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PC manual_31-07-12

PC manual_31-07-12

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SARDAR VALLABHBHAI NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY SURAT

LABORATORY JOURNAL
OF

Process Control
B.Tech – IV (7th Semester)

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

Name :_____________________________________ Class : _____________ Admn/Roll No._________

INDEX
Sr. Experiment Title No 1. FIRST ORDER LIQUID LEVEL 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. SYSTEM SECOND ORDER CRITICALLY DAMPED SYSTEM LINEARIZATION RESPONSE OF THERMOMETER INTERACTING SYSTEM MANOMETER HEAT EXCHANGER CATALYTIC REFORMER BINARY DISTILLATION Date Page No. Signature

EXPERIMENT – 1 FIRST ORDER LIQUID LEVEL SYSTEM

Tank with input and output arrangement... 4) Note down the time taken by the liquid level in the test tank to fall by one centimeter..To study the response of first order liquid level system to step change... 3) Once steady state is achieved the flow rate of liquid into the level tank is disturbed by changing the input flow rate... Measuring Scale.. A = 2) Initial flow rate .e-(t/τ)) OBSERVATIONS :1) Cross-Sectional area of tank .. Q = q-qs H = h-hs …………………….. (ΔH = hs1 . we define. For volumetric flow rate q0 = h/R……………………………….AIM :.. PROCEDURE :1) Start the centrifugal pump and set the flow rate into the graduated tank.. Measure the incoming flow rate and outgoing flow rate. such as a valve. 6) Allow sufficient time for level in the test tank to attain a new steady state under the new reduced flow rate condition. If qs and hs are steady state values.qs2)×R×(1....(i) This is a case of linear resistance.e-(t/τ)) Or H(t) = (qs1. (Flow may be cut off). 5) Repeat step (4) for every centimeter fall in the liquid level in the test tank.……...(ii) τ = AR ………………………………………(iii) Introducing step change of ΔH value .. Ensure that input and output flow rates are same within the experimental accuracy... Centrifugal pump . 2) Allow the system to reach the steady state for this flow rate.. APPARATUS :. a pipe or a weir. Time. 7) Once the new steady state is achieved the final flow rate is measured and final steady state height is noted. t is set to zero.. Stop Watch .. qsf = 4) Initial Steady state height hsi= 5) Final Steady state height hsf= OBSERVATION TABLE:- .... Note down the initial flow rate and height. THEORY: A tank of uniform cross sectional area A has a flow resistance R attached.hs2) H(t) = ΔH (1. qsi = 3) Final flow rate.

ht vs time RESULT :-Comment on the Nature of the Graph. 1. CONCLUSION :- EXPERIMENT – 2 SECOND ORDER CRITICALLY DAMPED SYSTEM .Sr No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 10 Time. Ri = hsi / qsi = 2) Final Resistance. Rf = hsf / qsf = 3) ΔH = hsi . t (s) Height (observed) Height (theoretical) hobserved ( cm ) htheoretical ( cm ) SAMPLE CALCULATIONS:1) Initial Resistance. hobserved vs time 2. htheoretical h theoretica l = hsi − ∆H (1 − e −t / τ ) GRAPH : Plot the following curves in single graph for comparison.hsf Or ΔH = (qsi -qsf ) * R = 4) Time constant τ = ARi = 5) Predicted Height or theoretical Height.

A1 = Initial flow rate . R1 = hsi / qsi = Time constant τ1 = AR1 Cross-Sectional area of tank . Y(t) = 1.A two tank non-interacting system .AIM :. Time.) Height theoretical .(i) The assumption made above are. hsi2 = Final height. and time. A2 = Initial Height . hsf1 = Resistance. Measuring Scale. is non oscillatory. 4) Now. The response when plotted. A1 = A2.To study the response of a non-linear. t (s) Height in the Second Tank (obs. Centrifugal Pump . qsi1 = Final flow rate. 5) Once the new steady state is achieved the final flow rate is measured and the pump is switched off. qsf1 = Final height. t is set to zero. R2 = hsi / qsi = Time constant τ2 = AR2 Tank – 2 OBSERVATION TABLE:Sr No. non-interacting second order critically damped system. 3) Once steady state is achieved the flow rate of liquid into the level tank is changed. R1 = R2 = R and τ1 = τ2 = τ. Stop Watch PROCEDURE :1) Start the centrifugal pump and set the flow rate into the graduated tank.(1+t/τ) e-t/τ ………………………. for each 5 min change in height of liquid in the second tank time is noted. 2) Allow the system to reach the steady state for this flow rate. τ = √(τ1τ2) ξ = τ1 + τ2/2τ H2(t) = K OBSERVATION :- Tank -1 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) Cross-Sectional area of tank . hsf2 = Initial Resistance. THEORY: For a critically damped second order system the response expression is given by. APPARATUS :.

ht vs time RESULT:-Comment on the Nature of the Graph.hsf Or ΔH = (qsi -qsf ) * R= Predicted Height or theoretical Height. 1.hobserved ( cm ) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 CALCULATIONS :1) 2) 3) htheoretical ( cm ) τ = √(τ1τ2) = ΔH for second Tank: ΔH = hsi . htheoretical h theoretica l = hsi 2 − ∆H [1 − {1 + (t / τ )}e −t / τ ] GRAPH: Plot the following curves in single graph for comparison. CONCLUSION:- EXPERIMENT – 3 LINEARIZATION AIM: To study the response of linearization. hobserved vs time 2. .

e-(t/τ)) Or H(t) = (qs1. Note down the time taken by the liquid level in the test tank to fall by one centimeter. Start the centrifugal pump and set the flow rate into the graduated tank. Once the new steady state is achieved the final flow rate is measured and final steady state height is noted.. Time.q0(s) = (h-hs) = A dh …………………………………………. THEORY: For a liquid of constant density & tank of uniform cross sectional area. centrifugal pump. PROCEDURE: 1. Repeat 4) for every centimeter fall in the liquid level in the test tank. if the fluid is flowing through linear resistance. Allow sufficient time for level in the test tank to attain a new steady state under the new reduced flow rate condition. 4. Measure the incoming flow rate and outgoing flow rate. 2. (Flow may be cut off).(3) R1 dt At steady state q0 = q0(s) Q = q-qs H = h-hs τ = AR ………………………………………(4) Introducing step change ΔH. Once steady state is achieved the flow rate of liquid into the level tank is disturbed by changing the input flow rate. stop watch. 6.hs2) H(t) = (ΔH (1. CHEMICAL: Ethylene glycol. Allow the system to reach the steady state for this flow rate. measuring cylinder.qs2)×R×(1. 3. Ensure that input and output flow rates are same within the experimental accuracy. t is set to zero.e-(t/τ)) . q(t) – q0(t) = A dh …………………………….. a material balance around the tank gives.(2) dt In this Non-linear tank. Note down the initial flow rate and height. (ΔH = hs1 . q0(t) = h/R q .APPARATUS: A trapezoidal system tank equipped with i/p & o/p arrangement with fluid circulating. 5. 7.

. hobserved vs time 2. 1.. t (s) Height (observed) Height (theoretical) hobserved ( cm ) htheoretical ( cm ) h theoretica l = hsi − ∆H (1 − e −t / τ ) GRAPH : Plot the following curves in single graph for comparison..(5) OBSERVATIONS :1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Cross-Sectional area of tank (at the average height of hsi and hfi ). ht vs time .... 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 10 CALCULATIONS :1) Initial Resistance..ht = hsi − ∆ H (1 − e − t / τ ) .... Ri = hsi / qsi = 2) Final Resistance.. Rf = hsf / qsf = 3) ΔH = hsi .. qsi = Final flow rate.hsf Or ΔH = (qsi -qsf ) * R = 4) Time constant τ = ARi = 5) Predicted Height or theoretical Height. htheoretical Time. qsf = Initial Steady state height hsi= Final Steady state height hsf= OBSERVATION TABLE:Sr No... A = Initial flow rate ..

RESULT :-Comment on the Nature of the Graph. . CONCLUSION :- EXPERIMENT – 4 RESPONSE OF THERMOMETER AIM: To measure positive step change of measuring thermometer.

THEORY: Assumption made for analysis of response of mercury bulb thermometer: (1) All the resistance to heat transfer reside in the film surrounding the bulb.APPARATUS: Thermometer.ys) = 0 …………………….ysf Y(t) = A(1-e-(t/τ)) y (Theo.(i) dt For steady sate h As (xs .e-t/τ) OBSERVATIONS: 1.xs Y = y .ys From (i)-(ii) Y(s) = 1 X(s) τs + 1 Where τ = mc/h As For step change. Applying unsteady state energy balance.(ii) Now. Now immediately take thermometer out of the bath and note down the time for every 5º C fall.. No Temperature Experimental (ºC) 1 Time (sec) Theoretical Temp y (ºC) . Heat it using burner upto 90ºC. h As (x-y) = mc dy …………………………………. dip thermometer in it. Allow temperature to increase to steady state of 90ºC. Temp) = yinitial – A(1. (2) All the thermal capacity is in the mercury. burner. A =ysi . beaker. Now. (3) The glass wall containing the mercury does not expand or contract during the transient response. stand etc. CHEMICAL: Ethylene glycol. Room temperature (Initial temp indicated by thermometer) = OBSERVATION TABLE: Sr. PROCEDURE: Take sufficient amount of ethylene glycol or oil in a vessel. X = x .

ys(final) τ = ___________(time at 63. [from Graph of Temp.(exp. .e-t/τ) GRAPH: Plot the following curves in single graph for comparison.2% Response. Time constant for 63.2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 SAMPLE CALCULATION: A = ys(initial) . Temp) = yinitial – A(1. 1.) v/s t] _____________ CONCLUSION: EXPERIMENT – 5 INTERACTING SYSTEM Aim : To study response of second order over damped system consisting of two interacting tank in series. Temperature theoretical (Predicted) v/s Time RESULT: 1. Temperature experimental v/s Time 2.2% response. from graph of observed temperature vs time) yt (Theo.

........(3) q2 = h2/ R2…………………………(tank 2)………………………………(4) At steady state. q – q1 = A1dh1 /dt ………………………………………………………....38 .............. Theory : Taking material balance across the tanks ............. Chemicals : Ethylene Glycol...1...1....q2(s) = 0……………………………………………………………..17 e-t/2...17 e-t/0.....Q1 = A1dh1 /dt ………………………………………………………(7) Q1.........Apparatus : Two interacting tank system......Q2 = A2 dh2/dt………………………………………………………(8) Q1 = (H1 ......equation (1) & (2) becomes q(s) – q1(s) = 0……………………………………………………………......... scale......(9) Q2 = H2/ R2.5 and 6 Q ................(5) q1(s).6225+ 1) For step disturbance: Taking inverse of Laplace transform Q2 (t) = 1+ 0...(2) q1 = 1/R1 (h1 -h2) ………………………………….....(tank 1) ……………...2..........(6) Equations 1....62 τ τ H2(t) = A [1+ 0............. stop watch..(10) H2(S)/ Q(S) = R2/{ τ1 τ2 s2 + (τ1 + τ2 + A1R2 ) s + 1} For both tanks to be interacting............. Q2 (S)/ Q(S) = 1/(τ2 s2 + 3τ s+1) Q2 (S)/ Q(S) = 1/0..38 ...........62 ] τ τ ......H2)/ R1.......3825 + D (0.......... measuring cylinder etc....(1) q1– q2 = A2 dh2/dt………………………………………………………….......17 e-t/0.17 e-t/2.

Procedure: Start flow of liquid.No.1.17 e-t/0. Note down initial height and flow rate readings.62 ] τ τ . Height Observed (cm) Time (sec) Theoretical height (cm) Calculation: (1 )τ1 = A1R1 (2)τ2 = A2R2 (3) τ = For step disturbance: H2(t) = A [1+ 0. Observation: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) Initial flow rate = Initial Steady state height in tank 1 = Initial Steady state height in tank 2= Final steady state height in tank 1= Final steady state height in tank 2= Flow rate at second steady state= Observation Table: Sr. measure the flow rate and attain steady state.38 . till the second steady state is achieved.17 e-t/2.g. Note down the reading at each 5 mm drop of liquid level in second tank. give step /impulse disturbance (e. plug one of two inlets). When steady state is attained.

ht vs time RESULT:-Comment on the Nature of the Graph.17 e-t/0. h(t) = hinitial – ΔH [1+ 0.38 . 1.62 ] τ τ GRAPH: Plot the following curves in single graph for comparison.1. hobserved vs time 2.So. CONCLUSION:- EXPERIMENT – 6 MANOMETER .17 e-t/2.

[cms] D = Inner diameter OF “U” tube. equation (3) may be written as τ2 d2h /dt 2 + 2ζτ dh/dt + h = hi (4) Taking Laplace transform on both the sides and noting that h as well as dh/dt are zero at t=0. [cms] Sub. and rearranging. For ζ less than on the roots of quadratic equation [τ2 S 2 + 2ζτ S + 1 ] are given by .force sec/cm3] (1) With the above given assumption of frictional pressure drop proportional to h t velocity Hagen –Poiseulli’s equation can be written as ΔP = 32µuL/ gc D2 = Ru (2) Where. L = Length of the manometric fluid in the manometer. we get H(s)/H2(s) = 1/[τ2 S 2 + 2ζτ S + 1 ] (5) To define equation (5) fully we require value of two parameters ζ and τ and it is known as second order system. hi is taken as input pressure in terms of liquid column height to balance that pressure. Again notice that coefficient of d2h /dt 2 {L/2g}have dimensions of sec2 or (time2).RAdh/dt = ALρ/ gc [d2 t / d h2 ] Where. Similarly coefficient of dh/dt have the dimensions of second or [time] .2hAρg/gc . it gives. A = cross sectional area of the manometer tube.mass/cm3] R = Frictional resistance of the fluid for flow [gm.force/cm2] H = Height of liquid above its steady-state level. {L/2g}d2h /dt 2 + {16 µL / gc D2 } dh/dt + h = P gc / 2ρg = hi (3) Here. Equation (2) in equation (1) and dividing by 2ρg/gc and rearranging.AP .Thus the coefficient of dh/dt can be replaced by 2ζτ as √ L/2g may not be equal to 16 µL / gc D2 Thus. The response of second order system to various forcing functions can be obtained by factorizing the quadratic term in the denominator into two linear terms that contains its roots S1 and S2. [cm2] P = Applied pressure [gm.[cm] ρ = Density of the manometric fluid [gm.

= {.ζ2/τ } = a-ib (6) When the forcing function is a unit step function.S1 = {.ζ ] (11) . that the response Y(t) has an oscillatory component in it τ whose amplitude {√ 1.ζ/ τ} . Under damped response is more commonly sought in control systems. Decay ratio: It is defined as the ratio of second peak to first peak. Y(s) = 1/S [τ2 S 2 + 2ζτ S + 1 ] (8) Taking Laplace inverse by making use of partial fractions.{√ 1.ζ2 ] (10) It can be noted from equation (10) that over shoot increase as ζ decreases and reaches a limiting value of 1 when ζ = 0 .ζt/ { Sin[ (√ 1. The overshoot for a unit step change is related to ζ by the expression Overshoot = e[πζ/√ 1.ζ/ τ} + {√ 1. Decay ratio = e[-2 GRAPHS : Plot the graph of manometer readings versus time.ζ2/τ } e. A number of terms are used to describe the under damped system.ζ2/τ } τ (9) It may be noted from equation (9).{√ 1.ζt/ goes on decreasing as time increases. The decay ratio is related to ζ by the expression. we get the response of the second order under damped system [ζ<1. Overshoot: It is a measure of how much the response exceeds the ultimate value following a step change in the forcing function and is expressed as ratio of excess response to the step size.ζ2/τ } e.0] to a step change in forcing function as Y(t) = 1 . The most useful of them are as given below.ζ2/τ } = a+ib S2. πζ/ √ 1. then its Laplace transform is given by X(s) = 1/S (7) Thus.ζ2)t/ τ ] + tan-1 {√ 1.

Theory : The Digital Control System is the recent development in Chemical Engineering Branch. determine the value of overshoot and decay ratio. the stream is taken from the 7th tray and it is at higher . In this practical.RESULT : From the graph. and compare graphical value with the theoretical value. Type of Value Graphical value theoretical value Overshoot Decay ratio CONCLUSIONS: EXPERIMEN – 7 HEAT EXCHANGER Aim : To study the Digital Control System for Heat Exchanger.

When the hot fluid comes out its temperature decreases and the temperature of cold fluid increases. The temperature controller regulates the flow through heat exchanger & by-pass. This is accomplished by cooling the TPA (Top Pump Around).The temperature of the TPA entering the shell is controlled by the flow of cold water whose temperature varies from 15 to 50 Deg C. The TPA comes from the 8th tray of FCCU fractionator at150-200 Deg C. thereby controlling the temperature of the mixed stream to maintain desired set point (105 Deg C) HEAT EXCHANGER PROCESS DESCRIPTION: The model uses standard Shell & Tube Heat Exchanger. controller output increases temp will settle at lower value than design. depending upon the malfunction value. cold water and note down various parameters that vary proportionally respectively. The logic behind this is that all the flow rate varies due to the proportional control attached to it . following a “Design Start”. The purpose of Heat Exchanger in this model is to control the temperature profile of FCCU fractionator. If any difficulties arise in the midst of work. depending upon the malfunction value. .entering the 4th tray to 105 Deg C.temperature and the temperature has to be lowered so we are using heat exchanger .For having the temperature of the stream leaving the heat exchanger and entering the fractionator and at higher. entering the shell. Process Description : The objective in training a student on this system is to explore the control system tied up with non-linear process behavior. Also vary the temperature of hot stream. The temperature of the TA. Now vary the flow rate of hot fluid. SIGNIFICANT OPERATING VARIABLES: The most important controller is Temperature Controller that is used to control the TPA return temperature to desired set point. ranges from 150 Deg C. and take down the readings. Exercise 1: Temperature Control Action: Decrease the set point of temperature controller TIC-01 Result: The controller’s output decreases. Flow controllers for TPA entering Shell Side & cold water entering tube side are also provided for controlling the plant in fully automatic mode. cold stream. with water on tube side & TPA entering the shell side .The hot fluid flows into the tube side and the cold fluid (water) flows into the shell side. Training Exercises: The exercises begin with the program operating at the normal condition. reinitialize the program and continue without getting bogged down in by manipulation of the controls.

Result : Output of FIC-02 increases thereby increasing flow of TPA. using some of the hydrogen produced by the reforming reactions.Discussion: The decrease in set-point shall demand more cold TPA from shell side of heat exchanger as compared to the TPA through by-pass which causes the temperature controller to increase the cold TPA through by-pass. Theory : The Catalytic Reformer Plant converts feed stocks into high –Octane gasoline. EXPERIMENT – 8 CATALYTIC REFORMER Aim : To study the Digital Control System with the Catalytic Reformer. A byproduct of the process is hydrogen. . the feed is first desulfurised to extremely low limits of sulfur. Exercise 3 : FIC-02 Action : Increase setting of FIC-02. To avoid catalytic poisoning. Exercise 2 : FIC-01 Action : Increase setting of FIC-01 Result : Output of FIC-01 increases thereby increasing flow of cold water through tube side of heat exchanger.

(whereas plant has three sets of these equipment ) . ACTION: Student varies the set point FIC-101. one furnace and one feed effluent heat exchanger (where as plant has three sets of these equipment). and the second is the reforming section. Reactor Inlet Temperature. The Simulator will be considering reforming section only. By sending this fraction to a reforming unit and giving them a light ‘crack’ their octane number may be increased . The plant is divided into main sections as regards chemical reactions. RESULT: Temperature of combined feed brings to its new set point.Straight-run gasoline and light naphthas usually have very low octane numbers.This upgrading is probably due primarily to isomerisation. Composition of feed flow and recycle gas can be changed from Instructor console. In simulator. Reforming section includes one reactor.Reformer Feed Control. The first of these is the desulphurization section.1. one furnace and one feed effluent heat exchanger. DISCUSSION: Temperature controllers regulate the fuel gas flow. Reforming section includes one reactor. The reactor pressure is assumed to be constant at 31kg/cm2 G . . and the second is the reforming section. feed flow is simulated by simply opening feed valve and opening feed valve and recycle gas. The plant is divided into main sections as regards chemical reactions. The Simulator will be considering reforming section only. The first of these is the desulphurization section. Training Exercises: FIRST SET EXERCISES: Ex.Catalytic Reforming involves both cracking and isomerisation . ACTION: The student changes the temperature set point of temperature controller TIC 104.2. Ex.

ACTION: Student varies the set point FIC-101. Recycle Gas Flow Rate. ACTION: The student changes the set point of TIC-104. This is a special significant feature of the plant and deserves special notice. EX. Reformer Charge Rate. The recycle gas compressor system stay at set values.Furnace firing rates change.2. flow to the reaction section changes.e. to satisfy the reacting requirement represented for above reason by setting FIC-`101. set on FIC-101. DISCUSSION: Eventually. which satisfies demand.3. DISCUSSION: Note the indicator FI-102 . RESULT: Essentially all flow rate in the plant change. discuss why a change this flow rate is not particularly upsetting to the reformer flash drum pressure control system. ACTION: Student varies the setting of HC-101 RESULT: The circulation of hydrogen to reactor is changed. Note also how much time is required for steady conditions become established after a change of FIC-101 set point. EX. DISCUSSION: Note indicator FI-102. RESULT: All temperatures in the reformer section change. SECOND SET EXERCISES : EX. Reformer reaction Temperature Control. So the reformer flash drum pressure controller reacts. how much time it takes for conditions to settle out. Recycle gas control. RESULT: Circulation of hydrogen to the reactors is changed. Discuss why a change in the flow rate is not particularly upsetting the reformer flash drum pressure control system. thus changing some basic operating ratios in the plant. DISCUSSION: Notice finally now this change is reflected to the throughput to reactor i. the fresh feed rate settle out to a value. Ex. 7 briefly note the fact that hydrogen production rate is change. ACTION: Student varies the setting of HC 101. Major Equation Used in Models: The catalytic reactor model is considering the following reactions : .More or less hydrogen is produce.3.RESULT: Feed rate changes to new set point value of FIC-101. DISCUSSION: Take note how all the temperatures change.1.

and residue rate is varied. Then various readings for varying top head pressure is changed and result on the other parameter is seen. Then we will close the discharge valve and then we will note down the effect. 3. 4. P ↔ N + H2 N ↔ A+ H2 P + H2 → LHC N + H2 → LHC P = Paraffines N=Naphthenes A=Aromatic H2 = Hydrogen LHC = Light Hydrocarbon EXPERIMENT – 9 BINARY DISTILLATION Aim : To study the Digital Control System for Binary Distillation.1. distillate. Distillation of Benzene and Toluene occurs Benzene comes out from the top and toluene comes from the bottom and we have to note down the reflux flow rate that varies proportionally. 2. . Theory : In Binary Distillation. The steam flow rate is varied and accordingly reflux.

Increasing the bottom plate temperature will increase the bottom fraction of boilers. And heat of vaporization and condensation have similar values. The reflux rate effectively determines the time that the feed materials remain in the column. These bubble plates provide time for mixing and interchange of vapor and liquid flows required for carrying out distillation separation. These are so named because they have a number of horizontal plates or trays. the vapour rate out of the plate is nearly equal to the vapor rate into the plate. plus the heat loss and the heat of mixing. in high material. making it richer in low boiling material. the sensible heat of the liquid and vapor flows into the plate plus the latent heat of the condensing vapour must equal the sensible heat of the liquid and the vapor flow out. the bottom plate temperature can be used to adjust the fraction of high boiling material in the bottom product flow. For the continuous balanced operation.The DISTILLATION TOWER OPERATIONS Program has to do with conventional bubble cap plate distillation tower. which are usually equally spaced in the upright tower shell. The temperature of the boiling liquid is fixed by ht column pressure and liquid composition and heat balance is always maintained. The more vapour produced. . the heat balance effectively reduces the balance between the heat given up by condensing vapor and the heat requires to vaporize the liquid leaving the plate. Since the temperature change from one plate to another is usually small. The relatively large number of trays used generally produces tall and upright structure. Liquid enters the bottom part of the tower from the bottom plate down flow pipe. the richer the bottom liquid becomes. A smaller reflux flow will produce a less pure overhead product. Therefore for constant column pressure. A large reflux rate means high portion of the overhead vapors are returned to the column giving the material a longer time exposure to the separation operation. and is the reason for the terms “column” or tower.

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