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DETERMINATION OF AGGREGATE CRUSHING VALUE

AIM
This method of test covers the procedure for determining the aggregate crushing value of coarse aggregate.

THEORY
The aggregate crushing value gives a relative measure of the resistance of aggregate in bulk to crushing under a gradually applied compressive load. Crushing value is defined as the ratio of finess passing a standard sieve produced by crushing under standard condition to the weight of coarse aggregate expressed as a percentage. Aggregate crushing values as determined by the IS code method shall not exceed 30 for aggregate to be used for making concrete for wearing surface such as roads and runways and 45 for uses other than wearing

APPARATUS
The apparatus for the standard test consist of the following: a) A 15-cm diameter open-ended steel cylinder, with plunger and base-plate, of the general form and dimensions shown in Fig. 1. The surfaces in contact with the aggregate shall be machined and case-hardened or otherwise treated so as to have a diamond (VI-l) pyramid hardness number of not less than 650 VII. b) A straight metal tamping rod of circular cross-section 16 mm in diameter and 45 to 60 cm long, rounded at one end. c) A balance of capacity 3 kg, readable and accurate to one gram. d) IS Sieves of sizes 12.5, l0 and 2.36 mm. e) A compression testing machine capable of applying a load of 46 tonnes and which can be operated to give a uniform rate of loading so that the maximum load is reached in 10 minutes. The machine may be used with or without a spherical seating. f) For measuring the sample, cylindrical metal measure of sufficient rigidity to retain its form under rough usage and of the following Internal dimensions: Diameter 11.5 cm Height 18.0 cm

PREPARATION OF TEST SAMPLE


The material for the standard test shall consist of aggregate passing a 12.5mm IS Sieve and retained on a 10mm IS Sieve, and shall be thoroughly separated on these sieves before testing. The aggregate shall be tested in a surface-dry condition. If dried by heating, the period of drying shall not exceed four hours, the temperature shall be 100 to 110C and the aggregate shall be cooled to room temperature before testing. The quantity of aggregate shall be such that the depth of material in the cylinder, after tamping shall be 10 cm. The appropriate quantity may be found conveniently by filling the cylindrical measure in three layers of approximately equal depth, each layer being tamped 25 times with the rounded end of the tamping rod and finally leveled off, using the tamping rod as a straight-edge. The weight of material comprising the test sample shall be determined (Weight A) and the same weight of sample shall be taken for the repeat test.

TEST APPARATUS

FIG:1 TEST APPARATUS A: Internal diameter of Cylinder B: Height of Cylinder C: Wall thickness of Cylinder

Plunger D: Diameter of piston E: Diameter of stem F: Height G: Depth of piston H: Diameter of hole (nominal) Base-Plate J: Thickness (nominal) K: Side length of square

PROCEDURE
The cylinder of the test apparatus shall be put in position on the base-plate and the test sample added in thirds, each third being subjected to 25 strokes from the tamping rod. The surface of the aggregate shall be carefully levelled and the plunger inserted so that it rests horizontally on this surface, care being taken to ensure that the plunger does not jam in the cylinder. The apparatus, with the test sample and plunger in position, shall then be placed between the platens of the testing machine and loaded at as uniform a rate as possible so that the total load is reached in 10 minutes. The total load shall be 40 tonnes. The load shall be released and the whole of the material removed from the cylinder and sieved on a 2.36-mm IS Sieve for the standard test, or the appropriate sieve given in Table I. The fraction passing the sieve shall be weighed (Weight B). In all of these operations, care shall be taken to avoid loss of the fines. Two tests shall be made.

OBSERVATION AND CALCULATION


Aggregate crushing value: PARTICULARS TRIAL1 Weight of dry sample passing through IS 12.5mm sieve and retained on 10mm IS sieve (A) Weight of aggregate passing through IS sieve 2.36mm after test (B) Aggregate crushing value (B/A x 100) TRIAL2 MEAN

The ratio of the weight of fines formed to the total sample weight in each test shall be expressed as a percentage, the result being recorded to the first decimal place: Aggregate crushing value = ( B/A) X 100 where B = weight of fraction passing the appropriate sieve, and A = weight of surface-dry sample.

RESULTS
Aggregate crushing value of the material tested =

SPECIFICATION
As per IS:2386 part4-1963, aggregate crushing value shouldnt exceed 30 so that it is used for wearing surfaces.

DETERMINATION OF AGGREGATE IMPACT VALUE


AIM
To determine the impact value of coarse aggregate.

THEORY
Toughness is the property of a material to resist impact. Due to traffic loads the road stones are subjected to impact and there is possibility to stones breaking into smaller pieces. The road stones should therefore be tough enough to resist fracture under impact. A test designed to evaluate the toughness of stones ie the resistance of the stones to fracture under repeated impacts may be called an impact test for road stones. The aggregate impact value indicates a relative measure of resistance of an aggregate to a sudden shock or an impact which in some aggregate differ from its resistance to a slow compressive load. The method of test covers the procedure for determining the aggregate impact value of coarse aggregate.

APPARATUS
The apparatus consist of the following: a) An impact testing machine of the general form shown in Fig. 2 and complying with the following: 1) Total weight not more than 60 kg nor less than 45 kg. 2) The machine shall have a metal base weighing between 22 and 30 kg with a plane lower surface of not less than 30 cm diameter, and shall be supported on a level and plane concrete or stone block or floor at least 45 cm thick. The machine shall be prevented from rocking either by fixing it to the block or floor or by supporting it on a level and plane metal plate cast into the surface of the block or floor. 3) A cylindrical steel cup of internal dimensions: Diameter 102mm Depth 50mm and not less than 6.3 mm thick with its inner surface case- hardened, that can be rigidly fastened at the centre of the base and easily removed for emptying. 4) A metal tup or hammer weighing 13.5 to 14.0 kg, the lower end of which shall be cylindrical in shape, 100.0 mm in diameter and 5 cm long, with a 2-mm chamfer at the lower edge, and case-hardened. The hammer shall slide freely between vertical

guides so arranged that the lower (cylindrical) part of the hammer is above and concentric with the cup. 5) Means for raising the hammer and allowing it to fall freely between the vertical guides from a height of 38OA5.0 mm on to the test sample in the cup, and means for adjusting the height of fall within 5 mm. 6) Means for supporting the hammer whilst fastening or removing the cup. b) Sieves-The IS Sieves of sizes 12.5, 10 and 2.36 mm. c) Measure - A cylindrical metal measure, tared to the nearest gram, of sufficient rigidity to retain its form under rough usage, and of the following internal dimensions Diameter 75mm Depth 50 mm d) Tamping Rod-A straight metal tamping rod of circular cross-section 10 mm in diameter and 230 mm long, rounded at one end. e) Balance - A balance of capacity not less than 500 g, readable and accurate to 0.1 g. f) Oven - A well-ventilated oven, thermostatically controlled to maintain a temperature of 100 to 110C.

PREPARATION OF THE TEST SAMPLE


The test sample shall consist of aggregate the whole of which passes a 12.5mm IS Sieve and is retained on a 10mm IS Sieve. The aggregate comprising the test sample shall be dried in an oven for a period of four hours at a temperature of 100 to 110C and cooled. The measure shall be filled about one-third full with the aggregate and tamped with 25 strokes of the rounded end of the tamping rod,further similar quantity of aggregate shall be added and a further tamping of 25 strokes given. The measure shall finally be fined to overflowing, tamped 25 times and the surplus aggregate struck off, using the tamping rod as a straight-edge. The net weight of aggregate in the measure shall be determined to the nearest gram (Weight A) and this weight of aggregate shall be used for the duplicate test on the same material.

PROCEDURE
The impact machine shall rest without wedging or packing upon the level plate, block or floor, so that it is rigid and the hammer guide columns are vertical. The cup shall be fixed firmly in position on the base of the machine and the whole of the test sample placed in it and compacted by a single tamping of 25 strokes of the tamping rod. The hammer shall be raised until its lower face is 380 mm above the upper surface of the aggregate in the cup, and allowed to fall freely on to the aggregate. The test sample shall be subjected to a total of 15 such blows each being delivered at an interval of not less than one second. The crushed aggregate shall then be removed from the cup and the whole of it sieved on the 2*36-mm IS Sieve until no further significant amount passes in one minute. The fraction passing the sieve shall be weighed to an accuracy of 0.1 g (Weight. e). The fraction retained on the sieve shall also be weighed (Weight C) and, if the total weight (E+Y) is less than the initial weight (Weight A) by more than one gram, the result shall be discarded and a fresh test made. Two tests shall be made.

OBSERVATIONS AND CALCULATIONS


Particulars Weight of sample passing through 12.5mm IS sieve (A) Weight of crushed sample passing through 2.36mm IS sieve (B) Aggregate impact value (B/A x 100) Test 1 Test 2 Mean

The ratio of the weight of fines formed to the total sample weight in each test shall he expressed as a percentage, the result being recorded to the first decimal place: Aggregate impact value = B/A x 100 Where, B=weight of fraction passing 2.36mm IS Sieve, and A =weight of oven-dried sample.

RESULT
The given aggregate has an impact value of

SPECIFICATION
As per IS-2386 part4-1963 the impact value should not exceed 40% of aggregate by weight to be used for wearing surfaces and 45% by weight for other purposes.

DETERMINATION OF SPECIFIC GRAVITY AND WATER ABSORPTION


AIM
For determining the specific gravity, apparent specific gravity and water absorption of aggregates.

APPARATUS
The apparatus shall consist of the following: Balance - A balance or scale of capacity not less than 3 kg, readable and accurate to 0.5 g, and of such a type as to permit the weighing of the vessel containing the aggregate and water. Oven - A well ventilated oven, thermostatically controlled, to maintain a temperature of 100 to 110C. Vessel - Any form of vessel capable of holding 0.5 to 1 kg of material up to 10 mm in size and capable of being filled with water to a constant volume with an accuracy of f @5 ml. Either of the two following vessels is suitable: 1. A glass vessel, referred to later as a pycnometer, of about one litre capacity having a metal conical screw top with a 6-mm diameter hole at its apex. 2. A wide-mouthed glass vessel, such as a gas jar, of about 1.25 litres capacity, with a flat ground lip and a plane ground disc of plate glass to cover it, giving a virtually watertight fit. A means of supplying a current of warm air, such as a hair drier. A tray of area not less than 325 cm2. An airtight container large enough to take the sample. Filter papers and funnel.

FIG:1 SECTION OF PYCNOMETER MADE FROM FRUIT JAR

PROCEDURE
A sample of about 1 kg for 10 mm to 4-75 mm or 500 g if finer than 4.75 mm, shall be placed in the tray and covered with distilled water at a temperature of 22 to 32C. Soon after immersion, air entrapped in or bubbles on the surface of the aggregate shall be removed by gentle agitation with a rod. The sample shall remain immersed for 24 l/2 hours. The water shall then be carefully drained from the sample, by decantation through a filter paper, any material retained being returned to the sample. The aggregate including any solid matter retained on the filter paper shall be exposed to a gentle current of warm air to evaporate surface moisture and shall be stirred at frequent intervals to ensure uniform drying until no free surface moisture can be seen and the material just attains a free-running condition. Care shall be taken to ensure that this stage is not passed. The saturated and surface-dry sample shall be weighed ( weight A ). The aggregate shall then be placed in the pycnometer which shall be filled with distilled water. Any trapped air shall be eliminated by rotating the pycnometer on its side, the hole in the apex of the cone being covered with a finger. The pycnometer shall be topped up with distilled water to remove any froth from the surface and so that the surface of the water in the hole is flat. The pycnometer shall be dried on the outside and weighed ( weight B ). The contents of the pycnometer shall be emptied into the tray, care being taken to ensure that all the aggregate is transferred. The pycnometer shall be refilled with distilled water to the same level as before, dried on the outside and weighed ( weight C). The difference in the temperature of the water in the pycnometer during the first and second weighing shall not exceed 2C. The water shall then be carefully drained from the sample by decantation through a filter paper and any material retained returned to the sample. The sample shall be placed in the oven in the tray at a temperature of 100 to 110C for 24 f l/2 hours, during which period it shall be stirred occasionally to facilitate drying. It shall be cooled in the air-tight container and weighed ( weight D ). Two tests shall be made.

OBSERVATIONS AND CALCULATIONS


Specific gravity, apparent specific gravity and water &sorption shall be calculated as follows: Specific gravity = D/[A-(B-C)]

Apparent specific gravity = D/[D-(B-C)] Water absorption ( percent Of = 100 x ( A- D ) /D where A = weight in g of saturated surface-dry sample, B = weight in g of pycnometer or gas jar containing sample and filled with distilled water, C = weight in g of pycnometer or gas jar filled with distilled water only, and D = weight in g of oven-dried sample.

RESULT
Specific gravity of sand = Specific gravity of coarse aggregate = Apparent Specific gravity of sand = Apparent Specific gravity of coarse aggregate = Water absorption =

DETERMINATION OF BULK DENSITY AND VOIDS


AIM
This method of test covers the procedure for determining unit weight or bulk density and void of aggregates.

APPARATUS
The apparatus shall consist of the following: Balance - A balance sensitive to O-5 percent of the weight of the sample to be weighed. Cylindrical Metal Measure-The measure shall preferably be machined to accurate internal dimensions and shall be provided with handles. It shall also be watertight, and of sufficient rigidity to retain its form under rough usage, and should be protected against corrosion. The measure shall be of 3j 15 or 30 litres capacity,, according to the maximum nominal size of the coarsest particles of aggregate and shall comply pith the requirements given in Table I. Tamping Rod- A straight metal tamping rod of cylindrical cross- section 16 mm in diameter and 60 cm long, rounded at one end.

CALIBRATION
The measure shall be calibrated by determining the weight of water at 27C required to fill it such that no meniscus is present above the rim of the container. The capacity in litres shall be obtained by dividing the weight of water in kilograms required to fill the container at 27C by the weight of water in one litre at 27C, which may be taken as one kilogram.

PROCEDURE
The test shall normally be carried. out on dry material when determining the voids, but when bulking tests are required material with a given percentage of moisture may be used. The measure shall be filled about one-third full with thoroughly mixed aggregate and tamped with 25 strokes of the rounded end of the tamping rod. A further similar quantity of aggregate shall be added and a further tamping of 25 strokes given. The measure shall finally be filled to over-flowing, tamped 25 times and the surplus aggregate struck off, using the tamping rod as a straightedge. The net weight of the aggregate in the measure shall be determined and the bulk density calculated in kilograms per litre. The measure shall be filled to overflowing by means of a shovel or scoop, the aggregate being discharged from a height not exceeding 5 cm above the top of the measure. Care shall be taken to prevent, as far as possible, segregation of the particle sizes of which the sample is composed. The surface of the aggregate shall then

be levelled with a straightedge. The net weight of the aggregate in the measure shall then be determined and the bulk density calculated in kilogram per litre.

CALCULATION
The percentage of voids shall be calculated as follows: Percentage of voids = (Gs- )/Gs X 100 where Gs = specific gravity of the aggregate, and = bulk density in kg/litre.

RESULT
Percentage of voids in course aggregate = Percentage of voids in sand = Ratio of mix for no voids concrete= Bulk density of sand= Bulk density of coarse aggregate= Loose density of sand= Loose density of coarse aggregate=