I

1

Creative Keyboard's DELUXE ENCYCLOPEDIA-

A Complete Study of Chords

/

How to Use Them

Creative Keyboard's

DELUXE ENCYCLOPEDIA OF

PIANO CHORDS
A Complete Study of Chords and How to Use Them
The Deluxe Encyclopedia of Piano Chords is a complete and thorough analysis of chords as
applied to the piano keyboard. This study encompasses chord construction, usage, scales and rhythm patterns. It is hoped that this text will enable the pianist or organist to effectively use and apply the full diversity of chord possibilities in creating interesting, personal and colorful musical styles.

Dedication: To my Mother, Mabel M., and my Father, Elmer H. Kroepel; music was a happiness in our home. Bob Kroepel

0 1973 by Mel Bay Publications, Inc., Pacific, MO 63069. All Rights Reserved. International Copyright Secured. B.M.I. Made and Printed in the U.S.A.

Piano Keyboard Diagram

............................ ..........................

Intervals Half-Step and Whole-Step

Thirteenth Chord Thirteenth Flatted Ninth Chord Seven Six Chord Six Nine Chord ............................................ 19 Enharmonic Notation

Accidentals Chart of Accidentals .................................... Major Scabs Scab Degrees .............................................. Chords Chord-Tones ................................................ Inversions .................................................... Construction of Common Chords Minor Triad Major Triad Augmented Triad Lowered Fifth Triad ...................................... Diminished Triad Maior Seventh Chord Dominant Seventh Chord Minor Seventh Chord ................................. Maior Sixth Chord Minor Sixth Chord Diminished Seventh Chord Minor Seventh Lowered Fifth Chord

.................................. 20

Numbering the Fingers ................................ 22 Explanotion of the Keyboard Diagrams and Annotation .................... Key of C Major. Scales and Chords

. 23 .
25

............

Key of Ob Major (Identical to C# Maior) Scales and Chords ........................ 30 Key of D Major. Scales and Chords .............. 35 Key of Eb Major. Scales and Chords .............. 40 Key of E Maior. Scales and Chords .............. 45 Key of F Major. Scales and Chords .............. 50 Key of F# Major (Identical to G b Major). Scales and Chords ...................... 55

............

Key of G Major. Scales and Chords ............ 60 Key of A Major. Scales and Chords b

Seventh Augmented Fifih Chord Seventh Lowered Fifth Chord Seventh Suspended Fourth Chord Major Seventh Flatted Third. Flatted Fifth Chord ...................................

............ 65

Key of A Major. Scales and Chords ............ 70

.........

Key of Bb Major. Scales and Chords ............ 75 Key of B Maior (Identical to Cb Maior). Scales and Chords .................... 80

Mojor Seventh Flatted Third. Augmented Fifth Chord Major Ninth Chord Ninth Chord Ninth Augmented Fihh Chord ...................... 16 Ninth Lowered Fifth Chord Minor -Ninth Chord Minor Ninth Augmented Fifth Chord Minor Ninth Lowered Fifth Chord ................ 17 Seventh Flatted Ninth Chord Eleventh Chord Eleventh Flatted Ninth Chord Eleventh Augmented Fifth Chord

...... 85 Using Chords to Play Popular Music .......... 87
Range of the Bass. Chords and Melody

..........................89 The Fox Trot Rhythm Pattern ...................... 91 Alternating the Bars ..................................94 Using Different Chord Positions .................. 95
The Waltz Rhythm Pattern Alternating the Alternoting Bars

................ 18
ltfrhood N o
Q*ri&t

bl. Mel q hbliutlonr, ....A. -:- B Wtr W.k. . ratmntionrl Copyfight S d Priatd ia US All
1973

................ 96

Here is a keyboard diagram showing the white keys of the piano keyboard and their location on the
Grand Staff

:
Trademark

Notice that the number of leger lines needed to locate the pitches of the piano on the Grand Stafl increase towards the ends of the keyboard.

To make it easier to read music is often written with the symbol 8va instead ot the exact number of leger lines.
8 ~ means "octaver "Octave" comes from theLatin word "octava: meaning "eighth: An octave is the 1 same letter eight letters to the left o r right of the original: A B C D E F C A B C D E F G A B C D E F c A B C.-*....-..

' octave

T

T

original

T

octave

8va written above a note means to play the note with the same letter name an octave higher:

Writ ten: 8va

Played:

IF

8va a b s o means to play the note with the same letter name an octave lower:

Written: 8va a baeeo

Played:

!

8 means two octaves higher: 2 8va a b -

o means two octaves lower.

OCoprtifit I973 by %el 8.1 hbliatiwr, InC. Kirkwood. Mo. -:-b u m t i o d CopyrWt Sccwd. P t i d ia USA. -:Nl R d .

In music an Interval is defined a s the distance (in terms of pitch) between two notes. The smallest interval on the piano keyboard is the klfetep: a half -step is defined a s the intern1 between two adjoining notes :

half step

-

half

-

half
S*P

-

step

Two half- steps equal one whole-atep:
whob-wholestep step wholestep

Musical symbols which alter the letter names of notes are called aceidentala. Here is a chart which explains the symbols used for accidentals:
I

Symbol

Name

F u nc tion
raises pitch a half-step

Example

1

#
b

Sharp

Flat

lowers pitch a half-step

X!

Double*Sharp

raises pitch two half- s teps, or one whole- step

bb

DOUM.-FI~~

lowers pitch two half-ste s or one who e- step

P

Natural

cancels a sharp or a flat

-

.

Major Scales.
--

The musical alphabet is a continuum, repeating endtessly the first: sevt?fi letters of the English language alphabet:
A B C D E F C A B C D E F C A B C D E F C A
.+s .u

etc,

A scale is a series of tones in an organized sequence. A major acole is an eight-letter sequence of the musica1"aIpHrbet~ The first letter of the major scale is called the Qnic wt., or bymte: the last letter of the mior scale is the same as the keynote but is called the O C ~ W .

Ex. C major wale
-

C

I

D

E

F

C

A

B

C

I .

Keynote The tones of the major scale can be numbered:

Octave

The numbrs referring to the tones of a major scale are called ecale degree@. The musical relationships between the tonea of a major ecale can be expressed by means of wholeateps(abbreviated W) and haif-atepa (abbreviated H) :
C D E F C A B C

Here is the C major scale shown on a keyboard diagram:

Cmaiorscale-C Scale degrees

-

l l l. l l l l i 1. 2 3 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

D E F C A B C

To preserve the whole-step and half-step relationships between the tones of a major scale the
key signatureindicates which notes are sharped or flatted

Ex. The G major scale
The F sharp(F#) in the key signature indicates that this note is to be played F sharp(F# )

C major scaleScale degrees-

C
1

l

A 0 C
1 1 1

l

l

l

D
1

l
1

~
1

# C
)

b

l

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Ex. The F major ecale
The B flat(Bb) in the key signature indicates that this note is to be played B flat(Bb)

F major scale- F G
Scale degrees-

A Bb C D E F

A chord is defied as two or more notes played at the same time. In popular music a chord generally has a minimum of three notes.
The pitches which make up a chord are called chord-tones:any other pitches are called non-chordtones. Chords can be related to major scales by means of scale degrees.

The chord-tone upon which the rest of the chord is built is called the root.

The chord-tones of any chord can be related to the scale degrees of the major scale having the same keynote as the root of the chord.
Scale degrees1.
I

2
2

3.
3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

0.
Octave
I

Keynote
b

Chord- tones- R. I Root

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

NOTE: R is used to differentiate cleerly the root of the chord from the keynote of the scale when using numbers.

A major triad consists of the root, third and fifth scale degrees (R 3. 5.).

C major scale- C Scale degreesChord- tones1.

D
2

E
3.

F
4.

C
5. 5.

A
6.

B
7.

C

a

R.

3 .

C

E

C

A minor triad consists of the root, flatted third and fifth scale degreds (R. b . 5.). 3

E . C minor triad x
C major scaleScale degreesChord- tonesC.
1.

D.
2

E.
3.
b3.

F.
4.

C.
5. 5.

A.

B.
7.

C.
8.

6.

R.

Inversions
A rearrangement of chord-tones is called an invereion.
A chord with the root a s the lowest note is said to be in root position; a chord with the third a s the lowest note is said to be in the first inversion;

a chord with the fifth a s the lowest note is said to be in the second inversion, etc. However, the term position is often used instead of inversion:the relationship between position and hvereion can be confusing and is shown below:

Ex. C major triad.
C

C- Root

E-3rd

C-5th

Root Position

I

First lrvereion or Second Poeition

Second Inversion or Third Posit ion

Sice chord-tones can be rearranged into a s many positions a s there are chord-tones four-note chords will have four positions, five-note chords will have five positions, etc. Specific chord positions can be indicated by using a slash mark ( / ) after the chord symbol and a 1etter,I"~" root position,or a number for other positions: for
C/R -- C major triad, root position; C/2 C/3 -- C major triad, third position, etc.

-C

major triad, second position;

When the composer wishes to specify a particular bass note he may use a slash mark and a letter indicating the desired bass note:
C/E -- C major triad(any position), E bass note; C/C

-C major triad, C bass note, etc.

A specific chord position and a specific bass note can be indicated by using two slash marks, the letter or number after the first slash mark indicating the chord position, the letter after the second nrark indicating the bass note:
C12/G

-

C major triad, second position, C bass note, etc.

Since it is difficult for the average-sized hand to play more than four notes at a time only the top four notes of ninth(5-note) chords, eleventh(6-note) and thirteenth(7-note) chords will be inverted:

Ninth Chords

Eleventh chords

Thirteenth Chords

NOTE:ninth, eleventh and thirteenth chords are substitutes for common o r dominant seventh chords; to simplify his playing the student may use the common or dominant seventh chord instead of the ninth, eleventh or thirteenth.

On the following pages chords and their construction by means of scale degrees are shown

Although the examples given are for C chords any root can be used.
The most common chord symbols will also be given.
For the examples in C thb C major scale should be kept in mind:

Cmajorscsle-C

r

D E F G A B C D

l

r

~

r

E F

~
C

A B C

~

r

~

r

r

t

~

~

Scale degrees- L z 3. 4.

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

s .

6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 1 13. 14. 15. 2

Major Triad
Chord- tones-R.. 3..
5.

Chord symbol- C (capital letter only)

Minor Triad
Chord- tones- R. . b3.. 5.

Chord symbols=Cmor C-

Augmented Triad
Chord- tones-R., Chord symbols-C+s,
3..
C+,

45

C ( t 5)

Lowered Fiftb Triad
Chord- tones- R., 3.. b5. Chord symbols- C-5, C(b5)

Diminished Triad

Chord- tones-. R., b3., b5.
Chord symbols

-

Cdim.. C*

Major Seventh Chord
Chord-tones--R.,

3..

5..

7.

C h o r d symbols-Cmaj.7,

CM7.

C

C

E

G

B

Dominant Seventh Chord
C h o r d - t o n e s - R., 3., 5. b7. . C h o r d symbol -C7

Minor Seventh Chonl
Chord-tones-

R., b3., 5.. b7.

C h o r d symbol = Cm7

Major Sixth Chord
Chord-tones- R., Chord symbol-=C6
3..

5..

6.

Minor Sixth Chord
Chord-tones-

R., b3.,

5., 6.

Chord symbol-Cm6

Diminished Seventh Chord
Chord-tones-R.,
b3.. b5..

bb7.

Chord symbol-Cdim. 7

C

E b

Gb Bbb

Minor Seventh Lowered Fifth Chord, or Half-Diminished Chord
Chord-tones- R., b3., b5., b7.

Chord symbols -Cm7-5, C '

Seventh Augmented Fifth Chord, or Augmented Seventh Chord

Chord symbols C7+5. C7aug. 5

-

Seventh Lowered Fifth Cbord
Chord- tones- R., 3.. b5.. b7 Chord symbols- C7-5, C7b5, C7(bS)

Seventh Suspended Fourth Chord

Chord symbol

= C7sus. 4

Major Seventh Flatted Third, Flatted Fifth Chord
Chord-tones- R..b3.,b5., 7.
b3 Chord symbols- CM7 bs Cmaj.7, b3. b5

Major Seventh Flatted Third, Augmented Fifth Chord

Chord- t o n e s R., b3., $ 5.. 7.
Chord symbols-- CM7
Cmaj. 7. b3,
$5

-

Major Ninth Chord

Chord- t o n e s - R.. 3.. 5.. 7.. 9
Chord symbol-Cmaj. 9

Ninth Chord
C h o r d - t o n e s - R.. 3., 5.. b7.. 9.

Chord symbol- C9

Ninth Augmented F i f t h Chord
Chord- tones- R., 3.. t5.. b7.. 9.
C h o r d s y m b o l s = C9. $5.C9, +5.

Ninth Lowered Fifth Chord

Chord- tones==R.. B., b5.. b7..
Cflord symbt.rls =CO-5, C:O, b5.

9.

Mioor Ninth Chord

Chord- tones==H.. b3.. 5., b i . , 9.
Chord symbolCrilV

Minor Ninth Augmented Fifth Chord

Chord-torics- R.,b3.. 4.5,
Chord symbols

-

b7.. 0.

Ctnsf5, Cm9 $5

Minor N i n t h Lowered F i f t h Chord
CliordtancXs- R,.b:l.. b5.. b?.,!).

Chord symbols -LnlY-;,

(.ln9, b5.

C

Eb

(;b

lib

I.)

Seventh Flatted Ninth Chord
Chord- tones= R., 3., 5.,b7., b9. Chord symbols = C7, b9, C7-9

Eleventh Chord
Chord-tones=~.,3.,5.,b7.,9., 11.
Chord symbol==C11

C

E

G

B

b

D

F

Eleventh Flatted Ninth Chord
Chord- tones= H.,3., 5.. b7.. b9., 11. Chord symbols

-

C11. b9. C11-9

Eleventh Augmented F i f t h Chord

Chord symbols-CI1,

P5,Cll. +5.

Thirteenth Chord
Chord-tones=R.,3.,5., b7.,9., ll., 13. Chord symbol- C13.

Thirteenth Flatted Ninth Chord
Chord-tones- R., 3., S..b7..b9., 11.. 13. Chord symbols = C13, b 9 ,C13-9

Seven S i x Chord
Chord- tones

-

R., 3., S.,6.. b7.

Chord symbols =C7,6, C7/6.

S i x Nine Chord
Chord- tones -- R.. 3.. S, 6., 9. . Chord symbol -C6,9.

Ehharmonic Notation
The musical alphabet is used to label the white keys only. The black keys derive their names from the adjjcent white keys. The following chart shows how the keys are named:

C D E F C A B C D E F G A B C F b El Cb B#

Notice that a black key can b v e two names, such a s C$-Db. The fact that a key can have more than one name is called enharmonic notation, meaning equivalent names for the same pitch. Notice that certain white keys can have two names, such as E-Fb. Enharmonic notation is used to preserve certain musical relationships, such as the whole-step and half-step relationships between the scale degrees of a major ocale.
Ex.

M Major Scale.
Ft major scale- F$
Scale degrees -- 1 Half step Formula for Major Scales

c#

A$

B

Cl

Dl

E8

F#

-

- \W /\i\/"\I\\ w H w /
W

\ I

W

H

1

Because there must be a half-step between the 7 th and 8th scale degrees the white key which is a half-step down from FI is now called Et insteul of F natural.

Enharmonic notation is quite often used in writing music in order to make it easier to read in certain situations. In a diminished seventh chord the diminished seventh itself is theoretically written a s the double-flatted seventh scale degree ( bb7 ) : however, the double-flatted seventh is often difficult to read and the enharmonic equivalent, the major sixth scale degree, is often used instead:

Ex. C Diminished Seventh Chord
Chord- tones= R., b3., bS., bb7

C dim 7

C

Eb

Gb

Bbb (theoretical )
or

theoret'ical notation

Enharmonic notation

A I (Enharmonic)
In this book the correct theoretical notation will be used throughout.

NOTE: in the above example, if the diminished seventh chord were built on Cb instead of C, the chord- tones would have been Cb, Ebb, Gbb , Bbbb (B triple flat ! ! ) :conceivably, Ebb, Cbb Bbbb could be written with their enharmonic equivalents, D , F , and A :

theoretical notation

Enharmonic notation

The fingers can be numbered with the thumb of each hand counted u . ~ o n e , ; h little finger as five:

.

.

.

The scales on the following pages should be pr~ctisedwith strict adherence to the fingerings given, the thumb passing under the other fingers in ascending wbile the other f i e r s pass over the thumb , descending: ,
\

C

.-

..

4 -

1

Finger iw for the Right hand

; r
w

a

4

b

4

a

Thumb under

,= -

'?''
Fingers over

Written:
8va means play an octave higher than written.

Played:

LOCO means return to the original octave.

C

A

B

C

D

E

F

G

F

E

D

C

B

A

G

When the notes written in the bass clef c l i i too high on the staff the treble clef can be used to eliminate the need for leger lines:

G

A

B

C

D

E

F

C

F

E

D

C

B

C

F

In the following pages major scales are presented by means of keyboard diagrams and annotation
on the Grand Staff.

Ex. CMajor Scale.
Key of C Major
C NIJor Scale in One Octave:

Key board

Diagram

Scale Tones Scale Degrees

-c -

-

--

D E F C A B C
2

1

3 4 5

6 7

8

b r i n g for tlse Right Hand

Fingering for the Left Hand

In the following pages the chords most cornmonb found in popular music r r s p m ~ n b d msanr of by keyboard diagrams.

E . C Yajer Trfad. r
A-trtlom:

Tmbk Clef
- = = = 4

Baee Clef

7

NOTE: another keyboard diagram for the fourth position of four-note chords and inversions of the
top four notes of five-,

six-,

and seven-note chords will be given where needed.

TO conserve space fingerings for the chords are not shown,
A

rule for fingering the chords is "use whrtetver fingering is comiortrble and convenient:'

Key of C Major
C Major Scale in One Octave

Scale Tones Scale Degrees

=
=

c

D E F G A B c 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

C Major Scale in Two Octaves

ScaleTones=C D E F G A B C D E F G A B C Scale degrees = 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

C

E

G

C/2

C+5

C-5

Cdim

E

d

C

Eb

Gb

C

C+5/3

Cdim 13

Cmaj 7
C

C

E

G

B

A

C

E

G

D

Cmaj 9

g E
C

p:

*
I
I

E

G

B

D

Key of ~b Major (identical to C# )
Db Major Scale in One Octave

Scale Tones =Db Eb Scale Degrees = 1 2

F ~b ~b ~b 3 4 5 6

C Dib 7 8

D b Major Scale in Two Octaves

Scale -Tones = Db Eb Scale Degrees = 1 2

3 4 5 6

7 8 9

1011 12 13

14 15

Db dim

32
Db7 Dbmi

C D ~F

~b

Cb ~b

F

~b

D b6

~ b m 6

Db dim 7

~b

F ~

b

~

b

F AbBb Db

Bb

Db

F

Ab

Bb
Db7+5

Db Fb

Ab

F

I

Key of D Major
D Major Scale in One Octave

Scale Tones

=

D E

F#G A B
3 4 5

C# D
7 8

Scale Degrees -- 1 2

6

D Major Scale in Two Octaves

Scale Tones Scale Degrees

= =

D E
1 2

F1#G A B
3 4

C# D E
7 8 9

14G

A B

C#D

5 6

10 11 12 13 14 15

Ddim

Dmaj 7

c#

Ddim 7

kj
D

cb

Dmaj 9

3
D

: 8

Key of E b Major
Eb Major Scale in One Octave

Scale Tones Scale Degrees

= =

Eb F G Ab Bb C D ~b
1 2 3 4

5

6

7

8

~ ~ ~ a Scale rin Two Octaves j o

Scale Tones Scale Degrees

= =

~b
1

F G ~b g c D Et, F G ~b ~b c D ~b b
2
3 4
5

6

7

8

9 10 11 12

13 14 15

Eb+5

Eb-5

E b dim

Key of E Major
E Major Scale in One Octave

Scale Tones Scale Degrees

= =

E FU G # A B C U D t E
1 2 3 4

5

6

7 8

E Major Scale in Two Octaves

Scale Tones

=

E
1

F t G # A B C# D # E F # GUA B C I D # E
2 3 4

Scale Degrees=

5

6 7 8

9 10 11 12 13 14 15

Edim

Emaj 7

9 E

C#

Rva

E.7s u s 4

Dh B A E

F#G# B
I

~4
Rva,

Ems

:\

El, b

9

! p: r

F#G~B~ ~h Rval

El. 6

pb
: l

Key of F Major
F Major Scale in One Octave

Scale Tones Scale Degrees

= =

F G A Bb C D E F
1 2 3 4
5
6

7

8

F Major Scale in Two Octaves

ScaleTones= F G A B ~ D E F G A B b C C Scale Degrees
=

D E

F

1 2 3 4

5

6 7 8

9 1011 12 13 14 15

F F/2

A

C

Fdim

E

I

Fmaj 1

C A
F

F

A

C

E

Fdim I

E C % '

b ;

D
I

F

A

C

8va

F1 b 9 1

F

C A

Ebb

Key of F# Major (identical to G
F # Major Scale in One Octave

b Major)

Scale Tones Scale Degrees

=
=

F4 G# A# B
1 2
3 4

C# D# E# F #
5

6

7 8

FU

Major Scale in Two Octaves

Scale T o n e s = Scale Degrees
=

F # G # A d B C# D# E#F#G$AjB
1 2 3 4

Cf D'# E # F # 14 15.

5

6

7 8 9 10 11 12 13

F # dim

# Jch F# -5/2

~h

dn!cil

59
n

Rva l

Key of G Major
G Major Scale in One Octave

Scale Tones Scale Degrees

= =

G A
1 2

B C D E F'#'G
3 4

5

6

7 8

G Major Scale in Two Octaves

Scale Tones Scale Degrees

=

G A
1 2

B C D E
3
4

F# G A

B C D E F# G

=

5 6

7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

G

B

D

G/2

Gdim

F#

Cmaj 7

D B G

G

B

D

F#

Gdim 7

"b D ~b
G

E

G

B

D

8va,

Gmajs

Gs

D

~ ' 4 AB

1

~ t lA

B

D

A B

D

F q

Gm s

Key of

Major

Ab Major S c a l e in One Octave

Scale Tones Scale Degrees

= =

kbB b
1 2

C

Db E b F G ~ ! b

3 4 5 6 7 8

n

I , I n h r:
v , ,
h I V *

I.

.
I I

A r

I
I

I

I

I rn I I

I

I

.
I I

r
I

I

.
I
I I

I

I I

r

a

o
I

a I

I

I

I . I I

a I

I I 0

I

I

~b

Major Scale in Two Octaves

Scale T o n e s = Scale Degrees
=

AbBb

C DbEb F G AbBb C DbEb F G Ab

1 2

3 4 5

6 7 8 9

10 11 12 13 14 15

A

8va---

- - - - - - Loco

A b dim

8Va

Rva

Rva

Hva

Rva

Rva A b rns

:tb 2

B%

nb.

8va

A Major Scale in One Octave

Scale Tones Scale Degrees

=
=

A B C.U D E
I

F'11 G # A

1 2 3

4 5

6 7 8

A Major Scale in Two Octaves

ScaleTones= Scale Degrees
=

A B
1 2

CUD E
3 4 5

F#GdA B c # D
6 7 8

E F#G#A

9 10 11 12 13 14 15

Adim

8va

Adim

8ua

Adim 7

E

b ;

Rva

Key of

~b Major

B b Major S c a l e in One Octave

Scale Tones Scale Degrees

=
=

~b

C D Eb
2 3 4

F G A

~b
8

1

5 6

7

B b Major S c a l e in Two Octaves

Scale Tones Scale Degrees

= =

~b

C D ~b F G
2 3 4

A ~b

C D ~b F G A ~b

1

5 6

7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

gva--

- - -- --

Loco

B b dim
800

~b ~b Bb dim /3

Bb

Bb

+5

Bbdim

Rva

Rva

~b dim 7

Eb,

At

D

F

A

C

C D

F

A

Rva

nua

K,ey of B Major ( identical t o ~b )
B Major Scale in One Octave

Scale Tones Scale Degrees

= =

13 C% D% E
1 2

Fltl G'#A@B

3

4

5 6

7

8

B Major Scale in Two Octaves

Scale Tones Scale Degrees

= =

B
1

C%D # E
2 3 4

F# G# A# B C# D%E
5 6 7

F U GS A # B

8

9 10 11 12 13 14 15

8va-

- -

--

- - - Loco

B+5

B--5

Bdim

:Ir
B

:$ B

Bdim 7

k$

9

Range of the Bass, Chords and Melody
H e r e i s a keyboard diagram showing the r a n g e s used f o r the b a s s , c h o r d s and melodies of popular songs:

r

Melody Range

Trademark

i

H e r e is a c h a r t showing the b a s s a n d c h o r d s in r o o t position f o r t h e C, Dm, F, a n d G c h o r d s which will be u s e d in t h e examples on the following pages:

Bass

Chord

Trademark

Trademark

Trademark

Trademark

Using Chords To Play Popular Songs
Many popular s o n g s a r e w r i t t e n in l e a d s h e e t form showing only the c h o r d s , melody a n d lyrics:

Chords
A I 1

Melody -w& cl Lyrics-when

2

)c
I
I I I

---

I

I I
I

I
V

I
I

I

d

8 '

*

e. l

I

I.

W '

I

I

hold

you.

T h e simnlest method o f i n t e r p r e t i n g t h e lead s h e e t is to play t h e .melody with t h e right hand and t o play sustained c h o r d s with the l e f t hand. T h e time s i g n a t u r e means t h a t t h e r e a r e t h r e e c o u n t s in e a c h measure. The left hand plays the c h o r d at t h e beginning of e a c h m e a s u r e a n d s u s t a i n s the c h o r d f o r all t h r e e counts:

C

E

G

D

F

A

(1

c o u n t :-1

2

3 1

1

2

3 1

1

2

3 1

1

2

3

1

T h e keyboard diagrams shown above e a c h song in this book a r e to help t h e s t u d e n t l e a r n the c h o r d s a n d t o s e e how they a r e used. Notice t h a t one c h o r d p e r m e a s u r e h a s b e e n used, e a c h c h o r d being r e p e a t e d in succesive m e a s u r e s until the c h o r d symbol changes. Root position c h o r d s a r e being u s e d b e c a u s e t h e y a r e easily remembered.

Here is the entire song which was presented a s an example on t h e previous page. Play this selection with sustained chords.

rn mnmn rn
C E G D F A F A C

m i
G B D

When I Hold You

when

I

hold

YOU

then

I

know

You

How

I

love

to

be

with

You

*
NOTE: omit the note D in the G major triad in the left hand when it conflicts with the D in the melody in the right hand.

The Waltz Rhythm Patterh
The waltz rhythm pattern i s found in the time signature of three counts in each measure. The waltz rhythm pattern is counted.

a, this

means

that there a r e

1. 2. 3. "One" "Two" "Three"
Chord Chord C c

The waltz rhythm pattern i s played : Bass (Abbreviated : B

>

The "Bass"is the root of the chord played an octave lower than the "Chord."

Bass

Chord

Trademark

Left hand alone : C Count: 1

Bass

f

Chord Chord

I

t

Bass

f

Chord

t

Chord

t

Right hand plays the melody while Left hand plays the waltz rhythm pattern:

Coordination Exercise: Waltz #l.
Coordination exercises a r e designed to give the student an opportunity to practice coordinating rhythm patterns with simple melodies and chords. In this coordination exercise the waltz rhythm pattern is abbreviated and placed below the count to help visualize the coordination of the melody and rhythm pattern.

rn
C E G Count: Rhythm Pattern:

D F A

Onmn
F A C

G B D

1
B

2
C

3
C

1
B

2
C

3
C

1
B

2
C

3
C

1
B

2
C

3
C

I
V

I

I d

I

I

c)

rl

I

I I I I

I

I

I I 0

I I

I

I

u
2 C 3 C
1 B

um

1 B

2 C

3 C

1 B

2 C

3 C

1 B

2 C

3 C

1 B

2 C

3 C

1 B

2 C

3 C

1 B

2 C

3 C

1 B

2 C

3 C

1 B

2 C

3 C

1 B

2 C

3 C

The Fox Trot Rhythm Pattern
The fox trot rhythm pattern i s found in the time signature of sometimes written C (which means common time). This means that there a r e four counts per measure. The fox trot rhythm pattern i s counted: The fox trot rhythm pattern is played : : (Abbreviated
1. "One " Bass B 2. 'Two" Chord

+,

C

3. 'Three" Bass B

4.
"Four"

Chord c )

The "Bass" is the root of the chord and is played an octave lower the "Chord:'

Bass

Chord

Trademark

Left hand alone:

Count: 1

2

3

4

1

2

3

4

Bass Chord Bass Chord Bass Chord Bass Chord

Right hand plays the melody while Left hand plays the fox trot rhythm pattern:

B

C

B

C

B

C

B

C

Coordination Exercise: Fox Trot # 1.
In this exercise the fox trot rhtyhm pattern has been abbreviated and placed below the count in order to help visualize the coordination of the melody and the rhythm pattern.

Count: 1 Rhythm Pattern:

2

3

4

1

2

3

4

B

C

B

C

B

C B C

1

2

3

4

1

2

3

4

1

2

3

4

B C B C

B C B C

B C B C

1

2

3

4

1

2

3

4

1

2

3

4

B

C

B

C

B C B

C

B

C B C

The fox t r o t rhythm p a t t e r n is also u s e d for f a s t tempos such a s polkas and marches. The fox t r o t rhythm p a t t e r n is often written in + m e t r e , In Q m e t r e the fox t r o t rhythm p a t t e r n is counted In +metre the fox t r o t rhythm p a t t e r n is played (Abbreviated also written as. "And" Chord

$
"And" Chord

:

1. "One"

+

2. "Two"

+
c

: Bass :B

Bass

C

B

>

C

Bass

Chord

Trademark

a

e

a * .

T

L e f t hand alone:

B

C

B

C

B

C

B

C

Right hand plays the melody while the left hand plays the fox t r o t rhythm p a t t e r n :

V
B C

B

v

C

B

v

C

V

B

C

Alternating the Bass.
Repeating the same bass note creates a certain monotony called the droning e f f e c t . To avoid the droning effect alternate the bass. The following chart shows which chord-tones to use when alternating the bass:

Chord
Major Chord Minor Chord Augmented Chord Lowered Fifth Chord Diminished Chord

Fundamental B a s s
Root Root Root Root Root

Alternating B a s s
Fifth ( 5 ) Fifth ( 5 ) Third ( 3 ) Third ( 3 ) Flatted Third ( b 3 )

(R)
(R) (R) (R) (R)

Here a r e some examples of the alternating bass a for C major T r i a d :

7 7

Fundamental

Alternating Chord

\a s s B

Bass

Trademark

I 11 111 11

Left hand alone:

C
Count: 1 Waltz 2 3

C Count:l Fox Trot

2

3

4

1

2

3

4

1

2

3

4

1

2

3

4

I
I B R

I
I

I

I
I

I

I
I

I

I

C

B
5

C

B
R

C

B

C

B
R

C

B
5

C

B
R

C

B

C

5

5

Using Different Chord Positions
When all of the chords in a song are played in root position the transitions between chords a r e not smoothe because of the necessary hand movement up and down the staff :

rnmm
C E G

Srmther transitions between chords can be Rade by using different chord positions:

m
E G C

Alternating the Alternating Bass
Often in the transition between chords a droning effect occurs in the bass even though the bass is alternating :

C/ 2 /C
Count: 1
2.

C / 2 /G 3 4

G/3/G 1 2

G/ 3 /D
3
4

Droning Effect Notice that the alternating bass for both chords is root and fifth (R and 5 ) . T h e droning e f f e c t is created because of the repetition of the G bass notes in the transition between the C and G chords, C/2/G and W 3
T

/$

TO'

avoid the droning effect simply alternate the alternating bass notes:

C/ 2 /R
Count : 1 2

C/ 2/G
3
4

C/ 3/D 1 2

G/ 3 /G
3
4

B R

C

B 5

C

B 5

C

B F

C

'

Reversing the order of the alternating bass notes in the G chord now avoids the droning efect:

Other Piano & Electronic Keyboard Titles from Creative Keyboard
T k P u n ~ Trrrm7- Boot i P*u~hf8&r&)u&-Boot TkPiwmGkhSRia-Boolil P i A l m U w - B o o t P*u@-BootdCD PiprIM-Boot TkPiuMrrir./~S1.rdu,Bub-Boot

BMh~TbrW&TempdCLr*r,VJarl-Boot &k T k W k C T m p d W . V b 2 - B o o t Bub: Tbr W C T m f d W , V k I &I
cr)rrrli&n-Boot ~ o l p k r P L r W & ~ - B o o b %-*(Sapby ) -.~ZA~-~JLU~-Bmkw32PiarSmmZ-Vd -a-Boolir ~-47~k(Sapb,*)-Boot BsdlmcDaa-Boot l ? d " m . k k d W - B o o t &abrrrPLrS*rCV.bu a-hob ~.PiarSI%7-VJarZII-hob ~ . ~ L i a & S I I I I P & ~ - B o o t lL%demK""IfiPLrSn*r-&.aCrsV~IVkbr~-Boob Bmkm v w I-IlKhqm,&dm Bd &.bffSSplJ6.&5lEarri*r-Boot &*lrFauli,bI-&P*uP*a-Bmk &*lrPiruS.L+Vd F u k k r - BodP

-

sr6riJh-Bodr II*LCIISIIIIP*-%dbtulwe&*Tme-Boot % d b t u l P L r ~ ~ - B o o t J&Hd7k&uar-eoot

S.arJllk*&r*pk-Boot lkswkot-Boot Smrb SPhh& Boot -&:Boot s+Ph+w&~-Boot hDM-Boot

aniu&&pegP*u-Boot
Q b d p a b h - Boot

zP u B d- * y o rM

Fa-ie*(]birr*--

Fa-ieAmeQlaiaSna-Bod. F i l s ~

~

~

G+37P*uPLas-Boot G+H.I*asrin:Mrid*rlrmgarrrr-

zLda&-"Boot
M P t m ~ ~ ~ - C D R O M &kmC3knmt.&rr6rmr-CDROM

Book

G+Lr;rk-Boot G + N ~ M S m l g J ~ ~ - B o o t G+RwGpad&-dYmb-

&km-*-cDaoM

CD-ROM MgaUf.rrrrIksr-CD-ROM MPtmouxffPI.u~-CDROM ~ ~ ~ C D M I F E ~ l U k d l - B o o t MIFEBnaur&*U2-Boot MLFE-MLd3-Boot MIFE&duLdl-Boot HIFE&duMZ-Boot MIFEYlULdl-Boot MLFEW&kdl-Boot rnW&Ld2-Boot *CnrtPiruasm3-Boot M&./LLhJ.$rAw&Lo1.-Boot Md./~ldallfi~lUT~-Boot h'aiudimnm pRuu-BmLdCD .vaawM2Boot ouTiOg.Ih-WdCD op&hndMdJxr Aw Booli P&1Car-& P&sCar&kh-Boot pduWldjQAwBwk1-Boot mumwbpAurBr*2-w

R

O

M MIultUk(SapbySIQ)-soa h%nFcSIPO.~dRnlil&U-Booh MllrcPiark-Boot -PiarWCVdIVkbra-Boot hk&PiarSJ*EV.L -aBoot MIultVaPb*lr-Boot 0lpb.pi.l. W&-Boot

Y d AUmfiPieo- Boot

-

TkTbrA.urr1CbrbrSaro-Boob

TkPknrasOBbburSmu-kwh

~ O L P + 3 * - B o o t *Clur*rl IsU-Bod. CP.E B.&PLr%M*a-lhab MeLc&&ifu-Boot Me*dM--Bodr B.&fiap.ip-Boot hrtli..rLs.ipo-Boot B . & ~ &-Boot B.&I~+~m&&h& R,ydW;dp&-Bodr Ilr+PiarEarri*rI-Boot &LkWI--W B.&PLrWomp**v~Boot B+Tm-Boot

UrtadEdI

..

+

~

~

&

~

Exclusive DisfrSibutor of KevinMayhew Products. For informafioncontact:
COMPLETE CATALOG AVAILABLE

..

Creative Keyboard Publications
P.O. Box 66 Pacific, MO 63069 Toll Free: 1-800-8-MEL OAY (1800-863-5229) Fax: (636) 257-5062 Phone: (636) 257-3970

Visit us on the Web at www.melbay.com E-mail us at emailOmelbay.com

I S B N 0-873bb-577-Ll

>>

$9.75

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful