A group is defined as two or more individuals  Interacting and interdependent,  who have come together to achieve particular objectives


Formal and informal groups Command and task groups Interest groups and friendship groups

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Security Status Affiliation Power Goal achievement






Conformity Adjusting one’s behaviour to align with the standards of the group Status A socially defined position or rank given to groups or group members by others.

Provide explicit ideas for individuals in the group with respect to: how hard they should work, how to get the job done, their level of output Affect individual employee’s performance

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Work Team A group whose individual efforts result in a performance that is greater than the sum of the individual inputs.

Problem-Solving Teams Self-Managed Work Teams Cross-Functional Teams

Linker Adviser Creator




Assessor Producer


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Individual Focus: no clarity of role improper leadership no expected results
Organisational Focus: unclear team goals no methods to hold members accountable no management support

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Teams typically outperform individuals. Teams use employee talents better. Teams are more flexible and responsive to changes in the environment. Teams facilitate employee involvement. Teams are an effective way to democratize and organization and increase motivation

Each team member will have a clear understanding of his own purpose Each team member is free to assert his autonomy by saying ”no” Each team member assumes responsibility for team’s outcomes and for the current situation Each team member will be honest in making their contribution

Share information Neutral Individual

Goal Synergy Accountability

Collective performance Positive

Individual & mutual

Random & varied


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