# Pulse and Digital Circuits Venkata Rao K., Rama Sudha K. and Manmadha Rao G.

Chapter 2
Linear Waveshaping: High-pass Circuits

1. A ramp shown in Fig.2p.1 is applied to a high-pass RC circuit. Draw to scale the
output waveform for the cases: (i) T = RC, (ii) T = 0.2RC, (iii) T = 5RC.

Fig.2p.1 A ramp as input

Solution:
From Eq. (2.64):
v
o
= t o ( )
t /
1
t
e
÷
÷
T
V
= o
v
o
= |
.
|

\
|
T
V
t
( )
t /
1
t
e
÷
÷
The peak of the output will occur at t = T. We know:
v
o(peak)
= |
.
|

\
|
T
V
t
( )
t /
1
T
e
÷
÷
(i) When T =t :
|
.
|

\
|
T
t
= 1
v
o (peak)
= (1) ( )
1
1
÷
÷ e = 0.632 V.

(ii) When T = 0.2t :
|
.
|

\
|
t
T
= 0.2, |
.
|

\
|
T
t
= 5
v
o (peak)
= (5) ( )
2 . 0
1
÷
÷ e = 0.907 V

(iii) When T = 5t :
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Pulse and Digital Circuits Venkata Rao K., Rama Sudha K. and Manmadha Rao G.

|
.
|

\
|
t
T
= 5 |
.
|

\
|
T
t
= 0.2
v
o (peak)
= (0.2) ( )
5
1
÷
÷ e = 0.198 V.

Fig.1 Response of the high-pass circuit for ramp input

2. A waveform shown in Fig.2p.2 is applied as input to an RC high-pass circuit whose
time constant is 250 ps. If the maximum output voltage across the resistor is 50 V, what
is the peak value of the input waveform?

Fig.2p.2 Input to the high-pass RC circuit

Solution:
For a ramp input
6
12
6
12
o
6
1
0.005 10
12
250 10
6
0.005 10
12
250 10
6
( ) (1 )
At 0.005 10
50 250 10 1
0.005 10
1
250 10 1
50 0.005 10
(max) 1000V
t
RC
i
i
i
v t RC e
t t s
v
e
v e
v
o
÷
÷
÷
÷
÷
÷
÷ ×
÷
×
÷
÷ ×
÷
×
÷
= ÷
= = ×
| |
| = × × ÷
|
×
\ .
| |
| = × × ÷
|
× ×
\ .
~

© 2010 Dorling Kindersley India Pvt. Ltd 2
Pulse and Digital Circuits Venkata Rao K., Rama Sudha K. and Manmadha Rao G.

12
6
12
1
250 10
o
1 10
250 10
o
o
For
50
50
0 V
t
t t
v e
v e
v
÷
÷
÷
÷
×
÷ ×
×
>
= ×
= ×
=

3. A limited ramp shown in Fig.2p.3 is applied to an RC high-pass circuit of Fig.2.2 (a).
The time constant of the RC circuit is 2 ms. Calculate the maximum value of output
voltage and the output at the end of the input waveform.

Fig.2p.3 Input to the high-pass circuit

Solution:
For a ramp input
) 1 ( ) (
RC
t
o
e RC t v
÷
÷ =o
At t = t
1
= s 10 4 . 0
3 ÷
×
) 1 ( 10 2
10 4 . 0
10
) (
3
3
10 2
10 4 . 0
3
3
÷
÷
×
× ÷
÷
÷
÷ × ×
×
= e t v
The peak value occurs only at t = t
1
= s 10 4 . 0
3 ÷
×
V 063 . 9 (max) =
o
v
For t > t
1
3
10 2
063 . 9
÷
×
÷
× =
t
o
e v
The voltage at t = 10.4 ms is:
© 2010 Dorling Kindersley India Pvt. Ltd 3
Pulse and Digital Circuits Venkata Rao K., Rama Sudha K. and Manmadha Rao G.

3
3
10 2
10 10
063 . 9
÷
÷
×
× ÷
× = e v
o

V 061 . 0 =
o
v
The voltage at t = 10.4 ms is 0.061 V. The output waveform is shown in Fig.3.

Fig. 3 Output of the high-pass circuit for the given input

4. The periodic waveform shown in Fig.2p.4 is applied to an RC differentiating circuit
whose time constant is 10 µs. Sketch the output and calculate the maximum and
minimum values of the output voltage with respect to the ground.

Fig.2p.4 Periodic square wave as an input to the high-pass circuit

Solution:
Given T
1
=100 s µ , T
2
=1 s µ , τ = 10 s µ
The steady-state output waveform is drawn by calculating V
1
,
'
, V
1
V
2
and
'
2
. V
At
'
o 2 o
0 , and at 0 , t v V t v
÷ +
= = = =
1
V
For
1 o 1
0 ,
t
t T v V e
t
÷
< < =

At t = T
1

For
At
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Pulse and Digital Circuits Venkata Rao K., Rama Sudha K. and Manmadha Rao G.

1
2
2
100
'
10
1 o 1 1 1
1 1 2 o 2
1
'
10
2 o 2 2 2
At , 0
For ( ),
At , 0.904
T
T
T
t T v V V e V e
T t T T v V e
t T v V V e V e V
t
t
t
÷ ÷
÷
÷ ÷
= = = = =
< < + =
= = = = =
2

Peak-to-peak input is 100 V.
100
2
'
1
= ÷V V
0 – V
2
= 100
V
2
= –100 V
100
'
2 1
= ÷V V
V
1
+ = 100 100 904 . 0 ×
V 6 . 9 100 904 . 0 100
1
= × ÷ = V
0 6 . 9
10
100
1
'
1
1
= = =
÷ ÷
e e V V
T
t

V 4 . 90 100 904 . 0 904 . 0
2
10
1
2 2
'
2
2
÷ = ÷ × = = = =
÷ ÷
V e V e V V
T
t

Fig. 4 Output of the high-pass circuit for the specified input

5. The periodic ramp voltage as shown in Fig.2p.5 is applied to a high-pass RC circuit.
Find equations from which to determine the steady-state output waveform when T
1
=T
2
=
RC.

Fig.5 A periodic ramp as input
Solution:

v
o
= t o ( )
t /
1
t
e
÷
÷ (1)
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Pulse and Digital Circuits Venkata Rao K., Rama Sudha K. and Manmadha Rao G.

If there is an initial voltage of V
1
on C, Eq.(1) gets modified as follows:

v
o
= t o ( )
t t t t
e V e
÷ ÷
+ ÷
1
/
1
For the ramp input, the slope o =
1
T
V
.
The capacitor charges from V
1
to V
2
in time T
1
. At t = T
1
+, the capacitor does not
respond for sudden changes. Hence, the output changes to (V
2
– V). During T
2,
the
capacitor blocks the dc. So the capacitor discharges from V
3
to V
1
.
Given T
1
= T
2
= t
At t = T
1
=
o
( ) v t
2
V
Using (1)
2
V =
1
1
T
T
V
× (2)
1 1
367 . 0 632 . 0 ) 1 ( V V e V e + = + ÷
1 1 ÷ ÷
)
o 1
( v T + =V
2
–V
1
1 1
) 1 367 . 0 632 . 0 ( ) (
2
÷
÷
÷ + = ÷ = e V V e V V V
r
T

135 . 0 ) 134 . 0 1 (
1
÷ = ÷ = V
V V 156 . 0
864 . 0
135 . 0
1
÷ =
÷
=
2
V = V V V V V 575 . 0 156 . 0 367 . 0 632 . 0 367 . 0 632 . 0
1
= ÷ × + = + =
o 1
( v T +) =V
2
–V = 0.575V – V = –0.425V

© 2010 Dorling Kindersley India Pvt. Ltd 6
Pulse and Digital Circuits Venkata Rao K., Rama Sudha K. and Manmadha Rao G.

Fig. 5 The changes in voltage with time

6. A square wave of pulse width 2 ms and peak amplitude of 12 V as shown in Fig.2p.6 is
applied to high-pass RC circuit with time constant 4 ms. Plot the first four cycles of the
output waveform.
T/2 = 2 ms
Fig.2p.6 Symmetric square wave as an input

Solution:
Given T
1
= T
2
= 0.2 ms, τ = 4 ms
(i) For t <0, = 0, and hence = 0
i
v
o
v
At t = 0, jumps to 12 V
i
v
As the voltage across capacitor cannot change instantaneously, is also equal to 12 V.
o
v
At t = 0, = = 12 V.
o
v
a
V
(ii) During the period 0 < t < 2.0 ms, as the input is constant the output decays.
o
v =
t
t
a
e V
÷

At t = 2.0 ms, = =
o
v
b
V
t
t
a
e V
÷
= 12
4
2 ÷
e = 7.27 V
At t = 2 ms, the input falls by 12 V. The output also falls by 12 V.
= – 12 = 7.27 – 12 = –4.73 V
c
V
b
V
(iii) For 2.0 < t < 4.0 =
o
v
t
) 2 / ( T t
c
e V
÷ ÷

At t = T=4 ms, = =
o
v
d
V
5 . 0
4
2
73 . 4
÷
÷
÷ = e e V
c

= –2.86 V
At t = 4 ms, the input rises by 12 V. The output also rises by 12 V.
e
V = + 100 = –2.86 + 12 = 9.14 V
d
V
(iv) During the period T < t < 3T/2, that is between 4 to 6 ms, the output decays.

At t = 6 ms = =
o
v
f
V
4
2 ÷
e V
e
= 9.14(0.606) = 5.53 V
At 6 ms, the input falls by 12 V.
Hence
g
V

= – 12 = –6.47 V
f
V
(v) During 3T/2 < t < 2T, that is, during 6 to 8 ms, the output decays.
At t = 2T=8 ms,

o
v =
h
V

=
4
2 ÷
e V
g
= –6.47 = –3.92 V.
5 . 0 ÷
e
j
V = V + 100 V = –3.92 + 12 = 8.08 V.
h
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Pulse and Digital Circuits Venkata Rao K., Rama Sudha K. and Manmadha Rao G.

Fig.6 The output waveform

7. A 20-Hz symmetric square wave referenced to 0 volts and, with a peak-to-peak
amplitude of 10 V, is fed to an amplifier through the coupling network shown in Fig.
2p.7. Calculate and plot the output waveform when the lower 3-dB frequency is: (i) 0.6
Hz, (ii) 6 Hz and (iii) 60 Hz.

Fig.2p.7 The given coupling network
Solution:
Given V = 10 V
(i) f
1
= 0.6 Hz
= RC =
1
1 1
0.265 s
2 2 (0.6) f t t
= = t
T =
f
1
=
20
1
= 0.05 s.

2
T
= 0.025 s.
V
1
=
t 2 /
1
T
e
V
÷
+
=
265 . 0 / 025 . 0
1
10
÷
+ e
= 5.25 V.
'
1
V

= V
1
t 2
T
e
÷

=
265 . 0
025 . 0
25 . 5
÷
e
= 5.25(0.91) = 4.8 V.
© 2010 Dorling Kindersley India Pvt. Ltd 8
Pulse and Digital Circuits Venkata Rao K., Rama Sudha K. and Manmadha Rao G.

V
1
= –V
2
and
'
1
V
= '

2
V ÷
V
1
= |V
2
| = 5.25 V
'
1
V = | | = 4.8 V
'
2
V
The output in this case is plotted in Fig.7.1.

Fig.7.1Output when f
1
= 0.6 Hz
(ii) f
1
= 6 Hz
= RC =
1
1 1
0.0265 s
2 2 (6) f t t
= = t
V
1
=
t 2 /
1
T
e
V
÷
+
=
0265 . 0 / 025 . 0
1
10
÷
+ e
= 7.20 V
'
1
V

= V
1
t 2
T
e
÷

=
0265 . 0
025 . 0
20 . 7
÷
e
= 7.20(0.389) = 2.8 V.
V
1
= –V
2
and
'
1
V
= '
2
V ÷
V
1
= |V
2
| =7.20 V
'
1
V = | | = 2.8 V
'
2
V
The output for this condition is plotted in Fig.7.2.
© 2010 Dorling Kindersley India Pvt. Ltd 9
Pulse and Digital Circuits Venkata Rao K., Rama Sudha K. and Manmadha Rao G.

Fig.7.2 Output when f
1
= 6 Hz
(iii) f
1
= 60 Hz
= RC =
1
1 1
0.00265 s
2 2 (60) f t t
= = t
V
1
=
t 2 /
1
T
e
V
÷
+
=
00265 . 0 / 025 . 0
1
2
÷
+ e
=10.0 V
'
1
V

= V
1
t 2
T
e
÷

=10(0.00008) = 0.0008 V.
V
1
= –V
2
and
'
1
V
= '
2
V ÷
V
1
= |V
2
| =10.00 V
'
1
V = | | =0.0008 V
'
2
V
The output for this case is plotted in Fig.7.3..
© 2010 Dorling Kindersley India Pvt. Ltd 10
Pulse and Digital Circuits Venkata Rao K., Rama Sudha K. and Manmadha Rao G.

Fig.7.3 Output when f
1
= 60 Hz

8. A square wave is applied as input to an amplifier through a coupling condenser of
10 F µ . The amplifier has input resistance of 10kΩ. Determine the lowest frequency if
the tilt is not to exceed 10 per cent.

Solution:
We have P = 0.1, R = 10 kΩ and C = 10 F µ
Per cent tilt, P = 100 per cent
2
T
t
×
3 6
1 1
50 Hz
2 2 10 10 10 10 0.1
f
P t
÷
= = =
× × × × ×

P =
f
f
1
t
×100 per cent

1
0.1 50
1.59 Hz
Pf
f
t t
×
= = =

9. A pulse of 10 V amplitude and duration 1 ms is applied to a high-pass RC circuit with
R = 20 O k and C = 0.5 F µ . Plot the output waveform to scale and calculate the per cent
tilt in the output.

Solution:
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Pulse and Digital Circuits Venkata Rao K., Rama Sudha K. and Manmadha Rao G.

τ = RC = 10 ms
For 0< t < t
p

i
v =10 V
o
v =10 e
3
10 10
÷
× ÷ t
At t = t
p–
, =
o
v 05 . 9 10
3
10 10
3
10 1
'
1
= =
÷
×
÷
× ÷
e V V

At t = t
p+,
o
v = V
2
=
'
– V = 9.05 – 10 = –0.95 V
1
V
For t > t
p,
o
v = –0.95 e
( )
3
3
10 10
10 1
÷
÷
×
× ÷ ÷ t

'
1
10 9.05
per cent tilt 100 100 9.5 per cent
10
V V
V
÷ ÷
= × = × =

Fig. 9 The output waveform

10. The input to the high-pass circuit in Fig. 2p.10 is the waveform shown in Fig. 2p.10.
Calculate and plot the output waveform to scale, given that RC = τ = 0.1 ms .

.
Fig.2p.10 Input to the high-pass circuit

Solution:
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Pulse and Digital Circuits Venkata Rao K., Rama Sudha K. and Manmadha Rao G.

For t < 0.1 ms = 0, = 0
) At t = 0.1 ms, the input suddenly falls to –5 V, and the output also changes by the
re, decays exponentially with the
i) At t = 0.2 ms,

i
v
o
v

(i
same amount as the capacitor acts as a short circuit.
For 0.1 < t <0.2,
i
v remains constant at –5 V. Therefo
o
v
time constant 0.1 ms.

(i
3
3
0.1 10
0.1 10
÷
÷
÷ ×
×
o
5 1.839 v e = ÷ = ÷ V
At t = 0.2 ms, the input suddenly rises by 15 V, also rises by the same amount.
Fo V. Hence decays exponentially with the time
ii) At t = 0.3 ms
o
v
o
v (t = 0.2 ms) = –1.839 + 15 = 13.16 V
r 0.2 ms < t < 0.3 ms,
i
v remains at 10
o
v
constant 0.1 ms

(i
3
3
0.1 10
0.1 10
÷
÷
×
÷
×
o
13.16 4.84 V v e = =
At t = 0.3 ms, input suddenly falls by 20 V. The output also changes by the same amount.
Fo stant at –10 V. Hence, will decay exponentially

v) At t = 0.4 ms,
o
v (t = 0.3 ms) = 4.84 – 20 = –15.16 V
r 0.3 ms < t < 0.4 ms,
i
v remains con
o
v
with the time constant 0.1 ms.

(i
3
3
0.1 10
0.1 10
÷
÷
×
÷
×
= ÷
o
15.16 5.58 V v e = ÷ V

© 2010 Dorling Kindersley India Pvt. Ltd 13
Pulse and Digital Circuits Venkata Rao K., Rama Sudha K. and Manmadha Rao G.

Fig.10 The output waveform

11. A pulse of 10-V amplitude with a pulse width of 0.5 ms, as shown in Fig.2p.9, is
applied to a high-pass RC circuit of Fig. 2.1(a), having time constant 10 ms. Sketch the
output waveform and determine the per cent tilt in the output.

Solution:
10 ms t =
For, 0< t < t
p

=10 V
=10 e
i
v
o
v
3
10 10
÷
× ÷ t
At t = t
p-
, =
o
v
3
3
0.5 10
'
10 10
1
10 9.512 V V e
÷
÷
÷ ×
×
= =

At t = t
p+
= V
2
= –V = 9.512 – 10 = –0.488V
or t > t
p
= –0.488 e
,
o
v
'
1
V
,
o
v
( )
3
10 5 . 0
÷
× ÷ ÷ t
F
3
10 10
÷
×

'
10 9.512 V V ÷ ÷
1
per cent tilt 100 100 4.88 per cent
10 V
= × = × =
The output is also shown in Fig. 2p.9.

Fig.2p.9 Input and output of the high-pass circuit

12. A high-pass RC circuit is desired to pass a 3-ms sweep (ramp input) with less than 0.4
per cent transmission error. Calculate the highest possible value of the lower 3-dB

Solution:
Consider the circuit in Fig. 2.1(a).
T = 3 10
-3
s
per cent e
t(max)
=0.4 per cent or e
t(max)
= 0.004

frequency.
×
© 2010 Dorling Kindersley India Pvt. Ltd 14
Pulse and Digital Circuits Venkata Rao K., Rama Sudha K. and Manmadha Rao G.

1
3
1
1 3
2
0.004 3 10
0.004
0.4244 Hz
3 10
t
T
e f T
f
f
t
t
t
t
÷
÷
= =
= × ×
= =
× ×

13. A symmetric square wave with f = 500 kHz shown
in Fig.2p.13 is fed to an RC high-pass network of
Fig.2.1(a). Calculate and plot the transient and the
steady-state response if: (i) τ = 5T and (ii) τ = T/20.

Fig.2p.13 Input to the coupling network

o

ase 1:
iven, τ = 5T =10 ms.
When τ is large, the capacitor charges and discharges very slowly. The output has a
small tilt. The voltages are calculated to plot the transient response.
i. For t < 0, = 0, and hence = 0
At t = 0, jumps to 150 V.
As the voltage across capacitor canno .
ii. During the period 0 < t < 1.0 ms, as the input is constant the output decays.
=
Soluti n:
Given f = 500 Hz, hence T = 2.0 ms.
C
G
i
v
o
v
i
v
t change instantaneously,
o
v is also equal to 150 V
At t = 0
o
v =
a
V = 150 V.

o
v
t
t
a
e V
÷

At t = 1.0 ms, = =
o
v
b
V
t
t
a
e V
÷
= 150
10
1 ÷
e = 135.72 V.
At t = 1.0 ms, the input falls by 100 V. The output also falls by 100 V.
= – 100 = 135.72 – 100 = 35.72 V.
iii. For 1.0 < t < 2.0, =

c
V
b
V

o
v
t
) 2 / ( T t
c
e V
÷ ÷

At t = T = 2 ms, = =
o
v
d
V
1 . 0 10
0 . 1
72 . 35
c
÷
÷
= e e V

= 32.32 V.
At t = 2 ms, the input rises by 100 V. The output also rises by 100 V.
00 = 32.32 + 100 = 132.32 V.
e
V =
d
V + 1
© 2010 Dorling Kindersley India Pvt. Ltd 15
Pulse and Digital Circuits Venkata Rao K., Rama Sudha K. and Manmadha Rao G.

iv. During the period T < t < 3T/2, that is, between 2 to 3 ms, the output decays.

10
0 . 1 ÷
e At t = 3 ms
o
v =
f
V = V
e
= 132.32 (0.9048) = 119.73 V.
/2 , d 3 to 4 ms, the output decays.
At 3 ms, the input falls by 100 V. Hence
V
g f
v. During 3T < t < 2T, that is uring
= V – 100 = 19.73 V
At t = 2T= 4 ms,
o
v

=
h
V

=
10
e V
g
= 19.73
1 . 0 ÷
e =17.85 V.
0 . 1 ÷
utput is symmetrical with respect to zero volts, since the
capacitor blocks dc. Therefore, the dc component in the output is zero.
ol e = 0
j
V =
h
V + 100 V = 17.85+100=117.85 V.
In a few cycles, the output reaches the steady state.
Let V
1
be the v tag at t
For 0 < t < T/2, v =
t
t
e V
÷

o 1
At t = T/2=1 ms, =
'
=
1 . 0 ÷
e V = 0.905
o
v
1
V
1 1
V
'
1
V = 0.905
1
V (3)
As the input abruptly falls, output also falls by th nt to V
2
. e same amou
For T/2 < t < T
o
v =
t
2
e V
) 2 / T ÷(t ÷
At T,
=

d = 100 V (6)
h
Substitu 0 V (9)
= (0.905)(52.49)= 47.50 V
an =
t = v
o 2 2 2
'
V 0.905 V (4)
=
'
V
=
1 . 0 ÷
e V
=
0.905 V
2 2
For symmetrical wave

'
1
V

=
'
2
V ÷ and
1
V =
2
V ÷ (5)
'
V ÷ = 100 V an
1 2
From (6), we have
'
V V ÷ = 100 V (7)
V
1
V
'
2
V ÷
1 2
And from (3), we ave = (8)
1
V
2
V ÷
ting (8) in (7), we have
'
1
V +
1
V = 10
From (3), we have
'
V = 0.905
1
V
1
Substituting in (9)
0.905
1
V +
1
V = 100 V
1.905
1
V = 100 V.

1
V =52.49 V and
1
V = 0.905
'

'
1
V
From (5) as
1
V

=
2
V d
1
V
2
'
÷ V ÷
= –52.49 V = –47.50 V
'
2
V
2
V
We can now plot the steady-state response as we know
V = 52.49 V
'
V = 47.50 V
1 1
© 2010 Dorling Kindersley India Pvt. Ltd 16
Pulse and Digital Circuits Venkata Rao K., Rama Sudha K. and Manmadha Rao G.

2
V = –52.49 V
2
ien
= –47.50 V
ses are plotted in Figs.13.1 and
'
V
The trans t and steady-state respon
13.2.

Fi .1 g.13 Transient response

Case 2:
For very low time constant, i.e. when τ = T/20 = 0.1 ms.
Since the time constant is very small, the capacitor charges and discharges very fast.
The input and output are shown in Fig.13.3.
© 2010 Dorling Kindersley India Pvt. Ltd 17
Pulse and Digital Circuits Venkata Rao K., Rama Sudha K. and Manmadha Rao G.

Fig.13.3 Output for the given input when time constant is very small

14. A current pulse of amplitude 5 A in Fig.2p.11 is applied to a parallel RC combination
shown in Fig.2p.12. Plot to scale the waveforms of the current flowing through capacitor
for the cases: (i) t
p
=0.1RC, (ii) t
p
= RC, (iii) t
p
= 5RC

Fig.2p.11The given input to the circuit

Fig. 2p.12 The given circuit
Solution:
Till t = t
p
, using Laplace transforms, the circuit can be drawn as in Fig.14.1.
© 2010 Dorling Kindersley India Pvt. Ltd 18
Pulse and Digital Circuits Venkata Rao K., Rama Sudha K. and Manmadha Rao G.

Fig.14.1 Circuit in terms of Laplace transforms
Applying KCL, we have
Laplace inverse, the charging current is

Taking

( )
5
5RCs 5
( )
1 1 RCs 1
C
s
I s R
s
R s
Cs RC
= =
+ | |
+ +
|
\ .
=
RC
t
C
e t i
÷
= 5 ) (
At t = t , the current suddenly falls from 5 A to 0. The voltage across the capacitor at t =
t
p
is
herefore for t ≥ t
p,

p
R t i
p C
)] ( 5 [ ÷
T
[5
( )
( )] [5 ( )]
Taking Laplaceinverse ( ) [5 ( )]
( )
1 1
( ) ( )
p
C p C p
- t -t
RC
C C p
i t R i t
Cs RC
i t i t e
÷ ÷
= ÷ ÷

The circuit that represents the discharge of the condenser

is presented in Fig.14.2.
C
I s
s R s
= ÷ = ÷
+ +

Fig.14.2 Circuit that indicates the disc
Case 1:
For 0 < t < t
lly,
For t > t
p
, i
C
rises exponentially as

harge of the condenser
p

RC
t
C
e t i
÷
= 5 ) (
i
C
decays exponentia

0.1
at , ( ) 5 4.524 A
RC
RC
p C p
t t i t e
÷
= = × =
© 2010 Dorling Kindersley India Pvt. Ltd 19
Pulse and Digital Circuits Venkata Rao K., Rama Sudha K. and Manmadha Rao G.

i
C
= – )] ( 5 [
p C
t i ÷
RC
t t
p
) ( ÷ ÷
e = –0.4758
( )
RC
t t
p
÷
÷
e

Case 2:
For 0 < t < t
p

i
C
decays exponentially,

i
C
decays exponentially as
RC
t
C
e t i
÷
= 5 ) (
1
at , ( ) 5 5 1.839 A
RC
RC
p c
t t I t e e
÷
÷
= = = =
p

For t > t
p

( )
RC
t t
p
e
÷
÷
= –3.16
( )
RC
t t
p
e
÷
÷
[5 ( )]
C p
I t ÷ ÷

Case 3:
For 0 < t < t
p

i
C
decays exponentially,

For t > t
p
i
C
rises exponentially as
RC
t
C
e t i
÷
= 5 ) (

( )
RC
t t
p C
t i ÷ ( 5 [
p
e
÷
÷
)] = –4.966
( )
RC
t t
p
e
÷
÷

The input and outputs are plotted in Fig.14.3.
5RC ÷
5
t , ( ) 5 5 0.0336 A
RC
p c p
t t I t e e
÷
= = × = = a
© 2010 Dorling Kindersley India Pvt. Ltd 20
Pulse and Digital Circuits Venkata Rao K., Rama Sudha K. and Manmadha Rao G.

Fig.14.3 Input and outputs for the given circuit

15. Draw the output waveform if the waveform shown in Fig.2p.15(a) is applied at the
input of the RC circuit shown in Fig.2p.15(b).
© 2010 Dorling Kindersley India Pvt. Ltd 21
Pulse and Digital Circuits Venkata Rao K., Rama Sudha K. and Manmadha Rao G.

Fig.2p.15(a) The input to the high-pass circuit in Fig.2p.15(a)

Fig.2p.15(b) The given high-pass circuit
Solution:

9
9
Timeconstatnt 100 10 10
1000 10
RC
s
÷
÷
= = × ×
= ×

Time period of input waveform is
T = 4 ms
Since RC<<T, the RC circuit acts as a good differentiator.
The expression for output is
9
o
1000 10
i i
dv dv
v RC
dt dt
÷
= = × ×
3
100
For 0 2 ms, ,
2 10
i
t v
÷
< < =
×
t
9 9
o 3 3
100 100
1000 10 1000 10 50 mV
2 10 2 10
d
v t
dt
÷ ÷
÷ ÷
= × × = × × =
× ×

o
v remains at 50 mV. At t =2 ms, falls by 100 V. Since capacitor acts as a short
circuit, v
i
v
o
also falls by the same amount.
(t = 2 ms) = 0.05 – 100 = –99.95 V
o
v
© 2010 Dorling Kindersley India Pvt. Ltd 22
Pulse and Digital Circuits Venkata Rao K., Rama Sudha K. and Manmadha Rao G.

© 2010 Dorling Kindersley India Pvt. Ltd 23
For 2 < t < 4 ms, ) 10 2 (
10 2
100
3
3
÷
÷
× ÷
×
= t v
i

9 3
o
3
9
3
100
1000 10 ( 2 10 )
2 10
( 100)
1000 10 50 mV
2 10
d
v t
dt
÷ ÷
÷
÷
÷
÷ | |
= × ÷ ×
|
×
\ .
÷
= × × = ÷
×

The output waveform is shown in Fig. 15..

Fig.15 Output of the high-pass circuit

Pulse and Digital Circuits

Venkata Rao K., Rama Sudha K. and Manmadha Rao G.

T    =5   v o (peak) = (0.2)

    = 0.2 T  1  e 5 = 0.198 V.

Fig.1

Response of the high-pass circuit for ramp input

2. A waveform shown in Fig.2p.2 is applied as input to an RC high-pass circuit whose time constant is 250 ps. If the maximum output voltage across the resistor is 50 V, what is the peak value of the input waveform?

Fig.2p.2 Solution: For a ramp input
vo (t )   RC (1  e
t RC

Input to the high-pass RC circuit

)
6

At t  t1  0.005  106 s
0.00510  vi 12 12 50   250 10 1  e 25010 6  0.005  10 

   
6

0.00510  1 12 12  250  10  1  e 25010 vi  6  50  0.005  10 

   

vi (max)  1000V

© 2010 Dorling Kindersley India Pvt. Ltd

2

For t  t1 vo  50  e t 2501012 1106 vo  50  e 25010 vo  0 V 12 3. Ltd 3 .410 3 At t = t 1 = 0. Fig.2p.2.3 is applied to an RC high-pass circuit of Fig.Pulse and Digital Circuits Venkata Rao K..4 10 3 s 10 3 v(t )   2  10 3 (1  e 210 ) 3 0.3 Input to the high-pass circuit Solution: For a ramp input vo (t )  RC (1  e t RC ) 0. Rama Sudha K. The time constant of the RC circuit is 2 ms.4 ms is: 3 t © 2010 Dorling Kindersley India Pvt.2p. and Manmadha Rao G.2 (a).4  10 The peak value occurs only at t = t 1 = 0. A limited ramp shown in Fig.4  10 3 s  vo (max)  9. Calculate the maximum value of output voltage and the output at the end of the input waveform.063 V For t > t 1 vo  9.063  e 210 The voltage at t = 10.

4 Periodic square wave as an input to the high-pass circuit Solution: Given T 1 = 100  s .063  e 1010 3 210  3  vo  0.4 ms is 0.061 V.Pulse and Digital Circuits Venkata Rao K. Rama Sudha K. vo  9. vo  V1 t For 0  t  T1 . V 2 and V2' . Fig.4 is applied to an RC differentiating circuit whose time constant is 10 µs. Fig. T 2 = 1  s .061 V The voltage at t = 10. τ = 10 s The steady-state output waveform is drawn by calculating V 1 . At t  0 . Ltd 4 . vo  V1 e  At t = T 1 For At © 2010 Dorling Kindersley India Pvt. Sketch the output and calculate the maximum and minimum values of the output voltage with respect to the ground. The output waveform is shown in Fig. 3 Output of the high-pass circuit for the given input 4. The periodic waveform shown in Fig..2p.3. V1' . vo  V2' and at t  0 . and Manmadha Rao G.2p.

904  100  90.Pulse and Digital Circuits Venkata Rao K. and Manmadha Rao G.5 is applied to a high-pass RC circuit. The periodic ramp voltage as shown in Fig. Ltd 5 . At For At t  T1 . Rama Sudha K.904 V2  0.904 100  9.904 V 2 Peak-to-peak input is 100 V.6 V V1'  V1e V2'  V2 e T1  T2  9. v o  V1  V1 e '  T1   V1 e  100 10 0 T1  t  (T1  T2 ). 4 Output of the high-pass circuit for the specified input 5. Fig. Find equations from which to determine the steady-state output waveform when T 1 =T 2 = RC. vo  V2 e  T2  T2  1 v o  V 2'  V 2 e   V 2 e 10  0.2p. V1' V2  100 0 – V 2 = 100 V 2 = –100 V V1  V2'  100 V 1 + 0.5 A periodic ramp as input Solution: v o =   1  e t /    (1) © 2010 Dorling Kindersley India Pvt.. t  T2 .904  100 = 100 V1  100  0.4 V Fig.6e 100 10 0 1   V2 e 10  0.

Given T 1 = T 2 =  At t = T 1 vo (t ) = V2 Using (1) V2 = V  T1 (1  e  1 )  V 1 e  1  0 .632V  0.632V  0. and Manmadha Rao G. Rama Sudha K. At t = T 1 +. the capacitor does not respond for sudden changes.575V – V = –0.135 V1   0..864 V2 =  0. 367 V 1 T1 (2) vo (T1  ) =V 2 –V V1  (V  V )e T2 r  (0.425V © 2010 Dorling Kindersley India Pvt.367V1  0. the slope  = V . So the capacitor discharges from V 3 to V 1 . the capacitor blocks the dc.156V 0. Hence. During T 2.575V vo (T1 ) =V 2 –V = 0.367V1  1)e 1 V1  (1  0.632V  0. Ltd 6 .135  0. If there is an initial voltage of V 1 on C. 632 V  0 . T1 The capacitor charges from V 1 to V 2 in time T 1 .134)  0.(1) gets modified as follows: v o =   1  e t /    V1e t  For the ramp input. the output changes to (V 2 – V). Eq.156V  0.367  0.Pulse and Digital Circuits Venkata Rao K.

vo = Vh = V g e 2 4 = –6.5 = –2. vo is also equal to 12 V.92 + 12 = 8. the output decays.0 vo = Vc e  2 4  At t = T=4 ms. t vo = Va e  t At t = 2. τ = 4 ms (i) For t <0. Fig. Plot the first four cycles of the output waveform.6 Symmetric square wave as an input Solution: Given T 1 = T 2 = 0. At t = 0. vo = Vb = Va e = 12 e = 7. A square wave of pulse width 2 ms and peak amplitude of 12 V as shown in Fig. vi jumps to 12 V As the voltage across capacitor cannot change instantaneously. 5 The changes in voltage with time 6.0 < t < 4.47 V (v) During 3T/2 < t < 2T.86 V At t = 4 ms.14 V (iv) During the period T < t < 3T/2. and Manmadha Rao G. T/2 = 2 ms Fig. Ltd 7 . Rama Sudha K.5 = –3. the input falls by 12 V. (ii) During the period 0 < t < 2.86 + 12 = 9.27 – 12 = –4. that is between 4 to 6 ms. The output also falls by 12 V. Hence V g = V f – 12 = –6.0 ms. Ve = Vd + 100 = –2. Vc = Vb – 12 = 7. as the input is constant the output decays. © 2010 Dorling Kindersley India Pvt. during 6 to 8 ms. that is.2 ms. vo = Vd = Vc e  4.6 is applied to high-pass RC circuit with time constant 4 ms.73 V  ( t T / 2 )  2 4 (iii) For 2.2p. 2 At t = 6 ms vo = V f = Ve e 4 = 9. the input rises by 12 V. the input falls by 12 V.27 V At t = 2 ms.Pulse and Digital Circuits Venkata Rao K.. vi = 0. The output also rises by 12 V.2p.47 e 0.0 ms. V j = Vh + 100 V = –3. vo = Va = 12 V.73e 0. At t = 2T=8 ms.08 V.53 V At 6 ms. and hence vo = 0 At t = 0. the output decays.92 V.606) = 5.14(0.

91) = 4.25(0.05 s.6 Hz. T / 2  0. Fig. Calculate and plot the output waveform when the lower 3-dB frequency is: (i) 0. Ltd 8 . f 20  T = 0.265 1 e 1 e T 0. Fig.265 s 2 (0. Rama Sudha K.25e 0.025 s.6) T= 1 = 1 = 0. © 2010 Dorling Kindersley India Pvt.025 V1 = V1' = V 1 e 2 = 5.025 / 0.25 V.. 2 V 10 = = 5.6 The output waveform 7.Pulse and Digital Circuits Venkata Rao K.8 V.7. is fed to an amplifier through the coupling network shown in Fig.2p. and Manmadha Rao G. 2p. (ii) 6 Hz and (iii) 60 Hz. with a peak-to-peak amplitude of 10 V.6 Hz  = RC = 1 2 f1  1  0. A 20-Hz symmetric square wave referenced to 0 volts and.7 The given coupling network Solution: Given V = 10 V (i) f 1 = 0.265 = 5.

8 V =  V2' The output in this case is plotted in Fig.20(0.7.7.8 V. Rama Sudha K.20 V T / 2  0.0265 = 7. © 2010 Dorling Kindersley India Pvt.25 V V1' =  V2'  = 4.6 Hz (ii) f 1 = 6 Hz  = RC = 1 2 f1  1  0..025 / 0.7.0265 s 2 (6) V1 = 10 V = = 7.  V 1 = –V 2 and V1' =  V2' V 1 = V 2  =7.8 V The output for this condition is plotted in Fig.20 V V1' =  V2'  = 2.1Output when f 1 = 0.0265 1 e 1 e T 0.025 V1' = V 1 e 2 = 7.2.1. and Manmadha Rao G.  V 1 = –V 2 and V1' V 1 = V 2  = 5.20e 0. Fig.389) = 2. Ltd 9 .Pulse and Digital Circuits Venkata Rao K.

.2 Output when f 1 = 6 Hz (iii) f 1 = 60 Hz  = RC = 1 2 f1  1  0. © 2010 Dorling Kindersley India Pvt.00265 s 2 (60) V1 = V 2 = =10.00 V V1' =  V2'  =0.3.  V 1 = –V 2 and V1' =  V2' V 1 = V 2  =10. Rama Sudha K. and Manmadha Rao G.00265 1 e 1 e T V1' = V 1 e 2 =10(0. Fig.0 V T / 2  0.7.0008 V.0008 V The output for this case is plotted in Fig.00008) = 0.7.Pulse and Digital Circuits Venkata Rao K. Ltd 10 .025 / 0..

Solution: We have P = 0. Plot the output waveform to scale and calculate the per cent tilt in the output. P = 2 1 1 f    50 Hz 3 2 P 2  10  10  10  106  0.1 f P = 1  100 per cent f Pf 0.Pulse and Digital Circuits Venkata Rao K.1  50 f1    1.5 F . Fig. Rama Sudha K. A pulse of 10 V amplitude and duration 1 ms is applied to a high-pass RC circuit with R = 20 k and C = 0. R = 10 kΩ and C = 10 F T  100 per cent Per cent tilt. Ltd 11 .3 Output when f 1 = 60 Hz 8.1..59 Hz   9. Solution: © 2010 Dorling Kindersley India Pvt. Determine the lowest frequency if the tilt is not to exceed 10 per cent.7. A square wave is applied as input to an amplifier through a coupling condenser of 10  F . The amplifier has input resistance of 10 kΩ . and Manmadha Rao G.

05  100   100  9. 2p.10.Pulse and Digital Circuits Venkata Rao K.05 – 10 = –0. 2p.. Fig.95 V For t > t p. given that RC = τ = 0.5 per cent V 10 Fig. . Calculate and plot the output waveform to scale. vo = V 2 = V1' – V = 9.1 ms . τ = RC = 10 ms For 0< t < t p vi =10 V 3 v =10 e  t 10  10 o At t = t p– . 9 The output waveform 10. vo = V1'  10e 110 3 1010  3  9.10 is the waveform shown in Fig.10 Input to the high-pass circuit Solution: © 2010 Dorling Kindersley India Pvt. and Manmadha Rao G. Rama Sudha K.05 V At t = t p+. Ltd 12 . The input to the high-pass circuit in Fig.95 e  per cent tilt   t 110 3   1010  3 V  V1' 10  9. vo = –0.2p.

1 ms.2 ms < t < 0.16 e 0. vo also rises by the same amount. vi remains at 10 V. Rama Sudha K.1103 (iv) At t = 0.1 ms vi = 0.16 V For 0. 0. vo (t = 0. vo  15.58 V V © 2010 Dorling Kindersley India Pvt.1 ms 3 (iii) At t = 0.2 ms. and the output also changes by the same amount as the capacitor acts as a short circuit.3 ms.1 ms.84 V At t = 0.839 V At t = 0.2 ms) = –1. vi remains constant at –10 V.1103 vo  5e 0.1 < t <0. The output also changes by the same amount. and Manmadha Rao G.3 ms) = 4.4 ms.110  1.. input suddenly falls by 20 V. Ltd 13 . vo = 0 (i) At t = 0.2 ms.1103 0.1 ms.3 ms < t < 0.2. For 0.110  4. For t < 0.3 ms vo  13. (ii) At t = 0. vo (t = 0. vi remains constant at –5 V.3 ms. vo decays exponentially with the time constant 0.4 ms. 3  0.1103  5.Pulse and Digital Circuits Venkata Rao K. Therefore.839 + 15 = 13.84 – 20 = –15. Hence. the input suddenly rises by 15 V. vo will decay exponentially with the time constant 0. the input suddenly falls to –5 V. Hence vo decays exponentially with the time constant 0.16 V For 0.16 e  0.

9 Input and output of the high-pass circuit 12.512 V At t = t p+. 0< t < t p vi =10 V 3 v =10 e  t 10  10 o At t = t p.488 e  per cent tilt   t  0.2p. Fig. Rama Sudha K. A high-pass RC circuit is desired to pass a 3-ms sweep (ramp input) with less than 0.004 © 2010 Dorling Kindersley India Pvt.4 per cent or e t(max) = 0. as shown in Fig.10 The output waveform 11.5103 10103  9.512 – 10 = –0.488V For t > t p.9..Pulse and Digital Circuits Venkata Rao K. Solution: Consider the circuit in Fig. having time constant 10 ms. Fig.. Calculate the highest possible value of the lower 3-dB frequency.5 ms. 2.512 100  100  4.88 per cent V 10 The output is also shown in Fig.4 per cent transmission error. 2p. vo = V1'  10e 0. vo = V 2 = V1' –V = 9. Solution:   10 ms For.9.1(a).510 3   1010  3 V  V1' 10  9.2p. and Manmadha Rao G. is applied to a high-pass RC circuit of Fig. vo = –0. Sketch the output waveform and determine the per cent tilt in the output. A pulse of 10-V amplitude with a pulse width of 0. 2.1(a). Ltd 14 . T = 3  10-3 s per cent e t(max) =0.

vo = Vc e  1. vo is also equal to 150 V. hence T = 2. © 2010 Dorling Kindersley India Pvt.2. vo = Vd = Vc e  35.72e 0.13 is fed to an RC high-pass network of   3  10 3 Fig. During the period 0 < t < 1.0 ms. For t < 0.1(a).0 < t < 2. τ = 5T =10 ms.0 ms. the capacitor charges and discharges very slowly. Ve = Vd + 100 = 32.4244 Hz in Fig. vo = Vb = Va e = 150 e = 135.2p. vi = 0. T   f1T 2 0. As the voltage across capacitor cannot change instantaneously.2p. the input rises by 100 V. ii. Rama Sudha K. Case 1: Given. The output also rises by 100 V.72 V. Calculate and plot the transient and the steady-state response if: (i) τ = 5T and (ii) τ = T/20.0.32 V.. The output has a small tilt.0 ms. For 1.32 + 100 = 132. The voltages are calculated to plot the transient response. as the input is constant the output decays. At t = 0 vo = Va = 150 V. and hence vo = 0 At t = 0. 13. i. The output also falls by 100 V. At t = 2 ms. vi jumps to 150 V. A symmetric square wave with f = 500 kHz shown 0.72 V. Ltd 15 . At t = 1. the input falls by 100 V. When τ is large.32 V.13 Input to the coupling network Solution: Given f = 500 Hz.0 ms.Pulse and Digital Circuits Venkata Rao K.  ( t T / 2 )  1 10 iii.1 = 32. Vc = Vb – 100 = 135.004   f1  3  10 3 et  Fig.004  f1   0. t vo = Va e  t At t = 1. and Manmadha Rao G.72 – 100 = 35.0 10  At t = T = 2 ms.

During the period T < t < 3T/2.49 V and V1' = 0. the input falls by 100 V. V1 =52. vo = V1 e  At t = T/2=1 ms. since the capacitor blocks dc. and Manmadha Rao G. During 3T/2 < t < 2T. we have V1'  V2 = 100 V (7) And from (3). Let V 1 be the voltage at t = 0 t For 0 < t < T/2. we have V1 =  V2 (8) Substituting (8) in (7).73 V. In a few cycles. output also falls by the same amount to V 2 .1 = 0. Rama Sudha K. Therefore. we have V1' = 0. that is.  ( t T / 2 ) For T/2 < t < T vo = V2 e At t = T. V j = Vh + 100 V = 17.0 At t = 3 ms vo = V f = Ve e 10 = 132.1 =17.49)= 47.905 V2 (4) For symmetrical wave V1' =  V2' and V1 =  V2 (5) V1'  V2 = 100 V and V1  V2' = 100 V (6) From (6). Ltd 16 .1 = 0.85 V. iv.50 V © 2010 Dorling Kindersley India Pvt.905)(52..50 V We can now plot the steady-state response as we know  V1 = 52. that is.905 V1 = 100 V.905 V1 + V1 = 100 V 1.85+100=117.905 V1 = (0.73 V v.73 e 0.905 V1 V1' = 0. Hence V g = V f – 100 = 19. we have V1' + V1 = 100 V (9) From (3). At 3 ms.50 V From (5) as V1' =  V2' and V1 =  V2 V2 = –52. Steady-state response: Under steady state.Pulse and Digital Circuits Venkata Rao K. between 2 to 3 ms. vo = V2' V2' = =  V2 e 0. the output decays.905 V2 0. the output reaches the steady state.85 V. the dc component in the output is zero.905 V1 Substituting in (9) 0. 1.32 (0.9048) = 119. At t = 2T= 4 ms.0 10 = 19.49 V V1' = 47. vo = V1' = V1 e 0. during 3 to 4 ms. vo = Vh = V g e 1. the output decays. the output is symmetrical with respect to zero volts.49 V V2' = –47.905 V1 (3) As the input abruptly falls.

and Manmadha Rao G.1 and 13.3.1 Transient response Fig. Fig. Ltd 17 .13.2 Steady-state response Case 2: For very low time constant.50 V The transient and steady-state responses are plotted in Figs.13.  The input and output are shown in Fig.Pulse and Digital Circuits Venkata Rao K. i. V2 = –52.49 V V2' = –47. Since the time constant is very small.1 ms.2..e. the capacitor charges and discharges very fast. © 2010 Dorling Kindersley India Pvt. Rama Sudha K. when τ = T/20 = 0.13.13.

(ii) t p = RC.11 is applied to a parallel RC combination shown in Fig. A current pulse of amplitude 5 A in Fig. using Laplace transforms. © 2010 Dorling Kindersley India Pvt. Ltd 18 .14.13.Pulse and Digital Circuits Venkata Rao K.2p.1RC. Plot to scale the waveforms of the current flowing through capacitor for the cases: (i) t p =0.12 The given circuit Solution: Till t = t p . and Manmadha Rao G. (iii) t p = 5RC Fig. Fig. 2p.1. Rama Sudha K.3 Output for the given input when time constant is very small 14.2p.2p. the circuit can be drawn as in Fig..12.11The given input to the circuit Fig.

[5  iC (t p )]R [5  iC (t p )] IC (s)    1 1 (s  ) s (R  ) Cs RC Taking Laplaceinverse iC (t )  [5  iC (t p )]e RC The circuit that represents the discharge of the condenser is presented in Fig. we have I C (s)  R 5 R s Taking t 1 Cs  5RCs 5   RCs  1 s  s  1    RC   Laplace inverse. iC (t p )  5  e 0. at t  t p . Ltd 19 . the current suddenly falls from 5 A to 0.14.14.14.Pulse and Digital Circuits Venkata Rao K.(t-t p ) Fig.. .2 Circuit that indicates the discharge of the condenser Case 1: For 0 < t < t p t iC (t )  5e RC i C decays exponentially.524 A For t > t p . and Manmadha Rao G.1 Circuit in terms of Laplace transforms Applying KCL.2. Fig. The voltage across the capacitor at t = t p is [5  iC (t p )]R Therefore for t ≥ t p. the charging current is iC (t )  5e RC At t = t p .1 RC RC  4. Rama Sudha K. i C rises exponentially as © 2010 Dorling Kindersley India Pvt.

3. © 2010 Dorling Kindersley India Pvt. iC (t )  5e at t  t p . I c (t p )  5e RC  5e 1  1. I c (t p )  5  e  5RC RC  5e5  0.0336 A t t p  RC For t > t p i C rises exponentially as t t p  RC – [5  iC (t p )] e = –4.839 A For t > t p i C decays exponentially as [5  I C (t p )] e  t t p  RC = –3.966 e  The input and outputs are plotted in Fig. and Manmadha Rao G.. Ltd 20 . at t  t p .Pulse and Digital Circuits Venkata Rao K.4758 e  t t p  RC iC (t )  5e  RC t RC i C decays exponentially.16 e  t t p  RC Case 3: For 0 < t < t p t RC i C decays exponentially. Rama Sudha K.  ( t t p ) i C = – [5  iC (t p )] e Case 2: For 0 < t < t p RC = –0.14.

Draw the output waveform if the waveform shown in Fig. © 2010 Dorling Kindersley India Pvt. Ltd 21 .2p.2p..15(b).14. Rama Sudha K.15(a) is applied at the input of the RC circuit shown in Fig. and Manmadha Rao G.3 Input and outputs for the given circuit 15. Fig.Pulse and Digital Circuits Venkata Rao K.

15(b) The given high-pass circuit Solution: Time constatnt  RC  100  10  109  1000 109 s Time period of input waveform is T = 4 ms Since RC<<T. vi  2  10 3 d 100 100  50 mV v o  1000 109  t  1000 109  3 dt 2 10 2 103 vo remains at 50 mV..2p. v o also falls by the same amount.05 – 100 = –99. the RC circuit acts as a good differentiator. vi falls by 100 V. Rama Sudha K.Pulse and Digital Circuits Venkata Rao K.2p. vo (t = 2 ms) = 0. and Manmadha Rao G. Fig. Ltd 22 . Since capacitor acts as a short circuit.15(a) Fig. For 0  t  2 ms. At t =2 ms.95 V © 2010 Dorling Kindersley India Pvt. dv dv The expression for output is vo  RC i  1000 109  i dt dt 100 t.15(a) The input to the high-pass circuit in Fig.2p.

Rama Sudha K. 15. and Manmadha Rao G.. 100 (t  2  10 3 ) 3 2  10 d  100  3  vo  1000  109   (t  2  10 ) dt  2  103  (100)  1000  109   50 mV 2  103 The output waveform is shown in Fig. vi  Fig. Ltd 23 . For 2 < t < 4 ms..Pulse and Digital Circuits Venkata Rao K.15 Output of the high-pass circuit © 2010 Dorling Kindersley India Pvt.