THE EFFECT ON PURCHASE INTENTION THROUGH THE DIMENSIONS OF BRAND IMAGE AND BRAND OF ORIGIN

Kuang-Wen Wu, Department of International Trade, Feng Chia University, No. 100, Wenhwa Rd., Seatwen, Taichung 40724, Taiwan ROC kwwu@fcu.edu.tw Kun-Chang Wu Department of International Trade, Feng Chia University, No. 100, Wenhwa Rd., Seatwen, Taichung 40724, Taiwan ROC kujonwu@yahoo.com.tw ABSTRACT This research, which investigated the dimensions of brand image and brand of origin, is aimed at finding out the relationships between these two elements within the women’s footwear industry in Taiwan. Specifically, it aimed to examine the influence of the level of brand image on consumers’ purchase intentions in this study. The three dimensions of brand image, as defined in this study, focused on three types of benefits provided by brand image; functional benefits, symbolic benefits, and experiential benefits. The research uses the dimensions innovativeness, design, prestige, and workmanship to evaluate the effect of brand of origin. For data collection, this research utilized convenience sampling of females in Taiwan. The questionnaires in this research were distributed around department stores and female footwear retail stores in southern, central, and northern areas of Taiwan. A total of 710 valid responses used in the data analysis procedures. This research uses descriptive statistical analysis to analyze the characters of the samples, and adopts factor analysis to simplify complex and diverse relationships among the variables. The efficiency of all questionnaires will be evaluated through reliability and validity analysis. This research uses structural equation modeling to test and examine the relationships among observed and latent variables with the purpose of highlighting and testing dimensions which can influence the variables significantly. Finally, this research purposed to evaluate and determine best practices for influencing consumer purchase intention within the women’s footwear industry in Taiwan. Key words: Brand Image, Brand of Origin, Purchase Intention INTRODUCTION To satisfy the need of consumers were always focused on the price and quality of products or services before, but branding is becoming more and more important for the consumers. The progress of production technology and the difference among each product become fewer. Due to these reasons, the method of profiting for enterprises focuses on how to increase consumer purchase intention and repurchase intention of their products today. Consequently, the purchase intention in female footwear industry was one of the main points of the study. Recently, most of the Taiwanese industries are still original equipment manufacturer. In this situation there are two methods to increase profit and enhance competitive advantage: the first is to set up the ability to achieve global-logistic and the second is to
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This concept was explained that when consumers buy a name brand product such NIKE or TOTOTA. country of design. Verlegh & Steenkamp.build the development of brand extension. It is necessary to develop and operate brands in the Taiwan footwear industry. LITERATURE REVIEW Brand of Origin It is often difficult for buyers to discern the true intrinsic quality (e. According to the second way. even thought the product was produced or assembled in other country. There were eight studies that measured country image construct using different scaled items. Brand image will influence the consumer purchase intention positively in this research. this study discussed the effect on consumer purchase intention through the path which was from brand of origin to brand image. there is a massive amount of hybrid products available for consumers to choose from. (2) related to perception of a country’s 2 .Therefore. the dumping on footwear from China causes the local footwear industry declined. which analyzed those for the past three decades. the value which created by the brand will be higher than the products itself. Roth and Romeo(1992) differentiated four dimensions of brand of origin: innovativeness. Country of Origin of Brand). 1982) and only one research reported the correlation (White 1979) . and country of manufacture) as the basis for their evaluations of product quality. consumers usually use extrinsic cues (e.g. brand. The research objectives in this study: (1) To find out the relationships between each dimension of brand image and each dimension of brand of origin in the female footwear industry. Due to globalization. There are two methods for solving the predicament: (1) Differentiation (2) Brand Development. Brand Image. explaining that country of origin of brand may influence brand image and brand equity. 2004). therefore this research will focus on the theories of brand (e. (3) Whether the level of brand image can influence the consumers purchase intention in the female footwear industry. and the larger samples generate larger effect of country of origin than smaller samples and single cue produced larger effect of country of origin than multiple cues. 1995. Lantz and Loeb (1996) defined country image as the consumers’ perceived overall evaluation of a particular country. Han (1989) announced the halo effect which interpreted that a buyer’s generally favorable perceptions about a particular country which causes favorable judgments about that country’s products and vice versa. once the brand was accepted by consumers. price. At present.g. Phau and Prendergast(2000)announced the concept of country of origin of brand (COB).g. There were a lot of studies on the country of origin. design. Tsai. 1999. Lee & Wu. they will perceive the American style shoes and Japanese high technology. therefore. (2) To identify how the brand of origin affect brand image in the female footwear industry. They proposed that each dimension of brand of origin meted the criteria: (1) were consistently found in previous. color. the consumers did have different judgments against its country of origin (Samiee 1994. and verbal product descriptions produce larger effect of country of origin than the actual product presence. flavor. and workmanship. Peterson and Jolibert (1995) had done a meta-analysis on the effect of the country of origin. Aaker and Keller’s (1990) research discovered that a brand with positive image improves consumer loyalty and trust and strengthens consumers purchase intention. 2003. Therefore. but only one research study reported the item means (Cattin et al. Peterson & Jolibert. prestige. According to the halo effect which was announced by Han (1989). Orbaiz & Papadopoulos. this research found that country of origin have only somewhat generalization. fit) of products.

subsequently stimulating consumer's purchasing behavior. or other feature that distinguishes products and services from competitive offerings. Verlegh & Steenkamp. This leads to Hypothesis H1: H1: Each dimension of brand of origin has a positive relationship with brand of origin in the female footwear industry. Orbaiz & Papadopoulos. Brand Image Kotler (2000) defined that A brand is a name. A positive product belief on a given origin will have a positive effect on brand image. H1a: The innovativeness dimension has a positive relationship with brand of origin in the female footwear industry. 3 . With reference to the foregoing the study raised nine hypotheses as below: H2:Each dimension of brand image has a positive relationship with brand image in the female footwear industry. Like the Aaker’s definition. focusing on satisfying consumers’ basic needs. (3) either intuitively and/or based on previous researches. H1c: The prestige dimension has a positive relationship with brand of origin in the female footwear industry. are applicable to a broad range of product categories. and can be used for distinguishing with competitor's products and servers. (3) Experiential: subjective experience from using the product or service. 2000. design. (2) Symbolic: added value of a product or services. MacInnis’ (1986) research. The brand image is important in marketing because the brand image is regarded as the clue of a kind of information. The country of origin image (country image) has direct influence toward product beliefs (Erickson et al. stressing the ability to fulfill consumers’ inner needs and self-image. According to Park. Therefore. 2003). H : The functional dimension has a positive relationship with brand image 2a in the female footwear industry. term. the brand is a specific name or mark. H2b: The symbolic dimension has a positive relationship with brand image in the female footwear industry. Jaworski and. brand of origin would influence the brand image. Teas & Agarwal. H1d: The workmanship dimension has a positive relationship with brand of origin in the female footwear industry. 1984.production and marketing strengths and weaknesses. Kamins and Marks (1991) announced that consumers’ regarding is familiarity and the product with good brand image. symbol. and they will have higher brand attitudes and purchase intention. 1999.. Keller (1993) proposed that a brand as an association or recognition consumer’s make based on their memory toward a product. The consumers depend on the brand image to deduct quality of product. a brand image should be based on brand concept-image. Chao. 1998. which can be structured in the following three benefits: (1) Functional: actual benefits from using a product or service. H : The design dimension has a positive relationship with brand of origin 1b in the female footwear industry.

timing. H3a-4: The workmanship dimension of brand of origin has a direct positive effect on the functional dimension of brand image in the female footwear industry. H3a-2: The design dimension of brand of origin has a direct positive effect on the functional dimension of brand image in the female footwear industry. & Grewal. H3a-3: The prestige dimension of brand of origin has a direct positive effect on the functional dimension of brand image in the female footwear industry. Monroe. H3c-4: The workmanship dimension of brand of origin has a direct positive effect on the experiential dimension of brand image in the female footwear industry. H3b-1: The innovativeness dimension of brand of origin has a direct positive effect on the symbolic dimension of brand image in the female footwear industry.H2c: The experiential dimension has a positive relationship with brand image in the female footwear industry. H3a-1: The innovativeness dimension of brand of origin has a direct positive effect on the functional dimension of brand image in the female footwear industry. H3c-3: The prestige dimension of brand of origin has a direct positive effect on the experiential dimension of brand image in the female footwear industry. consumer behavior occurs when consumers are stimulated by external factors and come to a purchase decision based on their personal characteristics and decision making process. This means consumers’ purchasing behavior is affected by their choice of product and brand. H3b-2: The design dimension of brand of origin has a direct positive effect on the symbolic dimension of brand image in the female footwear industry. 1991). H3: Each dimension of brand of origin has a direct positive effect on each dimension of brand image in the female footwear industry. These factors included choosing a product. According to Kotler (2000). 4 . H3b-3: The prestige dimension of brand of origin has a direct positive effect on the symbolic dimension of brand image in the female footwear industry. H3c-2: The design dimension of brand of origin has a direct positive effect on the experiential dimension of brand image in the female footwear industry. a retailer. and quantity. H3c-1: The innovativeness dimension of brand of origin has a direct positive effect on the experiential dimension of brand image in the female footwear industry. brand. H3b-4: The workmanship dimension of brand of origin has a direct positive effect on the symbolic dimension of brand image in the female footwear industry. Purchase Intention Purchase intention means probably attempting to buy a product (Dodds.

Framework According to the literature review. therefore. Look. (1996) thought the consumers’ familiar degree to the products is the higher. and north areas of Taiwan. it will have higher satisfaction to the products too. The questionnaires were distribute to the female footwear shopper around the department stores and female footwear retail stores in south. they were excluded from the research population. KOKKO. Japan. and the sample of this study was selected from female footwear shoppers who received the questionnaire invitations to do a survey.Consumers’ purchase intentions always arise after consumer perceived value and perceived benefit. Comparatively speaking. People comparatively purchase those which are familiar with oneself and the products with good brand image because the good brand image can make you feel at ease and reliable. the framework in the study was shown in Figure 1: Brand of Origin (H1) ˙˙Innovativeness ˙˙Design ˙˙Prestige ˙˙Workmanship Brand Image (H2) H3 ˙˙Functional ˙˙Symbolic ˙˙Experiential H4 Purchase Intention Figure 1 The Research Framework METHODOLOGY Sampling Plan There were about 750 questionnaires distributed in this study. SENSE 1991. The sampling method in this study was convenience sampling. Miss Sofi. and Europe. will have higher brand attitudes and purchase intention. Kamins and Marks (1991) advocated that consumers’ regarding is familiarity and the product with good brand image. the better the confidence and attitude to the products are. GREEN PINE. H4b: The symbolic dimension of brand image has a direct positive effect on the level of purchase intention in the female footwear industry. the research chose purchasing intention to be the indicator of consumers making a buying decision identify whether or not the brand image will significantly influence consumer’s purchasing intention. The targeted brands used to do the survey were suitable for young consumers. H4a: The experiential dimension of brand image has a direct positive effect on the level of purchase intention in the female footwear industry. H4a: The functional dimension of brand image has a direct positive effect on the level of purchase intention in the female footwear industry. The female footwear with Taiwanese brand such as AS. However. the following research hypotheses are proposed: H4: Each dimension of brand image has a direct positive effect on the level of purchase intention in the female industry. Therefore. people who were less than 18 years old have inadequate power with consumption. Dianan. and these countries were Taiwan. and the purchase intention will be higher. Hence. people who were older than 40 years old did not applied to do the survey in this study. The study aimed at the research population of the ages between 18 and 40 years old. Three countries were chosen in the study for measure each item. non-no. Laroche et al. Annalee was 5 . Therefore. central.

88. and the European brands like TAS. The largest educational group was college (74.5%). 1996). color. reliability and validity analysis. The largest age group was between 18 and 24 years old (64. ClayDerman. style. one-factor vs. and 6 . craftsmanship. which was slightly fewer than the second largest group. The largest group of personal income per month was NT$20.0 and AMOS statistic package software. 1992) were modified by the author in this study: use of new technology. Instrumentation Some constructs cannot be observed directly in the social science field. was professional (9. The Japanese brands such as 2. while the measured behavior scores are termed observed or manifest variables (Byrne. Using SEM to understand social and behavioral circumstances whether or not (1) a good initial model is conceptualized based on a sound underlying substantive theory. exclusivity. All instruments were modified from existing scale. personal expression. The theoretical phenomena that scales intend to measure are often called latent variables.2%) and the smallest age group was 40 years old or more (. bellwink. iki2. and so the researcher has to use scales to measure the theoretical constructs. social approval. (2) appropriate data are collected to estimate the unknown population parameters. appearance. thereby strengthening the external validity of study findings. The dimensions of brand of origin and brand image were sub-constructs in this study. 2001). It may be possible that the final data-producing sample closely represents the target population. prestige. symbolic. status.000 or less (61.6%). whereas the third largest educational group. The descriptive statistic analysis was used to realize the distribution of the sample characteristics. design. The second largest educational group was high school (9. Fiorucci. 47 respondents did not finish the survey. this study used Cronbach’s α to measure the coefficient of internal consistency of variables in the questionnaire. and the statistic analysis method was SEM (Structural Equation Modeling). Cumar. and discriminative validity were ensured respectively. The majority of respondents were single (85. The largest occupation group of the respondents was students.8%). The average of the respondents’ age was 21. and Descriptive Statistic Analysis. while the second largest group of marital states married (14. Minx. variety. this study required measures of seven latent variables: innovativeness. durability. workmanship. ZUCCA. For reliability. sensory pleasure. and Ophélie were chosen in the survey of this study. two factor tests for convergent validity. the initial model is modified appropriately should evidence of lack-of-fit and model misspecification arise (Muller. safety. Single factor confirmatory factor analysis. Therefore.3%). This resulted in a total of 710 valid responses used in the data analysis procedures. (3) the fit of those data to the priori hypothesized model is assessed.1%). The items used to measure each dimension of brand image were proposed by lots of empirical researches and modified by the author. The items of purchase intention were adopted Dodd’s et al. and experiential. and manufacturing quality. The items used to measure each dimension of brand of origin (Roth and Romeo’s. Desire.8%). use of new engineering advances.Maa.(1991) perspectives such as design well. Data Analysis Method It analyzed the data with SPSS 10. and (4) whether theoretically justified.8%).used to hint the respondents to do the survey. functional. RESULT Sample Characteristic Among the 757 respondents who participated in the questionnaire survey. The age range of the respondents was from 18 to 75. and cognitive stimulation.

97 . As shown in Table 1.81 . providing good estimates of internal consistency reliability. Table 1 Reliability of Scales and Item-Construct Factor Loadings Construct/Factor/Item  Factor loading Brand of Origin Innovativeness (Cronbach’s alpha = .91 Cognitive stimulation .80 to .98 Use of new engineering advances .84 Manufacturing quality .94 Design well . brand image.65 Personal expression .93 Social approval .78 .76 Variety .70.77 Appearance .72 Safety .62 .88) .74 .82 Workmanship (Cronbach’s alpha = . 1994). from . coefficient alpha values ranged from .92 for the four dimensions of brand of origin.92) .88 Purchase Intention Probability of buy the product of this brand .60 .70 .82 Sensory pleasure .58 .77 .77 Symbolic (Cronbach’s alpha = .000 (14.73 Reliability and Validity of Scales The reliability of scales used in this study was calculated by Cronbach's coefficient alpha.85 to .78 .62 .80 . The coefficient alpha values exceeded the minimum standard of .79 Status .66 .89 Brand Image Functional (Cronbach’s alpha = .73 Experiential (Cronbach’s alpha = .49 .86 Accord with the economic benefits .53 .40 .77 Durability .89 Exclusivity .85 R2 .89 for the three dimensions of brand image.79 Acceptability for the price of product .42 .7 (Nunnally & Bernstein. and purchase intention obtained an acceptable level of a coefficient alpha above .67 .88 .80) .79 Willing to buy the product of this brand . and .63 Use of new technology .88 Style .65 .6%). The reason caused this situation was most of the respondents were students.81 Craftsmanship .82 .85) .51 .90 Color .89) .86 .88) . indicating that 7 .72 . All four dimensions of brand of origin.66 .second largest group of personal income per month was between NT$20.89 for purchase intention.001 and NT$25.65 .63 Prestige (Cronbach’s alpha = .85 Design (Cronbach’s alpha = .81) .69 .

95 PNFI PGFI . TLI=. As each factor loading on each construct was more than .86 >. and all of the goodness-of-fit indices.08 >.98.99. expect RMSE and PGFI.04.05 ≧0 2 to 5 <.. The model fit results of second-order CFA of brand image indicated that the model sufficiently the sample.63 (see Table 1). Tatham.96.58 >. GFI=. The results implied that it has a good model fit. Anderson. Although the values of PNFI and PGFI did not meet the thresholds. The results of goodness-of-fit results completely supported 8 2 Value good fit χ 2 1424. The estimates of standardized factor loadings were used to determine the convergent validity of scales. Table 2 Goodness-of-Fit Results of Causal Structure Model of Purchase Intention Desired range of values for a Goodness-of-fitstatistics Absolute fit measures Chi-square test Degree of freedom Chi-square / degree of freedom ratio Goodness of fit index Incremental fit measures Adjusted good-of-fit index Turker-Lewis index Normed fit index Comparative fit index Parsimonious fit measures Parsimonious normed fit index Parsimonious goodness-of-fit index Path Analysis with Latent Variables The model fit results of second-order CFA model of brand of origin indicated that the model sufficiently fit the sample.50. & Black.90 . NFI=.84 .85 p>. the convergent validity for each construct in this study was established (Hair.99). CFI=.50 .98).48. The minimum factor loading in the confirmatory factor analysis for items in this study was .40 Root mean square error of approximation RMSEA GFI AGFI TLI NFI CFI . 1998).82 . RMSEA=.74 >. and most of the goodness-of fit indices were satisfied with their relative recommended thresholds (χ = 92.the scales used in this study were reliable.90 >.99. AGFI=.90 df χ / df 2 10. their values were very close to the threshold. the goodness-offit results supported H1 (including H1a to H1d) and indicated that each dimension of brand of origin had a positive relationship with brand of origin.50 >. CFI=. were not satisfied with their relative recommended thresholds(GFI=.99.90 >.11 .43 137 . Therefore.68 .

348** <---Experiential 9 .703** 6.74. Table 3 Regression Weights of the Hypothesized Causal Structure Model Standardized β S.031 0. Purchase Intention . RMSEA=.11.417 0. Table 2 presents goodness-of-fit results of the causal structure model.030* 2.083 1.593 .528 Functional<---Design Functional<---Prestige Functional<---Workmanship Symbolic<---Innovativeness Symbolic<---Design Symbolic<---Prestige Symbolic<---Workmanship Experiential<---Innovativeness Experiential<---Design Experiential<---Prestige Experiential<---Workmanship . Functional<---Innovativeness -.074 0.759** 9. t-value coefficient H3: Each dimension of brand of origin has a direct positive effect on each dimension of brand image in the female footwear industry.027 0.035 0.960** 6.116 .039 7. PNFI=.029 0. The measurement error variance could represent a high degree than others (Byren.037 0.034 0.420 .119 .58).103 0.032** 4.047 5.255 0.607** 3.E.200 .472 -.051 0. Although some fit indexes did not meet their thresholds.128 3.034 0. PGFI=.209 <---Symbolic Purchase Intention .023 -1.091 .591** -2.536** 5.863** <---Functional Purchase Intention .974** -2. After deleting those items that have higher degree of overlap the model fit results of causal structure model of purchase intention indicated that the model poor fit the sample (χ2=1424.H2 (including H2a toH2c) and indicated that each dimension of brand image had a positive relationship with brand image. The casual structure model of purchase intention was designed to test the hypothesis that purchase intention was influenced by the dimensions of brand of image through the dimensions of brand image.68.318 . those value of those indexes were very close to the thresholds and thus they represented an acceptable model fit.43.328 . AGFI=. GFI=.078 0.85.288 0.593** 6.055 0. 2001).350 -.893** Structural Path Result H3 Partial Supported H3a-1 Not Supported H3a-2 Supported H3a-3 Supported H3a-4 Supported H3b-1 Supported H3b-2 Supported H3b-3 Supported H3b-4 Supported H3c-1 Supported H3c-2 Supported H3c-3 Supported H3c-4 Supported H4 Supported H4a Supported H4b Not Supported H4c Supported H4: Each dimension of brand image has a direct positive effect on the level of purchase intention in the female industry.

200 .318 . design to symbolic (t = -1. There was also no significant relationship between symbolic dimension and purchase intention.202 -.** p ≤ .328 .103 .306 ** .306 ** ** ** .116 .119 * ** . * p ≤ .055 -. indirect.202 ** -.417 ** Work .319 .255 ** ** . This indicated that innovativeness dimension had no significant effects on both functional and symbolic dimensions.472 . Func = Function.288 * Indirect effects PurchaseIntention Total effects Func Sym Exp PurchaseIntention ** p ≤ . * p ≤ .255 .472 ** ** ** Pres . Inn = Innovativeness.05 As shown in Table 3. Pres = Prestige.350 . However.318 . and there was no significant relationship between design dimension and symbolic dimension. and symbolic to purchase intention (t = -1.05) were not significant. p > .200 ** Func Sym Exp -.097. Table 4 Standardized Direct Effects.01. as presented in Table 4.01 .091 -.417 ** .593 ** ** ** Des . and total effects.350 . .319 ** .103 . p > .05 Note.05). Indirect Effects.055 -. the regression weight of innovativeness to functional (t = -1. The analyses of direct.420 . Work = Workmanship.05). may help to understand how exogenous variables influenced endogenous variables. 10 * ** ** ** ** ** -.328 .067 ** ** ** ** .116 . p > . innovativeness to symbolic (t = -1.609. Using standardized data allows this study to compare the relative effect of each exogenous latent variable on the endogenous latent variable.851. and Total Effects of the Hypothesized Model Inn Direct effects Func Sym Exp Purchase Intention .067 ** .420 .119 * ** . p > . the unstandardized data were difficult to make comparisons with each effect.05).091 -.209.593 .288 ** .

the brand name in this study were not luxurious brand such as LV. three of thirteen direct effects were not significant: innovativeness to functional (-. The results indicated that the innovativeness dimension of brand of origin has a negatively indirect effect on purchase intention through the experiential dimension of brand image. therefore. the hypothesized model was modified to the model presented in Figure 2. innovativeness to symbolic (-. and symbolic to purchase intention (. and that means less innovation). Exp = Experiential In Table 4. workmanship to purchase intention (. the respondents did not agree that the items used to measure symbolic dimension: social approval and personal expression. The consumers may have existed stereotype on the brands in this study. The design dimension of brand has a positively indirect effect on purchase intention through the functional dimension and experiential dimension of brand image. the original hypothesis stated that each dimension of brand of original has positive relationships with each dimension of brand. Similarly. The modified casual model removed the arrows representing the relationship between each dimension of brand of origin and each dimension of brand image. and design to purchase intention (. Those unpredicted results may due to several reasons like brands we use in the existed market were mostly normal goods (mostly taken for comparatively lower price. DISCUSSION The data analysis indicated that brand of origin may influence purchase intention through brand image. According to the prior discussion.202).067). and purchase intention. the relationship between innovativeness dimension and experiential dimension were negative in this study. this research has shown that their relationship was negative.055).Sym = Symbolic. It is the two functional dimension and experiential dimension rather than symbolic dimension that affect purchase intention.319). distortions like most people may assume that the relationship between innovativeness dimension and symbolic dimension are positive. All the four indirect effects were significant: innovativeness to purchase intention (-. GUCCI and so on.091).103). The study aimed at female footwear. However. The innovativeness dimension of brand of origin has negative effect on symbolic dimension and experiential. prestige to purchase intention (.306). Nonetheless. and innovativeness dimension to experiential dimension became unpredictable. The outcome of innovativeness dimension to symbolic dimension. so that symbolic dimension of brand image wouldn’t affect purchase intention in this study. 1991) that brand image indeed positively affect purchase intention. Brand of Origin Brand Image Purchase Intention Innovativeness Functional 11 . therefore. and Kamins and Marks (1990. The prestige dimension and workmanship dimension has positively indirect effects on purchase intention through each dimension of brand image. These results supported the empirical finding of Aaker and Keller.

Practical Implications Brand of origin could improve brand image and then affect purchase intention through the dimensions: innovativeness. other significant variables. design. a rather restricted small area. for example. In any future study. Although innovativeness dimension may have indirect effect on purchase intention negatively. The targeted brands of each country were medium price. prestige. The average of the respondents’ age was 21. It was not available for the application of marketing implication derived from the study in the whole consumers in Taiwan because most of the respondents in this study were college students or young consumers. it indicated that this study can only apply to the young consumers who were about 18 to 24 years old. Manufactures or marketers could formulate a competitive strategy based on the modified model to keep current customers and to attract new 12 . and workmanship. therefore the results in this study can only explain about the female footwear has medium price. It only represented the consumers in Taiwan instead of all of the consumers in the world. therefore the objective for application of the marketing implications derived from the empirical test of six constructs on “a model of purchase intention towards brands from various brand of origin. such as involvement and price effect.88. Future studies may use a different sampling method to collect data. The most important strategy for manufactures or sellers is to increase purchase intention of female footwear by improving workmanship and prestige such as improve the quality /use better material or letting consumers feel that their female footwear is exclusive. randomly selecting respondents from a list of customers of a specific department store. If more samples with various representations could be selected. other three dimensions of brand of origin have indirect effect on purchase intention positively. the results could be helpful to businesses to understand the value of their brands and the differences compared to others.Design Purchase Intention Prestige Experiential Workmanship Figure 2 Modified Causal Model Limitations and Future Research The study was limited to the area of Taiwan. The research results do not really apply to other age groups since most of the respondents in the study were students. and those brands did not involve high and low price brand.” The study could only be demonstrated in Tainan City. may be added into the hypothesized causal structural model.

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