MI T T EC~AL

TRANSLAT ION

AZT -70-164-G EM IT

~

CALCULATING Konrad

SPACE Zuse

Translation

of:

"Rechnender

Raum"

Schriften

zur Datenverarbeitung, & Sohn, Braunschweig,

Vol. 1, Freidr. 1969, 74 pp.

Vieweg

MASSACHUSETTS CAMBRIDGE,

INSTITUTE Proj. MAC MASS. 02139

OF TECHNOLOGY FEBRUARY 1970

I

CALCULATING Konrad TABLE
1. INTRODU·CTION

SPACE Zuse

OF CONTENTS
1

•....•.....•.....•..••.....•.........•......•...

2.

INTRODUCTORY OBSERVATIONS 1. Concerning the Theory 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.
2.

About Computers.........................................

of Automatons of View of

5 5
8
13

Differential Equations from the Point the Automaton Theory Maxwell Equations An Idea about Gravitation Differential Equations and Difference
Oi 91 tal i zati on

16
19

Equations, Theories

19

Automaton

Theory

Observations

of Physical

21 29 29 41 46 60 61 61 64 64 67 79
86

3.

EXAMPLES OF DIGITAL TREATMENT OF FIELDS AND PARTICLES 1. The Expression "Df qf t al Pa r t i c le " 2. Two-Dimensional Systems 3. Digital Particles in Two~Dimensional Space 4. Concerning Three-Dimensional Systems ~ GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS 1. Cellular Automatons 2. Digital Particle and Cellular Automatons 3. On the Theory of Relativity 4. Considerations of. Information Theory 5. About Determination and Causality
6.

4.

7. 5.

On Probability

Representation

of Intensity

88 92

CONCLUS IONS

Translated for Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Aztec School of Languages, Inc. Research Translation Division (164) Maynard, Massachusetts and McLean, Virginia

Proj.

MAC, by:

DEDICATION

TO DR. SCHUFF

The work which follows stands somewhat outside the presently accepted method of approach, and it was for this reason rather difficult to find a publisher ready to undertake publication of such a work. For this. reason I am indebted to the Vieweg Press and especially to Dr. Schuff for undertaking publication. Dr. Schuff suggested that a summary be printed in the Journal "Elektronische Datenverarbeitung" (Electronic Data Processing), which appeared last year. The tragic death of Dr. Schuff has deeply shaken his friends, and we will always remember him with affection.

the physicists and the information Mathematical the numerical corresponding to Figure 1. back effect of data processing ries itself is expressed those methods to obtain. * Numbers in the foreign . between processing systems serve Thereby we obtain a more or less close interrelationship the mathematicians. specialists. system is therefore very largely appears pure and applied whether justified data processing can have no more than an it can also be the the physical effectuating part in the interplay ideas which or whether source of fruitful theories. themselves influence The question in the margin is all the more justified indicate pagination since a new branch text. models. The modern mathematics. for the construction of which mente The function that of finding of physical calculation equip- is carried out today with electronic data processing of the data processing specialists solutions is primarily for the models The feedtheo- the most useful numerical and physicists which the mathematicians have developed.I • 1. The close interplay on the models and the physical use of indirectly in the preferential for which numerical solutions are particularly easy between the mathematicians and the physiof cists has had a particularly models in theoretical favorable effect on the development quantum theory The question physics. It is obvious successfully INTRODUCTION calculations physical can be /1* to us today that numerical in order to illuminate employed relationships.

but also the more interesting. has developed in close cooperation with data processing. several ideas along these lines will in the treatment of No claim is made to completeness of influence can issue from two directions: of algorithmic methods. A direct process patterns selves in the material of influencing. Precisely in quantum mechanics. theory.I of science. today. which translate knowledge Among these are included are still the primary lating machines. pages. follow merical first all numerical methods. Such a process 1. will not be covered 2. but the algebraic themselves as they are expressed extensive ment of the formulas symbols. In the following be developed. The development which and supplying can serve the physicist his theoretical as new tools by which he can into practical results. tool in the use of electronic calcu- The ideas expressed particularly in the chapters which to the problem of nu- could contribute stability. which command an calculation treatin The numerical is not meant by this. This very interesting which follows. Among these are symbolic ever-growing of a formula importance calculations. before formula calfield development culation is necessary the actual numerical can be carried out. particularly by the thought thema doubt of automaton the physical This subject theories is without could be postulated. the subject. 2 . automaton theory. the more difficult.

and an understanding of them requires years of specialized 3 . into association is splitting of modern the field of physics The mathematical methods are no longer familiar to every mathematician study.I /2 Fig. 1 Therein lies the understandable must be brought difficulty that different with one up into spephysics alone /3 fields of knowledge another. cialized Already areas.

Some of value to be presented of these ideas in their present. to the physicists. developments 4 are considered . In Chapter 4. applied below considers which are also acceptable is at present still heuristic in na- The author the conditions not yet ripe for the First of all. several of Chapfor general thoughts and considerations based on the results ters 2 and 3 will be developed. the possibility of further and in Chapter 5. the prospects briefly. The method ture. reconcilable with the proven still immature form may not be physics. entirely itself. mathematical and physical models will be considered 2 from the viewpoint of digital models "digital particle" of the theory of automatons. The idea of collectunder the The concep- ing these fields term "cybernetics" (to the extent which they are relevant) has not yet become widely as a bridge between accepted. tion of cybernetics ful. and the theory Formal logic. for discussion. The stimu- concepts of theoretical occurs goal has been reached if only discussion and provokes lation which one day leads to solutions. and the ex- is introduced. the sciences is very fruitof the term independent of the different definitions The author has developed which he considers several basic ideas toward this end.But even the theories processing are already and fields of knowledge into different automaton related to data dividing special branches. theory language may be cited as examples. of formula information theory. the in formulation existing Chapter examples pression of a precise theoretical system. in Chapter Several are presented 3.

of statement calculus. literature has been written. that of mathematical opment was connection ment calculus particular be broken statement connecting The first useful result of this develthe statepart. The design and theoretical for example. 5 . chapters. between about which considerable Nevertheless. 1. /4 Concerning of automatons the Theory today is already theory and to an extent very abstract. calculus of up into yes-no values calculus assume only two ratings The operations and the rules of statement operations can thereprocessto dis- fore be viewed ing. necessitated investigations based mathematical methods. in which particularly of mathematical logic can play an important importance is the realization (bits). theory appeared at about the same time as the equipment. The automaton development the working of modern method data processing of these arrangements on different logic. the author would like theory itself and the to distinguish thought the actual automaton with this theory. that all information The "truth values" (true and false). The theory INTRODUCTORY OBSERVATIONS of Automatons a widely developed. patterns connected of which considerable understandof use will be made in the following ing of the automaton the chapters which theory A thorough is not necessary to an understanding follow. can Of mathematics. the three basic operations junction and negation. Figure as the elementary of information 2 shows the elementary connections corresponding conjunction.I 2.

In addition. 3. by and state for The algorithm automaton have the be r~presented of a matrix. in- These put form they the every combination 4 shows resultant for the state or output combination. for a twothe A2. AO two-place back formed and case Al and is relayed of the already E. into represents the states to by eventual state binary entered symbolize which the the a number number can process. given is to be added). number built into the automaton. I EO to the number. From input and initial 2 state the new state and Fig.Further an automaton. The which have binary the meaning number automaton (In this the addition of a threefrom the number. Figure place puts corresponding 3 shows binary the to the algorithm diagram figure. In Figure this The state the automaton in Figure an addition particular theory case table represents the table. AA8 Pz • A r S' Fig. give the table state tables every in simple state and cases. a two~place the In the EO represent and on which binary be entered and AO represent place figures the binary outputs. of the automaton investigates different possible 6 . the 3 output are ob- tained. research led to introduction input data and of the output term data "state" playa of role. inAl /5 schematic of an automaton EI and can register.

of automaton follow. standpoint of a /6 mathematical lapse mined or physical which of states. we under- Later be discussed theoretical according is viewed one another in greater By the term stand a manner "automaton way of thinking" to which from the of observation model follow a technical. is of particular it will for the observations detail. according to predeter- 7 . .'~ of states. rules. once and I LL ou: LOO. discrete states. ing machine. A finite automaton a discrete it is roughly is made equivalent to a digital number data processeach two). follow linearly has once u)L in sequence. 4 operational tern ally cannot be influenced by the absence of one of the form inputs. LOl lLO --._ combination process Fig. autonomous works It is important and cellular with follows the terms finite.I diffractions rules of such an automaton'and sets forth a series of general for what concerning that its method of operation. by a machine started. OL lO ooL OU) OlL u» 0u) OU LOO Ii . therefore. OOL aLa aLL be represented. The built type which out cellular automaton represents a special of automaton This of interrelated. opeTates states initial independently. The ----- Similar conditions hold for autonomous La LL automaton are also can accept relatively no inputs (the outputs It can that Its the the ex- X 00 '" 00 000 OL inconsequential). periodically-recurring importance cells. been started. automaton number of be understood. element with which up of a limited a limited number of elements. (at least only inputs capable of taking that of states accept the the result tbe whole automaton can a limited and out- number puts.

term magnitude. in- as in Figure appropriate is known mechanism" 8 in engineering and is employed by the "differential in the .I 2. the computers. About The system. technical for automaton yet these theory thought and can Computers as an abstract can also mathematical to be used information is iden"comput- be used structures the be related theory suited can for models. a lever influences etc. tension. model. analog of disslide of fields. theoretically such represented through parts magnitudes. end. In current particularly usage. limit given a clearly-defined of the system. One well-known moisture. analog steps computin the repre- We distinguish ers and digital are of computers: computer. may be and "information-processing between two machine" classes as identical. because on change presence is the in the (temperature. processing. upper corresponds accuracy and technical limits In contrast. performed values In an analog in an are "analog" calculation senting continual (torsion operates viously maximum values to the Magnitudes numerical physical angle)." By analogy. it depends the has no clearly-defined on external turbing rule. tical er" with expanded term "compute" the taken terms "information processing. of the established The maximum which the accuracy system. The like. Figure which computer a mechanical with adding mechanism form be replaced This mechanism a rotating mechanism with gears. similarly automaton those the describing automatons. as positions and the of mechanical The values machine lie velocities. essentially below values are certain and by by without represented These are obby technical the limits.) 5 shows can 6.

for elements example. replaced carried integration a condenser. • A Fig. A in contact wheel wheel be B. 9 7 .. for these words. 6 Fig. An these mechanical can. are generally analog not reproducible are with poorly Noncontinuous analog designed instruments. element shown with the of analog in Figure a friction axle for machines 7.I rear axle of every automobile. distance In B from can of A can varied.·bJrd. 5 Rd. are be In modern by elecout by instruments. processes in other processes. mechanism be used integration. computers c A Fig. ar dl/ . ones. This is represented operates The with A typical by the construction mechanism integration disc friction the a friction r of the this analog tronic charging way...

laws of has to general O. and is not accuracy to computers influences. values tween This trast in step-fashion. for the conclusion results the is that no digital defined formula can precisely axiom. maximum of places the beof of com- between values infinite For this assumed to exist. number reason. /8 is strictly subject any coincidental computer A further reproduce Thus. with the one exception capable is no finite and automaton of reproducing nevertheless. values inserted. intermediate puters values the have mathematical of Mathematical respects. additional neighboring may be no intermediate accuracy among the values other in limited analog defined consequences. numbers an values concept the infinity absolute any may magnitude two be given of the values is unlimited.With Because numbers. considerations be exceeded. = b that a cannot be equal this by point. sum of /7 a digital there only can hold for the a certain limited is available supply representation This of continuous considerable are sub- a limited from of values. of technical storage). the decimal to the fact precisely the generally_ of places It is possible. There validity. in two implies divergence ject to the First. code (independent out and of the number employed) (number which. of processes mathematical a-b a by arithmetic example. of digital In con- computers. before and increasing for number computer after a digital to approach 10 infinitely close arithmetic_ . values digital computers. models. furthermore. computer all values only are represented by numbers. There are register proceed which results to the cannot In addition.

computers digital suited work to special stressed Using the that the same computers in a strictly the same determinative and same algorithmus values. of input same results always The limited in the same the results in the same degree several inaccuracy times on the when This accuracy be an operation is in contrast has is performed to the effect inputs. is given. constructed only automaton to a series plan plan of automatons and for differ from according number a definite The another in the with of places. of every infinite is related number to a series there is one expansion which limiting process this ("for process every follows By relating a static. accuracy results al- (i. limited and can analog each computer. time the 11 in which program a different is run .e. to one with there with the converting of the the an n-place automaton lim n~~ limiting process rule for automaton arithmetic operations obtained. in greater opened discussed problems are can better detail. but has also because general up of its special ability to handle information completely all new (in contrast fields. the ways program) must introducing be obtained. It must calculation analog solved on a digital tasks. In general.We In the to the that concept field of of mathematics that have already become so accustomed infinity term we accept it without considering or to a it"). we obtain in place predetermined. which one are to automaton finite theory. computer. The not only digital numbers computer.. whereas be way. series for By use expansion n places in addition. to the analog below be computer). construction are n+l aid of is in- of an automaton structions places.

opinion is therefore is that the analog human in character. magnitude Pulses may 8 by the pulse Fig. are 9). Thus.expressed only in terms of statistical comments. it may be observed that hybrid prin- By way systems ciples have of supplementary been developed and consist analog of a mixture computer. which of the probability. normalized their number . of the of the This can digital be simply carried out via a system are joined (Fig. system today nervous principle. digital. E I DigitaTI c()_!:lY~:rte Fig. 12 . can have but any number of pulses and it per unit of intermediate A commonly-held operates on this values. joining of the of the two systems can also be accomplished for example. They by a digital-analog 8). density for they 9 (Fig. are therefore time) in intensity density (the duration. analog be characterized have a digital they themselves and character. are in which the two /9 computers converter this way type. In systems in such a of an analog-digital single parts converter problem of the device divided for each the more appropriate is chosen subdivision of the problem. that operate and the side-by-side. by a the The representation values themselves.

action.g 2 is written: (w = angular easy y velocity to obtain of the container). the and surface. valid for the situation For every equilibrium with be after a In reality. wave interaction. through complex the rotatory frictional transferred to the forces. Differential Observation way of thinking I Equations from the Point of the Automaton Theory differential equations of View reveals that this of several is by no means self-evident to mathematicians of models and physicists. 13 processes .l: 1 reason the it is not possible processes N describe transition actual in this by means The of our differential taking place Fig. cal data. this will be established.--+_' I ".. only after we have here equilibrium there has been situation rotating is an initiating initially liquid In the experiment motion must Only vessel at rest. to represent according surface example. upper which we can differential surface at every shape point of a liquid on the in a rotating vessel. There which are at our disposal by a number of physiFor the to is /10 can be represented take a simple differential equation equations. equation rw = --. the normal~ gravitational determined by the vector 10). solution is very analytically: = an expression established. to Q. 3. sum of the centrifugal accelerations This y' The (Fig. equilibrium which diminishes I with For time. 10 equation.

sions The equations to describe and stress stress of an equilibrium situation in plane occurs establishment of equilibrium of steps. process from to establishment is hardly processes condition without of equilibrium compress- a state and of rest braking case conceivable into account. on the sequentiallypossible nu- occurring merical sequence than the states. an influence equations Differential of a system which easier describe to solve function states help an allowed numerically over must of a to the simulate are often than for those final represent In fact. partial the solid differential divistates. condition in actuality once again via a highly the braking of of complicated these sequence in which for the processes is the eventual establishment equilibrium. taking ibility In the one of these law. necessary final 14 often with relaxation step-wise process.I • during almost that cesses this period are considerably more complicated. no more solutions a control such end usually be found in a step-wise It is not of the solution. each is of similar used We realize necessary the to follow state very are of these complicated pro- only final are interest to many to us. of states which state. solutions. differential which can equations. to attach value to approximations state in order . relationships These equations. and they also are impossible it is not when The to describe mathematically. be described of the issue is not /11 of a fundamental theory in terms of auto- maton as a functional This also variable has different. Differential the case of the leading equations theory of describe ideally only the final condition The in actual incompressible of the end fluids.

processes equation of the the thus..'l by at the physical conditions)... . to apply mathematically-simpler A differential from the point form. in the which describes an evolutionary may be called a given process the state of view because automaton theory "yield" through case first of following differential inclusion The state state arises from operation liquids of the and on the of the given state.y). (algoyield sign language). be described. it is possible approximation. to different the sequential states 15 system . therefore. au> I -div !O at .natural or technical processes. equation by a scalar may density y and a velocity form as The be expressed in the yield follows: k grad 1 .. to a new and differences in pressure which it- in forces leads the leading velocity distribution~ pressure "statell'of field to a new movement density of the therefore The distribution the field may through masses. compression term to this and yield velocity of a system The is given by the pressure result self distribution. In the leads gases.£. field v. form. in the (k is a factor The algorithmic form: which is determined is even character more clearly expressed following Corresponding rithmic refer to the normal same rules symbols of programming on both of the sides language of the ~.

the rotor of increment Both [?i~gives of !~_.In the div case of incompressible fluids there is the condition y = o. ( *~ of i~. give s divergence equations.). and cannot. region of the on the field other hand. Maxwell .= "t c ! ae. one be transformed for the It represents obtained condition correctness pf a solution means. at dive =0 div~= rott =_!*. as a merely by another result. to the which yield contain form differential converted t+c(rot1g}dt ~-c(rot ~)dt (the the rotor of . obtain: If the is taken into account. can be Both equations. c at the easily: '~ a. wave the increment It:_. expansion /12 to those equations describing of a field in a vacuum: rot'£.. This the equation law is not sufficient for Are 16 the algorithmic equations description therefore of in- of wave propagation.. 4.. Maxwell Maxwell We will limit equations ourselves can also be Equations studied from this point the of view. operator rot. have no yield we form. This equation has no algorithmic into the yield character form.

complete? but not They are used to describe The the propagation that Maxwell of transverse. as follows: two opposite field that to calculate let us assume and the that +e and the distribution as in itself shown well-known 11. This where comment the in this for regard is found "Beckersauter" charge field a uniformly-moving enough. of the previously spherically-symmetric Lorentz the contraction that "Maxtheory of of the This deformation corresponds to the hypothesis. interestingly elliptical field. With or disappearing this sort of displacement. false. with also derivable. mathematical An (page of this in any interesting 186). the by in Figure a distribution simply to the joining +e and -e by a linearly-constant of the Maxwell origin terminus. specialized We pansion tween know can theory conceive of relativity of the given charges is logically nature based". 17 Application . in is developed. associated locate must displacements. sufficient reason the their usual for description on the processes there waves. of are the charge fields rests fact in nature displacements equations with newly-appearing occur. proof author has a precise be assumed. deformation results. sure force to be from We begin. in fields unable but it in to Maxwell sufficient to describe The the changes been text. of this lateral field we do easily exbenot /13 functional we want -e. equations of all that in longitudinal. form are waves. well equations It is possible are invariable a result to reformulate in relation of nature's statement to the use specialized trick system of relativity": lateral expansion "As of the the (rotor) in an expanding field. occurring exist Only in electromagnetic no growing.

distribution. we have no it is impossible means or destroy validity charges. as we have equation not treatment electric results term of compressible field are density obtained proof that y.. establish tribution impossible for both to demonstrate "rotor" equations dis- l Fig. be nearly existence. is the rationale for examining with the this concept law? The is interesting in connection 18 of numerical . -1H without nature density. fluids. E' + nevertheless..) ~ As a result. process that we obtain results demonstrated equation in this without using the in the seen. the the although. treatment this of electromagnetic is necessary even for fields.! equations totic to this field distribution field results in a multistep asymp- approximation It is also of the to be determined. question of testing of the of longitudinal in nature. the divergent Because 11 i in themselves such that a field Idwe=o is generally no contribution to create the to the makes field . /14 satisfied. We need introduce The fact that this E rotE .. tion did is not works without resort that such to field a condiit would its roIH"'1f- Assuming exist. law experimental expansion What. then.

must be so weak were To be sure. 6. gravitation a simple moving masses explanation and the expansion of the of gravitational of celestial fields mechanics invariance laws based on this Becau se distribution the relative lie the is applied velocity order to the of the special relativity bodies within theory. In itself at least automaton. It works. of the analog is a rather For narrow computer. words. they on the of magnitude magnetic of 1/10. 5. analog computers used primarily there calculation of differential limit to the equations. special circum- analogous stances. models partial differential only equations. latter in other of which is always by that which In practice. are then and expressed they can be Equations. Differential If differential ing to the model is the automaton Equations and Difference Digitalization equations theory. in this in of gravitation validity for of the If we accept transmitted of the equations. author a critical observation of these thoughts by the physicists. "yield" form. the it.I stability. continuous a continuous mined are values flow constantly. technical are available 19 under . The small damping would be of planetary very grateful movements for considered. capabilities Nevertheless. their consideration the Idea about Gravitation is introduced Maxwell as well. and it will be considered again below.000 fields were of the simply gravitational immeasurable. and of operates states. An A short regard. precedes for in theory. our heavenly observation speed of that range light. by analog accorda techcomwith we have deter- simulated the nical puter (an automaton) ideal solved. then by sense.

to difIn this In /15 proceeds when from numerical are values obtained from two regarded equations as continuous. shape of the it is impossible In the utilized to construct that a differential follow. quotient. value transition transition constantly to a limiting words. a way that the as the and If the values step transitions are such remain of approximately the staircase order curve of magnitude is maintained.The solution of differential by the equations with a digital automaton is immediately differential field values. require Therefore calculating in both it is necessary compromises normally equations the regards. which ing anticipates. this observations design. fact. distance will be further with specifically through consequential development of the thoughts on digitalization. differential solutions still equations are sought. values. influence on the numerical carried the stability out same in of a calculation. An and Digital field instruments density discontinuous infinite storage infinite infinite would time. sense only in other if the constructbetween has a difference are much quotients smaller makes than gradations This fact values definite the chosen ~-value. capacity to reach One ference process. included (2) number of places leads magnitudes. to difference and transition involves of the boundary second differential equations enlargement The first the boundary transitions: of the (1) ~x ~ dx. the complicated equa~ions previously-mentioned continuous operate values with an difficulties: and infinite operate with densities. of the number of places of the magnitudes en- Systematic being treated narrowing results in the limitation 20 of variables to those .

density must be separated which into single with There grids corin a for The solution. for example. sity the the the a division in the is possible There space is no construction of a digital space. -e. grid a process is easiest one. dense arise triangular a grid hexagonal dimensions dimensions. that these for values and densities). A number problems theory. to be localized. Automaton Up tothis computers to point Theory Observations considered models 21 of Physical only and the Theories problem of using physical /16 we have approximate physical to follow . are two particles continuous numerical simplest possible for 0. later.compassed variable trinary since by elementary logic. structure to approximate on from laws of Euclidean of general were observations earlier presentation viewpoint of physical of the automaton presented 7. in three iresponding 1different velocity values the to the ~___ ___ field vectors most packing in the of spheres. field corresponds possible electrical The values grid. out area and the rounding by rounding by easier division 6 necessitated cells 0 and is also division of the into the 6 neighboring values +1. this attaching to the -1 to the +e. further In this neces- case. to calculate. number As we will system up and based discover on these down the certain to carry field By advantages. calculation If several (for example. is doubtless the and _ an orthogonal and other choices: example. necessary There be localized components is no need three of a spatial as vector well. on the same it is not grid point. values are yes-no triple has values values or triplyand the values. easier numbers.

of are no values of different subject potentials. but with its that the introduction into of the particular atoms nature and elecharac- through particles this subdivision a few molecules. thought.processes suggest numerically. of the theory limits "threshold or limits (maximum Even the values) extension within itself. gravity. Quantum from the was of nature. assumed equated The when quantities to be a discrete with is not of the necessarily laws a "digital" many-body single bodies interpretation problem possessed (masses). such to a "particularization". of the individual characteristics with discrete properties physics of 1S the first to deviate in several extent respects that it concept infinite quantities. 22 to the . of classical the conception upper laws by the of relativity Only (that for of the with is entirely velocity speed of the continuum. values" on the (minimal density size). to exist is an absolute and limit assumed of light). first that concept is completely in accord "analog" It was of matter mentary ter. even classical each of an analog nature. a fundamentally gained from It would different study physical be possible In this to what context extent useful to are the question: realizations applied or of calculable models? any Is solutions when directly And to the is there natu~e digitaZJ for anaZog asking hybrid? essentially justification suc h a que stion? The The field classical strength are not as models of physics are doubtless like analog the force There limiting field in nature.

through rather replacement through starting continuum whereby by a grid one moves of discrete to values. energy where Best relationship is defined between by the frequency formula E of a light h is a itself is not quantum~ universal quantized. the computer behaves according the We recognized preliminary 23 conclusion that our physical . seem both models of modern and concerned. is true. This the energy Ely. are the cess being conceptions it classical not continuum of a propoints. constant but case only where of nature. rejected. It would be continuous discrete system.assumes known only is the discrete values for certain physical and quantities. therefore. fundamentally room different similar to a configuration values are of higher (for dimensions. values. the in which of a in the probability particle this defined example. the the quotient energy To be sure. from values the which = h·y. It will appropriate difficult to to consider find to a hybrid model quantum extremely which a technical laws have of of a hybrid physics. can have is somewhat a discrete in the different number calculator of only because of the computer. abandoned. probability Even for being in a certain idea of the place at a certain is not time). governed concept the continuum differential restrictions The with equations in relation of quantum to the physics mechanics magnitudes are are by no of fields. limited number of places of a digital The quences postulates in relation The of the to the quantum theory have far-reaching physical conse- quantization of the but of different spatial quantities.

If let first classical of gases model of thermodynamics. the laws if we were of nature magnitude to complete to assume to some in ~ort of quantification principle that physical is subject quantification? Before us examine which balls the the an examination the of the real question is attempted. digital the is no flight particles 14). point of single 12. Is nature itself We have If we are whether digital physical models. Can conclusions there- to nature considered not yet be drawn a hybrid disposed impartial. colliding longer particles? a differential are followed with Of course. calculations 13 and It is quite simple 24 . yet for spatial dimensions between be viewed the as in comparison particles. What continuous the in nature. to shift and were consequences. distance model can individual an analog on a in detail it is characterized by the particle of matter. through of rubber other. by the model each relationship freely behavior is treated and moving through space colliding with static of these only average the balls is replaced by a differential that are large equation. if we were to What imitate directly the model the starting paths (Figs. large nature scale. look like. it is valid to the In effect. example.I • models with fore may respect to be best be conceived of as hybrid from system? of completely it appears this? systems. would the calculated of solution flying. equation. completely a justified other question really would be infinitely-divisible quantities) for of all every have quantities any reality (in words.

probability arising approaches only 0 as the those accuracy are of the calculation in which is improved. Equal mass collision processes of the the interesting is assumed. flight (gravity simple to calculate.-_. disregarded). and consider first. second. that 12 in which both particles Fig. continue 13 undisturbed if each in general particle is considered the individually. cases of interest 25 . different on their from ways. first i. situation situations.e. elastic This case of the collision is not . Therefore.. meet and mutually meet is uninsignificantly /18 equal the that that point elasticity case the the of particles particles plane We shall exactly._- Fig. intersect. at the the in which lie paths in one of both centers particles case simultaneously teresting.I for modern electronic wish computers to become to draw up a program for this purin pose. for intersection. The and since rectilinear are the fects part. of such a Furthermore. ------------_. the We do not of our involved in these calculations course discussion because to have (the calculation number itself is relatively are necespaths ef- involved sary are for and the boring) results a large of particles The statistical they are value.

havior such of a large a calculation aspects case 14 number model The small collide ones. size behavior particles Large on the law of the of elasticity. models. and after collision necessary the col- before here law It is not establish The to stop lision depends and the firmly. more Hard than particles than behave Fig.I the the paths do not exactly cross. and example. interesting In the ordered In any given exactly which far the arise. for we can remains devise exceptional Take. frequently particles soft of the ones. the time. paths unchanged case in the computer sense model of classical if the mechanics. system This is also the in the coordinate on which 26 calculation is based . a vessel the paths with of parallel are exactly from sides a series particles. or entropy cases. or in which the centers the arrive same at approximate intersection at only approximately case. of for constant. have /19 In this different than particles the paths it. which a of both rise states case. entropy give to disordered certain states. be- differently statistical is the result same. we can see that in general increases. walls and perpendicular other that to these there the sufficiently interaction of apart each is no mutual remain the particles. of particles with the If we compare the fOllowing physical model. In this case.

inherent effect computation-The classiin special cal the excepted--have absolute an (Fig. aware We are cal picture. taken with cases. even for Scattering the theoreti- to this cally-assumed with time and model? of the How system decreases in the this special How- entropy As long increases. special the as a statistical the the result order that average. not carefully-constructed any the scattering introduction the with to special the effect. tion generally The the pay particular in the 14). which There collision are certainly be- cases yet processes ordering particles nevertheless a certain in force now (Fig. enter to Since into the possible in practice. becomes with situation is similar It is not to that obtained necessary error same models mechanics. which correspond classical is due mechanics. to the exist of of probability. modern physics between to modern has replaced this classiare not Collision processes according single particles There laws precisely only the determinable. laws physics.is set other tween remalns parallel interesting the or orthogonal special occur. which have collision of modern processes. mentioned as soon above as the does exhibit through of step system. out of a small ordering. model demands model is not accuracy in calculations. specifically effect into our model. effect--similar from the mechanics--that 27 divergences paths . an infinite calculation the requiring number errors computer this the model instrument with of places. as we do not the is this reproduced program computer scattering case ever. that to the for walls. to scattering cases effects. effect. of modern atten- scattering the input. 14).

28 . of classical which increase increase from can calculating Both result inputs. to causality developed Matrix theory. of modern everything mechanics only ap- real. (i.. physical in the deviations models by probability calculation This this case of computer through errors. In modern laws. from one mechanics case. to express difference the errors these does are by a statistical In the model model A /20 however. It would law. to the can also be considered in the in which automaton the transition laws. Yet if we extend consequences in thought further.e. problems be considered of digital at greater treatment a few will examples particle be presented. in entropy) The arises initially equivalent from the result slight models. not in the in the computational sense predetermined. of field In the and next observations chapter. state The In any state we need next an automaton is determined mechanics by probability correspond transition tables matrices of matrix This to the of the automaton. very which interesting will be in relation Chapter 4. sense of defined model. mechanics appear.predicted be possible significant mechanics is strictly but in the the by the theories of classical deviations exist. in an the proach classical in entropy. may appear process unimportant somewhat may at first glance. in both cases deviations these classical are defined defined mechanics. will ~ot possibility of automaton-theoretical length. be drawn.

1::. The two factors ko and kl' 29 which . EXAMPLES 1. equations to the differences tween p and v in consecutive The following differential then hold: Expressed change in words: the change in velocity and the difference is proportional to the in pressure in pressure is proportional the terminus to a 1::. OF DIGITAL TREATMENT OF FIELDS Particle" AND PARTICLES The Expression "Digital Let us first consider we can relate an example engineering. 1'. simplified relationship of the real physical We have two quantities: crete points termediate p (pressure).and v-values between be- .t corresponding time intervals. after p to the change in velocity.). and v (velocity). that it refers in order to indicate that of the first equation.3. which we fix in diswhich we ex~ress in in- 1. . in a straight one-dimensional space.s representing p v the difference p v in p. we can obforces. nelg hb' orlng pOlnts.t converted is p In the second equation. D At and 1::. 2' and 3'. etc. 2 and 3. After eliminating that are irrelevant tain a somewhat for our purposes (density. P 1 2 345 v 1'2'3'4'5' points s 1::. and 1::. In this regard /21 from hydromechanics the behavior and one from counter of frictionless and collecting gases terms Let us consider cylinder.

characteristics ~ x (length component) and ~ t can be combined for our purposes into a single We then obtain: I ! . values ~ p pulse law to an enginp and v and the corvalues. i. I The sign -+ is used to indicate that ~ p in the second equation is not identical with that in the first equation. attempt to assign p and v the smallest possible -1. 0 and +1. factor k. can be converted from differ- It is clear that these equations ential equations to approach us. If we first let k tion to give whole number tain the equations: = l~ we ob- We further values. a physical the question the most general digitalization We are now able to convert eering counter law.~ => !::J. to difference Exactly equations when ~x and ~t are allowed is of interest to the opposite condition Although mathematicians equations and programmers generally attempt to set up difference equation as nearly in such a way that the differential equation is approximated by using at the basis as possible.~. of the difference We are able to resolve possible. O.~p AS => !::J. and to study the behavior 30 of the system .t v -k!::J. we must equa- /22 If we let the quantities and ~ v responding assume only integral choose a whole number value of k in order for the difference results.contain the physical (time component).e.

ing arithmetic relation: 1- We obtain as a result the follow- I--_.*v - .that satisfies these conditions. 16 31 . p and -~p.-----' . (3) and (4)J which we will consider as "digital particles".~~. tial sectors are opposed to one another.p-~ ----- Iv-~. represented The spa- Zero values are not writ- Four stable elementary forms are [(1). p. ~r~~~~~~~~ -Ap -A'~~~~~~~~--~~~--~~~r--r. -~v. are assumed for tl' for the values v. p and -~p per unit time. ten for purposes of simplicity. the values v and p correspond to the next time interval t2' /-. -~v. mutually-independent tl and t2' respectively.--T1 II -Ap Fig. (2). There are two time units. following through the above equation. Figure 15 shows a simple calculating scheme for this rule. v and p It follows from this that -~v and -~p corres- pond to time interval t2 and. We have the four values v..

constant.I The equations particles velocity permits relate to the traveling of a simple pulse. Figure 16 shows a graphic this pulse. is the highest one possible At the same time. of an originally isolated cell in a gas-filled equation. key to the calculation representation (p behind the difference The graphic of of Figure 18 shows. The above equation which the subsequent Figures isolated state arises from the previous 17 and 18 show an instable form of expansion impulse of an pressure pulse. in fact. The v. establishes ~v and ~p are derived the function according one. the expansion p-values in the graphic 32 tive and negative representation indicates . From the standpoint with a linearly-expanded odically represent them. The /23 are stable only at this velocity. contradicts pressure our conception of the This form of pulse expansion expansion cylinder. the ~- of generalization. in deviations The conservation of pulse rather than of energy equation. no other velocities. is associ- ated (as was the case in Figures values are omitted for reasons In Figure 17. with which no velocity 15 and 16). this The system version of for the system. in the automaton of the automaton infinite theory. we are concerned which is repeated peri- automaton (cellular automaton).and p-values from to the states of the automaton. On the other hand. that the average = 1) remains and that the average value of v is conof alternating posi- stant at O. From this model we have derived the difference The digitalization was carried out so generally equation result that the deviations from the physis the from the differential ical laws.

18 an obvious ponding constant increase in the potential energy.Fig. 17 . that of conservation Of course such a model requires an exact definition 33 of the term "energy".. equation.. tJ p Fig.. It would be interesting sort of deviation tion or whether at this point to inquire whether associated this is necessarily with crude digitalizawhich obey in this crude digital models of the original can be constructed all the conditions case especially simplified differential of energy. _ r. The corresby the /24 is true for the kinetic energy values represented v-values. . - ~--~--~~---. to p _._o .

while others a certain Apparently digital particles are possible. the single forms can be considered independently of one anothit is nat- er. I .e..I" 1 I Fig. corresponding according to the superposition and -2 arise. I -. 20. . a that a pair of isolated of two diverging pulses yields stable system: the emission (Fig.I I I . 19). This bears only certain configurations or provide are excluded no stable results.. as a result of which ural that values sitely moving greater than 1 appear.This is simply noted without It is interesting further consideration here. values+2 through In example values 34 one another without greater than +1 and -1 arising.. necessary to build linear our evidence that it is not The simplest above and below. 19 ter. rule. but pass by In a system particles or pass through strictly possible one another without changing described which by the superposition rule. to the previous We can see that in example (3). the superposition rule applies.1 I I I I-l( 1. I .1 I J I 1 1+11 I --- rule has a purely additive '2 I' I -1 I I I I ·'1 I. do not influence This means that two oppoone another. specifically in examples reaction (1) and (2) on the left. there are no results between elementary par- correspond to the reactions This provides elements ticles known in physics. ~----~--~~---- i. Here we into our models. similarity '1 to some situations in quantum mechanics.I 1 I I I I . shape. calculating charac- Because our chosen \ '0 '1 vI' p p p \ -I I I I I . of the values in Figure and roughest form is general limiting This may be demonstrated have two approaching from the examples digital particles.. the particles pass (1).

particles system. between the o ~0 .. esting result talization Fig. reaction It is interesting process in particle that in spite of this. -6'.. of course. 22 The course of the collision differs with the phase state of the distance visible. r. one another. a result which for crude are free to intersect in it- self would not be expected of the calculating rule of Figure at first glance. a certain can be noted. o and +. Here (1) with a limiting law corresponding there are only three values: evant calculating in a value of 1.. be- 22 to example (2) yields nothing cause in the example the values -2 and +2 are not to be found. -F-~~· .~~~r--+~~~--4-~~~~~~~~-+--~~~~~~~ - r:-------~. Figure 22 shows the rel- It is constructed so that 1 + 1 results the We can see that in spite of this limitation. example This is not outwardly Figure to Figure 20 shows 21. 4- In this situation.-1____ Fig. two particles.. 0 . 35 interaction If we consider . Application of the calculating new. -6' /25 p -o» .--' l_~__ . 20 an interof crude digimay be observed. curtailments rule were made. .. P ~r-~~+-~~~~+-~--~--r-~~4- -6p -~V ~p . 21 process Fig.

1 r . In reality.I I I-I of occurrence p . I I I . for example. a b b !laH ~ Case_ 'Ib") ..I . for each of which the probability .. I-1 I 1 I 1.. It is interesting not continuous particle movement. it can only be determined are possible two fundamental situations in particle is 1/2..I . a certain retardation intersect In (2) the particles from one another unhindered. ed that the paths are idealized model represents wise progress. particle paths for the two difstressour interaction patterns It must be explicitly paths.. I I . but a process of step- to note that in the nonlinear 36 calculating ..~ I-I I-I ~I I I I-I J I- I . b I -I I I .. Fig........ I I J. is again dependent a matter of chance.I J .I examples (2) and (3). knowledge that in structure. ticles ticles In (3) we might argue that the parand that two new digital paras first react with one another are emitted as a result of this reaction. represents ferent the schematic.Case j I . r I I I I . II p p II p p " II p p p . in contrast may be observed.. I I II -I I -I I .I I-I . 24 Figure 23 shows a summary cases in Figure 24 I a -.. The question on the distance Without to whether (2) or (3) occurs phase state and is outwardly of the fine spatial our example interaction.. . it can be seen that in the case of the process and proceed away /26 of (3). I I -I I".------~-- ----- Fig. " II I . _-}-j- I b a a . idealized a and b. 23 of the eight possible particle interaction. I I I I . to (2).

i. physical pattern corresponds of a gas-filled when the factor A more flexIn ible situation is obtained is made smaller. 25). to Figure This is no longer true when the rule corresponding 22 is applied.e. in the /27 Our initial position. par- In the case of unlimited corresponding to Figure 15 are also theoretically a pressure superimmountain of possible. From there we want to make the following 37 start: . nonintegral numbers arise in more accurate calculation. 22). relative assigned to the ~-value. also the ternary to the binary The val- In this respect system is superior midway between inserted 0 and 1.. rule. pressure point results in the emission of two particles Establishment free superposition ticles of limiting processes. values obviously sets limits on the values. That means that we can construct velocity any height with its accompanying fies the step-wise These stable extension distribution which satisstable. which remains "larger" particles are always divisible into elemen- tary particles. If we wish to continue with whole numbers or to introduce rounding only miniup and mal gradations. this case. in which we have chosen the factor 1 to a very hard medium cylinder. 25 one. an isolated (Fig.rule (Fig. The value 1/2 lies exactly down must be introduced. rounding Fig. between ues 1/3 and 2/3 can also be precisely the values o and 1.

in spite of the apparent happenings. The pressure pears in part alone with a value of +2. between (Fig. that in such a model "signal (in the model) local meaning. The position of the particle further is definable for the following period. quantum theory. The speed It is interesting configurations that a digital assumes different pulse ap- in the course of a period. but not without information for the single phases of a given period. in part as a pair with the values +1 and +1. 28 and 29 show the process 3B of interaction of . however. 26 (1) shows a stable up or down to whole numbers. In more complithat which This great- it would be conceivable particle velocities. 15). exist.I Values ~ /3 and ~ /3 rounded p v Figure of 3~t. 27. Figures by strict predetermined 26. model~ in which a soft medium has a slower speed of Here we have the situation neighboring particles that the "speed of switching" higher (in the example is considerably three times as great) than the particle cated models of "calculating space"~ velocity. particle in this system with a period is 1/3 of that of the particle This corresponds as well The velocity of propagation figure in the corresponding to the physical sound. particle does not mean. uncertainty which relates Is this not analogous and momentum to the the position through principle? error. speeds" speeds of light corresponding are considerably to maximum slower than the speed of switching. In any case the computer is characterized model. er than the speed of light of switching has a purely are possible.

/28 Fig. but that they do retime (in conas one of act. 29). 26 two such particles. demonstrate that the par- do not simply pass beyond one another. in 28 shows the 27 an excerpt while Figure which only the p-values idealized ticles particle path. this time with shortening trast to Fig. The figures Figure 26 (2) shows the from it. 24). repulsion (Fig. detailed calculating and more specifically scheme and Figure are represented. The process of the interaction can also be represented Here it may be seen in the mode of viewing through" and "repulsion" lose the figures that terms like "passing 39 .

. !.... stimulates The previous of this paper to carry out an exhaustive observation of a few simple examples concepts. /30 a whole series of interesting 40 .c: Q) 0'- __ J to the reacThe corresnot in tion of digital particles. of the particles interacting and finally the phases must possibilities be considered..-0 --'----IQ) Ie o /29 '~:o !. 28 meaning when applied en . quantum theory ponding digital Fig.. 27 Fig.. EQ) ctl -0 0 :z: 0.. in different It is not the purpose examination. of the sepa- phases must also be taken into account. with the example particles ration from Figure We must first investigate The influence are possible in this system.'- . 29 responding tiable to Figure has yielded although results~ form. Fig.- !. Q)i-o .. In particle 26. interaction cor- many more differenin comparison which cases apparent investigation... there are certainly from systematic 23.

representation in Figure is omitted. is a structure grid corresponding to an . mem- 30 operable. bra correspond to the basic operations and negation). be subdivided ments. 2. The symbols which in current into its single use reduce the shifting to its single alge- elements. The shifting parts of the system. 30 by I and II. further bers work without isters transmit of the following structure while the reg- their information pulse. elements disjunction The three value into binary elements formation used here had to be converted (2 bit). Two-Dimensional Systems r Fig. space corThe to the previously-introduced registers v and p represent to which numbers can be added. are represented by the circles marked with means negation. In order to render the is necessary. line at the exit of the ~-members gram can. via two Boolean variables of these two values. 30 41 Let us examine briefly the two-dimensional The simplest system. which serve to carry out subtrac~.Figure responding squares 30 shows the block diagram for a calculating calculating rule. of Boolean (conjunction. more detailed block diagram Therefore Out of 4 possible combinations a only three are employed. The vertical The block diashifting ele- tion. clean pUlsing in Figure the pulse beats are represented In this process it is taken for granted that the pure addition time delay to build the ~-values. For this reason. only with the addition to the fine This pulsing corresponds of the time dimension. of course.

y. 31). 31 rule: Two examples 32 and 33.. . values no configurations. 'I . In the transfer between X. particles. etc.... we obtain the following Y + . 'P"" ~x. The system possesses two definite We shall axes which enter into even simple pulse propagation. is carried out in accordance (xs y) is If the state of the grid point equation: 'P. 'P. -- dition . are many-place are allowed and combination occurs by adthe grid by a fac- .. points tor k. In every time interval grid point. start with a simple rule. points one such 1 is transmitted of pulses arising with to every neighboring from different the disjunction The combination neighboring rule. Next we will consider in which nevertheless a similar rule. the values are multiplied We obtain the formula for this Fig. _ I .orthogonal coordinate system. since after /31 Little a short time it leads to a state in which all spatial points reach the state "I" and thereby possible (Fig. where every grid point can have the states 0 and 1. along the coordinate can be developed axes is faster than along the with such a rule. I Expansion diagonals. for the factors 1/4 and 1/2 are given in Figures it is necessary to consider For reasons of symmetry 42 .

/32

r?O

/ 56 '2 28

·I
128

80

iD

96

80

«J
'0

»:
,
8 2

r
~
1

96
64

6"
32

~
8

1 Fig. 32 only a 45° section.

256

126

"

16

"

I
only

Fig. 33 As in Figure 32, the values The roman numerals are entered correspond

for the front of the pulse. individual

to the

time phases with a separation that the front moves

time of ~t.

We can see in Figure 31;

from the examples

as represented

i.e., with its peak along the coordinate along the diagonals soon reaches are greater.

axis, although

the values

The forward-rushing

point very

its peak. assume an infinite number of small values i.e., the peak of such

Because we cannot in digital dies out.

space, the minimum

value is soon reached;

It would be interesting

to follow the progress machine.

an expansion of particular

with the help of a calculating interest is whether

The question con-

and how quickly

the values

verge in a circular

expansion

pattern. to construct digital

One thing is clear: particles

it is impossible

from such a rule.

We must find other rules.
43

r
+"
oP

/33

oP
+"

+"

oP

+"
oP

oP
~

oP
.... "

-I
oP

+'
oP

0"

+'
oP
34

oP

t". oP +"
Fig.

-+!

_.x

L-.1
o
Fig. 35
-~-~-~.-

,

+
+1 I~
1+7

..

0
., .

II"'_'

.,

C\ 116

+ +

t::\ \j_;

I...... J~

t::'\
Fig. 44 36

It is possible

to take the rules

for linear

space, which give space.

rise to stable particles,

and apply them to two-dimensional

Of course, we then need an interrelationship for without dependent it the single orthogonal

of the two dimensions,

grid points would have an in-

existence. 34 shows one possibility Figure v
x

Figure values which

of arranging

the v- and pvalues for v.

in a checkerboard. emerge.

35 shows the individual
y

Two components, for p.

and v , must be considered

One value is sufficient

The two axes are coupled through p. rule: /34

We can now formulate

the following

Because ponding

of the coupling

through

p, individual

pulses

corres-

to Figures

15 and 16 vanish.

Stable, although Figure

not infi-

nitely parallel,

wave fronts

can be built. wave

36 shows such a to one of

front parallel

o
'0

---I

+

the coordinate

axes, and Figure

o
+

37 shows a diagonally-moving wave. Figure 38 shows a prop abetween the two

Ii.. 10

gation relation

Fig. 37
45

Fig. 38

we first assume that the p-values We can then speak of p-arrows that an isolated arrow of simplicity values can take on the or of short arrows. +. The propagation velocities are functions of direction.and pFor reasons to We shall assume an orthogonal Figure points. In one case. the arrows away from one another. 39.-~~ti ~·~--·b ~. This investigation machines. Space corresponding v. 0. First we establish perpendicular transmitted (an arrow which has no is directly arrow arising at the same grid point) to the next grid point. of this sort of single Figure 40 shows the four posisolated pulse. we shall first consider another manner. We no longer make the distinction between but allow for each point the values Px' Py. of rarefied Because the and hy- gas dynamics drodynamics.etw. Digital Particles in Two-Dimensional grid pattern. -.~n phase. in the other they cancel one anothWe still Which case occurs depends on the separation 46 .waves. namically it is interesting whether (for example) can be crudely the hydrodydigitalized can stable structure elements" of a vortex and "digital can be constructed. -ar~- Both of these are shown in Figure continue ere 41. 3. consequences It would be interesting to consider the different of more or less crude digitalization rules are related to the equations in this case. It can be We can first r~~r~::: ::es:~:~:: 0:::: h:: ~:~~:-a~~ transmitted forward only in an orthogonal sible examples direction. n: et t e. be carried out only with the help of calculating In order to construct stable particles in two-dimensional space.

__".. o ..-e!/~ 0 It f D 0 0 0 0 "-Fi 9.t 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ~/I 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 '0 !e-.. 1.0 0 --e--lX Fig. 0 ". o 0 Fi g. 0 0 0 0 B 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 .9V IV n 1 D m IV +--01 0 -0 -0 +--n I v VI 0 ~ lA 1._ 0 DI 10 ~ C n +--- 0 I 0 0 0 Fi 9 .' 40 0 0 0 .0 0 o 0 O~~. 41 .: +--VI . +--- -0 . ---- .0" ' . 42 ~nt o ~'t-/Vf o ~~.-. ~ 0 0 o 0 P.+': PI 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 X -.. 45 47 ./35 --_. 0 0 0 ~ 0 0 --.-I 0 L .r .

cles without cancel one another because Pockets are insidious they can destroy parti- disappearing themselves. Two intersecting arrows. pockets cannot be destroyed. and at points B and C they exchange ticle of period 43). that ar- rows may have only the values arrows cancel one another same orientation Two oppositely-directed and two with the at the same grid point. 48 On the other hand. for the interaction the condition At first we shall maintain -. which is propagated It is interesting to note that pockets arise from this rule they have a period bt is also posthese which are fixed to 4 neighboring 2bt (Fig. 44). pockets . direction.need a rule for the case of intersecting strated time I. phases. 2bt. forward Now in each in its own direction. pocket with period As may be seen from additional examples. sible (Fig. This is demon- /36 arrows exist at point Z at to our previous rules. act as a single It may be seen that the course of the different is dependent on both time and separation one another. +. they would be propagated independent of the other. isolated arrow. in this way a stable pardiagonally forward (Fig. 45). 46-57 give a series of interesting such particles. A doubly-stable grid points. 0. in Figure According 42. interactions The particles or build new can cross through particles. which can be propagated in eight disFigures of We now have particles crete directions in a plane and standing pockets examples as well. forward. we establish that the two arrows are in fact propagated directions toward points We obtain Band their respective C.

it is highly paths significant whether the point defined occurs In the interaction of intersection point of the particle system. Figs. Fig.. 0 .. to this rule.Q_.-- 0 0 0 -~---. all This In the model of a cosmos which functions particles model would eventually according be converted into hard pockets.__ -.can arise from specific forms of interacti~n (Figs. 55 and 57). 46 o o o o o o o Fig. '!e. 52 and 53).. lies on a discrete in the coordinate In this case a reaction (for example.-. 48 49 o o . is therefore of little use. 47 Fig.. /37 0 0 0 .

49 o (Fig./38 o o " 0:::- . 50 50 .II o '0 o e 0-VI Fig .

VIr VIIi C r V 0 0 0 0 Fig . o 51 ./39 A v. 52 o .Jl!. .• 5] A I 0.- lIy 0 0 'VUm -wr IV --0--. o o o o o Fig.o!L'.os 0 .

52 . 53 . 54 i 0 0 1m !c 0 0 I. Fig./40 A X B 'Fig.

56 53 .55 Fig./41 1 I !Fig.

.. 0 0 58 54 .. o Fig. ". oC I.s: oJ!. r ~ e on-. ill . 0 0. ..F_tg.' 0. II . 57 o I ../42 o o C>--+ n o o o o :.

'59 The possibilities system mitting of this by pe~- can be investigated the introduction absolute of arrows For of different length. We can reach the following agreement.I Fig. The remainder to it and combines acts as an isolated particles having We are now able to construct rections of propagation. The number of different sible is dependent on the number of values possible . arrows. different directions for the dipos/43 to that of the arrow orthogonal as in Figure 42. arrows pointing in the same direcrule. the contribution of one is equivalent with the first arrow (Fig. It tion we use the addition is more difficult Fig. the longer arrow In the case of mutually-orthogonal is divided into two parts. 60 to expand the rule of Figure 42 to include two intersecting arrows of diff~rent lengths. 58).

~ 0 0 -..:: : : :} : : : : o 0 0 0 0 00 0 0 --..~8 0 0 0 0 0 Fig. 0 0 0 0 070-<>--0--<>-0-0--0 0 0/0 ---.. ---0 0 C O__. 0 ~~ 0 Q 0 0 0 0 0 -~- o o o 0 . 61 Fig..../44 A Q -.-$~ 0 t.. 0 0 0 .. QAB __ ---0 0 . 62 56 ..

. -. ~ v .' ./ ./45 . . ~./ .' . . ./ / ". /'_.R : . 1// I..: ~ . .: Fig." ..• . " .~.. 57 .*x. / 64' ../. ~ "..~..~. '%' :"../ . .'~' ::>«" x~ ./ .~ */_~ /' .

S C B o o o Fig.I /46 o o o o o . 65 Fig. 6{i 58 . .A'r-.

between curs.contribution Figure of the arrow. which represents through both partiof the par- If this passes the point of intersection (Figs. when they are respectively (for example. We other circumstances. A reaction is phase-dependent.T6)' of the limitation of the posthat sible discrete there exists It must be stressed the velocity an interdependence between of propagano dif- tion and direction. ticle paths S. at the zero point at intersection But they can also react under in Figures 65 and 66 show. phases. as the examples these cases. the already-mentioned could construct cles. 65 and 66). (phase lines TO . a reaction is possible Of course. to the ratio of the arrows. In the course of one period coordinate the par- a discrete point Q (zero phase It is possible The particles "disappear" at intervals. an abundance of suggestions. to construct Figure lines of the same phase 60 represents directions an example of motion. Figs. In part. ference in velocity Figures teraction The chosen propagation of the particles moving rule permits in the same direction. these examples forms yield are very simple and primitive. adopted they But even these simple show that the basic method of digitalization 59 is of greatest . with a ratio of the arrows of 5:2. 61 and 62). 59 shows an example of movement pass through of 7~t. cases of inof interaction always oc/47 61-66 show another series of interesting Again the process two particles between such particles. The particle in Fig- The direction The particles corresponds different ure 59 has a period ticles pass through point). phase lines playa a time phase line R.

3 can also be The concepts applied to three-dimensional The studies of the author for fur- are not yet complete ther investigation.I interest concepts. Systems 3.2 and 3. and that development of the rules will yield additional 4. Concerning developed Three-Dimensional in Sections systems. in this area and should be reserved 60 .

Generally the idea that the cosmos repudiated really be subdivided physicists. into such cells is sharply We agree that space cannot be viewed small sections. A single is of a point grid which exchange. automatons division. although not in regard aton theory. is not specific. speaking. through theory The examples cellular automaton with point grids.4. they give a rough impression for using the tools of the automaton questions. bound to neighboring information In the of cases shown in Figures two different values. 34 and 35. The examples GENERAL Cellular CONSIDERATIONS Automatons of fields and particles which /48 of digitalization have been presented removed rules. 1. system. so that division This does not affect of the entire In general. have dealt primarily consists. the grids are checkerboards p and v. points therefore. into discrete cellular has different depending structure on the precise is already treated to aut omcould by The idea of a grid spatial contexts by physicists. accepted 61 as a continuum even in infinitely length The concept of a smallest to is already widely today. in grid form. while not in relation . There exist differinto the be- ent possibilities single automatons havior for their combination. in various division of the continuum consequences. bilities physical are in their present unfinished form still far of physical of the possito answer from being able to serve in the formulation Nevertheless.

example. is worthwhile which do not a gridlike to become allow grid structure energy and of smaller stant ary must and be intermediate assumed to be frequencies. sort can frequencies. possible 60). spatial visible The than effect. in the can would field pattern example. wavelengths lengths. but This a regular an effect.the pal idea limit of subdivision in the into a point grid. to Sober consider the reflection rules for reveals. preferred of in It is clear directions. but more as the princiThe differentiation to a grid structure that has of two are different essentially the particles. could of extraordinary It is hardly the we length in comparison with these which of possible to think of an experiment direction determine when eventual the discrete accuracy of the propagation of such photons. fields which ical (Figs. a digital experiments type. namely 10-12 (Mossbauer Results of this when first and be expected of the in the period very high energy ranges. smaller -13 for cm considerably 10 the elementeven with /49 shortest cm). wavelength length approach 62 . 38) and particle which the discrete (Fig. as follows: doubts relating (a) A grid structure would abolish grid for isotropy of space. length The of approximately of normal (Bopp assumes works 10-56 field ~ptics. establishes in the expansion 31. assume a change in direction that (in circular we are capable measure) to be same between order of magnitude of differentiating effect). directions move We know of no physdirections studied that structure in regions grid conit provide has not a key been to preferred of this for this systematically nevertheless.

(S) be regularly automaton developed. a toroid. experiments. of which opments (y) possibilities Since are automaton require theory is a young we field. Only today do we have must which the capability it to the these to carry decision of The and the author within aid leave physicists whether with limits phenomena techniques. being can expect further in the The considered. implicitly assumes that of an of a grid 63 . in no respect direction assumption exhausted. The follow- possibilities (a) The be mentioned: of fixed logical values circuits in the for form of cellular logical the assumption the automatons connections change ous is not between only possibility in space. general structure could be observed (b) Curved of present are experimental from with the volumes. The whole many subject possible is still deviations too young from for these one to be to draw final positive can or negative conclusions. are chosen three be as they hard the spatial assumed theory of relativity. is closely related The regular to the variability of circuits. There consequences. at first a very well-prepared the possibilities devel- Both Theory. of the defining discrete If we introduce of the in the circuits variable concept as a function circuits of the can growing results previ- process. able ing of assuming each a Cartesian on them- in which This coordinates converge space imagined in two-dimensional by assuming are.I the out the grid such constant. Bopp has the can to represent expedient the grid of space. space selves. of course.

in the automaton theory yields methods 2. digital Modern fields field and digital takes pains examples treated in Chapter separately. the we disturbance changes. a~ disturbances This conditions pattern of a cellular which theory. 3. are theory even elementary particles Automaton through theory singularities is understandably and wellto forms of fields. The question On the Theory of Relativity obviously requires coming of the isotropy 64 of space . 3. system. In entire are fluctuate "flowing in the states". the use of an orthogonal investigations. of the is generated in a neighbor- cellular automaton. In this convenient in this of time light. is subject every state pattern to periodic evolves can with Accord- to automaton nevertheless. hopes treat in greater in another contribution.inertial of the length. To a certain accordance reproducing ing region In the particles to explain special suited the extent with concerned this. from preceding process. theory which is contradictory This will to a strict be considered interpretation at greater of relativity. Digital no~mal Digital particles Particles may be and Cellular Automatons in the has /50 considered automaton. digital A given particles pattern can be regarded as "self- systems". be just new network The is the most way of beginning will certainly results obtained course manner as valid for when use. such to digitalize of automaton subject interpretations The depth author and to subject to be them able to rules this theory. the a distinct ing one.

be assumed be greater 65 These that than do not the the need In contrast. in which coordinate the Lorentz to be as valid as the transformations systems. obviously be so important infinitely it is very form ience be of the tells to the special of relativity. estimates. automatons. The formulate strict however. system that in considering one. no excellent are justified next immediately and coordinate system proven to exist. systems constance by of the the digit- of light in all of the inertial Lorentz is represented and the al simulation shortening In any speed transformations related of bodies. any tation sible We way can as cellular assumption structure it is almost system to avoid construct of a superior or cellular still of movement.I to grips with the theory of relativity. systems although are quantity. mission such a model. system the relationships between special in these theory reality less inertial interpretation to the exists. form approximated difficult model us by numerical to simulate theory that we Nevertheless. superior speed available. in such a of the automatons a finite The that a greater coordinate number. a relation between from between the the speed of light cells and the cellular to be of transmission must result individual of the automaton identical. of the of relativity no superior for cosmos the leads. cell to cell it may must speed speed of transof from . conclusion and that )n that coordinate such it is userepresenimpos- to search of the a system experimentally. case. the Our consistent physical expercan each case in digital of the of relativity. theory The Lorentz can transformations.

propagation greater of the of the signal obtained has from only this transmission. This inertial process which a few nature consequences are applied. vaguely of clear. in comparison a signifisystem critical case of the analog model the standard of the closer relativity the velocity difference: the of the inertial more In the can be approaches the digital of the of the we come speed of light. way essentially velocity. becomes. calculating case the space it is different model. meaning. yields ferent with cant In any "digital" theory. complete it must monstrosity be said of this that Here again conception are concerned infinity presupposes a limiting process. . thought every we in principle. of the for with every an energy (high frequency) theory can A strict has be interpretation that moves just can of relativity another less than as one c. rules This as valid system in the at least is only process The be repeated as often as desired. can The as a consequence imagined. which are system initial in the velocity second physical first. to some the processes energy-rich ized space. The consider following statement is also 66 of interest. the simulation particles. if observations as we will of an information in the fol- theoretical lowing. Here with an infinitely system has frequent moves repetition relative of reaction to the previous of another one. of very (at to processes which character- least In this high extent) as a "miscalculation" different high special inertial behavior of calculating of particles be explained. This Because in dif/51 speed of transmission of the a local anisotropy directions.

relative can speak x'. system space the In this case. of invariance of the shifting 4.I We equal number example plified shall to the first number introduce the term parts "shifting involved volume". voZume. t. t we inertial relative of a second special theory of relativity. P2. to the to which to particle is stationary. it may bance 67 shows that the for a sim- representation. yieldsthe inversion corresponding transformations shifting volume PO' Pl'. P. content" For this 67 Information with clarity we theory "information systems. PO' Pl. P2'. P2. The of these lated the term Considerations gains of Information considerable Theory meaning in the has process formuto to information different term considerations. t' If this to the particle system moves x. P3 is equal volume shifting of a period. multiplied This by is of shifting beats which the for of shifting the period take part in a given Figure be assumed process. 3 This We can is equal in area to the shifting volume PO' Pl. The system . in regard are inclined news-transmitting reason. of a digital in which particle. . P3. a disturdigital /52 representing extends The particle a distance is assumed inertial the to particle in the to be stationary x. »: Fig. according the the moving Lorentz 67 /' . speak therefore.

The of the the use will frequencies of the not be term emitted con- "information is meaningful. structure of the quantities obtain from in a mathematical nature about the information atomic light tent" here. include fine assume an infinitely electromagnetic propagation it must of our be transmitted conserved. content it is still to speak the of inforwidth of of inhabited possible systems. man and nature is to be found to The of in a relationship statement measureable which we between of the quantum theory. which attempts system. shapes 68 consider variation of the of an object. observations content. temporal consider as news content Such the modern relate all through as long waves. as we could to speak This of physical in terms only If we of news insofar would people be of interest in our considernews. Metaphorically us from of the can universe case approaching the question other in which makes information of this sense. consists In this largely case. of our understanding pro- information cesses It is difficult transmission. a pattern or the .consider This information correct. not infinitely them we by the also stars as limits of the in the are established for finiteness the for rays people. theory however. application of news Even in of is not of terms from information unfortunately theory leads we must in the neighboring field transmission the present to frequent be clear confusion. news universe. in itself ation. as the The theory easily of information accomplished processing. If we of news mation shells quanta. matter further investigated disregard this definition of information not possible if we as the means transmission.

flip-flops. this to the information which is defined does as information not from need to be capacity. measured due to its variability. entered.e. definite The ing the Thus. a punch card may contain.. In this possible is counted set of is 2m and information are of made capacity between is equal the no distinctions In the every as are total register the individual every state 2m possible and storage states unit is dissolved of which is held that the the (i. as a result equation to assume state. information of its informa- sender to receiver possible card can It is also capacity possible tion to speak of a maximum if we consider of a finite states as automaton. completely In news used. a very complicated we differential tend in storage. of possible to m. a measure. the two). in bits. number rings etc. solution states. for each If such are two m members. content is 10g2(n) machine an (logarithm this has to the type A programmed as we are of which ferrite calculating aware. there nuclear states process states. a information technical accompanying amount of content. tains state able no naturally information in its zero although scientific example second are avail- mentioned for use extremely interesting This 69 by mathematicians.like. number If this is equal base to n. equipment in the results the con- Emotionally.). set upper includlimits /53 characteristics punching and which of the readout can be systems. then the possible in the the positions storage. (for example. shows necessity . on the transmission the capacity so that punch information be below possible the transmitted capacity. punch card itself. in which at zero) represents instrument of automaton.

has is only possible state start- automaton a greater information content than state. results for why the have would his of the from person perform established for the beginning. content conclusion automaton the be drawn be information running of a finite Because introduction are cannot increased a calculation. is taken then of these the individual may values of informathat the while If no account tion for the receiver. the automaton The ques- is that tion single extent represent to what it is possible depends to consider assumption the entire universe in order.for The great caution in the definition of terms for in information the receiver. If we take we are toroid with that and of higher a finite suggested whole. receiver's moment. knowledge while with in regard is in the the state at the second receiver's knowledge is increased to significant results. the two difference have in this situation is that states thing that the a fundamentally is only different an extension ground meaning. The state theory. dealing valid It is originally a limited number 70 the have individual therefore accept of states . after results greater he let calculation program the is made and the completely input The automatically values. by Bopp. The first the result of viewing cells the cosmos a finite as a cellular automaton. aut om/54 as a finite relation as already aton cells on the can automaton on the which we make to its dimensions. of the of "every- dissolved" the machine case. the value the using equipment: if not final the to computer which a calculation if the increase of ing the knowledge.

It is therestate B" For fore every possible to express F(A. in can to remember although . one It is important state. ures 68a-d to represent diagram types can it in the called of an arrow Fig- Such show an arrow different every is often of arrow have a "graph". considered. Automaton running which demonstrates possible for characteristic several of patterns will be a finite automaton. that state only states succeeding can there are several show preceding that which dissolve must end The process figures cycle an autonomous which under automaton certain a periodic also in every into case.only a limited cosmos. 71 . ~~~ o I~ :4 I 'I 5 Fig. suitable This is equally about true its for the entire assumptions that different limits. given state there the is a succeeding "state state. B) and relation A dissolves form as relation diagram. 68a. conditions degenerate i I a single J final state. 68b. 68d. it. Fig. information if we make theory are content. diagrams. 68c. 13 Fig. Fig.

Wlt h a vo 1ume . concerned cu b es of inforthen t h ere f ore of the mation we have er. The gravitational forces two are values many fields again interaction The limit. of nuclear higher which of magnitude in reality only too stronger. that is the must disillusioning end in a cosmic process of necessity logically cycle. to be cm) We by are on the some order physi- The dimensions of 10 universe assumed (10 -13 of magnitude cists elementary 10 million 0f lengths light (approximately years). approxlmate 1y 10123 elementary If an individual elementary universe bit elementary content already number grid length on a side. 72 . It must further rela- considered calculates extremely to those exactly. when in itself examined are unassail- implications of the 41 quantitatively. related to neighboring result information finite exchange automaton. from The tion of electrostatic is about orders 10 40 interactions :1. yet assumed. different only states a lower for of the limit. other realization. soon as we The the This we are exclude first concerned any result sort a finite autonomous of a great- automaton er external consequence periodic able. a lower of the is most represents orders likely of magnitude small. grid which it is not known variations at each that space point are possible. therefore do not in an on the autonomous cosmos In the assumptions with of limits in the as universe. to each is assigned 210 123 of these cubes. has of influences somewhat world.I This knowledge cannot be transferred for they and are to the individual cells cells /55 of a cellular through automaton. much many be . to consida how This finer represents must be In reality.

automaton in the The in position~ moving cells state" the writing term "flowing The can tal be already introduced. in state of such a limited corresponds to a digital 73 It is much . be greater information the of the capacity digital of this cannot in space~ re- than information by the sum which gion. means number The of depreviously68 that even one branchings is incomprehensibly of automaton Of what follows range and theory value great. a digital that particle~ a digital patterns more already observed particle consists of a series and space of of periodically-repeating that the they single are not fixed like was in a cellular but can move machine. in space particle The accepts a set position content at a particular particle position in time. relating is the observations predictive of the to Figure value. not that? proWe consideration involving of closed processes~ appears of shifting fruitful.e.If we assume the number spatial of time pulses to approach I041~ the the order result of magnitude is obtained small There portion are 2 10 of the that expansion~ of this long in effect time only in spite a vanishingly can each the exist. is determined It is highly region of the possible states of this unlikely that every variation particle. content of a digital At first particle the digipoint /56 question considered of the from information several points of view. of which is of the 82 possible states of the cosmos types of reaction This ways also possible~ that independent flections considered lose the all of any and other. universe realization cycle~ when evolution the a periodic of time most being within single The cesses have already very large considered even period at most can pass~ likely i.

can inquire. variations possible? of a digital to classify particle the patterns along different lines: (1) (2) (3) (4) An a model have type.more period likely that a limited selection dissolves individual stable patterns. to hold of course. of particle when the 4 has interrelationship impossible its own for is considered. these con- of Figures 3 satisfy model to a limited one not type the extent. 74 this is not . 1 assumes that we have at our disposal as we position answer which to Question permits with different photons and types of digital etc. of the periods of individual particles is not constant. of the particle. velocity. in nature An answer electrons. that to Question and 2 requires model of the accept periodic differpat- ent velocities directions of propagation tern. The Further length but only varied. First. permits the repredirection of of only but of particle. direction phase and velocity (pulse). entirely how independent many are pattern in fact of the space associated representing It is advanta- We with phases geous a digital particle. our particles. of space examples only the information 42-66 from about Chapter the state. The phase sequence the results from the periodic and pattern pulse. state. of the a closed sequence associated Question particles region The ditions sentation may the be with special meaning type only It is.

Example zero are assume absolute 9 different lengths arrow of a component lengths. example. pulse that the in the in the of reaction. (a total of of which information reaction we content have During 3 bits with 12 bits). phase in Figure 59 has. even of these limits possible it is Each so is still variations possible of these that the particles. the the given to determine particles number The has information content of a particle. reaction 4 bits In this . a series of associated of digital for of possible particle patterns particles greater. capacity of After a particle the an information we have lost 75 of only information. then for we obtain that including space there value. of information retention one. component.'6).I interest type arrow to our consideration. 4. and If we assume eliminate that the arrow arrow for poses ticle simplicity reacting arrow be represented particle must by binary places. in the In the course pulse number length of the the reaction examples between given /57 question particles digital is an interesting arrows number must be are added in Chapter This means 3. an the reaction of 2 we have x 2 particles. 7 different states The ('0 . arrow of the in purparnew of places greater resultant the particle than the of places of 0 reacting of can particle. 2x4 = 8 bits. by then of the Before resultant the be represented each 4 binary has places. in two-dimensional On the within basis 81 different in the pulse variations. depends on the number The information content of this of the of particle length accuracy of representation with which or on the If we of places it is digitally for the represented. phase states.

that Actually. takes effect a rule number which exceeded of places that in the may process not be of addition. that comparative their observations are ele~ particles in physics and reactions whether possible. an answer only the state question is not offering to it. exceeded. are out also becomes author more complicated the considered. Snmehow question amounts terribly important. permitted If we then the mum the number of places. of time to maxi- simply assume maximum after value successive result pulse The that arrows.process we have permitted by a greater the arrow of the resultant This particle already If this whenever to means is not the be represented in itself permitted. disposal. the processes. It is only with the digital terms mentary particles can at our be represented. examples to be reactions we are lead a certain with period the left with particles absolute chosen strictly here for digital particles are still much too we of simple are the related in nature to physical with another. question to the problem . of It is a question the different of obvious cited interest conservation magnitudes in correspondingly-constructed conservation when of fields withso digital particles The is related problem The to a corresponding even can Perhaps the 76 information. type admission must of a new be found are the of particle. holds of never same confronted type react situation with one not to mention the that two such particles of energy. particles result type. particles are react to give of a particle spin charge of a higher and when help so forth models of which with Conservation for elementary of pulse. in physics.

Here ies of we come which is known to be very difficult to handle squarely theory. of the This individual situation is distributed to as the to consider as uniformly maximum this entropy in such is referred possible of relating of information. mass.) terms yet information answered. when the greatest sible probability as possible. the whether tested in physics can be (energy. by represented values circuits. mathematically. on the already selection predict. content into contact with one of the the difficultpos- information information signals In news is obtained transmission.e. etc.. interproaut om- elementary of be charge. a way that every /58 It is easily possibility symbol limits symbols no must previously-received diminish redundancy the the news to the following which of has of necessity related the information freedom can content. content of which Every sort one information content). than the 77 term information content is that Even important . terms of configuration to a certain or not question quantum.of "configuration". are of information contradictory conservation extent. represented more circuits. its of configuration of the necessarily means of represents through and rules a limitation thereby and the possible representation Conservation therefore The effective preted cessing aton lated by diminishes information content. of the quantities i. through (news. processes theory In the occur or of information of a cellular can cannot model constructed to the so that in it which these be remust the be listed by the physical construction in the quantities.

speculation. called of events of of events Reche suggested in another added "shiftunit can "conservation Viewed this of complicatedness". as an more only as the quantum" principle already the of conservation points of events. for be term dimension process time" then The energy.of information results servation the idea from exchange. The product -n . con- principles. or complication it could (Dr. meaning. ent numbers to distribute and even quantities of places If n places the of 2 differing precisions on the places. relationship representaenergy are for stim- to a close The to shiftlike tion and the of energy frequency time the namely "event" shifting the process. principle of conservation of energy interpreted "effective effects. of B of places. of B has m-n 2 in A is on order -(m-n) of magnitude . Penhaps not something be static. uncertainty If a storage principle capacity of two in the of m digital representation the two quantities with differnumber The or- A and B. makes relationship These Their between thoughts easily simple understandable. the shifting although process the connection). A consideration light bits of information is available we are for free of the theory the Heisenberg follows. error der the are assigned to A. ing acquires dimension per If the we effective obtain The the quantum is assigned "shifting process". of both errors It is possible to assume that 78 both conjugated quantities A and . being purpose means is to ulate application of automaton theoretical of observation in physics.that the yields of magnitude constant 2-m. circuit Something dynamic. way.

pro- represent The derived in certain of the cesses. but only accuracy. enter construction Digital laws models of models are threshold of this values. particles maximum if one cannot mum The limitations permit information digital with the even /59 do not possible quantities In the case to be represented of digital indeterminate. Similarly below the limiting The losses laws of the lower of addition in the unlimited by validity. The question About Determination and and used and Causality is closely theory. possible can be in spite occurrence. defined.I B are but not directly represented quantities on the both by the which pattern appear of digital only content particles. falling in which. literature. particles. theory Finite works with the concept of the a limited state number of an of automatons can receive 79 . are to the taken necessary consequences of this into count. extent ac- state The the system can as a function be seen preceding entire as a closed assumption system. is generally The related expres- of determination from information strictly used namely causality automaton in the to observations sion "causality" is not In the referred following to as it is always to mean the that which "determination". the with of the quantities is completely ideal the other the maxi- be represented permitted can be with by stated values accuracy. of conmust be with principles sums servation: considered. accuracy following limitations regard upper do not on the to the and have number of places. Automaton automaton. of a closed universe definition of the of the succeeding state. of conservation 5.

as long outside of automaton the theory observations. Arthur: (Physical Perception 80 Die and physikalische Its Limits). theory the conversion intermediate to the next occurs does without steps. of automaton. that conversion process. suIts to the If there from that is no entrance signal. Work requires the law a thought of continuous in which discrete require causality is formulated as manner in algorithms. The It cannot process be assumed is based on reality. for example. Erkenntnis p.states. this Automaton theory not question exactly how conversion with occurs the fact in an operating that. such does not with states rejection and quantification causal necessarily of the of observation. understands from This one in such requires the closed system can a continual automaton interpretation resist theoretical that consideration this idea of physical processes. some physicists. Grenzen see March. place from solely one state The to another in the space of range the pulse time. technological lies as analysis the turnover process. IFor ihre example. of an atom with the for from rule a way instance one Arthur state to He MarchI. states of thinking process in whole of non/60 numbers and in discrete transitions. of such is held by it is not concerned with comprehension The opinion that details. a flip-flop a certain the It is concerned takes time. und . this Because automaton from one theory state abstract in ask concepts. it because the resultant state rebasic which preceded of the works algorithmus with automaton. 19. another direct conversion stable is difficult the idea to reconcile of causality to the hardly next of causality. which is possible.

algornot direction.. functions classical ideally. jective followed absorption dict on this automaton models and subject realm theoretical enable sense. It is important in both are time to inquire i. the given establishes state arises from 81 . whether whether the determination states as well is valid system refor directions. time the of mechanics satisfies this demand Statistical and observes quantum mechanics from finite introduces time sym- of probability increase determined only a deviation In general. however. speculation. essentially often-argued and opinion that transitions should unanalyzable to more physics which such experiments can. with the be pursued further in connection discussion probability.e. in ohly which the automatons The one. The whether that be reached. these natural is to which permit transitions emission cannot to be or pre- individually of photons this such goal explanation of the We in the will associated ever are be process. a transition to the the to analyze theories In the create mentally. later states of the as the clearly The symmetry idea of the model previous verse. for subordinated Quantum through fruitful provides detersubof endeavors statistical minations ject will be refuted. positive metry follow ithm in the laws in entropy. processes by laws are such individual This supplanted statistical determinations.This must continuous transition from the in the thought sense of automaton continuous theory tranSince experiof obwe be differentiated between able all the of the sition are not individual the stable process states of such belong of an atom.

of representation 82 is possible .the reverse. it This to In very correlation implicitly further be directly is not calculated clearly state without knowledge. given. may be unobjectionable work--determined processes of the and are In general. for 68 and this in the type corresponding to Figure only case. which all (for basic which operations are not on which highexample. extent the The consider state do not ana- processes different individually. difference Figure any visible table in the diagrams corresponding 4. but A the this previous does not necessarily symmetry may in the time direction. seen from calculating consideration are not reversible. in the A computer positive time is--assumdirection. preceding tive sure. cannot time but the one rule remains nevertheless: the following by the time di- by which is related to the nega- is explicitly there given exists is only algorithm. this a single to be i.. Type were 68b already would as discussed correspond in connection to an automaton mentioned.e. which counts the lyze c). consideration ing of computers clarify this. correlation.4 of an autonwith /61 omous Figure automaton 68. In the direction. er calculations avb. based reversible A calculator is one example in both of a calculating directions. in the state positive determined in both directions. state It is possible is determined imply to construct by the one automatons which follows in which it. is the calculator A difference rection. backward tables machine it to is effectively forward that in one we determined time because in the and direction only the and other. characteristic types of operation in 4.

refer the sort to In this examples The of to only 3. As particles as such are similar in the follows cases its long a particle independent As soon are of outside as we influences. and is such probability In a model working are which a predetermined in accordance of solution: operation with the process excludes there elements. only 83 . can only follows present of theoretical laws for such physics processes. Figures rule irreversible in the for processes. particles. is given automaton We are able to say time a an autonomous and that automaton in special exists. is determined cases in the positive direction of negative time direction "pseudodetermination" The discussed path relationships in Chapter of digital 4.simple automatons and serves more for primary experiments than for The pre- practical actual ceding that determinations for the of the automaton operation state process. the immediately 42-66 different. into two There inducement This divide one particles the at any models time. physicist The give it is possible which This do not is the to construct this models of digital to the have same characteristic as the one is difficult confronting or atomic that we problem in the state decay of elementary particles nuclei. statement 3. conditions in Chapter basic the consider sequence of two case. the a single sequence of states the occurs. interaction a particle makes shifting regulates is no processes of particles. The assertion about used in Chapter usable question par- whether ticles answer. from the rule one formation by the of the following circuits. two means probability laws.4.

not a particle of the pass in which environment The drawing (frequency.) causes particle present of physical about has theories laws been does from said permit the of conclusions models. atomic physical already these for the possibilities transition no /62 of digital from one What state to another is equally behind the relevant scenes.(a) tains state (b) the digital model is constructed which dissolves in such the a way that it con- a sort has the of clock reached. can question. particle through states (for example that into of fields account. of radioassumption been to determine a certain dependence to the at high temperatures. is strictly Let us consider classical 84 model of physics from this point . process when a certain been influence which the of the digital environment. only least in any respect: time determination in the in the by the positive dissolution the direction is not laws into is of influenced the not laws of physical increase From takes the of probability. related each Similarly. which corresponds of critical One valid situations influenced by the environment. the in a digital model. questions automaton Entropy on another operation meaning. influence division. here: and all experiment theories it has activity permits are an examination essentially possible speculative in character. through In the can moves) its is taken process through of moving critical different the phases. the assumption of result is important. of which be explained determined. state etc. to this of these in entropy the viewpoint necessarily theory. Nevertheless.

with structure of spatial relationships. mated means reverse that time out causality more This is approxiwe must result direction. matter. no be said But Are that this is true should only for calculatus to of simulative the this we result encourage reconsider nature for justified simulation in assuming is possible? that the a model which calculable of view. Of ing directions category of "unsolvable" course.of view. of the number great of places in the and sources of error are correspondingly gas extremely errors This in the large quickly number lead the of collisions to deviations better the the between from molecules. time the validity requires hardly of the determination. in our model. it can models. From advanced this point it appears frequentlydirections should argument of determination reexamined. extreme theory be assumed of this Such temporal for considerations regard of the significance have been assumption a model to information fine made. calculations leads to the be prepared that to carry simulations time of universal belong systems to the with causality functioning in both problems. As already in both mentioned. spacea information content is required impossible necessity an unlimited such time model It is practically because The to simulate of infinite computers required. pro- these theoretical rule cesses. accuracy that serious in particularly of the directions. and requires an infinitely ~n infinite element. It may absolute individual processes. of time symmetry 85 in both time be fundamentally The question of the physical laws is frequently .

generation are two ways these values this. calculating calculations with been automatons The form considerable of chance success (Monte-Carlo the method). 86 . The theoretician and values. calculation this speak of irrational process In reality. cant in connection The observations in furthering with the reflective theory characteristics might be of of automaton this of signifi- value discussion. we is strictly deter- mined. here. process when which is a simple we attempt It becomes of such critical to construct to the out some in time finished laws our mechanisms Such operate have according carried for of probability. in the element of is introduced The There into of calculation chance "chance values". are type is the decisive problem. such values to the may be laws observation automaton to build mechanics. in which Such sort of dependseries numbers can (~. Nevertheless. forms can introduce of probability state dependent into theories bility game establish To this a successive the on probamathematical point. 6. of pseudo-chance values. on paper.discussed space. exists. It is of course mechanics significant idea possible and wave mathematical in which aton as matrix playa the probability can part. The lated theory problem On Probability in modern An physics is closely from re/63 of determination of probability. automhis inserted systems. between the from numbers the a number developed example). to accomplish (a) The and ence be for values that generated of number by simulation of the no dice method series.

case for to the first where causal rules playa which. in in of a certain Whether these any ing aton the atoms the is subject process to strict probability determined shows probability is not laws is in reality for can experience be assumed the significant. example.This for (b) process such is completely values sufficient when chosen. etc. the generation rule chance is carefully from be nature A mechanism cated can be that said is taken it cannot that. mechanism role built same provides longs for "real" probability sort. . for In the other we rely on the material that. of probability that case without leadautomas real to incorrect regards the results. radioactivity laws.3.. the The equal true case probability for all games of chance fact (roulette. number also values hardly possible that values only those which have the in technical automatons. for in of ir/64 be remembered pseudo-chance means that choice of algorithm significant from one the of the This is highly choices follow most that same range as series are possible which another regularly distribution same number as possible and the uniform longer possible series of the of probability. however. laws dice of physics. probability In this values case calculating extent that to a certain true. external input values. which is either so compliwhich it it bebut die. ) . in the of a sufficiently every case can be carefully shown. are It remains probability It must creation Case basic (a).2. is shown to be regular valid The or for according to the values. and series This means in the of numbers 87 separation (1..).

must be excluded. the for little. The numerical sidered. Figure points are 69 shows occupied representation quantities For this Representation of intensity in cellular reason. cm accepted greater orders a grid with the elementary that length of 10-13 by physicists. in real course. question whether ob- probability admissible theoretical servations alone. a few of Intensity strengths must be and other con- of field automatons basic specially are possibilities considered a two-dimensional by elementary to these of the sort grid in which values. is a philosophic- noted here. into if many As orders already of density the account. relationships of electroorder static of 10 40 interactions :1. it would 88 mean a space of many . individual example. accomplish must be of course. 0 and a scale grid yes- logical values for no values. and of physical is only processes. units would a cube with corresponding length of approximately only even grid for /65 be necessary. we although series can laws of these chance the series values are just as probable other number or imseries. field If we strengths take This can represents differ by a lower limit. of representation of magnitude mentioned. probable Of true as any ask are purely speculative to automaton This question an answer. to gravitational to represent space a side interactions these is on the If we wanted intensity to Figure differences 69 using 1013 yes- in a three-dimensional no values. taken 1 values represents can strength. without 7. here. of in reality magnitude. statistical field If we assign distribution This the numbers 1.

.++++++++ +++++++++. 6 the thought cellular is addC. is subdivided vidual Fig.... allied with cell a complete Each into cell the ing machine.++++ ++++++. 70 shows consisting ordering numbers ideal cells arrangement and among are machine of neighboring The a hierarchical nated with is seen. independent laws this for sort of model that entirely it is particles distribu- extremely difficult to establish with digital of statistical +++++++++++++++ ++.++'+++.++++++++ ++++. adding 69 ++~++++++++++++ principle lead of place idea to the calculating principle the automatons of Figure 69. field according This of the stable to these type fact calculacan- intensity... A much fered This struct to the by does the not more rational method is ofvalues.-r-~---r-''""''r---r- [U 0 process to a linear Each automaton.f++++++ +++++++++++++++ Fig. would the be necessary..++++ +f+++++++++++++ +++$+++++++++++ +++++++.+++ ++++++.&.+++++++ ++++++++++... 1 +++++++++++. is reflected U one-sided construction i-------- transmission process Figure o- 71 shows of this transmission I . a shifting 71 system it must be remembered 89 In the that addition indiAO . to conaccording Figure of an which coordiin the u.. 5~ steps construction the of such transmissions .++++++++++++ +++.cubic tions. not be centimeters to represent very useful..+++++ +++++++.+++++++++++ tion. individual This cells of different of the value.

The built by the further question automaton cellular manner a hierarchical Figure ordering of occupancy.I among levels within the cell must between be coordinated the individual into in time cells. 72b 90 . correspond (space of neighboring dimension. is also imaginable built into in three-dimensional (projected into) can and constructively three-dimensional be asked whether space. 72a Fig. applied more-dimensional to the automatons which cells is only /66 modifications. practice with the transmission This of information principle and be is relatively two-dimensional to three- easy to put for Theoret- one-dimensional ically without it can any cellular and automatons. in a symmetrically can be the introduced principle. must be This dimension). to the topological there In addition arrangement a level space dimensions. 72 demonstrates . lAO I Fig.

I

The and

single are not

cells able

can

contain,

for

example,

single numbers.

addition These to the this

steps are divalue of

to accept

several-place cells,

vided

among

several The

neighboring arises

according fact

place sort

principle. arrangement plied major

difficulty nature

in the

that

is of the

of occupancy. automaton,

If the

concept to see

is apthat

to a several-dimensional complications develop. provide

it is easy

Cellular cell contains

automatons a complete 73.

an elegant system,

solution

when

each rep-

/67

calculating These single

as symbolically systems

resented both

in Figure

calculating

contain

information-processing The net automaton cellular

and

information-storing in Figure corresponding cells

elements. develThe here

represented automaton

74 is a further to Figure are 73.

opment

of the

individual for only

responsible processing. the for

information lines and

Branching ual tion cells

B connect both for

individinforma-

serve

transmission The

and

information cells can units,

storage. Fig. according Preliminary of automaton numerical More 74 to the series consist principle by the

individual

of single-place for

adding

valid author

calculating shown that

machines. this type of

investigations is highly

have

successful,

specifically

in the

solution

problems

as well

as in simulation will be the

of physical

processes. paper.

specific

consideration

subject

of another

91

5.

CONCLUSIONS do not result in new, easily underthat the methods sug/68

Even if these observations stood solutions,

it may still be demonstrated

gested have opened several new perspectives ing pursued. automaton critical, Incorporation in physical of the concepts observations

which are worthy of information

of be-

and the

theory

will become

even more discrete

as even more use is made of whole numbers,

states and the like. A relating of different table: QUANTUM PHYSICS CALCULATING SPACE possible conceptualizations is attempt-

ed in the following CLASSICAL PHYSICS

Point mechanics Particles Analog Analysis

Wave mechanics Wave-particle Hybrid Differential tions equa-

Automaton theory Counter algebra Counter state, digital particle Digital Difference equations and logical operations All values discrete have only values

All values ous No limiting

continuvalues

A number of values quantized With the exception of the speed of light, no limiting values Probability relation

Minimum and maximum values for every possible magnitude Limits on calculation accuracy Causality only in the positive time direction, introduction of probability terms possible, but not necessary

Infinitely

accurate

Causality in both time directions

Only static causality, division into probabili ties

92

I

CLASSICAL

PHYSICS

QUANTUM

PHYSICS

CALCULATING

SPACE

Classical mechanics is statistically approximated

Are the limits of probability of quantum physics explainable with determinate space structures? Based on counters it is clear that there /69

Based on formulas In view of the possibilities are several different points listed,

of view possible: space contradict some recognized space iso-

(1) "The ideas of calculating concepts tropy); of present-day therefore,

physics

(for example,

the fundamental

basis must be false." with the

(2) "The laws of calculating object of eliminating

space must be revised

the existing

contradictions."

(3) "The possibilities

arising

from the ideas of calculating that it is worthphysics

space are in themselves while to reconsider

so interesting concepts

those

of traditional

which are called into question ity from new points The author has greatly of view."

and to examine their valid-

enjoyed being

able to discuss this subThe greatest handi-

ject with a few mathematicians cap to cooperation the individual, is certainly

and physicists. the difference

in terms between We hope that this a true

specialized

fields of knowledge.

chasm will be bridged bridge between physics

in time and that through and the automaton theory

cybernetics,

can be built.

Independent

of the possibility

that the idea of calculating determinations, there

space can be directly remains

applied to physical

the major task of providing
93

theoretical

physics with an

/70 in this arthen along the lines suggested has reached a certain maturity. and that we will soon be unof our practical experi- able to evaluate ments? the determinative results In the field of information equivalent amounts on hardware processing we are already In physics spending and software. . The author hopes that the ideas of calculatof adaptation development will be of assistance. still much more limited huge accelerators than the applications of "hardware". The ing space after a period first step would be further aton theory approximately ticle. validity requiring of the general of our basic theoretical danger that the software Is there not a considerable the hardware of physics. It must be stressed confined that the experiments of the author are experimentation to pen and paper experiments. specific When this process goals can be set. With that cost hundreds of million dollars we are able a fundamental hy- to obtain particles reexamination potheses. lags behind of very great energy. Further must be carried out with the help of modern 94 computers. The result is about the same. the ratio in of expenditures chemistry is probably between 1:20 and 1:100. In spite of the use of huge computers the applications of "software" in physics the field of physics.aid in calculating plicated and of finding numerical solutions to very comin are relationships. known Although the laws of electron shells are have been generally for a long time. of the models of the autom. young scientists circumscribed able to explore them only within analytical chemistry. limits in precise.