of a is ram for the sacrifice of the firstborn the more primitive story of Abraham and Isaac. xiii. had sprung up at a very early time to explain what was the a fundamental to custom tribe to among Hebrews. the "argel of Yahweh. "For all the firstborn firstborn are in on the day that I smote all the the land of Egypt I hallowed unto me all in Israel. in which case." One tradition (Jehovist) assigns the origin of this custom to the smiting of the firstborn in Egypt: ." and the epilogue. Jehovah-jireh. no redemption is spoken of. is and had to be redeemed. As a female (firstborn) an additional story Jephthah's vow may be is dedicated. for a sweet savour unto Yahweh. however. the ass When or be this passage taken into to account with of Exod. does not occur in the story except in the its explanation. It was for allowed a the substitute a firstborn beast firstborn . unclean ! seems clear that the passage about the beasts has descended from a time when such beasts (i. the statement being that he did with her according to the vow he had vowed. it by having its ' neck broken. It is therefore clear that two different traditions. of iii. both mine the firstborn man and beast : mine 2 shall they be : I am Yahweh. upon the and shalt burn their fat for an offering made by fire. xviii. is ' which more. Gen. . which was be redeemed with a lamb.e. totems) were held 1 Num. apparently of an academic nature. ff.

Rel. 2nd ed. 34." It of is unnecessary to quote sacrifice at length. 1 Now came this must have been before the idea of unclean ' in. at the very early date when the Hebrews and Arabs lived together. i 5 On compare Robertson Smith. were not so finely drawn. tales of 3 women this bringing forth animals." 6 Sir John Marsham. says Erstgeburt vom Vieh. generally the firstborn. On the custom of killing the totem on occasions of grave stress see Frazer. ii.SACRIFICE OF TOTEMS. 255. .. there seem to be indications that the parallelism with the offering of first-fruits is less complete than at first sight it seems to be. 463 Adonis. Osiris. " Yet : . Arch. in the seventeenth century in his Chronicum . and in omens and There is . for ' 221 eligible sacrifice. 6 all the well-known instances human 1 We may. 7 .. xix). so gehoren Jahve auch die Erstlinge von den Feldfruchten. If this argument has any weight. 45. 4 "we know that the Semites were in the habit of sacrificing some of the children. at a time when the various Semitic tribes regarded the tabu-beasts of the Old Testament laws as their totems. Totemism.. Sem. was a human sacrifice from those early times when the classes of life. Golden Bough. i. 2 This clearly demonstrated that the Frazer has nothing new God of the Hebrews plainly regarded the firstborn of men and the firstlings of animals as His own. 3 and he says. however. 1894. mention On the grave occasions when this was permissible. . babe is the parallelism in the case of the firstborn it obvious . any tribute could have been paid to the god as chief or king and even in the form of the sacrifice of firstlings which is found among the Hebrews. : . beast or is . Attis. it seems absolutely impossible that." Nowack. however. in his " Wie die Lehrbuch der Hebr. either as a tribute regularly due to the deity 5 or to appease his anger in seasons of public danger or calamity. and shows itself in later ages in gods that are half beast. he maintains that the totem sacrament has become a well-authenticated fact {Golden 2 Bough. distinctions between the man. no necessity to go into the details of this kinship between man and beast it is a well-recognized form of primitive belief. ii.

10 . although his philology is at fault (pp. 30.. some additional examples which may be of use in our argument. QiCest-ce que la Bible. of the same number. . 31 .g. ii. e.). 3-5 . 1850. Heliopolis in Egypt. and one day thieves stole everything belonging to the young man. as were the pure calves that were also sealed with them they were sacrificed three in a day. his abode in the though it image. speaking to the young man as were his father." begotten son. 2 " L'ancienne religion de Mo'ise. ex Sanchon. the Dumatii in Arabia who. xii. 207 1 (ed. SchatzhohZe. He is See also Ghillanys. Les Sacrifices humains . Wisd. 21 . the eldest son Mythologie. 37. especially " (p. Another (p. xvii. Bib. 91). and were examined. ordonnait de tuer sans exception. 216). 3 . de la (p. Ewerbeck.). 24. which Horon on appeared A rich inhabitant died. quoted from Majer. cvi.Jehovah. and the son of Eber had built. 31 xviii. as Manetho bears witness in his book of Antiquity year. vii. 30-32 . ibid." excellent in his anthropological comparisons of human sacrifice in Florida. xxxii. : Cv. xxiii. les premices du sexe Le masculin parmi les animaux et a plus forte raison parmi les hommes. xii. 2. 32. Ezek. . among " race anthrothe Semites pothyste par excellence p. 300-304). Ewerbeck. xvi. who came to (76-78. xix. sacrificed a child every and other cases of human sacrifices. has collected the following passages bearing on human sacrifice in the Old Testament: Lev. is the story of Cronus [whom the Phoenicians name Israel who had be should by a nymph named Anobret an only(it II)]. avant d'etre radoucie. and he in dread of great dangers adorned this son with royal apparel and offered him in sacrifice. They were sacrificed to Juno. also from " Porphyry. 1842 chez les HZbreux. en l'honneur du Moloch. 1842. 35 . Whiston. 2 Kings . He gives Porphyry's story that Amosis abolished the law for the slaying of men at 301) (p. See also Daumer.222 TRADITION" OF THE ORIGIN OF MAGIC. in his Josepkus (840 ft\). xvi. There is an interesting tradition in Bezold's how in the ninetieth year of Terah magic the earth in the city of Ur. 38 . mentions the instances of the Phoenicians sacrificing to Saturn one of the dearest of their people (Philo. Diodorus says. In whose stead Amosis commanded that men of wax. 18. 18. and Piety. 27). 20. 1 his son made an image of gold to put over the grave. should be substituted. Deut. 77). 4-6. Ps. Then came Satan and took up and posted a watcher.lte de Moloch. ed. xx. Jer. Diet.

(ii. v. 4122.. de 5. 1875. incantation. if Satan thereupon promised that all should be restored sacrifice only the did. 1892.S. it is no help to any scientific In 1875 Professor Sayce 3 published two texts which he considered proved the existence of human sacrifice among the Babylonians. T. his little son. ii. Collisson. 25). haps. Chaldeeism.THE QUESTION OF HUMAN SACRIFICE IN ASSYRIA. king of Hira\ Psellus (eleventh century). P. in his Dialogue on tin Operation of 1 En-Nedlm. 1 The existence of human and Assyrians considers practised it it is sacrifice among the Babylonians not easy to prove satisfactorily. xiv." a remark which I must Is it confess I to am unable to understand fully. of Islam. Die Ssabier. Chwolsohn. but his views were combated and refuted 4 One of these texts was from an by Ball in 1892. quoted Hughes.B. Percival 101. 184) mentions a Ghassanide prince who was sacrificed to Venus by Munzir. meant four apply to those peoples at all periods thousand years which we know of them? of the What should The remark be their object in practising it secretly ? seems to be such a vague and unsubstantiated depreciation of the enemies of Israel that investigation. 3 Encycl. iv. . which he young man would Then Satan came forth and entered into the young man and taught him " magic. his 223 father's grave in tears.S. 29. 1843. Jeremias 2 to human be the probability that "the Babylonians sacrifice secretly without formally taking up into the recognised worship. C. Damons (ed. Bibl. and fates. i. divinations. destinies." and how they sacrificed their unnatural offspring nine months 2 4 later..A. There are also stories told of such sacrifice among the Sabians. 28. p." And from that time on men began to sacrifice their children to demons and to worship idols. M. speaks of the sexual orgies among the Euchitae and the Gnosti "at the time when we celebrate the Passion of our Lord. 149.A. Diet.B.

224

THE QUESTION OF HUMAN SACRIFICE IN ASSYRIA.
tablet

omen
(is)

which Sayce translated "

When

the Air-god

fine,

prosperity.

On
is

burnt."

This, however,

high places the son is incorrect, and Ball's translation,

the

though not exact, was accurate enough to disprove the
sacrifice

theory
grain
is

"The
on
the

rain

of

Rimmon
(or

is

violent;
slopes)
is

the
is

sprouting
minished,

ridges
*

terraced

laid

bare(?)."
p.

The second

text

that

given in this book on
as late as

210, and Professor Sayce maintained
still

1902

2

that his interpretation

held good as

seeming to show that the firstborn of man was included among the sacrifices that were deemed acceptable to heaven.
This

depended
'

on his
in

translation

of

l

un'su,

offspring/

which Ball
1

(loc. cit.)
it.

fatling
sacrifice

for

1892 had challenged, and substituted Hence we have as yet no proof of human
ritual tablets.

from Assyrian

laid

Again, a great deal too much stress, I think, has been It is frequently on the witness of seal-cylinders.
difficult

very

to

explain the subjects engraved on them,

and the representation of the slaughter of human beings, even when a god is shown to be present, is not necessarily

human

sacrifice.

It is doubtful

whether the seal-cylinders
4

3 published by Menant

or Ball

for the evidence of such

1

The text runs emima
last

isahhar (tur) a-ru-ur,

ilu Adad pi-su inadi se-gu-um ina kislah-mes and has therefore reference to thunder, not rain.
'

The

word arur
is

interpretation

should prefer to translate is scorched.' Ball's minished (isahhar) is perfectly correct, as it is
I
' ' '

a word frequently used in these texts in this connection. 2 Oifford Lectures, 467. Even were the meaning (human) offspring be no support that it meant firstborn.' possible, there would then
'

I think, however, no one, on reading the incantation, can that there is any question of human sacrifice.
3

now

believe

Recherches sar la Glyptique Orientate,

150

;

Catalogue

Be

Clercq,

Nos. 176-82.
4

P.S.B.A., xiv, 1892, 149.

MODERN CUSTOMS OF REDEMPTION.
a custom

225

can

really

be

admitted

as
of

final

proof.

That

many
matter.

of

them depict the slaying

men

is

quite clear;

but that this can be shown to be

sacrifice is quite

a different

The

fact

is,

human
in,

sacrifice

goes out in proportion as

civilization

comes

and probably by the time men are

able

to

commit

sacrifice

religious ritual to writing human has ceased to be a regular or periodic rite. It

their

may appear
texts
;

sporadically, as an actual occurrence, in historic
it

have been entirely eliminated from any written ceremonial which represents the belief of the majority. When a conqueror has himself portrayed
will probably

but

hewing captives in pieces before his god, the reason is more likely to be diplomatic than religious. At any rate, it is a far different form of sacrifice from a propitiatory
far

offering of one's

own

tribe,

descended from a cannibal

feast.

which was probably a custom The more civilized the
sacrifice

community the more abhorrent does human become, and just as the Assyrians were the
civilized of all the Semitic

highest

nations before our era, so in
traces
is

proportion
in their

will

the

fewest
it

of this

custom

exist

records.
will

Hence

extremely improbable that

any

ritual

be found describing
its

human

sacrifice,

or

any record that proves
occurrence.

existence except as a sporadic

From
customs.
is

the ancient tradition

we may turn

to the

modern

Among

the Jews in Palestine the firstborn son

redeemed

to-day as of old.

A

priest

takes from his

parents the price of this redemption, the

sum being about

eighteen shillings, after receiving which the priest holds
the

money over the head of the child, and says in Hebrew " This instead of that, this in exchange for that, this in

226

MODERN CUSTOMS OF REDEMPTION.

remission of that.

May

this

child

enter
!

into
it

life,

into

the law, and into the fear of heaven
will that whereas

May

be God's

he has been admitted

to redemption, so

may he enter into the law, the nuptial canopy, and into Amen." He then places his hand on the good deeds child's head and gives the priestly blessing. 1 It is sig!

nificant,

by the way, that the modern Semites, while they
sacrifice in
if

do not lay their hands upon the head of the ordinary cases, yet they do lay their hands on it
else kills
it.
2

someone

At

a shrine near Beirut sheep, goats, and bullocks

are
kill

sacrificed in

payment

of vows.

The formula used The

is

" I

this

sheep as a fedu for Abdullah."

slayer dips his

index finger in blood and daubs it on the forehead of the one for whom the vow was made, and he steps over the
blood. 3

The modern Arab fedu ceremonies

offer a close

parallel.

"The

servant
*
:

of

the

*

Chair*

at

Zebedani

related

the

following

a sacrifice

The mother of a boy, when she slaughters vowed on his behalf, takes some of the blood
it

and puts

on his

skin.

They

call

the

sacrifice fedou. sacrifice
is

Taking the blood from the place
slaughtered
is

where the

equivalent to
it

place and putting

on the

taking the "4
child.'

blessing
Similarly,

of

the

"

they

go through the opening sura of the Koran, address the This is from thee and unto spirits (el-Aktab), and say,
'

thee (God), and, God, receive it from such an one, the son of such a mother, as a redemption (fedou) in behalf
1

Masterman, Bibl. World,
Curtiss, loc.
cit.,

xxii, 250.

On

putting blood on doorposts

in Palestine see Curtiss, Prim.
2
4

Sem.

Ret., 181, 188.
3

149.

Curtiss, Bibl. World, xxiii, 332.

Curtiss, Prim. Sem. Bel, 200.

MODERN CUSTOMS OF REDEMPTION.
of

227

him/

This

sacrifice
1

is

a

sacrifice
if

of

thanksgiving
sacrifice

looking

backward."

In

Arabia,

one

for

health, the death of the ewe or the goat they

think to
his

be accepted in exchange for the earners
life,

life

or
3

own

life for life.

2

In Syria they
the
spirit,

kill

animals

on behalf
These

of

the

dead,

for

calling

them fedu.

sacrifices

the next

go before the deceased as light, to serve him in life as he approaches God, becoming a kajfdrah
between the
"

for his sins. 4

The "

sacrifice

feet

is

made

in Palestine

on behalf of a pilgrim on his return from Mekka, Jerusalem, or for some one who has been a long way away from

home.

"The ceremony

consists

in

a

sheep

or

a

goat

being slaughtered for the one

who
room

returns.

Just before

he enters the door of the house he stands with his legs
spread out so that there
placed between them."
is

for

the victim to be
throat
is

The

victim's

cut,

and
is

some of the blood
Christian,
it

is

put on his forehead.
in the sign of a cross.
'

If he
5

a

is

marked

1

Curtiss, Prim. Sem. Rel., 196.

Doughty, Arabia Deserta,

i,

452.

At Rome, according to Ovid, each father of a family, as the festival of the Lemuria came round and all was still, arose, and standing with bare feet he made a special sign with his fingers and thumb to
3

keep off any ghost. Thrice he washes his hands in spring water, then with face he turns round and takes black beans into his mouth " These I send averted he spits them away, and as he spits them says, " forth, with these beans I redeem myself and mine (J. E. Harrison,
;

Prolegomena, 35). There is a story told of Al-Nooman, surnamed Abu Kabus, who in a drunken fit ordered two of his intimate companions to be buried alive. When he came to himself he was so grieved that he set aside two days, on one of which he sacrificed whomsoever he might
meet, and sprinkled the blood on the monument he erected to them on the other, he that met him was dismissed with safety with magnificent
;

gifts (Sale,
4

Koran, Prelim. Disc,

sect.

i). 8

Curtiss, Prim. Sem. Rel., 178.

Ibid., 177.

228

THE FELV.
a

When
house

man

finishes a house,

he makes a

sacrifice

on

the doorstep as a redemption for the building.

"

Every
or

must

have

its

death,

a

man, woman,

child,

has appointed a fedou for every building through sacrifice. If God has accepted the sacrifice, he

animal. 1

God

has

According to an orthodox house to house, or in occupying on from Moslem, moving
the

redeemed

house."

2

a

new

building, a

man
;

will kill the fedou the first night
f<

that he sleeps therein

the object
.

is
. .

the bursting forth
It is for himself

of blood unto the face of God.

and family a redemption. It keeps off disease and the 3 The shekh Kafr of Harib, above the Sea of jinn."
Galilee, explained to

Mr. Curtiss that the people
for

sacrifice

a victim on

the

threshold

the

new

house, "because

every place, land, or spot on the earth has its own dwellers, lest one of the family die in this land. Because it is not
theirs,

they redeem the family by a fedou, one or

all."

4

In

Hums, if a man has bought a new house and its inhabitants had been unlucky, the owner will make some change, such as taking up an old stone on the threshold and
laying a
offered

new one
5

in

its

place.

Then the
it

sacrifice

is

on that threshold, the people calling

"

presenting

a kafdrah."

1 In Borneo there is a custom of making holes to receive the posts, and men are killed and placed therein, " so that the house being founded in blood may stand" (McLennan, Studies, 22). Compare Joshua vi, 26, " With the loss of his firstborn shall he lay the foundation thereof, and

Malays
3 5

with the loss of his youngest son shall he set up the gates of it." The sacrifice a fowl, a goat, or a buffalo in such a case (Skeat,
143).
Ibid., 197. Ibid.,

Malay Magic,

254.

For

Curtiss, loc. cit., 196. Curtiss, Bill. World, xxi, 253. the sacrifice for a tent see loc. cit., 253.
i
iii,

2

On
Das

building rites generally see Gittde, Melusine,

497;

Sartori,

Bauopfer,

Zeits. fiir Ethnol., 1898, xxx, 1

ff.

THE 'AKIKAH.
According
the time of
to

229

Robertson
it

Smith,

1

among

the

Arabs in

Mohammed
child,

was common

to sacrifice a sheep

on the birth of a

and then

to shave the

head of the

infant and daub the scalp with the blood of the victim.

This ceremony, called 'aklkah, or 'the cutting of the hair/ was designed to avert evil from the child, and was evidently an act of dedication by which the infant was brought under
the protection of the god of the community.

Lane

describes

the 'alcikah -ceremony thus (the parallel with the Assyrian
texts quoted on pp. 208, 211 being very striking)
:

"The
blood

person should say, on slaying the victim,
this

'

God, verily
;

akeekah

is

a

ransom

for

my

son, such a one

its

for his blood,

and

its flesh for his flesh,

and

its

bone for his

bone, and

its

skin for his skin, and
a ransom for

its

hair for his hair.
,

God, make

it

my son

from
2

hell-fire.

A bone
offer

of the victim should not be broken."
sacrifice for a

In Nebk they

boy when seven days

old without breaking

3 bones, lest the child's bones also be broken.

In Arabia Doughty noticed a custom that, when a man child was born, the father would slay an ewe, but would
4 give nothing for a female.

Similar in idea to this
(in

is

the

custom in some

localities

Palestine)

that

only male

animals should be used in

sacrifices.

The Nusairiyeh and

5 Ismailiyeh consider females unfit for food or for sacrifice.

This

is

probably due to a natural economy, which holds

the female more valuable than the male.

1 See Kinship, 152. See also on tho Religion of the Semites, 328. aklkah, Wellhausen, Reste Arabischen Reidentums, 174.

2
3 *

Arabian Nights, chap, iv, note Curtiss, Prim. Sem. Ret., 178.
Arabia Deserta,
i,

No.

24.

452.

5

Curtiss, Prim. Sem. Rel., p. 173.

230
It

SUBSTITUTION AMONG OTHER NATIONS.

was

clearly not confined to the Semites.

"

There was

a sanctuary of Artemis at
it

Munychia.

and was

killed

by the Athenians.

A bear came into A famine followed,

and the god gave an oracle that the famine should cease if someone would sacrifice his daughter to the goddess. Embaros was the only man who promised to do it, on
condition that he and his family should have the priesthood
for
life.

He

disguised his daughter and

hid her in the
sacrificed

sanctuary, and dressed a goat in a garment and
it

as his daughter."

l

Among
a cock
Finally,

the Malays,

"

if

the spirit craves a
2

human

victim

may we may

be substituted."

turn to a curious instance of
allied

sacrificial

substitution

closely

to

this.

It

is

related

in

the

royal

annals of Sennacherib that,
to the Persian Gulf,

when

that

king went
Ea, the lord

down

he offered

gifts to

of the sea
"Before them at the side of the Gulf
I stood and offered up pure victims Unto Ea, the King of the Deep With golden ships, a golden fish, a golden
;

.

.

.

Into the depths of the sea I cast, And then I sent my ships across speedily

Against the city of Nagiti."

3

The

offering of the
satisfy
toll

Golden Ship

is

intended to propitiate
for
ships,

Ea and

the

hunger of the sea
4

thus

paying on their way in
1

beforehand that the real
safety.

ships

may

proceed

J.

E. Harrison, Prolegomena, 72.
3

2

4

Skeat, Malay Magic, 72. W.A.I., iii, 12, 2. For similar instances see Frazer, Golden Bough, ii. Xerxes, to

give another royal parallel, after flogging the Hellespont offers sacrifices

on the bridge and casts into the waters the golden bowl which he had

E.. 1893.. Even at cast into a holy spring see Robertson Smith. that the ordinary sickness. of ram the is a burnt sacrifice to God in the in Abraham.F. The victim is then thrown into the bay as a is sacrifice to St. Bel. 311 Herodotus. Among the Maronites the neck of the sheep is laid on the prow of a ship and the throat is so cut that the blood runs into the sea. 231 From these instances it seems that the origin of the it. the substitution or is redemption atonement to * of buildings evil.SUBSTITUTION AMONG OTHER NATIONS. which may referred is to many causes . xxi. the Numbers theory. 257). similar tabu. is The due possibilities are that the sacrifice of to the firstborn of to (l) some theory. 54 for instances of gifts . .ceremony an act dedication. to according Robertson Smith. firstborn 1 . In the instance . with a golden crater and a Persian sword (Rouse. memory be of the passover the Arab sacrifices for the safe return of the pilgrim are a thankoffering. 336). used in libation. 177). xxiii. Sem. probably the true origin of the Passover {Golden Bough. P. and the victims immolated to Suleiman Ibn Daud (the weli of two hot springs near the Dead Sea) are sacrificed in such a manner that the blood goes into the water (Curtiss. The to 'ak i kah. this day at Gaza they have a custom of throwing bread into the sea as an offering or vow to its inhabitants (Baldensperger. ' clearly a avert just as the sickness-devil given the is atonement of of a sheep. 49). vii. belongs to Yahweh. George or Seyide (ibid. and the questions to be debated on the origin of such a custom are three in number. World. atonement for that future danger (tabu. 1 Frazer gives what ii. substitution has been forgotten by those that practise for The reasons given that it is doing it are so many and various obvious they are only attempts at an explanation for continuing the practice of an old custom among a conservative people.. We have therefore decide on the balance of probabilities. Bibl. 216). Greek Votive Offerings. .

idea times as much such a sacrifice of children was in primitive a sharing of a meal with the deity as any its logical other sacrifice.232 SUBSTITUTION ' AMONG OTHER NATIONS. it of The fact that the Hebrews. due to the right of the the gods to have connection with women or of (3) the the tribe. shows reason further for how . place. which. By an ingenuous display of blood he cozens his god into believing that the highest . who thus bear that semi-divine children. is This that a presumably a time when the savage is is learning human being of a higher economic. at an early period. old the real if such substitution must push this limit there was some more logical reason for the custom than comfiture of an ancient enemy. were divided between at for least two divergent hypotheses the origin of the custom of vicarious dedications. he doubtless make-believe ' to enter somewhat into his procedure. and we go beyond the period when be and the glorification of the piety of a tribal hero or the dis- we are then only reaching back to the fringe of savagery. and substitutes beasts from the flocks Yet. social. would show the primitive Semitic savage to be a cannibal. although he forsakes the actual methods of allows ' his ancestors. and that animal as on the same plane therefore ceases to human in religious affairs. To discover the meaning of such a peculiar custom. traced to conclusion. strongly on particularly in Hebrew laws. life is and not rational value than an animal. is plain that we must go back to the very depths savagery. and sin ') can be removed by such a so is either from the parents or the community. sacrifice. He their sacrifice his children as a regular in custom. probably neither of them correct. or the divine (2) an idea that insisted proprietary the right.

likely to be more palatable the x Smith Robertson Supreme Being than roast donkey. and that a lamb or kid might take the place of the the human being any other in in a sacrificial meal.SUBSTITUTION AMONG OTHER NATIONS. Israelites did not eat the ass themselves. oxen. the throat was not to be cut." seems to have found the same difficulty about 1 Rel. is apparently. is What is more. the throat of the beast is cut and the blood poured out why. If we once admit that the offering was a sacrifice of the firstborn to gods (such as reappeared at sporadic intervals in the later civilized communities in time of stress). 463. that to it is difficult to is find to explanation a save the origin be sought cannibal feast which the gods were invited. then. although probably affording to to the actual origin. little The clue story of Abraham. there no idea of being carried out in any other or fire. should the ass be different? Frazer concludes that a distinction was drawn between sheep. Sent. way except that of a bloody sacrifice by knife The redemption of the the ass its is ass goes far to confirm this. in is which a human being it in question. 233 form of meat has been provided for the feast. . . If not redeemed. at least points to a sacrifice of a form the similar cases in the sacrificial meal. In the primitive sacrifice where the offering represents the communal meal. and men and on the other and he explains that because the . asses and goats on the one hand. but to neck was be broken. that roast lamb to on the hypothesis.. they . probably their god did not do so either of concluded " and the price the redemption was a lamb sacrifice which was burnt as a vicarious instead of the ass.

the On the other hand. and as such was slain in such a it way as to leave the perfect so that might perform the deity's body apparently work in the abode of the gods. If the beast it is From this the deduction is clear. He intermarried with the tribe and fed at the same table is off the same food. appears from if provision of the older is Hebrew law owner. the divine effigy was anointed after the manner pleasing to itching man. but a beast of burden. because it Naturally the throat would not be was not a sacrificial feast. Bel. Even see in some of the modern is fedu ceremonies the blood of the surrogate the child. in which daubed on we may an attempt to perpetrate 1 See Robertson Smith. pre2 The sumably. we do not know what became of the carcase of the ass in primitive times. does not descend to Sheol unless the body is buried. represent the communal feast. all will not are be meal conversely. . slaves 'shade' doubtless served the tribal god. and not food. Just as and burnt. However. which times for the firstborn. while the body of the ass remained above ground. 1 Hence the lamb. I would offer the following as an explanation the reason for sacrificing kids or lambs is that they are to be eaten. cut. represents the substituted offered in at more the civilized and common table. its that a firstling ass not redeemed by its neck shall be broken. Hence. which is inseparably connected with the blood. and the blood the ass is is therefore poured out on the ground. more 2 primitive cannibal sacrifice.234 the ass SUBSTITUTION AMONG OTHER NATIONS. not a ceremonially sacrificial slaughtered . Sem. who accompany their dead human lords to the netherworld are buried with them." . soul of man. offerings that slain with a knife. : " that of some form of of taboo lies also at the the bottom the sacrifice firstlings. so were the appetites of the god satisfied. and cooked.

and uneatable. because spirit.NOT PROPHYLACTIC ATONEMENT. such as has been described in the preceding chapter. is with the So. rich This would. Every beasts firstborn of man held to belong to the gods. and at the same time he feeds on the carcase of the victim. the firstborn sacred totem is are property for that sacrifice. but not by unlicensed units. that of possession it by reason of unlikely. and that totemism and animal-shaped gods give colour to a belief in intermixture between gods and beasts of tribal . entail an unlimited destruction of property Still obtain a very problematic result. a savage who owns wives will sacrifice fertile extremely improbable large possessions in herds and not only a lamb or a kid from every Now it female in his flocks. as we have makes the it animal really filled * unclean/ tabu. in the case of a to man. killed and eaten at solemn tribal meetings. But this. is possibility. such a slaughter of scores or hundreds of firstborn represents a corresponding waste. more is it unlikely that he will be allowed to kill the firstborn of the totem Totems may be merely to preserve his individual life. but even his own firstborn to save himself from harm. a very 235 deceived by common religious fraud. if we return to our argument of the rich savage. The deity is the bloodstained appearance of the child. prophylactic atonement of this kind approaches the nature of the ' atonement for tabu or sin-offering. The second paternity. divine more. of Nay. driven after leaving seen. which is absurd. Although or be granted that the rights gods are recognized among the god harim. ' The spirit causing the mischief changes it is its human abode for the animal into which the man's body. Moreover. There seems to be first little difficulty in eliminating the theory of prophylactic or beast is atonement.

" . are clearly the result of it is the union to and yet they between gods and the law of the women. could be wrested into analogy. 51) against Wellhausen (Prolegomena. and his hair (Curtiss. 12). difficult see how firstfruits of vegetables. abortions. Heroic demigods have. " who 2 is comes of age regarded as a sort of Nazarite. Also the existence of the Nazarite class must not be To this day in Syria women vow to give a son to God.. a period of ignorance. demons as well gods married the girls of the tribe. never been sacrificed in babyhood. note). i. the Hebrews. 3rd : ed. I think. but in this case.. Isaac is obviously a burnt sacrifice. for obvious reasons. untenable " Sebstverstiindlich sollte menschliche Erstgeburt nicht geopfert werden vermoge ihres besonderen Angehorigkeitsverhaltnisses an Jehova galten die Erstgeborenen vielmehr ursprlinglich als die zum Dienst am Heiligtum verpflichteten leibeigenen knechte Jehova's" (Handworterbuch des Bibl. of the other their branches firstborn the Semitic race. is not cut until he their firstborn. Sem. Riehm's theory is.. 1893.236 at NOT RIGHT OF PATERNITY. The Levites Alt. 153. Frazer. little Furthermore. Bel. 411). fire regularly sacrificed children by the or the knife" (ibid. firstborn that openeth the matrix among the children of Israel (Xura. In view of our having no evidence that the Assyrians sacrificed " other " for I should suggest the substitution of "the other. the argument against such. before " we can hardly 2 resist the the practice of redeeming like them was introduced. Prim. are chosen "from among the children of Israel instead of all the 1 die .. quite likely that the offspring are the and especially those with physical disabilities who are excluded categorically from the priesthood. iii. and seems the most probable. Again. sacrificial The third theory has already been discussed.. forgotten. although this argument has force as it by reason of is its proposed explanation. 1 Agreeing conclusion with that. He main90) tains (p. etc. 49). a hypothesis is clear.

hints at such a proceeding. : with other instances. when a woman's husband killed in battle.. 3 The probability of such 1 Robertson Smith says here "To conclude from this that at one time the Hebrews actually sacrificed all their firstborn sons is absurd. for even commonly was . as sacrifices.BUT PROBABLY INDICATING CANNIBALISM. refuse to eat their own and to growing civilisation the idea that the gods had ordained meals of human flesh. Sem. and the woman would be barren. He tries to show from this repulsion that in any offering simulating . East Africa. 464) that this redemption and he quotes in support of this the savage tribes." 2 He also quotes the heathen Russians as sacrificing their firstborn. that On this third hypothesis. takes its start. many families up their firstborn Among some tribes of South East Africa. It was impossible that the sacrificial customs should continue unmodified where the victim was held savages to represent a man and a tribesman. and sometimes practised periodically at solemn annual rites. I apprehend that this is the point from which the special development of piacular sacrifices. the dedication of the sacrifice. has been and she marries again. and the distinction between them and ordinary sacrifices. every woman eaten a religious offer ceremony in Senjero.. firstborn to the deity had its origin in we can proceed to examine the evidence for cannibalism at such Robertson Smith certainly more than a sacrificial meal. 3 " Wherever we find the doctrine of substitution of animal life for that of man. Sem. or of flesh that as sacred as that of a man. the first child after her second marriage must be put to death. sometimes confined to seasons of extreme peril. was too repulsive to be Whether the custom of actually eating the flesh long retained. 2nd ed. a modification of the sacrifice of the firstborn.. 366). If it were not killed an accident herself would befall the 2 second spouse. and Robertson Smith is 1 237 (Bel. customs of many In some parts of of New is South Wales the as firstborn child . we also find examples of actual human sacrifice. survived in historical times in any case of human sacrifice is more than . . doubtful " (Rel. kinsfolk.

" At the same time the evidence brought Internationale forward at the Cong res pour les Etudes human sacrifice the sacrificial meal tended to fall out of use. burning was a distinct act. By his theory of piacula. 369-376) that the substitution burning of the flesh of the Hebrew sin-offerings outside the doubt that originally the true as in the Hebrew is hardly any the shedding of the blood. first a hypothesis will rest on the evidence pro and con of the prevalence of cannibalism among prehistoric peoples and modern savages in general. and that there sacrifice. by our theory of demoniac exorcism. i. p. Prehistoric of the Times. however. The rites take their origin from two widely distinct sources. 367-368). says : " Cannibalism " in the Encyclopaedia "It has been well argued that had the men find of the quaternary period been cannibals. and the local forces which might lead to such a custom. p. in his article Britannica. The discovery of some few ancient human remains. and. IS Homme 68) . not the case (Le Hon. Tylor. also. no necessity to connect the sin-offering with the substitution of the firstborn. and the camp. There is. we should like the bones generally is cracked for the marrow those of beasts. may perhaps be taken to show that prehistoric savages were in this respect like those of modern times. secondly.238 PREHISTORIC CANNIBALISM. and in the case of animal piacula the sacrificial meal is generally wanting. his explanation of the reason for throwing the carcases outside the camp is rather forced. which Fossile. took place at the temple. in traditions of the Semitic nations in particular. sin-offering.e. neither free from cannibalism nor universally practising it. that as regards the ancient people shell-mounds. or confined to the priests (pp. 232). had they eaten their own species they would have thrown the human bones into the rubbish heaps with those of beasts and fishes (Lubbock. He and human sacrifices closely parallel the maintains (pp. . flesh the state of which seems to indicate that the had been eaten.

verbs. All the in however. Anthrop. 129. men shall sell their children for 1 M. Gesellschaft in Wt'en. see Richard Andree. Bergemann quotes many classical passages for certain forms of cannibalism. idlu ardata [iz]zib u ardatu mdrti bdbi-$a iddil. . Bergemann. with a plate showing prehistoric human bones split to extract the marrow. Mittheil. ul itab libbiiu.Aubin (human bones (evidence held indecisive) M. . Messikommer in Robenhausen M. The translation runs " That prince : shall see woe. ummu eli i&tentt inniUd. discord. during whose reign wars. . notably Herodotus (i. 1887. Schaaffausen in Ultz. . 4541. Spring proved cannibalism in the cave of Chauveau (p. eat his brother. in that reign brother . 6 ff. and his proposed explanation due to a blunder. For the For an article literature on cannibalism see Gaidoz. For other instances of prehistoric cannibalism in Europe and elsewhere. 1893. . ina pali suatu ahu ahUu ikkal nise mdreh'na H ana kaspi ipaUaru. iii. Paris) man at one period of his existence did certainly eat his fellow. de Mehedin in Mexico. Bouvet in M. 159) M. in perforated) Roujou Villeneuve-Saint-Georges Guyane M. and slavery appeared on the earth. and giving an account of the origin of the Assyrian Empire. de Lastic in the cave of Bruniquel M. . 216) for the Massagetse who killed people when they grew old. Die Verbreitung der Anthropophagie. 2 Eubu marusta immar. d. Die Antkropophagie. 239 shows that Prthistoriques prehistoric 1867 (2nd session. m&t&ti izzib idli. and the mythical stories of Tantalus. his heart shall be grieved battle shall and strife shall during his rule not cease. Clement in Saint. and Polyphemus. Westphalia M. xxvi. see Matiegka. 2 ff. .PREHISTORIC in CANNIBALISM. bearing mention of an ancient Babylonian ruler. 1 That cannibalism under as stress of famine was recognized proved by the by Bezold in his is a possibility among the is Assyrians described tablet K. in the passage he quotes are the is present tense (and not past). buki Babili ana kirib su-edin-ki um ' fu A$$uri irrub. . Melusine. 2 which Catalogue as a mythological legend. 337. Atreus. . adi SarrtitiMu tahazu u kablum id ipparrasu.

du banquet religieux os. money." culte "La . 1842. Globus. . Kinship and Marriage. xvi. her father. The latter says la " : De on n'immolait que des enfans de et les a. There is another passage which points to human flesh : ! being eaten by gods. shall The property of Babylon come into Subarti evil and Assyria. 3 Les Sacrifices Humains chez les ff. 1842. 15. 4 Le Culte du Moloch.' But this is an incantation. the lands shall be raised up one against another. Hebreux. and no Very great it. 1896. 1 Myhrman. 2 . . Goldziher. 1903. du Passah appartenait la a l'ancien molochiste c'etait grande humaine. Tiber Kannibalismus aus Orientalischen Quellen. on n'en soin f6te jetait dans le feu et que leurs sans les qu'on avait eu de garder intacts endommager. 2 . 2 clearly shown to have eaten human The existence of cannibalism 3 maintained by Ghillanys 1842. stress must be laid on The Arabs have been flesh.240 CANNIBALISM AMONGST THE SEMITES." It is clearly a text that threatens on the ruler of the land for some reason or other. The man shall desert the maid and the maid desert the man . fete le universelle de des Timmolation de la chair banquet Z. what I ask of thee: the flesh of men not good. 33 ff. This is from the Labartu-series " There came the daughter of Anu to Bel. my father Bel. among the Hebrews was and Daumer 4 as far back as cette maniere. 'Bring me. .A. No.. Kobertson Smith. the blood of men " . 175. and said. 291 ff. noblesse ceux du menu peuple apres leur les plats autres victimes humaines servaient mort remplir de leur chair et de leur sang . 1. mother shall bolt her door against daughter. lxx.

the father being reckoned not akin to his children who follow the in his maternal line. the kindred children be admitted as eatable. that the blood of enemies battle clear slain in was drank xxiv. Num. 24. 8. if it existed among 1 the Semites an early period. The only difficulty that would arise about the eating of the firstborn the prejudice that some savages have flesh. is This is Bergemann's view. however. 1900. is most ancient period. .CANNIBALISM AMONGST THE SEMITES. 176. If. evidence to show that Hebrews more historical period did eat human flesh is doubtful but that their traditions indicate that is. cviii. their Semitic forefathers did so I think. and he says that it from Num. PerrauWs Tales. has attempted ' bring all cases of cannibalism under the term of eating relations endocannibalism/ or custom This is and kindred. 2 On the other hand. as seems very 12. no obstacle to our theory of the Semites eating their firstborn. For this reason the wilder South American children according to lawfully eat Cieza de Leon. 241 mangeant et la chair. quoted by Deniker. 2 3 Andrew Lang. The reason for the at origin of cannibalism. quite obvious. 1 in the Further. Races et Peuples de la Terre. cannibales sacrifies. Bergemann. against eating kindred tribes. difficulty 3 who says that the theory meets with the that certain Australian tribes avoid eating their. shows that their flesh was eaten. Endokannibalismus. to Steinmetz. relations (except young children) and exchange between the various there is tribes." Whether the there remains enough of the . 1893. bred they might from wives of alien stock. Die Verbreitung der Anthropophagie. xxiii. le buvant feu les le sang des enfans -non jetant dans os Irises des victimes.

242 CANNIBALISM AMONGST THE SEMITES. and at by force of hunger to the same time reduce their numbers. and. And hence we may to eat assume that they had never been driven by famine human flesh. who inhabited long before the valleys Semites arrived. economic reasons would suggest the substitution of lambs and kids for the sacrifice of their kin. . at nationalities. comes these fertile from the Sumerians. Doubtless this scarcity of food was one of the chief factors in driving fertile them to look for better and more the richer lands . that the pressure of famine had far more to do with the origin of infanticide than family pride had. not far to least is seek. 294. of substitution has been Yet much of the Babylonian must not be forgotten that religion. before they split up into their various one of the most barren lands. as we know it. of There a 1 Kobertson Smith. family peculiarly pure about them. own Against this it this may be urged form it that up to the present no trace of found in cuneiform. that the early Semites were driven devour their children. the two being gluttony and superstition and therefore we shall probably not be wrong in thinking other . as soon as they settled in pastures of Mesopotamia. Kinship. Arabia. Doughty's x constantly from hunger during a great part of the year. Why first the firstborn only should have been selected is is nothing more appetizing about the the than and there is nothing second. is probable. "Indeed. the home of the Semites. for the pure beast in magic not clear." Necessity is one of the three reasons admitted for anthropotravels nomads phagy. can be doubtful to no one who realises the fact that the vividly brought out in of Arabia suffer Mr.

Sem. kind of victim. when exceptional circumstances called for a human victim. so bring down to the divine wrath. for a special purpose." . and by preference a firstborn or only child.. Priestly or kingly influence doubtless had its effect on the tribute of rich tribesmen. The people of historical times had doubtless forgotten that human offer sacrifice it cannibal meal. and sacrificial meal. selected . before historic the primitive long devoured the firstborn of the tribe at a times. and regarded either as a represented a commensal " self-denying or else looked ordinance as " to their best. but it is rather explained as the most costly offering a man can make to be regarded as the choice. But cf. Bel. was a cannibal. If the gods are admitted is. upon it a surrogate for the whole people on the analogy of other substitutes. that We may Semite. of the most sacred it was a child. is 243 however. that is difficult satisfactory theory. 464 point of fact. the tribe grew richer in flocks.SELECTION OF THE FIRSTBORN. even in old times. substitute to a firstborn kid for the stress Yet in times of great national the Semitic mind would and revert to primitive tradition. this is the surest way of attaining such a result. 1 It every mother to take have regular dues paid by the tribe. the would be sacrificed to the god. and at any rate it secures a sure propitiation of the god. by failure or unexpected barrenness. the virgin. perhaps firstborn instinctively. To defer the gift until to a second crop might. Yet the fact must never be lost sight of that the its lamb brought as a sin-offering took 1 of origin in the carcase : " In Robertson Smith. that was This is commonly the by peoples in and around Palestine. a custom which compels her turn. reasonably consider. then. it As time went on and became the custom eldest child. But it many things have to evolve a be taken into account.

the as substitution of the lamb the firstborn arises. to which a process of . which was intended the sick man. for as a bait to inveigle the evil spirit out of On the other hand. out of a primitive cannibal sacrifice. origins of the two rites are absolutely dissimilar.244 the beast SELECTION OF THE FIRSTBORN. we The have seen. whatever may have been the ultimate phase analogy brought them.

Marduk. 81. Sala. . of sin against a god/' and his goddess hath he despised?" Here . " " Tabu against passing the bounds of a god probably " " III. " He seeketh of the temple" III. " Tabu of the god . ". . Sarpanit. . . Damkina. Ea. . . Nabu." . . Aa. the Surpu Series contains which the sick man may have broken unwittingly. The Lists of Breaches of Tabu in the Subpv Series. . 138-148. " Tabu of the god of (such-and-such) being mutilated. 34.245 APPENDIX. . against a goddess " Hath he " Is it 74. : Exod. 20 ("He that sacrificeth unto any god. Adad. 69. 123. II. Marduk can loose the tabu of Anu. " Loose ." " temple lines . ." the latter part of the Old Testament. 124. . ." Quia. following heads : They may be grouped under the (1) Of gods and their worship. " Hath he sinned " ? against his god." seeketh at the shrine of lord or lady. . 68. hath he slighted a goddess ? his his sin that or his against god (is) against goddess " his misdeed ? " Is it in anything that he hath slighted his god or goddess ?" " " Hath he made god or his goddess angry with him ? 122. Samas. . but this is more probably to be put under the head of sedition. " Is it an unknown it an unknown sin 33. . . 71. Belit-Nippur. Anatu. . 72-76. 128. is " ? goddess 32. and Ba'u. . Ninib. 5. Tasmit. silakki .. " " He He seeketh of the gods of heaven. . As a long list of the possible tabus has been stated on p." " Ill. IV.. Cf. 52. Bel. " spurned a god. save unto Yahweh only ") cf. III. 9. hath he sinned against his sin against a god. . 45. Belit. the shrines of earth. also 28. [Ban of angel (sedu)] and lamassu . First and Third Commandments xxii. also should come II.genius " Tabu of " Tabu of shrine and Ninib . also II. I. 11. Cf. Sin. Ningal.

55 Here perhaps should be placed VIII. friend with his friend? " Oppression against a bennu. from the tabu of elder brother. " . 55 " Tabu of eating the flesh of an offering.. Beligion of Ancient Of relations and friends. the seven members of his fathers house. Anything which he hath and made a prayer ? Hath he abrogated a due offering ? " " [Tabu] of destroying (?) an offering (?). 41. house. daughter-in-law with mother-in-law. also 156-158. 37. .' 36. offering . brother. grand- father. mother. mother-in-law with daughter-in-law. brother. falling on a man through father. elder sister. 450. xxiii. panion. elder sister " Tabu 3-11. near or distant relatives. he hath sanctified (or) he hath and then withheld ? Anything which he hath presented (?) but eaten himself ? . 86. tabu. friend. . at variance with father.246 APPENDIX. companion. . . progeny or suckling. sister. . . I have not taken have not the (Wiedemann. comrade or fellow. " Hath he set son mother with daughter. partner. 77-80. staff. 31. " I have not spoiled the bread of offering in away from the bread diminished offerings Egyptians. thou shalt not be slack to pay it. father with son. libation (?) away into water. 39. II. Sem." The Egyptian Negative Confession. of . (3) " of offering of the gods. (2) Of offerings to gods. comrade with his comrade. 161. . of pouring a [Is it anything] . old or young. and making an " " Hath he incurred a tabu in making an II. grandmother. which included 55 some VIII. hatred against an elder 55 35. Bel. From the tabu of a brother.. II. of these.' . . I the temples. fellow-townsman (of protecting or being hostile to) . and IV. turtu. 251). 42. father or mother (of protecting or " being hostile 5 to). . friend or comCf. daughter with mother. etc. offering ? " See Robertson Smith. rod. brother with his brother. III. and compare " When thou shalt Deut. " From the tabu city. vow a vow unto Yahweh thy God. 54. 5 " Hath he despised " ? father (or) mother. hath he reviled an III. 21. 20-28. fellow.

hath he taken a wrong . 16. 55. xxi. Hath he shed his neighbour's blood ? " " Hath he incurred a tabu from life * " Tabu of approaching (?) his friend (?) and slaying him. : be put to death").. ? " 87. harlot. hath he scattered scattered a well-knit family 72.APPENDIX. xx. ! f (4) Of murder. Hath he used a false balance. " Is it through a company which he hath ? (that he hath incurred a tabu) Is it through a well-knit troop which he hath split up ? " must come III. this " head must come Hath he not spared a man miranussu. hath he removed landmark. Hath he set a false boundary. xviii. xxvii. 9.: hath he [not taken a righteous] price 45-47. concubine. wife " ? Cf. master or mistress (of protecting or being hostile to) from [the tabu of of princess. witch. "From [the tabu of slave or] handmaid. or boundary?" price. 32. Deut. forth good man from " ? his folk. 49. xix. VIII. courtesan (?). 15 And he that smiteth his father or his mother shall surely (" Here also . hath he said of a captive Seize him ' or of a prisoner Bind ' ' ! ' him II. " : Lev. 247 55. 34. II. similarly. III. " Tabu of being agreed with " " an adversary. border. 51. (6) Of stealing and cheating. ." . . hath he not set a true boundary. (or) son (of protecting or being hostile to). 17. Old Testament. [Tabu from] and probably 163. he that curses his parents. "[Tabu from kinsfolk (?) and relatives" offspring] and suckling.] " From the tabu of wife. hath he not let one in prison see the light. 73. Here must be added II. .52. 42. 1 ff. 43. Sixth Commandment." . Old Testament. Fifth Commandment Exod." Cf. Under II. " Hath he not let a captive go free. and then being hostile 162. hath he the driven 51-53. " (5) Of adultery Hath he approached his neighbour's II. in v. " ." Cf. Old Testament. 29-31. 10. Lev. 48. Seventh Commandment xx. hath he not let loose a prisoner. .

11 ff. or mana. and taking with a large one. 39. xxiii. . or in measure. just weights. (8) Commandment : Exod. 50. II. . Deut. just ephah." the tabu of promising pleasure and joy. . 14. Old Testament. " Tabu VIII. Of lying or breaking promises. 1 ff. . xix. " Hath he been 75. 15 . xix.' ' or for ' there is yes for no ? there is not. Bill. VIII. ' " 38. and xxvii. . straight with his mouth but not true in his heart. boundary. or landmark. and then denying it and not giving it. 13 (" Thou shalt not have in thy Cf. a great and a small "). . ye have ") . spoken evil ? Hath he let intrigue be discussed ? n impure 8." he entered his neighbour's house ? " .' or < ' ' ' " ' there is not' for 'there is'?" 55-57. (7) II.). . Of speech. Lev." the tabu of border. in weight. . " " From 50. " He asketh of the BAR-measure. 47. or caused to rob " of fixing border or boundary." " From the tabu ofusing a false balance. Hath he said no " Hath he said for ' ' yes." [Tabu " From Cf. Koran. 35." Cf. 11 (" Ye shall not (" If a man shall steal an ox ") 36 Ye shall do no unrighteousness in xix. (" steal"). 56. a a and shall balances. . shekel. 51. " in anything hath he meditated unrighteousness ? " " Hath he promised with heart and mouth (and) not given ? " and ' ' ' of] saying denying. " 1 VIII. and the KA-measure. . One of the great crimes of which the Midianites were guilty was the using of diverse measures and weights. xxv. buying by one and selling by another (Sale. Just judgment. Deut. Hath " Hath he stolen his neighbour's garment ? " " Hath he been insulting. 56. 1 . hath his mouth said yea but his heart ' nay . of taking a wrong price from one under a tabu " (?) add II. 34. a great and a small. II. Ninth Lev. 14. 6. APPENDIX. From the tabu of giving with a small measure. quoting Al Beidawi in D'Herbelot. Old Testament. " ? Hath he spoken what is unholy " Hath he ? Hath he spoken what 12-14. . Eighth Commandment: Exod. Here also . vv. xix. in meteyard. 17 (landmarks). robbed. III.248 Ill. " is . bag divers weights. 47-49. 114. xxii. just hin. 61. Orient.

24. 66. Exod. 15. officer.APPENDIX. Hath he caused a judge to receive [a Tabu of giving a bribed judgment. . 53. "Hath he transgressed the right. 58-60. but in righteousness righteous in shalt thou judge thy neighbour. and judge. inculcated that which " correct ? (9) II. . 15. he made its city turn ? " Hath he opposed one in authority ? " "Hath he wronged his city. . xix. " And thou shalttake no gift . bribe " (?)] ? " " III. ?. Exod. From the tabu of . II. ? " Hath he set his hand to evil ? " " Hath he followed after evil ? " . that have sight. hath he taught what is impure. for a gift blindeth them . " " 44. II. prefect." (10) II. and refused in great ?" Hath he deposed the rightful heir. hath he made evil the speech of his city ? " Ban of rebellion III. 131.." Cf VIII. . 62. ?" foul. 28. Hath he given in small things. xxii. Cf. nor curse a ruler of thy people. and perverteth the words of the Lev. God (margin. hath he is unseemly?" " Hath he stood up in an assembly and spoken what is not (or) perverse. ?. hath he offended " hath he abolished. " . 96-98. 37. 41. hath he set up the wrong heir?" (?).." " xxiii. 19. Of bribery. "Thou shalt not revile judges)." (11) Various vague references to wrong. hath he spread abroad a rumour against his city. Hath he spoken wickedness " Is his mouth loose (?) (or) . " 63-65. 8. " Ye shall do no unrighteousness judgment: thou shalt not respect the person of the poor. ". " and revolt. Hath " 54. Of sedition and the like. are his lips deceitful (?) 82. nor honour the person of the mighty. destroyed." Cf. driven away.

dam. or river . . . " " " 132. a mistake . 127-130. 251). ittatallak uktabis." and possibly 48. spring.. fire too. coal-pan. . APPENDIX. " Of the lighted coal-pan. ." Here. . flame stove. 67. "Tabu of pointing at the of casting fire in a man's face. and fortress " M Tabu of a a river into river or into urinating vomiting and Euphrates. ." (12) Of water. 13. passage. . and Ill. . refusing. 38. " Tabu of being asked for a runnel for one day. . the Egyptian Negative Confession (Wiedemann. from the tabu of ship. . " Tabu of right or wrong. 15. booth. " 68. "Tabu of machine. [Tabu of well ?] and " river. . " "He " seeketh of irrigation- III. Hath he passed over the bounds of right ? " Hath he done what is not pure ? n " Is 71." Ill. I have not cut off an arm of the river in its course. 58." 55 " Tabu of stopping a neighbour's canal. VIII. heavy or light. (?). 39." and coal-pan. 94. mutilated sin . Tapdd (difficult of ex[ar]ka tapdl " planation)." . 35-37. and fever (?). ferry. "From the tabu of runnel. " . 16. . way. of the torch. of being asked for a ditch and refusing. canal. 110. of sin lines III. 49. 117-119. Here must come II. 70. ." (13) II. 59. river. Tabu III. well. . Eg. .250 II. and reed-hut (?). 12. VIII. 53. sin . An." 133." (?). Of fire. and bridge". bridge. . [Tabu of] dam and ferry. Tabu Tabu of bellows of fire and coal-pan. . Ill. Cf. of making " Tabu of and misdeed " III. of the bellows he seeketh. from the tabu of " III. it through any grievous harm that he hath done ? " Is it by the many sins which he hath committed ? 95. or road." " Here should come the Tabu of weak and . . balihu. watercourse. runnel. "I have not turned aside the water (from a neighbour's field) at the time of inundation. 160. From the tabu of oven. may come " and 18. 47. and bellows. Rel. .

46. 251 All these tabus seem to have reference to respect paid to Fire was not allowed to be kindled on the Sabbath by fire. 27-29. iron dagger. or spear.. and meal are (14) all 499) the threshingheld to be sacred. III. " " be and a sword Rending garments to the compared may drawing custom of the Arabs who cast down their turbans. 67." VIII. the winnowing. bronze dagger. company " " Tabu and an iron (cf. (15) II. symbolizing a fight to the death. or lance. and such nations as especially fire show clearly how such tabus For originated. lance. 113. Of weapons. Tabu of Here also must come " . and beating one's breast. the Parsees will not suffer a menstruous to see fire or woman Bough. Eel. subject to special taboos : The ban on drawing (Robertson Smith.fan. " He seeketh of the tablet and reed-pen. xxi. based on local sacra floor." (16) Of mourning. Sem." in a Tabu of drawing a weapon From the tabu of rending VIII. 3). " From the tabu of being banned by a bow. 57. Ill. or bow. 36.APPENDIX. Ill. 60. iii. " Tabu of bow or chariot. . chariot. " " .. 10. Lev. the reverence Hebrews (Exod. a sword in an assembly is paralleled in later times by the mess-room law which forbids a weapon to be unsheathed. destroying a chariot and touching its riksu. xxxv. . v. Golden Such tabus are 224. Hoffmann). even look on a lighted taper (Frazer." The explanation of this tabu on weapons may perhaps be sought in the consecration of warriors before battle " " warriors are consecrated persons. where the high priest is not to unbind his hair nor rend his clothes. instance. Of writing materials. quoting G." Cf. " From the ban of rending one's garments. in Homer (//. one's VIII. 45. breaking breastpiece. 402). drawing dagger garments " of drawing a bukannu in a company ") III.

1. Thou shalt not see thy brother's ox or his and hide thyself from them. 35. thou shalt surely bring it back to him again " Deut. but it is a crime to wound them. " ." add II. 27 practise augury. also 31 Deut." etc. 116. 115. xix. 1. xxii. xxii. xxiii. brought forth. xviii. (before being sacrificed) chance to be before thee. . " If thou meet thine enemy's ox or his ass " going astray. 11. " Tabu belonging to men and taking them of slaughtering a sheep and touching its riksn (?). " Tabu from sitting on a seat in the sun. " Tabu against striking the young of beasts. xx. (18) II. it is not a guilty act. 18. xix. " ? III. elder brother or sister. II. 26. . live xxii. god or king. 27. xxii. . 42. "Thou shalt not suffer a witch to Lev. 16. is " When it . on p. 7. note Cf. " Neither shall ye use enchantments." Cf. " Hath he 2 set his hand Cf. nor Cf. 126. 114. "If (on the Sabbath) one hunts a wild beast or a bird which one has " on one's domain. 23. master or mistress " Tabu of pointing at the fire. Cf." sheep go astray. . 4. friend or neighbour. 6. 30." Exod. 69.252 APPENDIX. then shall be seven days a bullock or a sheep or a goat " under the dam If a bird's nest Deut. . Ill. " From the tabu of found chance oxen (or) sheep having " and III. . " Hath he pointed his finger (19) ." "[Tabu] of asking a man for wild beasts at the side of a cattle-stall. Ill." Here also . " Hath he incurred a tabu by pointing his finger at a person the person of father or mother. " He asketh of domestic and wild beasts/' and for want of a better place VIII." Exod. Of pointing with the finger. to III. Lev. (17) Of sorcery. 6. Sabbath . ? " Of sunstroke. to sorcery or witchcraft " ? II." (20) Of beasts. Cf. 40. 88-93. .

the tabu of hedge. . . Of uprooting plants and of tearing " Tabu up plants in the desert." up plants or hankallu (some Cf. " He " seeketh of the road. 33. " " From From the tabu of house." Sem. Tabu .. of mountain and precipice." [Tabu] of laying [Tabu] of food (?) and drink (?). also III. of 124-127.. garden." . Of various . Of tabus on various places. 120. city gate. and chamber. the thorn. street. boat." . From . the tamarisk. 25." 1 29. . (21) Ill. . guard. Parallels for this tabu will be found in Robertson Smith's Pel. tabus. the exit and entrance of the main gate. which says that ." " Tabu of tapalu and seal (?). . 46. " Tabu of . field. 32. 253 reeds. also the 'Orla. 33. [Tabu . of the exit and entrance of the house. dwelling. " " a reed in a bundle (?) VIII. all tools are charmed the Sakai." Tabu from door and bolt "From the tabu of field." VIII. house. and ." Ill. garden. . the tabu of uprooting the caper. 31. 145.) (23) II. . . brakes." 54. 57. of the street. the tabu of cutting canes. he seeketh of East and West. of] uprooting plants (?) in a field" . of tearing plant). hinnu.. " He seeketh of ship. . . " From " . 61-63. door. . and 59. (22) Ill. height and wady. 26. before they fell to avoid accidents evil spirits (Skeat i. . " 37. the way. " [Tabu (and) the date-palm." " He seeketh of the exit and entrance of the city. 345). 40. reeds. Ill. threshold." (Cf." Compare the Talmudic ordinances concerning clean and unclean houses (p. " 86. 121. Pagan Races of the Malay Peninsula. 66. Among trees in a forest. 65. Here we must add III. pass and " VIII. of cutting reeds in the marshes. 186).. ' ." of] tamarisk and date-palm. resting-place.APPENDIX. bolt. 85. before (?) a man. path.y 142. which might be brought about by and Blagden.

254
trees

APPENDIX.

planted on a public way, or by an idolater, or by a thief, or in a ship, or sprouting spontaneously are subject to the 'orla.
(24) Ill, 14.
17.

Of forms of oaths.

" "

41.

Tabu Tabu " Tabu

of raising a gis-mar and then swearing by a god." of raising fire and then swearing by a god." of taking an irrigation-machine and swearing by

a god."
43.

"

44.

Tabu " Tabu

of swearing (tamil, being banned (?)) by sunrise." of raising unwashen hands and swearing by a god."

VIII,

43.

"From

the tabu of breaking a dish, shattering a cup, and swearing by a god."

Cf.

Lev. xix, 12.
to

he fears

The story of Hector is pertinent here the libation of dark wine with unwashen pour
;

bands, nor may he pray to Zeus when bespattered with gore (Tylor, Prim? fire Culture, 4th ed., ii, 439).

(25) Unclassified.
Ill, 134-137.

Tabu from and assembly, from dead man or living man, from male destroyer or female destroyer (Zimmern says that these are demons), known or unknown."
. .
.

"

These

last

two occur again in III, 164, 165.

There are

also forty-nine tabus mutilated or entirely destroyed.

(26)

Of the unclean

'

'

tabus.
fF.

For the
II,

details of these see pp.
"

125

Add

here also

106-109.

He

seeketh (to

know whether

his tabu cometh) from

Ill,

couch, seat, dish, or the offering of a cup." " Tabu from 19, 20. cup or dish, bed or couch."
1.

(Here, too, perhaps comes from a sarsaru")
VIII, 44.
"

58,

" Tabu of drinking water

From

the tabu of seat, stool, bed, couch, and being bound."

Perhaps
dregs."

also III,

22,

"

Tabu of giving or asking the

APPENDIX.
(27) Various forms of tabu.
II,

255

83-85.

"Whether by something loosed, which he knoweth not, he hath incurred a tabu, (or) by receiving (something) he hath incurred a tabu, (or) by ... he hath incurred a tabu."

particular point to be observed in this list of tabus is that many actions or states are omitted which are well known
to

The

be tabu.
so

are

mutilated as to
that

Notwithstanding the fact that forty-nine lines be untranslatable, it is distinctly
none of the primary
unclean
tabus
are

noticeable

menstruation, the Jcri, marriage, dead a body (unless the brief mention in 25 be touching accounted evidence), although the * holy' tabus are included

mentioned;

childbirth,

The reason for this is twofold in comprehensive phrases. either the unclean tabus are such that in their breach they
;

;

do not result in sickness, but merely demand purification or, albeit they are of (such as menstruation and the k'ri) a nature as to such bring sickness, they are so obvious as to leave no doubt as to what has been the cause of the trouble

To say this is (such as puerperal fever after childbirth). only a reiteration of the theory that the Surpu series is intended to deal with, the unwitting sins. On the other
' '

hand, it may be urged that although the primary unclean tabus are not mentioned, the secondary contagious tabus are but the reason for this is clear. quoted at great length
;

The primary tabus

are in themselves, as

we have

said above,

either innocuous (with regard to disease) or patent to the most heedless; but contagion from such is a very different

who regards herself as a spirit-wife brings no harm to her human husband, and yet will retaliate on any other who shall interfere with her.
matter
;

for

example, the

lilith

Hence

this very point adds to our demonstration of theory of the unwitting sins.
'

the

'

II.

On

looking on a Corpse,

p.

35.

It is doubtful whether the translation of ana pagri ihiruinni, given on p. 35 in the sense of having allowed the wax-figure to look on a corpse, is valid. The passage is more probably

256
to

APPENDIX.

be rendered " they have looked upon me as a corpse," similar to 1. 13 on p. 152. But the tabu is certain, from p. 26.
III.

On the meaning

of qvzalu,

p. 52.
*

gu-za-lal

= guzalu,

bearers/ for 1 This meaning to bear.'

gis-gu-za =

which has been translated thronekussu, 'throne/ and lal nasu,

=

is,

nothing satisfactorily alternative. The comparison, therefore,
spirits

definite

however, challenged, although has been suggested as an

between the Assyrian

and the
rests

'

throne-bearers

'

of

Hebrew and Mohammedan

tradition

meaning
IV.

of this

on the evidence pro or con for the exact word (see Muss-Arnolt, Diet., 214).
p. 76, on barren women touching the MAN EXECUTED FOR MURDER.

Additional Note to
CORPSE OE A

"

The remedy

for sterility

was

for the

woman who wished

to become a mother to step over the corpse of an executed criminal, or into a basin of water which had been used to

wash his corpse, or to tread on a human skull, or walk between the tombs of a cemetery, or step over some antique " resemblance of a cat or other relic of old Egypt (Lord
Cromer's
V.

Modem

Egypt,

ii,

505).

Additional Note to

p. 53, on the connection between Jonah and the Moon.

the superstitions of Arabs concerning the swallowing of the moon, and the bearing of this on the story of Jonah, see G. A. Smith, The Book of the Twelve Prophets, 1899,.
ii,

On

524; see also Hans Schmitt, Jona, 1907.

257

INDEX
Abbreviations: A Arabic; Ab = Abyssinian As = Assyrian; C = Coptic; E = = G= Greek; = Hebrew; I = Indian; L = Latin; Egyptian; Eth Ethiopic = Malay; Mac = Macedonian Med = Mediaeval, Middle Ages; N.T. =New Pbcen = Phoenician S = Syriac; Testament; P = Persian; Pal = Palestinian Sab = Sabian Y = Yezidi.
;
;

H

M

;

;

;

;

Aa,

xlii,

245. 219.
;

Ahhazu-demon, 41,

43, 100, 192.

Aaron,

xviii,

Ahmad

Ab, month, in magic, As, HI, 209

ibn Abubekr, xlix. Ahriman, 119.

H, Abba

64.
Isaiah, 6.

'AMkah, 229, 231. Alaska, 184.
Aleppo, 89. Alexander, xxxviii, 96, 155, 157.
Alfoors of Minahassa, 163. Algerians, 62, 211.
Ali, 168.

Abbas, 97.

AbduKhadir, 211.
Abipones, 127. Abortions as ghosts, A, H, M, 23 ; not to be buried with As, 20, 23
:

;

body of mother, H, 21
offspring, 132, 236.

;

as

demoniac

Alkali in magic, As,

lii, liii.

Allah, (xx),
(72),

(lvi), hri, (5), (23), (30),

42,

Abraham,

xix, 73, 86, 220, 231, 233.
xvii, lx, 170.

(74),

(77),

(83),

(226),

(228),

Abramelin,

(229), (236).

Abu'd-Duhur, 158. Abu Kabus, 227.

Allamu,
Lazy, 62.

xxviii.

Abu Mohammed the Abu Rabah, 79, 80. Abu Zenna, 159.
Abyssinia, passim.

Allegory of Yahweh begetting children ,73. Al-JSooman, 227.

Aloe hung up, A, 90. Al-Sameri, 146.
Altar, 26, 130, 157, 194, 197, 198, 199,
xxi, xlii, lxii,

Adad (Storm -god),

19,

220.

54, 64, 96, 224, 245. Adagicr-xessel, xlv, 26.

^^-demon,

39, 71, 81, 122.

'Alukah, 63.

Adam,

xx, 5, 23, 38, 58, 70, 72, 73.

Adonai, 1. jElian quoted, xxxvi.
JEneas, 72.

Alum in magic, A, 88. Amasis, 10, 222.
Ameimar, 147.
Amel-dispu, lix. America, South, 241.
Amorite, 201.

Aeneze

tribe, 158.

-Slschylus, 107.

Africa, lxvii (see Moghrebi)

;

East, 60,

237.

Afrit, 17, 47, 59, 63, 70, 76, 132, 207
see

;

Demons.

Agrath bath Mahlath, 30, 41, 58. Ajmkakrime, xxii.

b. Yarbu', descended from shedemon, 70. Amulets, xviii, li, lxi A, xxix, lxiii, 90, 106; Ab, 104; As, 41, 84, 154; Maronite, 42 against Lilith, 72.

'Amr

;

;

Amurrikanu, 171.

258
Anatu, 151, 245.
Angels, 161
;

INDEX.
Ash-heaps, As, 177. Ashdod, metempsychosis
person into

lvi,

Mi,

6,

52;
of

H,

23,

160,
;

of
4.

unclean

daughters
;

guardian, 46, 200

74 intermarriage with

God, A,

woman

of,

H,

Asipu-ipriests, xxiff.

human
S, 87.

beings, see Demons.
;

Angel of Death, A, xx, 86

H,

86, 87

;

Asmodeus, 71, 74 ff., 77, 134, born of angel and woman, 75
;

197;
plots

;

Angel of Lust, H, 66. Angel of Yahweh, 73, 78, 86, 220. Animal forms of demons, see Demons. Annual expulsion of demons, 157.
Anobret, 222.

against newly wedded, 75, 134. Ass in magic, A, lxvi, 51, 60 As,
50, 51
;

xliv,
;

219, 220, 233, 234, 252 metempsychosis of unclean person into,

H,

H, 4;

Y, 6; Balaam's

ass, 4,

51;
hoof,

asses' urine as libation, As,

34

;

Anointing as divine due, 133, 234. Ants in magic, A, As, H, 33.

foot of ghoul, 60. Assur, xxxi, 85.

Anu, xx,

xxii, xxiii, xxxix, xliii, xlv, 20,

41, 49, 50, 54, 55, 151, 152, 240, 245.

Assurbanipal, xxxvii, xxxviii, 10, 55, 65, 100, 178.
Assurnasirpal, xxii. Assur-risua, 85.
Assyria, passim.

Anuk, 1. Anunnaki, 85.
Apep, 149.
Apia, xxxvii. Arabia, Arabs, passim.
Arafat, 16.

Aster ius, legend, 130.
Astride,

H,

164.

Astronomy, xxxvff.
xxii.

Arameans,
Arbela, 85.

Atargatis, 141.

Ater-mesd in magic,
66.

xlv, 26.

Ardat lilt, spirit, 65 ff., 120. Ardatu emphasizes femininity,
Areca in magic, M,
Ariel, 160, 161.
lviii.

Athenians, xxxiii, 14, 230.

Atonement,
As, 181
ff.

xvii, xli, xlvi, 114,

175

ff.

;

xxiii, lvii,
;

H,

153, 159, 177-9, 177-81, 182 ff. not eaten,
84,
;

Arihatu ('menstruating'
Aristophanes, 107.
Aristotle, 157.

?),

67, 83.

G, 216; contradictions between the atonement ceremonies (Wellhausen), 198; day of, 119, 141, 182, 184.

Arkat-ilani, xxxvii. Arluni, 72.

Atonement-money, 182, 225.
Atreus, 239.

Arm

in

magic, 164.
lxiii.

Armenia, xlix, liii. Arrowheads as amulets, A,
Arsacid period, xxxviii.
Arsacius, 107.

Augustus, xxxvi. 'Autak, 63.
Australia, 90, 148, 241.

Austria, 170.

Aymara
Aza, 44.

Indians, 184.

Artemis, 230.

Aruru, xx.
Asafcetida in magic,

Azael, 44.

M,

lviii;

Med, 149.
;

Azarias,

lvii.

Asakku
xli.

('fever'?), 50, 82, 99, 160, 203
;

Azazel, 75, 184.

(see Fever)

not asakku, xxxix

Series,

Asam, 176, 179. Ash in magic, A, xxix,
208
;

Baal, xviii.
61, 174
; ;

As, 139,
lv, lvi,

Babar, 201
;

;

G, 174

H,

61, 164, 187

M, lviii, 36

;

Malagasy,

Ba'al k'ri (one unclean from nocturnal pollution), 71, 117, 122, 190; see Tabu.

213; Tobit,

lvii.

Babar Archipelago, 201.

INDEX.
Babes, danger to (see Labartu), 164 ; H, 129; stolen by cats, A, 42; charm mother dying against losing, A, 102
;

259

Battas of Sumatra, 183.
Battle-ritual, As, 157
;

A, H, P, 158

;

E

(Eth), 155.
xlviii, 88,

with babe at breast becoming ghost, 19 new-born sprinkled, A, liii Fiji
; ;

Ba'u,

205, 245.
;

ideas, 38.

Babylon, xxi, xxii, xxxv, 178, 239, 240.
Babylonians, passim.

liii,

78, 79, 92,

Beads in magic, A, 38 M, 28. Beans in magic, Roman, 227. Bear in magic, 230.

Beard in magic, A, 38. Beasts in magic (see under
;

different

Bachelor-ghost, see Ghost
spirit,

married to

names),

M,

162.

66

ff.
;

A, Backwards, looking, in magic, 171 Roman, 171, 172, 226; As, 172 (?)
;

Beating to drive away spirits, A, 60, 105 (cf. H, 161); Y, 31; Xerxes
flogging Hellespont, 230.

227.

Bed
Bee,
;

in magic,

109

;

As,

lix,

35,

127,

Badagas, 183.

165, 166, 171, 208;

H,

102, 164.

Baghdad, 22, 27, 211. Bags hung up as amulets, A, 90
146.

Book

of the, quoted, 6.

cf.

H,

Beelzebub, xlvi.

Beer in magic, A, 210

;

As, xliv, 187.

Bahru-huit, 161.
Bakhtashiyah, 169. Balaam, xxv. Balaam's ass, 4, 51.
Balak, xxv. Bali in Java, 184. Ban, Tablet of the, As, 28, 123, 126. Banana in magic, Tonga, 215.

Beetle in magic, A, 210. Beirut, 80, 226.
Beit

Nuba, 207.
of,

Bekhten, Possessed Princess

107.

Bel, xx, xxii, 25, 55, 78, 82, 97, 240,

245

;

selects

woman,

78

;

Temple

of, 78.

Bel and the Dragon, 199.
Bel-etir, xxxvii.

Banks

Islands, 22.
evil spirits, see
liv,

Banning
Baptism,

Binding.

Beliar, 51.
Belit, xxvi, 245.
Belit-ili, 188.

29.

Barbary, 1, 17. Bardesan, xxxv.

Belit-Nippur, 245.
Belly in magic, M, 36. Berossus quoted, xx.
Besisi, 53.

Bdr-egura, demon, 40.
Barley in magic, 102. Barnabas, Epistle of, 106. Barren valley, 200.

Barren

women
;

desiring offspring, 76

ff .

;

Betel-leaves in magic, Bilkis, 57.
;

M,

162, 163.

(charm against barrenness, A, 102, 256

;

H,
64
;

102)

figures offered
sacrifice for,

by

(?),
;

Sumatra

183

As, S.E.

Binding a spirit, xxi As, S, xlvii, 51; Tobit,

xlvii, 45,
lvii,

172

;

74;

the

Africa superstition, 237.
Barrett, Francis, lx, 68, 91.

Bar Shalmon, 71. Baru -priests, xxiff.,

xlv.

tongue, C, 172. Bird in magic, xxxvi, 202 A, lxvii, 5, 135, 187; As, xxii, 41, 49, 81, 135, 186; Eth, lxvi; H, 185-8, 252; M, 162; N.T., 92; Sumatra, 183. See
;

Basket in magic, M, 36, 201 (cf. 163). Bat, metempsychosis of unclean person
into,

H,

4.

Bat, Cock, Dave, Eagle, Owl, Paradise, Peacock, Pigeon, Raven, Sparrow, and Swallow.
Bisharin, 10, 60. Bitch in magic, xlix, 204.

Bat -men with raven faces, As, 81. Bath Horin, 129. Baths haunted, see Demons.

Bit-Said'

,

incantation, xxxviii.

260
Bitumen in magic, As, 203 G, 106.
;

INDEX.
154,

lix,

188,

Bow

Black in magic, A, xx, 61, 107, 211; As, 154, 161, 165, 170, 171, 188; Barnabas, 106 H, lxv, lxvi, 61, 211 Roman, I, xxviii, iix; Lucian, 104
;

in magic, H, 144. Box in magic, A, 37 As, H, 144 Med, 149.
; ;

xxvii, 161

(?)

;

Brain in magic,

lxiv.
lix.

;

Brazier in magic (see Censer), As, xlv,

;

227; S, 92. Black man, demon
107)
;

Bread in magic, A, 169, 207, 231 xlii, xlv, 139, 157, 161, 206, 208
xxxi, 91, 118, 139, 207 Sab, 139 ; Y, 31.
;

;

As,
;

H,
;

as,

A, 40, 77
accredited

(cf.

Mac, 207
instead

Barnabas, 106.
Jewish,

Blacksmiths,

with

Breaking neck of
sacrificing,

animal,
194,

of

magic in Abyssinia, 103.
Blindness, H, 30, 129, 170 ; See Ophthalmia. Sol., 43.
Test, of

220, breaking bones, A, 229.

H,

233

;

not

Blood in magic, 195 ff., 203; A, 5; M, 21 Sab, 148 sprinkled, 181 H, lv, 194, As, 208 A, lxvii, 211
; ; ; ;
;

Breaking pot, etc., to dissipate demons, A, 30, 31; As, 28, 124, 206 (cf.

Malagasy, 183 ; dust sprinkled on, of murdered man, A, 61; on altar,

212;

H, 30. 254) Breast in magic, A, As, 211. Breath in magic, A, 73, 168
;
;

220
188

;

on house, A, 58, 228
(cf.

;

H,

185,

I, 162 Ibn Khaldun, 145; P, 168; cf. hot air of Abu Rabah, 80 foulness of,
;

;

footnote,
;

228)

;

on door;

H,

129.

posts,

A, 226 on monument, A, 227 on ploughland, A, 58 on saddle, A, 158 lures unlocks treasure, A, 62 demons, see Demons feeds ghosts, A, of sacrifice, on forehead, A, G, 16 80, 226, 227; on skin, A, 226, 229;
; ; ; ;

Brickwork, god of, xlv. Bride, tabu against taking water from, H, 31, 32 allowed to wash on Yoma,
;

H, 32

;

washes her

feet,
;

;

snatched away by Mared, 61 concerning, 30 ff., 135.
135.

A, 135 customs

;

runs into water, A, 231 superstition about bleeding, lvi H, 115; as seat of life, 179, 195 used in writing, H,
;
; ;

Bridegrooms, customs concerning, 30

ff.,

186
,

;

to create

man, As, xx, 195.
see Breath.

H, 117. Bridge in magic, As, 152 Brimstone in magic, Med, 149
;

;

see

Blowing in magic,
Bludan, 78. Blue in magic, A,

Sulphur.

lxi,

90

;

Ab, 164

;

Bronze in magic, As, 154, 203. Broom in magic, A, xxix, 37.
Bruniquel, 239. Buffalo in magic, I, Sumatra, 183 228.

H,

164.

B'ne Elohim, 72. Boar in magic, G, 216; M, 127. SeeP/^. Body in magic, A, 211.
Boils, 209.

;

M,
As,,

Building
xlv.

rites,

228

(see

Blood)

;

Bolivia, 184.

Bukhara, 169.
xliii.

Bone Bone

in

magic, As, xx,

Bull, divine, 96.

of hyena in magic, Ab, 104. Bones of frog in magic, H, lxiv.

Bundle of twigs
212, 213.

(?)

in magic, As,

166,

Bones removed, see Grave.
Borhxit, 5.

Bunene,

xlii.

Burasu-wood, see Cypress.
Burghers, 183.
Burial of horse slaughtered, G, 216.

Borneo, 36, 163, 228. Borsippa, xxxvii. Bottle in magic, A, 180.

Burning in healing, A,
in,

lxiv,

105

;

As,

Bouda, demoniac possession
103, 149.

Abyssinia,

lxiv.

Burnt-offering, 194

ff.

(cf. lv).

33. 223 inLucian. 10. lv. 36 . 199 (cf. 42. H. 163. xxxiv. 180. Cannibalism. A. 188 207 I. 199 As. . A. . 104 . . Cairo. 28. 173. 134 . 126(?). 189. H.. 138. Celebes. perceive spirits. 138 As. 119 . Pal. . A. Cigarettes in magic. 150. clean. Sab. lviii. lviii. 208. As. 19. Ab. Childbed. 131 (cf. 4. 60. . charm must not 118 . . Chair in magic. 135. Cocoanuts in magic. xxxv. 232 ff. M. 91. P. Ceram. Stone of the. Ages. Cambyses. xxx. Calf in magic. 157. 178. I. 101. Cemetery haunted. A. xlvii. 42. ' 123. A. Test. A. 20. 26 . Butter in magic. 204. lx . corpse is A. see Babes. Carthaginian battle ritual.. H. H. lvii. I. Christ. 162. 137. Cloth in magic. 211. 27) As. see menstruating woman. H. ' 84. 227. 61. lviii A. 214. Clay in magic. M. 91. Clean place in magic. Cedar in magic. see Demons. Caul in magic. 261 xlii. 201. 174. 253 Captivity. lxvff. Cain. H. G. As.. Pelew. . 188. China. 157. . . 184. Carmel. oil of. lxvi. 38 32. A. H. 49. A. 238). xlix. Caper in magic. Clothes in magic. See Labartu and Owl. 239. eating corpse of man executed for murder. 31. As(?). 42. See Ox. 62. Child. E. 21 Melanesia. 75. 64. magic. 64. 77. 74. I. xvii. 173. As. S. 63) . 50. must when .. 81. G. 62 . 53. 163. 33. 80). 161. bewitched. Calirrhoe (Zerka Ma'in). xx. 127. 107. lix . lv. Chariot in magic. 156. 14. 210. 170 M. Challox in magic. I. 51. 22). 144. 158. Chauveau. A. xli. 228. wears sandals. Clean man. 112. xx. H. 163 . Cattle in magic. 59. Candle in magic. carry off sleeping babes. H. 116. As. 9. 137 of Sol. Caves haunted. charm for. 202. 208 Tobit. 22 M. A. 26. Pal. dangers for. in magic. . li xxviii. 165. Chicken in magic. H. by guarded by amulet. 20. 27. 34. 22 . Children of the Deep. 138. H. 185. 117. 167. Caaba. 80. H. 34. in. Cock in magic. M. 169. 194. Byzantine amulets. (cf.INDEX. xlv. 29. Chaldeans. Childbirth.. . to. Obizuth. see Demons. 37. A. H. lxvii. 79. 204. (51). 256. 135. lvii As. . 115. As. xxiii. xlv. 91. Christian superstitions of the Middle 68. 212. 199. H. xx. Coal in magic. 204. 41 . 22. 34. lvi. xxii. 183. 88 . lix . 160. xlv. A. Cain's father a demon. 89. tabu Child-witch. and the hot air of Rabah. 184. 212 (cf. 72 . As. woman dying in. Cat in magic. Chest in magic. lx. . 70. As. A. I. Chidr. 102. becomes ghost. 100. 188. . 165. rise Camel A. 158. Abu M. H. 188. . 21. . 206. As. xx. 184. Cambodia. xx. Byrsa. xxxvi. H. lxvff. A. As. lxff. Armen. 158. S. in Magic. Buro. 22 (cf. 33 xxxviii.' 214. . 119 see Tabu. lviiff. 154.. 22. H. 51 attacked by demons. 76. 146 lviii. in metempsychosis. 159. I. 61. 222 . 90. 61. A. Yirgin Mary assists at. 81. 146 California. Circle. As. H. 73. 104. on. 16. 18. Censer in magic. lxviii. M. G. 187. H. Maronite. As. 149. visited carried past. woman . . xliii. 202 . 158. 48. 230. G. . . 157. xlii. Cinnabar in magic.

114. xxx day. 188 Wheat. . Combing hair on Sunday. dragons. 14. S. A. 78. Friday. As. 33. H. 76 (cf. of murdered man. A. 186. 187 . xlv. lxi . A. See Tabu. eating ditto. 172. 56. Death 118 . Li. 16. A. 16. I. 5. H. A. 145 . Deer in magic. 26. Roman. lxiv. xvii. . xxxv. As. . As. see Abortions and Imperfect men. xxxi. 163. David. 227. As.. tabu on Wednesday and sleeps. Cyprian women. 60 Test. names 72 . xxiii.' Crocodile in magic. 9. M. 201. As. 188. As. of Sol. 158. . . bones of. tabu. 26. Crow in magic. 164. see Tabu. ghost returns. 17. 147. 135. Deafness. A. As. A. . As. H. 129. lucky. 5. 13 ff. Cohabitation. As. Coloured threads or hairs in magic. . 76 . 62. Dark colour. ghost returns. 134 H. offerings to. 173. A. 11. 169 H.. 165. Eastern. Cup in magic. quoted. Damkina. 115. lviii. 168. classes of. Cow in magic. . 60. A. xxxvi. I. goat. G. 162. As.. 7. Med. Arab beliefs about. 54 forms. Del Rio. 76. Creeping things fl. N. H. Nab. with . : As. 161. 68. H. Consecration of priests. liv. 77 with H. 100. Coin in magic. 32. when unburied. 34. Demons. Coffer of marble in magic. 162. H. 32 . Cornelians as amulets.T. Y. 216.262 INDEX. P. xxxviii. 162 146. 135 As. 9 . Damascus. (see Mourning) due to God. 107. 23. 79. H. angel of. 60 Origen. remedy for. 164. Morning. A. 44 animal As. 161. xxv. Contagious tabu. 32. 231. Chr. looking on. Cross in magic. ff . Colt in magic. Phoen. Crossways in magic. See Coloured threads. 165. Croup. Demigods. lxii. 163 . As. 8. 4. lxvi. Consumption. 207. Daniel. cocks' feet. tabu on. H. 121. 1. xlix. S. 177. xxiii. Dawn see in magic. . 164. A. As. 15. touching. 13.. 32. 132. of man executed for murder. 61 . Coptic charm. 89. As. 186 . see Angel. H. in bed in which child Curses on desecrators of tomb. 30. 158. 37. Corpse. . Dead Sea. 72. Dama. 170 M. Sab. 164. 61 (cf. Martin. 192. greeting. in magic. 165 ff. 135. H. Deformed children the result of violating certain animal tabus. A. . S. Coriander in magic. 214. 54 (?) donkeys' legs. tradition. 255. . 10. . see Sea. As. 89. removed. H. H. 131. 37. 202. Eth. 91. see Grave. 2 H. lxiii. 8. see 9. . Corascene. A. 35. 115. Cronus. (see Ghosts) : reckoning the H. As. Pal. 57 . lviii. Cucumber (?) in magic. Collyridians. 129. 182. 118. 9. Cotton in magic. 187. 62. of justice. As. Sab. 141. I. M. . 245. 54 . 256) . . 84. Days. 61 . 231. Cypress in magic. 91. 222. Scheiss-Teufel. Assume any form. 143. Corn in magic. 77 in . G. Ibn Khaldun. Court. H. * of. 115. Cutting up slaughtered animal in oath. A. 164 ff. 163. E. 20. Dates in magic. Crumbs in magic. Copper in magic. 125. 102. S. obligations to. H. 63) . 157. prostitution of. 172. . see Tabu . 236. 144. H. A. xxxi. Cords in magic. Democritus. As. 57. 137 13 15 ff. Pal. . G. leopard. Dead . 14. A. but see Appendix. Deep. 26. Corners of room in magic. camels. M. 127. raised. 51 .

Test. As.Z. 93). . A. 44. 44 . . A. . 74. 74. As. 54 . 48. 71 Book of Enoch and 71. H. 49. A. xlvii.T. 49. S.. S.T. 100 Pal. H. Kurd. S. . A. H. 65 ff. 106 noise. 59 .. 195. 50. 29 Maronite. 54) 60. 158 laid demon tion. 49 S. 263 . creative power. in form of woman as tempta- 74 . and bad seasons. are immature 23. Pal. Test. 93. Origen. 75 offspring of . 81. Pal. Eat.' 58. 91 . 52 . Test. Madness) . A. dumbness. (cf. . Y. 77 without Test. 134 (Lilith attacks solitary sleepers. S. sacrifice. A. Med. A. 60. food and drink. . 12. . eclipses. excluded by veil. 105 . 44. 56. As. 18. . . 134) propagate. Twelve Patr. . 52. N. various apportioned to members of the body. 57 . 75 . to figures. . 31 stench. As. 90. 196. 75 G. . Fly. 71 . A. A. 77 die. Med. Tobit. 54 . 59 . 68-70. . flesh. As. 90 As. 61 H. 93. 57 106. 51 . 58 A. H. . 236 . 105. 50.. (cf. Mac.. 74 . 136. 77 As. Porphyry. 105. owls. . . A. H. 50. Lucian. 103. 58 H. 54 . 70. 72. 49 howl. 100. 93 Tobit. Ab. 58 (cf. 46) . 60 . . . H. 93 . snake. (cf. 68 . 43. 52. Y. 197) enter body (cf. from one person to another. wear dresses of women. 60 have foreknowledge. 75. A. 115 exit by toe. H. N. As. 54 . As. 54 wolf. 40. A. 151. intermarry with human beings. cf. devour blood. 63 A. can pass all doors. 92. 47. 115. H. 196 ff. A. Earth-demons. shadow.T. 106. 74 . 134. . 62 plagues. Med. M. 137 dangerous to newly wedded. lion. 149) 159 . Maimonides. thrown sand. 101 . by orifices. Bisharin. 74) . A. . 59. 70 Satan seduces Eve. . 2ff. xlix Y. of Sol. creatures or . 28 can be recognized. M. Pal. 91. xxx scorpions ostriches. 62 (cf. mislead travellers. A. . M. but 100) not wax. Y. . Josephus.. 93. 106 Eth. Origen. 195. . beating. 39. Eth. 134. 61 flesh or bones.. A. Possession by demons. panther. 53 Orang Laut. A. 62. A. 58. Maronite. 106 creep. H. 90 . 91. A. Maimonides. nailed down. 84. 51 Tobit. 'bound. 96 (cf. 75. See Appendix. abortions.. seven spirits. As. As. Origen. Bring disease. 2. . 149. 100 death. As. 106 S. come from Underworld. As. S. Ab. M. A. 60. droughts. by incantation. Origen. 157 . 74 . 56. cf. M. 60 . 69 assume human form. 31 29 . . 104 (lick dishes. Pal. 49 have . N. 100. . 51. A. 57. .. 195. . 90. . 65. 58) 48. 50. S. 50. A. S. Zoroaster. 93 .T. . H. human . 90 N. 57. 52 ff .47 ff. 48. A. . H. 44 (this denied. . S. Porphyry. 100.T. 17. some sexless. can be transferred A. . deserts. 44 (cf. lviii. As. A. A. S. lvii. 44. S. . and from human beings into animals. . As. 65.' M. 100. fear of scalding them. As. . 59 . storms. 126). As. 74. A.. 137. M. 48 dust-storms. invisible. to water. 107. H. 181). As.. power over woman without wedding ring. As. 28. 99 . 44. 21 54 raven. throne-bearers. 49. 73 Queensland.. H. A. 63 (cf. 54 hairy. 49. Med. . . . 93. . 60 . 106 by nostrils. . summary. 49 ride. A. 52 . 104. S.. 57 (cf. A. Test. H. A. 101. . 97. 71. of Sol. Pal.. As. 7. . A. smell. A. 197 etc. A. 56 take away . 157. . of Sol. 62. N. 48 52. 101. 71 . N. 44 guard treasure. 60) 77. 'Chaldeans. As.INDEX. beings and spirits H. H. . 47. 71 tradition denied. A.. A. . drink. 162 .. H. stink. Origen. As. A. Eth. 107. 104. 132. 91 caves. 36). 40 are . 60. 51 fight. without 92 (see H. Eth. . 6) . driven away by by wax. A. 58. Origen. 51 (cf. G. 93 (cf 48) malignity of soil. S. 21. . S. (?) . . . 95 101. roar. 58 earthquakes. 90. 51 .. 90 caper bushes. Josephus. Haunt baths. A. 97. fire. 71 write. Maimonides. . 40. H. A. 62. A. Tobit. 76. Origen. Med. . 90 . of Sol.

demons in Peru. 146. 33. 226 lock. 118 171. 76 199 As. 115. 177. H. 5. Dung in magic. 91 H. 127. 33. 83. A. 204. H. haunted . xvii. 210. marshes. 90 rocky places. cast against . 54. 42) stone. As. . 158 . 186 Maronite. 81. 127.' 14. 90 wells. Diana of the Ephesians. . 43 Dragon. 203. 91 ovens. 91 Maronite. nut-trees. . 33.. 208 Eth. Dream. . A (cf. shape of.264 H. 90 As. . against demons) Eth. 187. xxviii. 159. 92 As. synonym of Underworld. H. haunt the demons. As. 142 . lxi. 164 . Dough in magic. lv. 1. (cf. H. 90 Origen. A. Donkey. Dove in magic. 43. lxi . xxvii. mountains. 54 (?). As. 169. INDEX. A. Eth. Armen. 56 Sunset and Mountain of Dawn. etc. Atiyeh.' As. 54 (?) Test. 6 . Arab superstition about Jebel . Satan. H. 222. (see Lady of Desert. 173. xxxi. Door in magic. man. H. lxv ff. 29. 207 . 91. As. from temple. 153 ff. xxxvi. Origen. 204. cf. Dregs in magic. Der Mar Elia. Dumatii. . 6 . H. As. 90. H. Refuse. and watering-places. Maronite. 92. A. 60 (sand). 41. spirit of wicked transmigrating into. A. . Harran. 200 Australia. . lxv. 83. Dungheaps magic). 170 cf. lix. Maimonides. see also 153. 91 . H. See Threshold. A. As. 60 Pal. not . 31. A. see Demons Clean place. H. H. 147. 'Mountain of Doorpost in magic. I. . 90. 82. iv. 92 . H. H. 181. 90. of Revelation. xxxi equivalent of water in puriA. 146 As. A. 39. 101. As. A. 4. 92 ruins. 154. from grave. 119. . A. 171. As. 166 . 158 . xlix . Descent of Ishtar. 7. . (cf. South Sea. 170. As. (gravel) . See Luhi. 192. see Ass. 9. . H. spearworts. 207 . 36. . 93 thickets . swallows moon. 146. from footprint. As. As. As. A. 91 sea. 1. As. Test. 33 . . of Sol. 204. 91. 254 148). 42. A. 207. Eth. 92. spirit of wicked transmigrating into. of Sol. temples and shrines where incense and blood are offered. 49. 162. 33. Devil. Dusara. . . As. 161. Dyaks. 187 . Australia. A. graveyards. 90 H. .. lxiv.T. . Y. . A. . A. Bel and. Dimetu. As. 207. from floor of tabernacle. . Destroyer. 12. As. . 33 . 174. Dubsag-Unug-ki. . 45. 100 . houses. . H. 11. A. Destiny. latrines. 178. the. sacrificed at . taken from cemetery Bisharin. 200 . 12 . 172). Y. xxxvi A. savage. N.. 3 . Demons in Plain-god. food of spirits. Dish in magic. . Duniah. liv. . river.. see 169. 53 . . . . . 61 enemy. . xliv. A. see Iblis. xx. 222. and Scapegoat. See Lu'u. Divinations. 177. (sand) Kurdistan. and Tabu. H. As. 207 M. H. Dioskoros. Der-ez-zor. see Grave. 91 (cf. 71 sprinkled on blood of murdered Dilbat-jilant in magic. monastery. xxxii. Diodorus quoted. 28. 41 S. . lv As. 161. 118. 194. . 164. . 'Dog of the Witch. . 89. A. 89 . light nights.. 160. Dr Drinking magic writing. 90 . Dog in magic. 65. 92 91 . 39 Med. 89 . (stones) A. 146. 61 Med. 39 . Desecration of graves.. savage. 33 . A. 83. 117. 146. 42 . 147. H. . A. 165. dust-storm caused A. by demons. mud from H. 3. 200 . 206. Dust in magic. 153. Kaf) 90 places of execution. casting bread to dogs. 126. 11. shadows on moonS. 91 rivers. 83. . S. 37 Med. lxii.' H. 91. A. . 159 3 fication. of Desert. (dust) H. 159 158 . H. 86. (sand Dinanu. 147.

offering. . 39). 140. Euphrates. lii. Ezida. Eleazar. Ephesus. 245. 210. superstitions about. . 80. Enquiry. H. 246. 163. 72. . 38. xxi. 169 H.). 166. 162. Eve. 9. H. 161. xxxv. G. xx. 47. 197. 121. 139. I. xxxvii. Euphemisms. See Sunset. Eight in magic. 100. H. 19. 51. 203. 6. 230. E-sagila. see Demons). 250. see Ghost. As. . xlviii. As. 214. 72 by beads or headdress. 166. xli. 211. man as ghost. lvii. 84. 74. festival. 24. 107 . 55 weddings must not take place . Ethiopians. N. Envy (Demon). Eating with friends. offering Ear H. 101. liii. Essenes. Epilepsy. xx. lxv. 79 External soul. Ea-bani. 156. xviii. 204. Eustathius quoted. 211. lxvi. ekimmu. 98. A. 159.. 144. 10. 17. 159. xviii. averted from bed. xxvii. En-dor. See Tabu. Entrails in magic. 32. H. xlix. Edessa. 84. xxxviii. 88 ff. G. Eye Ezra. 222. 101 . 115. 206. 223. -eating magic writing. A. 106. 74. xxii . 9. 7ff. 25. Embaros. 98. 265 of. II. 128. H. xlv. England.Indies. 43. Enoch. 88. Evil Elymas. 43. xxviii. see Ghost. 77. Psellus. 212 lxvi. 108 107. lxiii. xxvi. see Demons. 213. xxxi. 88. 203.. 139. Maronite. 88. . 33. Incantation of . lix. Euripides. 201. 63. demons. Evening in magic. April. Enmeduranki. N. 98. 42. 184. 74. Test. 19. xxx. 136. lxi. 211. A. xlvii. 167. Elijah. lxvii H. in magic. xliii. 73. Esquimaux. Ekimmu (read edimmu. passim. 63. xlviii. 78. Even numbers in magic. quoted. 253 I. 206. 46. lii. 118. Eshmunazar. . Elam. 1. 79. 118. during. . Earth-demons. 213. El-Howwara. Earthquake.. 72.INDEX. 99 As. liii. . 11. 188. 104 ff. xxxii. 427 ff. H. xxii. 187. 213. 65. H. 23. see Underworld. tabu on making. 26. 20. 220. . 168. Earth (see Clay and Dust). Ea. Enemessar. 203. Emissions. xxiii.T.. S. xxx. 135. As. 55. month. A. Ekurra. 256. S. A. 203. xxii. 3). 89. Euchitse. A. Elephant in magic. 10. see Ba'al &'ri. 1908. Slavonic.. see Demons. Elason. Excesses. Ed-el-jaj. xxxvi. E. 165. 159. 135. 8. p.. 205. xxxvi see Demons.T. As. Book of. 164 . 51. 166. 89. xxiii. 70. 7. . 79. 158. 90 (on the Evil Eye among the Hebrews see Aaron Bray's . 138. 230. 19. 48. in magic. Egypt. 223. 134. 100 (cf. 186. 10. article in Ophthalmology. El-Hejr.139. 52. lii. 8. xxxi. 205. 212. Evil Eye. 59. As. H. 171. 102. 149. seminal. As. Eclipse (due to Esarhaddon. 143. 64. 123. 15 eating carcase of sinof atonement-offering. Ereskigal. East in magic. of Sol. liv. 80. Eden. M. Eridu. 102. 3). Encolpius. 107. 89. Elul. 164. Eber. As. 194 . 222. 160. poured into. 12. Edimmu Eggs (correct reading for see Ghost. witch xlvii. in magic. lxv. 199. sickness due to. H. 250. xviii. Eagle in magic.

105. 75. 216. 173. 135. 141. offered by barren women. 219 ff. xxxi. 229 . 227. Test. xx. Tabu. Flour in magic. stones of. 214. G. E. 138 H. See Fire-god xxxix. leaven. 63. 163. A. 114. . Fringes in magic. 26. A. 214. 227. A. Fowl in magic. 208. cf. Finger of God. 168. . 31 water. I. . Flowers in magic. Flax in magic.' I. 146. 194 ff. Friday in magic. lviii. H. 168. Feasts of the Hebrews. 182. lix. xvii. 203. 72. 150 ff. 89. 152-4. H. H. 215. 226 ff. 255 . H. lxviii. 227. 63). 134. 104 M. 108. . 156. 77. Fever. As. Forehead receiving blood of sacrifice. 211. 107 lvii. Galloi priests. 137. 38. Female in magic.. 227 As. lvii.. 89. 158. Fan in magic. 147. 226 Roman. Florida. 210. of Sol. 189 (?). M. xxix. xx. . H. 177. Roman. 211. li. 37. xxxix. 58. As. Fudl Arabs. A. 158. 145. H. 116. Faditra. As. Galilee. see Mourning. P. 169. . 252.. and Tabu. (cf. 186. lvii.women. Malagasy magic. Sea of. . xxvi. 56. 87. 145. 150 ff. 60. 114. M. 119. xli. 211. ashes. 1 INDEX. 88 Fat in magic. 115. . See Censer. As. 167. Fire-god (see Nuzku). H. 80. As. hand of M. A. M. 30. Galicia. 99 (?) . xxxi. pentacle). 211. H. 142 ff. A. February in magic. 226. 89 As. A. . xxxi. liii. G. lii. Farde. Firstfruits in magic. 32. xxv. A. A. lviii. 28. 138. 144. see Ghost. 30. 34. 36. lvii . 102. 83. 159. 107. tabu on pointing with finger. 51. 82(f). 222. . xlvi. 161. Food in magic. xxx . As. liii. 14. A. 221. A. A. 143. Fumigation. 165. Tobit. 171 Tonga. Foreigners in magic. As. Firstborn in magic. 192 Pal. Y. 140. (cf. Fox in magic. 149. 205. . A. 145. xlix. As. Eth. lvii. . Ibn Khaldun. 164. 96. As. 228. Fifteenth day in magic. Gaffat. 197. Fright from ghost. 228. Flood. 27. 65. 204. see Meal. (cf.' As. in magic. 103. . 15. 80. Funerals. Five in magic 207. 64 of sorcerers in counter-attack. 61. H. 180. 39. As. 56. 180. xlii H. lxvii. lxiv. 210 . 129.266 Face in magic. Fiji. S. Forty-nine in magic. 162. xliii. As. 58. examples. 72. Med. 213. As. 227 cf. As. H. Fedu. Fern in magic. lviii. Mac. 52. 210. Feet in magic. . 222. Fruit in magic. 73. Gallu. 211. . A. 134. 144. As. See Tobit. . 88. 186. Gadarene swine. Fourteen in magic. A. As. Fish in magic 141 (cf. 178. See Demons and Ghost. H. 77 H. Fihrist quoted. 180. . A. . 143. 149 (Eth). 220. lvii. As. lxiii Ab. . 215 bare feet. 186. 220. 53). 180. 36. . . lxi.. H. Garlic in magic. . It J H. 44. 153. 184.xxvii Fauns. 220. 101. Maori. 192. Gall in magic. Four Figures of plastic material in magic.. . Frog Finger in magic. 122. Fire in magic. 40. A. xxxi . Fly in magic. Figs in magic. 213. 4. 122 . in magic. 59 . A. Iroquois. Forty in magic. 184. I. H. lxiv. As. Gabriel. H. lxiv. 219 ff. 205 Mac. As. 163 163). A. Foot in magic. H. charms against. 207. Fairy. As. 118. Sab. 205 148. 144. 97 God. 83. see Asakku A. . 202 35. 160. 84.

. 23 G. H. Ghost. 38. 35. As. Origen. M. As. person into. As. 16 food and drink. 37. Evil man. they had connection during life. 120. summary. E. 82. cannot stand or . 14. 15. 120 . A.. Fiji. Dead in - of hunger. 7. Girru. 60. . As. 8 . xlviii. 10 . 24. 36. 3 8. 7. A. Women. 13. 16 eat dregs.22. . 33. 19. 93 . 9 Med. A. . . H. H. G. E. 14 see Immodest (?) women. 223. 93 . Virgins. 17. .INDEX. As. 21). As. in white. Unfed by descendants. Return. 32. 4. As. 23. Raising ghosts. Gnosti. drowning. Hadendowa. 32. 227 . 7 ff. A. can speak. 22 21 27) As. As. 17. 18. 19. A. 223. 4. The owl as ghost. xxvii. . 19. 90. A. 14 . of ghosts. down. G. in magic. 9 . Ghost-food. Ghosts. As. 20. By exorcism. 23. lvii. xxvii. in magic. G. 187. As. 216. Garment xlix. H. 8 . 254. M. 34 of . the desert. see Dead. 38. 161 . 81. also. A. A. 72. . 92. G.22. 120. 3 . of unburied body. 23 23 . . 233 226. 13 . 67. Goat in magic. H. 39. 5 H. 8. As. 59. 93 . 27 15 . 26. . 105 27 from the grave. 67. Glass in magic. women married to : dead. to those with whom Attack As. As. 198. Mac. 67. 19. cf. 19. A. As. to sit. H. . sit. Gaza. external soul. 34. As. Falling Harlots (?) from date-palm. 24. xxxiii. H. 4 thirst. 120. 120 (cf. Ghadur.. As. Pelew Melanesia. 107. 38. 59. see Clothes. . As.22. A. M. As. xix . 20. 183. . 7 . 116. struate. M. 8 blood. 22 . 3. 21. 37. Ghassanide prince. unclean Gentile. 32. 39. A. . 7. A. (?). M. 8 sit (?). They feed on dust and mud. Arabic beliefs. 267 Return to wash. 76). As. . H. As. Dying by fault of god or sin of king. As. 211. Glands of fish in magic. 17. 144 M. Goat-beard in magic. . 20. . .. A. 18 Y. lvii. 219. 42. 36 (cf.. cf. . 35 Maronite. As. 9 H. thirst. . 57. 93) by nailing . 76 (cf. 5.worship in the East. As. gis-mar. 27. to wife. As. 9 . H. E. Gazelle's horn in magic. Gate in magic. 25. . 166. G. 21. Hi. 230 I. As. Diseased women. 38. 93. Is. Dead husband returning A. Laying ghosts Edimmu (not ekimmu). E. 32. 20. . 231. marsh. or storm. 32. : Of persons untimely dead Abortions (cf. As. 5. . Chr. Murdered men. 171 pasture and can drink. 38 transmigration. 154 . 24. who cannot menA. Gazelle in magic. . As. Bachelors. A. Ginger (?) in magic. As. As. 8. 3 drink water at tombs. 19. 8. Ghoul described. M. E. 67. xx. 20. . As. . As. 228. Ghost-omens. . H. As. metempsychosis Fright from ghosts. A. See Kid. : xxxii. 96. 19. 26. 3. H. 12. Gilgamish. 40 (P). 252 183 . 7 . 32 . xliv. 5. Demons. A. 19. As. Ghosts of the family. 35. H. 37. . 6 binding the soul. Restless ghosts : As. 2 ff. As. 17. . : . Ghosts H. 17. 120 G. 1. at childbirth. As. 93 As. 22 with babe at breast dying 19 . foot 109. 91.

1. H. 126) . 52. Hate-charms. Hanged. and Appendix. H. see Demons. 79. 19 (cf. passim. Gutter (-shadow) haunted. liv. 165. on legs. Half-human Hejra. 142 A. metempsychosis of unclean person into. 207. H. 197. 170. Maori. 78. xxviii As. 25. Hellespont. H. P. 51 Sab. 91. Malagasy. see Underworld. As. 203. Goths. A. 107 Nab. 146. 46 ff. 161. 204. desecration of. Pal. xx. lxivff. Hebrews. 58. 32 . 213. Hawk Head H. Hammam Hammer Hanania. lxvii . . 148. Gula. Heliopolis. G. 215. xxvii. God. 11. xxxvi. xlvi. A. 254. As. 256 . haunted. Heart-plant. 121. evil eye. 226. 170. Hattdth. 230. lxiv. 184. 247 ghosts (?). 153. superstitions about men. Harlots in magic. 33 Hasar Mdweth. lxvi Tobit. 144 . H. 82. 222 As. removal of bones. As. 36. 10. Hayyot (throne-bearers). 146. 165. INDEX. 59 . Hat in magic. 36. As. 213 Gunura. evil god. As. Hamah. lxi. 76. Headache. H. 22. wise gods. 5. . 84. 10 . 83. 174. 64. coming from Underworld. 93. Hathor. xlvii.268 God. As. H. As. 164. . 41. 189. Hades. As. savage. lxiii. A. Harimdti. 216. places. 7 Hadendowa. 166. lvi . 56. xlviii. H. xx. Grave in magic. S. indication of jinniyah. 2. 10 . 184. As. 171. 108. Harut. 103. Hejaz. 179. H. . in magic. hand of ghost. 166. . 99. spirits. in magic. 167. Harran. . . As. Hair in magic. As. 216. Heifer in magic. Guardian angels. Gods attracted by sweet smell. Sumatra. . see Threads. Ealtappan-jA&rit. Phcen. 10 . 57. I. Guiana. 211. 229 . Hand of in magic. 74 Heart in magic. Guinea. 206. As. Guilt-offering. Headdress warding off demons (Paul). As. 79 (in Syria). 88. A. 47. 46. 165 (cf. 38. 147. 78). . (ti'n). as H. A. 11 . 187. xliv. 82. lvii. Grasshoppers in magic. 36 hand H. xliv. Mahdi'stomb. 161. lxii. 236 As. 18. P. . 147 Demons H. in magic. xxi. Hector. 146 . 65. 54. Hanifa. 38 M. E. 201. M. . 4. . from mountains and deserts. 38. Hekate. 40. 132. 61. Hare in magic. 222 (in Egypt). 57 . 35 . . see ghosts from graves. As. See Allah Hamath.. lxv. 59. sacred. dust from. Hahe.' watch. 192 . Greeks. 212. A. 4. lv. xxv. . 256. . A. . 183. passim. xxvi. 90. Hadhramaut. 164 . of the son of his god. 78. bed of reeds prevents . 166. 213. lv. 32 . Gooderoo. Bukhara. H. Haunted Green in magic. 207. 72. gods of night. 208 .' 96) as amulet. 167. Hadendowas. Grass in magic. 205. li. 33. 14. (?) ghost rising. 146. 245 (cf. 245. As. A. S. As. 169. 159. Helen. Gold in magic. 161. 230. xlvii. . 39 fault of god. As. Haj superstition. 206. 'finger of . 13. A. 167. Greece. 206. 38. 169 and Yahweh. Faraun. 239. 91. . lxvii. 98. 229. H. . As. 150 . 161. 5. . Hammurabi. 96 M. H. 205. God. unbound. As. H. As. 230 G.

Horse in magic. C. 228 . passim. of Eridu. 214. xlviii. 158. ffinsa-fiesh. Ab. Hundred in magic. II. 68. 211. Huns. Hermes Trismegistus. . xlvii. 107. lxiv. 38 see Ghost. 73. H. 20. 203. Ignatius. Igigi. xxxiii. A. 186. 102. 212. Immaculate conception. Incense in magic. Incas of Peru. 188. 1. Hisn. Hollow stone Holy Holy Homer. 79. see Demons with gods. A. 132. As. Husband returns as ghost. 82. . 47). lxvi. 10. 133 . Hurmiz. Ibex in magic. liii. Hira. 23. childbirth. 158. 60 As. H. 37. 23. 61. demons. quoted. leprosy breaks out. 57. Test. lxvii. xli. 253 . Hums. 157. As. 173 invoking mighty names. 22. E. 182. Iliad. As. 67. 143. 78. lii. xxxvi. son of Lilith. A. xlv. lv. 6. Hulduppu. Princess. 14. Y. Hyssop in magic. H. Imperfect (malformed) men. 104. (cf. Pan182. 82. As. Hindu magic. lxviff. Iphigeneia. 68 see Demons. 3. 251. 71. Horace quoted. As. and Iliad. human beings with . Horn in magic. nonia. lii. Eth. 212. lxvi Pal. 174. . Iamblichus. Incubus. A. in magic. Hippocrates. 206.INDEX. 163.. 184. 184. see also Underworld. 176. H. . . see Names. Hydrophobia. . A. see Tabu. As. Iblis. 33 . xlii. 50 G. Irak. Invisibility. tabus. 72. 59. 185. 22. 57. on Invoking Christ's voice. Heron. Horsehair in magic. 63. 221 ff. Infidels in springs. 76 excluded from room of wife dying in . 23. 73. 158 H. 228. 78 234. M. 187 . 51. M. lvi. 72. H. 122. Iao. 89. . Human sacrifice. As (cf. 223. xxviii unclean. xliv. . charms for. Ibn Khaldun quoted. A. S. of Sol. xxxiv. Hierapolis. Hen in magic. Hoof in magic. Hilarion. Origen.' 162 84. 172. 'Individual' atonement. xlix. 186. A. Imina-bi. Horus. 146 . lxii. 88 r 107 . 5. 189. Hunting souls. Sumatra. 1. Irkalla. 185 ff. 159. I. 117. 214 . M. H. xxvii). lxvii. sorcery. 204. . India. xlv.. Hunnoman. H. Ghost. . Hos Hot of India. 166. 171. 216. 71. xlix. 183. 32. . 107. lxv. Intermarriage of Mohammedan religion. 72. Hyena in magic. 79. 144. 132 with spirits. As. 32. 1 Incantation of Ea. transmigration into. 65. of the Deep. 93. 216. 158. Hurnim. Honey in magic. Horseleach. 78 As. 33 Irnina. 144. 86. Hermes Abootat. Idlu lilt. 85. . A. in magic. (?) 167. lii* 45. . Hoopoe. 41. Horon. 205 hum demons. A. H. 269 Henbane Hercules. xlvi. Infidel. xxxvii. 37. Herodotus 239. House in magic. 222. see Odyssey A. daughter of Lilith. Hyoscyamus mutieus. xliii. 235. 26. S. 136. 34. Hor. I. 98. 5. . lix. Hesychius quoted. . xliv. Horsemen of the air. 35. 222.

106. 107. Keres. As. 3. January in magic. 233. 106. Day of. M. 85. . Pal. 157 . 156. 176. 73. 220. 29. 167. 211 As. Ishmael. 103. Karrhai. or Kabus en-nom. 80. Ismailiyeh. liv. 165. . M(?). 80. see Demons. 166. 169. a certain Syrian. as demigod. Jupiter. 154. 59. xxv. . Isaiah. 4. Jacob of Edessa. 106. Joshua the Sty lite quoted. xlvii. 184. Izdubar (= Gilgamish). H. 184. 57. 73. 73. A. 204. S. 57 ff. Karina. (Theban) selects woman. lxiv. Ibn Khaldun. 11. Juno. 170-3 . Kabus. 227. 77. Kerak. A. Judah. . Jordan. newly wedded and pregnant women. 37. 173 P. Kettu. Jamratu'l-Aqaba. G. Kid in magic. xxvii. xlviii. Ab. 11. 69. 137. 220. 166. Temple-woman (?). 11. 222. Karina as. 64. . Kaphsiel. I. Joseph. Israfil. 179. xx. Kiskanu. 72. 66. lviii. 78. see Destiny. 11. Jan. 228. A. 211 234. 200. 81. 223. 178. Juneh. H. 168. Jeremiah. Lord. 58. 139. 235. Kipper. 159. Josephus quoted. xxiv. 33. 168. 61. Kaldu. Eth. 96. 53. Kismet. 157. 212. Jerusalem. 141. 4. 184. 31. Psellus. Jericho. Jeba. 101. 117. 10. 162 Med. 178. xlii. 175. 79. 86. 242 . Kird. 169 As. Kerchiefs in magic. 31. xxxff. Jackal in magic. Japan. Kafdrah. 38. in animal form. 210. 145. A. 201 . 170. 201. 62 renders dumb. Kiss in magic. H. Keteb Meriri. 20C. 103. Kalsapu and kassaptu. Kabbala. xxxv. 60. Kafr Harib. days good for. cf. Hi. 146.. Kiriaten. ibid. 105. xxix. Jonah. H. Korban. 194. 236. 219. Jewess. H. Kneeling in magic. 96. 203. 233. Irrigation-machine in magic. 114. Jallalo'ddin. 105. Pal. lvii. xxxv. xx. 139. 187. 83. 197. xxxv. 203 H. 18. month. Jeheyna marches. 143. 220. 220. Java. 78. 90. Jehovah-jireh. Jeypur. 234. Kidneys in magic. Kizriti. Jephthah. 129. Justin Martyr quoted. 76 ff. 164. I. Jewish blacksmiths accredited with magic. 165. 146. H. 77. 168. Iyyar. 103. 10. . 184. Kaisah.270 INDEX. 139. Jinn described. Jaffa. xxiv. 183. Jew in magic. 167. 254. Kheybar. Israel. 77. 229. 33. . . Issue of blood. 17. . 54. destroying creative power. 228. A. Kassaph. 89 Kitchener. 177. Iron in magic. 71 . Khamuas. 236 Isaac. 80. Jidlal (Yidlal). 256. . 227. 1 30 . xli. Kemal-ul-hakim. 18. xx. dangerous to Ishum. . 222. Knots in magic. 181. Ivi. Iroquois. 202. . lxvi. 20. Journey. Ishtar. 115 Babar. Iroquois. 103. A. Isaac. 78 . Kasdim. Ka-luh-u-[dd\. 16.

As. 78. Lock of door in magic. . explana- Labami. Leopard. M. xxii. witch. Lamech. 42. 133. xxxi. xli. 136. Libanus. xxviii. see Ba'al k'ri. Laila. H. 152. No Under- S. xxviii. 177. Kuppuru. I. As. I. 32. 120. 32. 20. N. 255. 204. 21. Lamb in magic. 151 Maklu. 66 . Locust-men. As. 63. 211 . 205. Latins. La Broosha (Lilith). 9. 57. As.. Labartu. no etymological bed. 34. 153 see Dregs. Limes in magic. Lemuria. lvii. 168. 32. not connected with Lilith. Langsuyar. . . 162 . 182. lviii. 32-4. 114. As. 235. . Leather in magic. 245. 161. 185. 100. tion of Biblical. A. 188. 41. 209. attacks H. 171. Lemon grass in magic. Leliurium. Laying hands on sacrifice. 215. averted from Lamassu. . Levites. See also Underworld. 46 As. 35. solitary sleepers. Maronite. lviii. xlv. and Lamia. in magic. 190. lvii. 82. 77. 70. 122.. Labartu. Leaves in magic. 99. worshipped. cf.INDEX. H. 36. xxxvi. 106. A. Med. Lilin. Broosha. M. 207. .' 15. lxiv Return. lvii. 190. Lilitu. 66 counter. lvii. 153. 227. 236. 202. Kutha. 163 M. 21. I. but see Appendix. see Demons. 97. 242 A. 218. 205. As. 219. 33. 9. 12 see Lindinger quoted. 115. 240. 177. 33. 26. xvorld. see Bread. 72 connection with Lailah. 81 see Grasshoppers. . part of Asmodeus. See also Child-witch.. 184. lxvii. Lailah. 139 161 . Lead in magic. Lees in magic. 42. H. . 66. 133. of Lion in magic. Lace in magic. Kouyunjik. Locusts in magic. Leah. 169 . 118. into earth. As. 41. Looking on a corpse tabu. Lady of the Desert. 71. Leuconoe. 131. Loaves in magic. 79. lix. H. 27 N. 69. Kurpu. As. As. 215. 161. (= Underworld). 81. 234. 75 . 216. Byzantine. 21. Lamp Land in magic. As. 44. Leprosy. 63. 43. 173 174. 100. Maronite. see La Broosha As. Latrine haunted. 255 . Jpri. A. E. nocturnal emission. Lamattu (= ant). 84. 136. liii. A.T. poured out. Leg Lemburg superstition. 54. H. xxii . 54. . 31. 210. Lime in magic. 170. ception. liv. S. La in magic. 43 ff. K'phar. . Kusurr a. and La . 83. See also Child- LilA. liv. 68. 65 ff. 68. Kunyit frus (Malay). Tobit. 37. 52. Lazarus. Liver in magic. 160. xxiv. 75. 41. A. 131. 202. 90. 159. lix. lviii. . H. Leo Series. 45. . 210.T. 170. 226. xxviii . 234. 200 ff. 33. 185 ff. Libation. M. 67.flour. 42. As. 197 . 206. Llama in magic. S. Kurdistan. 41. Latarag. Lamia. etymologically as prince of con- Lilith. As. Lamsatu. 233. 65 ff. xli. 42 H. 25. xx. 167. 132. 71. Loins in magic. 70 . 220. A. 21. 3. 27. Broosha. 136. and Lamia. lix. .. Lahabiel. Tablet IV. . 204 H. xxii. H. lviii. Left hand in magic. 225 . . 164. 166. 173.series. H. Kullabi. 271 Leaven in magic.

atonement. 138. As. Maimonides quoted. 72. 51. H. 64. or flour in magic. Hi. Love-charms. 188. Magharby. xlviii. . Mesaru. 60. in magic.T. As. 22. 66. lvii. Melancthon quoted. xlii. As. lxv. . Majhwar. 207. Matku-hird. . 98. 67 H. 6. Luxor. 18. 11. 186. Macedonia. Mandrakes. 100. 158. S. xlviii. 108. H. 77. xlvii. distinction between. 61. of. 195. 72. Mah(a)lath. discord between . xviii. 209. snatches of. Melito quoted. Mare in magic. . Menstruation. 134. passim. 83 of. Test. S. 151. 203. Thomas quoted. 123. 114. 9. 14. 49 Tabu. 58. theory visit of See Tabu.. Masmam. 85. and Priests . 60. 57. 61 . lxii. in magic. see Possession liii. 63. 213. edimmu. spirit. 170. 227. passim. Mesopotamia. married folk. xlii. 201. liii. 160. 208. lii. Mesopotamian Psellus. xxiv. A. 21. . 135 . Macarius. Iroquois. liii. xxviii. 171. 51. Sab. 173 symbolic. 173. 158. Tabu. 5. Makan. of Sol. 160 ascribed to demons. 66.' ' Raiser of the departed Mastakal-jAant. xxvii. 57. Med. 119. goddess. H. Jews. 178. Angel Zw'w. Lunacy charm. lvii. March 184. 11. 30ff. Malays. Madness. Marduk. 82 by Demons in Demons. xxiv. Meal 119. . H. Mercury. see under Asipu. Melanesia. 127. 97. 173. . Magians. Zuh-ka. xxxvi. Maronites. 192. xxviii. 229 H. Maize-drink in magic. Massagetae. xl. 165. 203. 102. 183 . Malim Karimun. lii. Maklu-seiiesy xxxix. lix. 72. Metaab (Ibn Rashid). 245. xliii. 55. 123 ff. . 129. M. 104.. xxxviii. 50. xxvi. with a cow. Mahir. 101. See Marut. 125. 134 75 prevented. Mekka. muselu Masmasu. INDEX. xlviii. 222. Lucian quoted.. Pal. lxi. 219. As. 90.. away bride. 181 Meat Sab. . 102. 28 Pal. H. lv. . Baru. 85. lix. 207. 133. 90. 165. xvii. 158 . Maoris. 239. Mandan Indians. Medain Salih. Merlin. 92. 249. 53. 157. xx. Magicians. 56.272 Looking-glass in magic. Marga. Malacca. superstition quoted by Manetho quoted. 139. lxiv. xxiii. A. xxii. Mahdi. 184. 148. Marriage: danger to newly wedded. 5. 26. Melam(?). . 195. 26. 170. 215. 22. xxix. lxiii. Lugalgirra. Magic. 204 H. and religion. 84. Malim Saidi. 12. 135 A. explained as evidence of evil spirit. Mazzikin. lxivff. xlv. 32. liii. Mati-Anak. N. xliv. 80. 209. Marah. Zammaru. A. 92. lix. 139 . see Agrath. 69. 63. lxv. liii. 178. 69. Malagasy scapegoat. 97. 139. Mah. 183. 139. . Mandean superstition. 80. Manuthu. Male in magic. Mared. . Cambodia. 135. xix. see Mamit. lxv. Lust. As.

lxvii. 148. 148. 15 demons driven away at 27. pour out . 5 Mexico. xlix. 172. Mohammed. Metawileh. As. H. 107. 229. 102. water. Moses. 144. 239. see Sin. C. xxxiv. Minahassa. 102 . 72. A. in magic. 114. M. 81. . Middle watch in magic. 144. magic. cf. 147. A. 101 which they are written to be drunk. xxxi. 223. Naaman. As. 63. Mistress of the Desert. xliv. Musulleh. 1. month favourable. . . Francois de Mirzapur. Minaeans. 6. 53. 52. As. 148. A. 92. 27 dead man. S. spirit returns after funeral to wash. 256 115. Mother-goddess. 209. 212. 151. M. 134 . 42 N. Ab. Mountain of Dawn and of Sunset.. xxxii. Myrrh in magic. 176.T. 245. 69. Pal. Nakpatu. Mosul. 51 . 97. 35. 18. 56. 54. turn looking . swallowed. Morad. 70. lxviii. Eth. Monkir. 26. 222. 64. E. 144. Morning . 67. xlvi. 27 Jews. 35 Midianites. el-Ghuffary. 20 As. 119.40. 158.glasses to wall. 83. H. to la. Pal. A. 83. 153. Jews. . 29. xxxiii. 163. filling the. S. As. Nagiti. 209 256. 172. 183. 230. A. 116. Modesty lack of resulting in ghost Mogador. Mice prevented. xliv. 159. 158. 18. 168. As. Mule. 27 . 82 lunacy. A. 230. 105. 44. burial by heaping up stones. 61. As. Molonga. Metempsychosis. South. 174 Michael. H. H. 222. 142 A. end of . S. 5. As. xx. funeral by noise. 74. Naamah. A. 106. 161. A. Austr. Munychia. lxiii. Moloch. 148 . (?). Moghrebi as magician. Pal. 77. 158. beginning of month and waning H. 28 . E (Eth). 144. . . 22. . Murdered man as ghost. Money in redemption. 5. 151 . H. A. 146. 27 (see also Dead and Minhah. Pal. 62. 148. superstition ahout. 27. 36 . . 65. 160 . see superstition about grave of. Murderers. 4. . 18. E. 17. 161.' 15. Mourning customs. Ghost . Mountains. 184 Nailing down spirits. Minsk. As. Mohammed Mustabarru-mutdnu. 55. Nabateans. E. 63. in Scorpio unlucky for weddings. watch. in magic. 142. lxvi . . A. 107. Java. H. 75. 150. H. H. . . See Demons. 225 16.INDEX. 29. 161 . xxv. 53 Jews burn lamp seven days after death. 62. 248. Maronite. Nail-parings Moon-god. . 148. 116. Munzir. Monsters. Nabfi. 219. xxx. H. 42. 13 . 158. . liv. 169. xlv . quoted. 30. . Sab. 155. home of headache. Mirandole. . 155. lxviii. 76 H. 52. As. 11.lvi. Midwife. 167 . lxii. 49. 209 Moon (see Eclipse).ll. metempsychosis of unclean person into. Nakir. 137. 51. 101. Midday. 72. . Names in magic. Nablus. As. Moah. fear of funeral Kaddish for passing in front. xlix. liv. 23. 210. 273 H. 'modest' As. Moahib. in magic. 85. 53. 147 in . one who bears a corpse not wear shoes. As. As. Mouth. S. Milk in magic. 92. Eth. human. (?). . 134 unfavourable. S. xlv. 18. moon favourable. H. A. . 148. ink in xxx. 114. 29. . ' Solwdn) . 145 . 107 . 67. . 4 Y. Morocco. 148. H. 10. 137. xxxvi. H.

150. lviii. M. 85 poured into earth. Sab. Odysseus. 79. H. A. Nursing. 139. A. 164. Nativities. 157. Ophthalmia. 212. A. 9. lix. Onion in magic. form of Jinn. 133. G. Russia. . Needles in magic (=iron?). As. 212. see Fire-god. Offspring. Nisaba. 170. Nergal. Ninkasi. A. Noah. (?). 65. 64. . 169 H. 216. Sab. 32. 209. 21 1. 14. xxxi. Neleus. 91. 136.charm. Nimroud. 164. Orang Laut. 55 ff. CE thanes. to. of Sol. . . As. 88 (?). 65. Nebk. 123. New Zealand. As. As. . see Lemons. Oracles. 17. 161. 85. . As. INDEX. 13. . 149. lv. I. woman in magic. Sacrifices and Bead. Nazareth. Nineteen in magic. xxxvii. 149. 91. xli. 96. lviii.. H. As. Nin-aha-kuddu. A. 138. H. 35 129 . Omahas. 9. plaque from. H. xlviii. xxiv. observed. 89. Oar in magic. from monstrous As. 8. . Nazarite ritual.67. . births. 99. 129. 135 Nut-trees in magic. xlviii. 220. dead. E. 21. xliv. 173. 38 H. lix. 155. 141. . xlv. E. 121. 33 cast into See also sea.. 60 . 150. 11. Nightmare. . 78. 51 Narudu. 229. 150. Ninib. 173 Russia. Neck 38. xlvi.. 134. 139. in magic. 149. Odyssey. lxii. Japan. 115. 9. Nine in magic. A. Ab. Oath on Dei penis.42. 170. 170. Nineveh. Obizuth. 106. 24. A. Skeat. Orontes. 237. lix. 183. H. . Net in magic. 168 As.) Origen quoted. . As. . H. 70.Maronite. 99. demon. New things in magic. 101. xxxviii. New Guinea. Semitic desire for. 22. 41. Malay Magic. liv. As. spirit. 8. 145. 230. 83 ff. . 16. 201. 115. 97 (?). Origen.women. Ostrich. . 71. 162. H. in gratitude. 91 New York. 153 class. 157. Noon in magic. 58. lx. xxxix. Osiers in magic. 93. xxxv. 188. 135. 223 . 236. New South Wales. 207. Omens from ghosts. P. for adultery. Olympias. 124. 155. Omdurman. Oil in magic. Orifices of body entrance of cf. ghoul. 91. Nisan. Old 184 . . . 211 L. 169 (?) . As. Nestorians. 184. 149. Nebi Yehudah. H. A. 57. Med. H. 163. 141 . 211. Nebuchadnezzar. . Namtaru. Ornias. 42. Nicknames. Ningal. Nin-tu. 16. lv. A. Nose in magic.274 lxiff. 144. 76. 20. 26. Ordeal by water.81. 55. lix. (See 401. 139 . 171 See Blindness.81. in magic. 166. Negroes. 245. M. Test. 245. Nur-ed-Din. . 63.A. 32. 14. A. knowing name As. Jephthah's See Tabu. 132. H. M. Nis Aratft. H. 163.series. 163. As. 161. 182 Nuzku. danger Nusairiyeh. liv. 221 Niddah (menstruating woman) 118. 123. 164 I. . month. xxxvi. 64. 60. xxv . not to be mentioned. eclipses. of Noise driving away demons. 231 As. 33. Neilgherry Hills. Nuts in magic. 115. 158. 78 vow. 139. 164 Necklace. As. As. 214.As. Offerings. xxiv. 229. 212. 139. Nectanebus. to 13 ff. 53. New year in magic. 196. 114. xxii. Queen of. . 107. see Enquiry. As.

183. 196. 48 (?). 155 . M. 226 . A. Peru. 207 . Petronius quoted. Pentecost. 148 Eth. 95. 161. M. xxx. . S. (28). Pelew Islands. H. . 125. Pnhu. . Pot in magic. 14. 26. H. tabu. Maronite. xxxvi. xlff.Cyprus. 119. Pomos of California. Plutarch quoted. 187. 188. 31 . 238. Persia. 160. lv. Abipones. xx. lxvii. Pitch in magic. 186. 198. 106. (Eth). 180. 164. Pigeon in magic. 139. H. A. conse- Physician prohibited from healing on Sabbath. 167. . xxiff. . xlix. H. 6 in magic. Phoenicians. Planets. 184. . 209. li. Peacock in magic. Philip of Macedon. 201. 161. lii 30. birds of. Paradise. xxxv. As. As. 209. 22. 107. 121. 183. 178. 129. 219. Ox in magic. xxviii. As. 59. 177. Palm in magic. 162. 253. . A. A. 252. Peas in magic. allowed to eat sinallowed . Placenta in magic. 163. lxiii . 21. 233 xliv. Pillows in magic. Porphyry quoted. 83 159 see Namtaru and Ura. 79. . Parchment in magic. H. H. 150-4 . 209. Philosopher's stone. Prehistoric man. 139 priests. passim. As. 50 . 163. 115. S.. Pig. 240. Polyphemus. M. 78. 187. xli. 216. 184 H. 161 . A. 158. 49. xviii. 114. 188. 61. Ovid quoted. 88. 239. 143 A. H. 177. 202 . Pomegranate in magic. escape from. 161. 187. Babylonia. A. Plaster in magic. in magic. 210. 51 (?). Persians. 215. A. Ixvi. 194 ff. Parsees. lviii. A. 227. Plain-god. 170. 22. As. 182. Plaque. spirit of . E . 20. 49. . 164. 14. As.. 188.. 185. 208. 201. Pharisees. As. xliv. H. 189. 74. 137. Heliopolis. 210. Priestly Code. Pilate. when not to make divination. Pausanias quoted. 77 As. Persian Gulf. 251. xxxi. 187. 230. 72. 182. lxii. Priests. Plants in magic. 209. 252. Phaniel. 135. Ovens haunted. 79 . 130. see Tabu. Pannonia. G. Prostitution of women.. 51. 248. . xlv . H. H. M. As. 149. 80. 145. . Palestine. As. 99. xlvi. Persius quoted. . 164. Galloi Picture in magic. H. Pharaoh. A. 129. 10. (lvi). 215. I. wicked into. 168. Pins in magic. Pickling useless if done by menstruous crated. Plague-god. (29). 208 ff. . Prison. 106 up. Psellus quoted. 59. Malagasy. see Demons. 222.. xxvii broken. S. 38. A. Owl as spirit. Porcupine in magic. 127. 222. 182. N. 12. 231. Y. (28). Periodic ' Polypus. 125. Passover. xviii. woman. 210. 206) Potato in magic. As. 160.T. Pal. 223. 20. 182. Polynesia. Plague removed. xxx Ab. H. 135. Perak. transmigrating 202. Panoi = ghostland in Melanesia. Tonga. 69. Atonements. H. 21. 129. 6 . 184. Med. li. (cf. Ozair.INDEX. Piles for houses in magic. 275 E. xxxv. As. ff. 182. Paneas. 209. Plantain in magic. magical. xx. A. 105. Maori. 30. 187. Hi pulled . 209. 104 . Celebes. G. I. (214) (lxii). 107 Josephus. 53. 221. 33. offering. 21. 32.

Rabban Hormizd. E. 93. 130. the . . Rabies. 157. . 88 Ab. 46 . 16 Rome. 213. . A. As. Sa'dadin. . 74. lxviii. xx. 186 . Raphael. H. Pal. As.' H. 180. Rabbi Akiba. 138 ff. see ' Purple in magic. A. 223. . 206. . H. liii. 91. G. A. Right hand or side in magic. As. H. H. H. 207. 121. xx. 18. 4. . 44. to dead. into. Rag in magic. See Scarlet. Habisu-demon. 40. bed prevents spirit leaving grave. lxii. Rabbi Yochanan. 15. 164 Josephus. lxiii. 133. As. Rabbi Meir.. Raising dead. 202. lv. H. Rheumatism. 169. Ravens in magic. 71. xxxii. . 187 Pers. 135. As. 173. Queen of Heaven. Rabbi Joshua. Indies. raven faces of bat-men. H. 174. tabu. Round in magic. Jews. 231. xxiv. 148. 135. Phoen. Pal. Rain-time in magic. As. Rio. Sacrifices. Rabbi Hyya. Martin Del. 18. see Tabu. xxviii. xviii. 219 ff. Rabbi Ashi. 144 away . 183. Rabbi Pinchas ben Yair. A. names of sacrificial animals. 220. 186. . 194 ff. Ruala. 168 144. li. 204. 62 guardian of treasure.. Rocky places haunted. cf. A. 22 1 ff . xxxiii. As. clay from in ordeal. 90. A. Redeeming the life. Rope in magic. Rabbi Joshua ben Hananiah. lxvi 171. 106 . 9 1 . 174. Rue Ram in magic. 1 . Luhi. 7. lxii. Queen of Nineveh. lxvi. see Adad. 139. 170. 204. Red in magic. 163 . Royal Tabu. 195. 201. 198 human. xlvi. Rahabiel. Rabbi Jehudah. 24. Sabians. 102. Tyrol. xx . lix. 4. ' H. H. 160 I. See also under . Rice in magic. xxx. Josephus. 1. 164. 15. Malagasy. 174 H. 119. 68. H. Celebes. 72. Pure Abode = Eridu. 204. Reading shema'. xxv. 200. A. Running water in magic. 184. 72. Kabbala. Russia. ' INDEX. Sacred names invoked. 237. 139. . 62. 72. lvii. 80. lvi. A. . Queensland. 81. 253 reed. xxv . . haunted. 129. Rabbit. Rimmon. 164 river-banks. 153. Borneo. 135. 252. 186. Rabbi Isaac Luria. carry . 227. River-god. 154. Central. xx As. xxxi. 58. 166. Rome. 16. Rabba. . see Water. lii. liv. 1. 39. 153. . lii . Pal. 14.' 65. As. 135. Raguel. Roof(-shadow) haunted. 104 As. 100. 58. 158. Roots in magic. 223 ff. A. Raisins in magic. 20. quoted. to demons.. in A. 156. metempsychosis of unclean person Robenhausen. As. in magic. charm to dry up. battle ritual. 189. H. Rahab. Ruins haunted. xxx . 212. 161. As. As. Pal. see Names. the firstborn. 75. 160.. 66. A. Rat in magic. 227. 135. 6. 133 Sprenger. Ring in magic. Reed in magic. Rabbi Papa. 80. Reptiles. 77 .276 Pumpkin in magic. see Demons . 51. 16 1 S. in magic. 4. 137. S. 221 ff. A. 107. 239. Hassad. the soul. confluence of two. 119. H. 171 . Rabbi Nathan. lxviii. 106. 75. H. 134. 'Refuse' in magic. 157. A. 214. Rabbi Hanina. see Dead and Ghosts. 92 . xvii. Sabbath. see Demons. H. . H. Rivers. tabu on. 57. Resurrection.

the Seven Spirits. 138. xxii (Sun). Samson. 231. 173. . 167. A. 222. 73. v Sennacherib. 245. 160. 44. Servius Tullius. 122 (Sun). Satan. 184. 100. 56. 23 the enemy. 119 . xlv. Sala. 75.. As. 144. 56. 40.. 178.Aubin. 154 (Sun). xlix As. demon. 58. 206. 81. xlv. xxvi. Saffron in magic. 229 . Samaria. Sedd. H. . xxvii. 20. Sadunu. Samas-sum-ukin. 230. lxii. P. no proof 188. lxvii. moon in. Sesame. Scorpion-men. A. 102. 173 . 58 see Demons. 160 (Sun). 239. 88. xlvii (Sun). 164. 87. 237. Sephardim. threads or hair in magic.. 134. Shebat.. Scheiss-Teufel. xx. Samuel. lv. 184. It. 21. see Snake. xxxvii. 157. 30 (see lxii). 277 Sea in magic. 47) see Incantation of (he Deep. 158. xlii. Sappan. 1 Shadowless demons. 12. As. 201 . spirits.wolves. Scents. 126. 25. 100. 43 ff. 149. 187. 206. 188. lix.' 72. 44. 42. 166. 180. 187 (Sun). 86. Saints. 2. 37. Seven in magic. liii. 134. September in magic. Sadur. Scarlet in magic. Sammael. 138. 11. 97 in India. 185. xxi. Sesame in magic. A.T. 205. for xxix. Senjero. Sarah. 114. 208. Scorpio. 252. As. . 119. Sarpanitum. 64 ff. 105. Sedim. 62. xxiii. 27. xxvii. 61. 214. Babar. Shans of China. xliv. 173 . 93 . 89. Pal. . xxiv. 34. Sheba. See Demons. 169. 10. lii. 182 ff. lxviii. H. M. 205. Seyf el-Mulook. 5. see Samas. lxiv. of Sakilbir-jjlant. 87. S. A. lix. 78. As. Selangor. Scapegoat. xxii. . . 62. 74. . Seiyid Ahmed el-Bedawi. 21. 55. 207. xxxii ff. haunted. 138. A. . 208. 57. liii. 33. A. liv. . xxxii. xliv (Sun). 37. 155. lxii (Sun). Saint. 97. 152. H. Safrie. 39 (cf. xxx. 214. . . 86. S. Saul. Salt in magic. Seyide. 73. lii. S. A. 72. . Sarpedon. 222. . 56. A. S. H. 114. 16. . liii . 32. 200. liii. A.INDEX. H. 64. . 162. 15. 170. As. 52. Serpent. 245.wine in magic. 245 see Demons. unlucky time weddings. xxvi. 89. As. In'cas. of its existence in Assyria. see Demons. C. 253. 56. Sepher Raziel. 210. 88. Shaving in magic. xlii. 34. 67 Senecio vulgaris. 161. 55. (Sun). 230 E (Eth). xlv. 9. Saknet Abu Darwish. 55. 230. Shammar. lvii. 36. 78. 214. 147. xliv. 231. 38. 229 153. 74. M. inflict punishment. 245. xliii (Sun). 133. Sea-monster. 167. Semi-human Demons. xxxix. 168. Satan of Perak. liii . 188. 65. Sedu. lviii. Saturn. xxxi. xxxi H. Scorpion in magic. 156. Seals in magic. lviii. 9. 102 . 157. Sar-azag-ga. Borneo. I. 163 17. Oriental desire for. Borneo. A. Sei'ar change to were. Shalameans. xlii. Saturday. 33. 57. Seraph. daughter of Raguel. 26. 24. 72. 163 H. Shade of moonlight haunted. 79. C. 78. 79 ff. 223 the Devil. 54. Shabriri. 100. P. 166. 252 (Sun). 170. 159. 217. Sandarach. 185. Sarah. 185 ff. see Red. 217. 54. N.

. Silver in magic. Solwdn. 91. spirit-wife. Sbibbeta. work if Shi'ah tradition. 42. Spearworts in magic. 171 of Samaria. xxx. 96. H. 153 H. . to Sozomen quoted. As. xxxvi. 73. 141. 206 Ibn Khaldun. xxx. 252 Malagasy. Siloam. 245 . . to . Square in magic.. Arab demon. 229. Peter. xxi. 77. H. Shoulders in magic. 59. xxiv. 89 . 6. saints. H. lxiii. 'Chaldeans. St. 167. 96. 167. H. 231. 128. 185. Shroud in magic. H. St. 97 of tabu. 163. . 119 in magic. Paul. 3 ff see Ghost external soul. . tabu. classes of. 89. 10. 107. 54. .T. Simon Spirit. H. 147. Sheol. 119. . 191 ff. xxii. . 213 .. 49. 253 . 3. Sinai. P. A. 69. Skimming -spoon in magic. xxx. 33. Sin. Skin in magic. Sickness due to demons (see Demons). 74. Sleep. As.T. 147.. xliv. Psellus. Sin-offering. Sisters. 4. 9. xxx . St. Hi. . 231 230. 145 M. H. liv. lxii. 40. xxxvi. Shem. 211. 234 Shewbread. Ships in magic. 53. 57. . A. Sparrow in magic. .' 100. 102. Spittle in magic. . Sab. 79. A. 135. Smoke . 49. 20 As. 54. 51. H. P. A. 50 ff. 189. 5 beliefs . xxxi S. 218. As. A. Shemal. St. to breach 119. unwashed hands. lxiv. 145 A. As. A. S. S'irim. . Sixty in magic. 157. to gods. Soul. Sprenger quoted. 147 . 22. xxix. 184. Shitil. Turin. 189. Snake in magic. Speaking with tabooed person renders tabu. see 66. 12. Ab. 70.243.278 INDEX. Sirens. 55. . 231. magic does not sorcerer is asleep. 164. lxvi. . 141 Si'lat. in magic. 168. xix H. Maxime de Nino. 104. Spitting in magic. transmigration of. 207. . see Ghost hymn of. . xxxii. John. Sibylline books. 163. 154 ff. 31. 91. N. . lix. see Demons. 33. . 118. 169. . H. Skull in magic. 33. . I. 186. A. 36 N. lxii. Six in magic. 6. xxxi. two marrying on the same day St. Soda. lxviii. Silk in magic. 55. xv. origin of . 187 Eth. Ab. 57. 186. 89. xxxix. 77. St. . 153. 74 see B'ne Elohim. (r<pdyia. 63. George. 139. Celebes. 59. 180. 106. Ghosts. 67 . 173. lviii. 28. St. 129. see Ghost. 57. or dates. 211. As. As. to South Sea Islands. 193 . 254 E. v Spring in magic. 216. 231 . H. . 256. 2. 159. 107. Sheep. 147 . As. H. 16. S. 219. 60. 5. Cyprian. E. Sinjar Hills. . . Sippar. H. Moon-god. A. to eating fish to crossing a river. St. lxvii xx. 11. eclipse. 184. ex Gagate'). 119 but [not by one carrying corpse. lxiii. 226. A. A. Anthony. 227. 107. . lxiv. 182ff. Sinaitic Peninsula. 96. concerning. Son of God. 129. 9. 216. 53. see Underworld. A. lxiii. A. 211 148.. 68. . I. 12. H. Sitlamtaea. 150. 1. 64 54 form of Jinn. As. Sin. H. 166. Spain (' 79. xxx. Spices in magic. . xxvi. Baths of. 37. 233. 218. 164 . 227. xviii. Roman. A. Situa. M. Shoes worn by women in childbed. Spinning in magic. 117. Soudan. 194. among Semites. Solomon. Sit-napishtim. 105.

209. 212 (cf. 83. 218. Y. liv. 126. 178. . 27. Esquimaux. 225. bread cooked in ashes or on food. 48. A. 41. ff. A. As. clothes. 165. wearing phylacteries. 255. Med. 250. 95ff. H. 49 . 184. meal. xxi. As. 204 See also Circle. 213. . Suma. Eth. As. 48. xxxiii. 226 ff. . 117. H. . 139 . 180. Suakin. 249. 112. 165. . Syria. . Stench drives away demons. As. H. xxxvi. As. 130 178. 40. Stolen money to be restored by magic. xxxvii. 14. Sympathetic magic. on dead bodies. xxvii. Ixviii. 118. Substitutes in herem. xxii. Feast of. 160. As. A. 245 ff.. Pal.. putting on shoes. 159 . 229. . Sumerians. . 247. unclean woman not allowed to see. As. H. ff. on beasts.) . Sweat in magic. 254 sunset in magic. Iamblichus. 17. camels. 204. on dregs. 14. v in magic. 135. As. 68 ft. A. 178. M. 169. 247. 23 . Stones thrown by demons. 125 . 1 19 cleansed. on cursing. Pal. 254 H. 217 M. Sword in magic. Sume-Resii. 142 ft. H. 176. H. 190 H. Subarti. with friends. . Abipones. 89 . 106 See Brimstone. Tobit. Malay Magic. 180ff. . 117. lvi. 182. on fire. 23. 53. 118. 183. 132. 211. 195. on bribery. 11. As. H. . sleeping in a cemetery. . Stick in magic. 171. 231. 148. Tabu. passing odour of carcase. 186 . H. As. . I. lviii. 30. 117. see Adad. 279 Sab. Storm-god. 18. 178. lv. 184 15. . xxxix. 177. H. 140. 215 110. 110. broad places) in 245. 43. Tabernacle." Ixviii. 178. . Subari. 129. N.) 162.INDEX. A. Summer Sun (see in magic.. Sulphur in magic. 182. Surrounding with water. see Demons. A. . 139 or meat taken with a skimming -spoon. 158. or under the camel itself. 139. 254 (cf. 108. 187. As. . 131 ff. 118. overcome by magic. 116 H. 44. Stag in magic. succubus. 62. 182. H.T. 25. eating things cooked in fire (on half-baked bread Sabbath). cooked meat. passim. touching magic. Suma-ukina. Table in magic. M. 54 . G. Sab. A. Tabernacles. with lvii ff . Strabo quoted. South Sea Islands. A. 31 Philosopher's . 119. 102 . on families. 61 Sumatra. 102. S. contagious. 26. 206. 15Sff. xxxv. Stone in magic. As. 56.. S. 115. 133 sun. magic. or between two . 208. 215 speaking with tabooed person.. Maori. xxxi.. on 139 . etc. xx. As. H. 27. see Iron. 130. H. 230. Sweetmeats in magic. 183. xxvii. 47. 109. xlii. Swallows in magic. 319. 18. " Sword of Moses. rise xlii. 183. ?-jt?-series. 252 As. 127. unclean. 15 . Samas). 254. ( See also Skeat. on easing nature.. As. xxiii. 108ff. xxxix. H. Succuba. H. As. . lxvii. lviii. 163. . 173. 128 See also under the names. 29. 254. lix . 125. eating totems. As. 89. 246. 43. Sugar in magic. xxxvii. on cardinal sins. As. on adultery. clean clothes. 114 . 27. Street (market-place. 252 M. 210. 153). As. 139. G. 184. Suez. holy. 103. 107 with lime. Storms caused by demons. 240. 182. H. 207 . Stone. xl. 202. 114. Sumatra. Tabarjan. lxiii H. . 190. 166. 230. passing under the rope of a camel.

speaking loudly. 113. H. on work. 140 riding. 215. 78 . (cf. 135 . 135 two day. 139. Iamblichus. 248. 239. 116. 131. on strife. Tamar. A. 139. lxii. xxxi). xxxi. As. 116ff. Washing. Teima. 128. 120 ff. Tak-i-Bustan. 182. 184. liii. 62 Tasmit. 120. H. . Tantalus. 259. stealing and cheating. . 165 see Tabu. on offerings. . 190. 251. 255. 253 xxiii. . 135. . see Torch. Tabu on from a graveyard well. 131. 140. 136. . on pointing with finger. on seeing the sun. lviii. 255 menstruation. P. . .. on various places (253) threshingfloor. H. 139 : Takpirtu. As. making H. 188. 252. 78 . 184 : . . 138 ff.) Malay Magic. 131. Teiresias. 117 See also. 113. drinking flesh. 116) A. As. 139). Royal. 247. 182. 182. 139 H. 116: cohabitation in bed where child sleeps. on sexual functions (113. 126. 203 month. 32. xxxvii . H unwashed hands. As. on physician's work. . . . : 202. on vessels. 93 of Bel. 28 on the ground. 139. 182. As. widowhood. 165). 79. As. pulling up. on plants. 121 ff. unclean. 126. Tonga. 254) drinking water drawn overnight. 134ff. 116 ff. . As. Y. xxxviii. 139. 113. As. lying. 117 of Theban Jupiter. 215. on writing materials. Tellal. S. 117 Min. 258. of Hierapolis. 140 (cf.. Tribal. 140 M. H. 129 ff. 117.. (See also Skeat. H. 138 ff. of Ezida. 122. 117 202 . on perfume. giving totems (animals) to dogs eating torn Abipones. M. H. As. on sedition. 134 ff. 187. 250 H. As. H. on washing. 112. 135. Temple.280 191 to INDEX. on priestly tabus. Tanta. 53. winnowing fan (and meal). 118. 184. 216 ff. on murder. loose. on prisoners. 252. As. Abipones.. A. 64. H. 216 ff. 255. xxvii. A. 29 . cooking. 182. G. 248 on mourning. 116 ff. Tammuz. As. 131. 182. 177. upsetting maize drink. H. tabu removed by washing. 254 H. 30. H. H. 136. Tacitus quoted. 116 ff. Tamarisk in magic. A. . 116. 121 ff. 251. 249. Maronite. . 127 . 139. . or a man passing between two women (risk of menstruous tabu ?). 139 . 113. H. issues. 252. . marrying on same Taper in magic. H. I. on women a woman passing between two men. Tell-el-kadi. 190. Tearing up plants in magic. 66.. 251. 3. sisters . 138. 29 on nail -parings being scattered. intercourse with bond- maid promised to another. 207 . 14. Tabu on eat. Tallow in magic. on speech. xxix. . 140. . . 253 As.. liii of Samas. 139. on voice raised (cf. Pal. H. See also Washing. . on riding forth. 182. 251.. . 251. 257. 158 . 202. 130. on water.. on weapons. 255. H.. of Jerusalem. . on murderers. on sorcery. As. stirring up. on sunstroke. H. See Wax. 59 on passing under a bridge over from a dry watercourse. childbirth. 252. 80. marriage. H. 92. 154. H. 22 (cf. . Sabbath. 182. 249. 127 drinking vegetables (?). 139 enquiry. 8. xxii . . fire-temple. 245. Hi. 246. on pouring out. 88. . on 163. on oaths. As. As. 29. . . 190.

Thigh. lxiii. 139. 164. 138. Turning seats upside down after death. lvii. xliv. As. A. . xliii. 53. L. As. 156. P. 5. 169. 177. in magic. 202. xlii. As. 46. 209 Thirty-six in magic. 18. Transference of H. xxxi Tent. A. lviii . xxxv. H. Two H. 170. Tumru. Tisri. lvii. Tonquin. 51. . As. 182. of camel in magic. 107. Torch in magic. 62. 37. Thabatha. As. Toe. H. H. H. xxxi. A. 77. M.. xxxviii. E. 170. . lvii. 134.165. 76 of man executed for 33. in magic. 135 227. 134. As. see Three in magic. 4ff. Twenty Tiamat. 174. 25. Appendix. 146. sacrifice for. 184. xlix. 171 . xxxi. 215. Touching unclean things. 78. . 212. 30. xxvi. 5 . 156. Thickets haunted. A. 141. 163 Ten M. 146. 214. 28. 195. 138. (cf. 186. 168 . Indies. xHu. Atonement. Transmigration.. Tuna. 206. xlii. 114. Abyssinian madness. Tigris. China. 160. 29 . 29. xlv. coloured or variegated (see lxvii. 21. 30. S. in magic. As. 15. 33 127. 162. bolt. 89. Theft (stolen money) to be restored by magic. Tortoise in magic. 90. H. 189. Timor-laut. Towel in magic. . 38. H. 166. As. Twenty-five in magic. . lviii. Tripoli. in As. lv S. xliv. 157. . 212. 105. A. Twenty. 212. As. 207. Thirty in magic. Tobias. Threshold in magic. 180. 164. (?) . 102. 144. see Grave. etc. 152. xxxii . Totems. 129. 204. xl. 114. swelling. 74. H. H. 52 188. Theban Jupiter selects svoman. (?). 27. lviu. 34. xxxi. 46 . lxvii. A. lxvu. 200. . 92. 204. 165. Tongue in magic. lvii. As. Twenty-one in magic. Trinity. xxxi I. Terah. . Terebinth in magic. 221. A. 130. 48. A. 228. 171. Threads in magic. 52. M. Touching corpse murder. Pal. As. xli. 106.two in magic. 161. xlv. 43. 104. 9. 227 Test. C. xlvii. see Tabu. 7Vi-series. 164. 158 . 14. 222. Abipones. . 161. 34. As. 210. but see Throne-bearers. place of exit for demon. 228. . xlii. Twigs Timarchides quoted. H. Treasures. lxiv. Eoman. 17. Hi. magic. As. 33(?). I. 172. 205 Maronite. Trees in magic. 235. Thomas Thorn of Marga quoted. lix. Tomb. 210. xviii. E. 163. 89 As. 47. M. 213. 26. to spirits water. As. 164. 253. Tooth in magic. 167. 42. 222. 58. 62. xlv. li. H. 256. M. stone. 212. Three hundred and sixty in magic. 18. see Taper. Tiberias. 17. 166. Trumpet in magic. As. As. month. Appendix. 191. 281 Borneo. S. Tobit. Demons see . lx. 184. xxvui. Tonga. 208 Torn flesh. . Tobacco in magic. Thunder lxii . 139. cf. 161. lxvu. 115. Tigritiya. As. lxvii. 89. A. 202. 146 Coloured and Cord). Twenty-seven in magic. A. 169 H. 135 for similar story. TertulHan quoted. A. H. in magic. Twelve in magic. lxiv. 164. A. xliv . A. 14. Twenty-eight in magic. Tuesday in magic. As. lix. Throne of God. 22 . 162. . Test of amulet. . . 144 I. Sab. 53. 75. M. 201. in magic. xxvi. Esquimaux spirit.INDEX. of woman. Trespass offering. 256). of Sol. to animals and wax figures. H.

202. 135 . Urisu. . 145. 255. 161. Tale of the. Tonga. 164. . E. 161. 115. 31. 134 . 208. 5. 74. Pal. 173. 207. As. Running. As. . (cf. lvi.' Virgin Mary. xl. food. 187.. A. 212-14. 216. 79 117). Unwitting' sins. 204. A. see Tabu. xxiii. xlvii. 8 . 222. Y. . 146 I. 78. Roman. As. See Sheol. . . Unclean: beasts. 167. Tyrol. 80. Veils protect from demons. xxviii. 45. 184. Unripe things in magic. xxvii. 203 H. 28-32. 22 (Kutha). A. 34 . 200. xx. 213. xlix. Washing . A. 171. . . H. xx. 28-32. H. 164 . 155. 49. 114. Vampires. As. 9. 77. wax dropped in water at Maronite baptism. 135. 84. see Women. xxvi. . Untimely dead as ghost. 102. in magic. 174 Virgin kid. see Ghosts married to spirits . cords. Underworld. xxviii. H. Usurtu. H. lxvii. lviii. 123. Tonga. 203 place. 142. Venus. Ura. 5. two -coloured Virgins as ghosts. . 143. xxvii . 130. 167. lxv . 117. Waist 256 Umm-el-Subyan. Unwashed hands in magic. 44. 32. Y. 208. liii INDEX. lii. Villeneuve. Westcar Papyrus. 188. 212. 222. As. . 159 . 163 . 30. 36. 212. 79. 'Wheat-stones. . 56. 122. troubled by spirit. lxiiiff. Malagasy. 120. As. 250 M. 156 .wood. 12. As. 213. 150. 115. 144 M. 58 As. 135. 42. (Eth). 52. 3. 162. 26. 91. A. As. White in magic. give conWatering-places haunted. 254). li. lviii. 97. As. see Ghost. 14. 105 . lxvi. . E. Wells in magic. . Maronite. 191 ff.Saint-Georges. 201. Ixii. 34. 29. 122. xxx 35. E (Eth). impassable by demons. Brothers. 153. Roman. 90 ception. 80. H. 224. 163. lii. 205 Utukki limnuti. in magic. see 215. in magic. 28 M. 91. Upuntu-meal or -plant in magic. 164 As. 8 . liii. . 152. 25. 227. 126. West 253 in magic. . 4 . 73. 197. xxii. 82. 123. 74. 149. 227. A. Unas. 30. Virgin parchment. 130. (cf. 165. lv. see Ghost. 153. ff. 215. 27-32. Vinegar in magic. G. lxi. 191. 138. . 143. Urharinn u. 99 E. 5. A. I. Urine. Holy. . 137. 82. Wax in magic. A. As. 84 ff. cf. As. 187. 223. 218 As. H. xlv See Corn. Weddings. 107 S. 100. lxvii. Wafer. 157. in magic. Uftz (Westphalia). . . lii. A. 182. Ur. 34. 8. of the S. Eth. 129 ff. A. xli. 162. A. xxxviii. Morning and Middle. H. 160. 170. 254. 166. xxvii. 129 202. 185. 129. Uhuli. 163 . Wheat Pal. 8. G. 3. . Unguent in magic. H. lv. 188. Tyndareus. Vomiting in magic. Untimely birth as ghost. 39. 33 see Coloured. I. H. Virgin lamb. in magic. 159. 33 (Ekurra). see Abortion. 106 (cf. 168 146 haunted. li. . xlii. As. of camel as medicine. 140. . . xviii. H. 126. . 102. 152. xlix. 134. 256. 239. Melanesia. 161 (?). 166. liii. 135. 239.282 S. Unburied ghost. of ass in libation. see Coloured for . Two Viscera in magic. Variegated threads or hair in magic. lv. Utukku. Wednesday . Watches night. 64. 28. As. Water in magic.. 28-32. 160. H. xxxi . 97. 215 ff. Uterus of animals in magic. I. 79. lxv . 29). 6 H. 150. 58. H. 188 Spring. xlvi. H. 37. 98. 26. 158. see Demons. 129. 4.

Xerxes. Widowhood unclean. . 166. (51). As. 59. lv. 283 in magic. 158. 171. Women married to 72 . Zebedani. (149). H. 31. xliv. xxxvi. 42. I. 7.. A. 54. Word of power. 5. 68 casting spell. see . As. 176. 167. (lxvi). Borneo. Ab. (6). 187. . 187. A. H. 188. Yahweh. 6. 77. 158. in magic. (52). 210 . Wicks in magic. 184. (74). 168. xlv ('singer') Wood Wool in magic. 215. 29. 226. xxi. 52) Zu. A. lxiv. 69. (58). . 87. 103. Yaghuth.INDEX. As. . xxiv ff. 166. xlviff. (33). Wolf. wise-man. A. liv. 119 (cf. 68. Yezidis. 163. Babar. H. Zammaru --priests. lxviii. 12. (11). in teeth see Skeat. 121. 147. 82. 210 . 165. 236. S. 164. 197. Wrist in magic. Wizards. 230. 24. (172). Wine in magic. Borneo. . Malay Worm (On worms Magic. 252. 31. Willow in magic. 147. were-.. As. As. 216. 36. 36. Yuseph el-hagg. Zeus. (148). Zoroaster quoted. xxivff. 246. xxiff. xliii. 4. (66). 182. sorcery. Wise-woman. 163. xliii. lxvii. 220. lxvii . Borneo. lxvi. 170. 80. 164. A. 359. 217. 226. Zerka Ma'in. 201. 169 Xenocrates quoted. in magic. 166 201. 166) Wotyaks. I. 54. 219. xlv. H. A. 73. 59. As. bears tabu. (118). Ab. 140. 78.. Witches. lx. Wind in magic. 9. 57. Zemzem.. Virgins (see also Barren and Ghosts) stepping over nail-parings. 150 ff. (107). lxvii. 86. H. P. 254.) Wormwood 83 . xviii. lii. lxiv. 11. 147. Wiping away a tabu. As. 222. Sab. 203. 8 . Wier quoted. 154. 139. xviii. 135. 'Witting' sins. 164 . H. 231. Wolves. 187. spirits. 163. 192.. Yellow in magic. (38). 60. 119 (cf. (158). 8.

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