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Thayer Ban ve quan he giua Cam-pu-chia va My

Thayer Ban ve quan he giua Cam-pu-chia va My

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Published by Carlyle Alan Thayer
In Vietnamese: an analysis of Cambodia's diplomatic, political, economic, defence and security relations with the United States since 1991.
In Vietnamese: an analysis of Cambodia's diplomatic, political, economic, defence and security relations with the United States since 1991.

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NGHIENCDu

Quocm
INTERNATIONAL STUDIES
NGUYEN Al"11 TuAN
Tac dong cua l liep dinh tac xuv cn Thai Binh
Duong (TPP) :lri tiCll trinh h(Ji nhdp quoc cua Viet
Naill

Vai suy nghT v0 Ngoai giao da phuong Viet Narn
DU'ONG VAN
Ngoai giao da phirong tai UNESCO
XUAN NAl\l
Kinh nghicm dua d6i thoai van hoa vao dong
ngoai giao ella ong eha ta trong lich SLr
NGUYEN TIl! l\lY
Dong gop cua Nco Thi Nham deli \o'i n0n nuoai uiao
0, _ ' 0
Vi¢t Nam
CARLYLE A. TIIAYER
Ban v0 yuan h¢ giu'a Cam-pu-chia va t\15
LAN DUl"G
Nan"
o.
eao vi th0 va vai tro cua u,
..
vicn khonu thuonu
b b
true HQi dl\ng Baa an: Cac each ticp can
BO NGOAI GIAO
S62 (89)
1t:1i'i\'I, HOC VII;.N NGOAI GIAO
6 - 2012
• 'DIPLOMATIC ACADEMY OF VIET NAM
Nghien CLPU
s6 2 (89)
6 - 2012
Quae te
CHI 3 THANG 1 KY
HQC VleN GIAO - SQ GIAO
esc PHO TONG BIEN TAp
TS. DiNH LuAN
Ths. HUNG SON
THANH VIEN BAN BIEN TAP
PGS.TS. ANH TuAN
TS. D]NH LUAN
Ths. DU'ONG THANH BINH
Ths. BUI THUY L1NH
THU' KY TOA SOAN
Ths. BUI THUY L1NH
EllA CHI TOA SOAN
69 PH<J CHUA LANG - D<JNG DA - HA NOI
Tong dai : (84-4) 38.344.540
Email: tapchi_ncqt@mofa.gov.vn
May le: 117 (Bien tap), 156 (Phat hanh)
Web: VvWW.hocvienngoaigiao.org.vn
Fax: (84-4) 38.343.543
www.dav.edu.vn
NhCi'ng quan diem neu trang bai viet la cua cac tac gia va kh6ng nhat thiet la cua T<;Ip chi
phep ban 56: 167/GP-BVHTT ISSN 1859 - 0608
International
N°2 (89)
JUNE 2012
Studies QUARTERLY REVIEW
: Xli h¢i V ~ t Nam
IOCili giao
giao
)
I ~ n 1110'c NgOCili giao, HQC v i ~ n NgOCili giao
f Kinh t ~ Trung 1I00ng
gV ~ n Chilln IU'Q'C va KhoahQC
Ianh6QuOc t ~ , Hoc v i ~ n Chinh tr] - Hanh
I t ~ Trung 1I00ng
Chiiln IU'Q'C NgoCili giao, HQC v ~ n NgoCili glao
DIPLOMATIC ACADEMY OF VIETNAM - MOFA
DEPUTY EDITOR-IN-CHIEF
NGUYEN DINH LUAN, PhD
NGUYEN HUNG SON, MA
MEMBERS OF THE EDITORIAL STAFF
NGUYEN ANH TUAN, ASSOC. PROF
NGUYEN DINH LUAN, PhD
DUONG THANH SINH, MA
SUI THUY L1NH, MA
EDITORIAL BOARD SECRETARY
SUI THUY L1NH, MA
ADDRESS
69 CHUA LANG STR., DONG DA, HA NOI
Tel: (84-4) 38.344.540
Email: tapchi_ncqt@mofa.gov.vn
Ext: 117, 156
Web: VvWW.hocvienngoaigiao.org.vn
Fax: (84-4) 38.343.543
www.dav.edu.vn
The views expressed in these articles are the sole responsibility of the author
and do not necessarily reflect those of the International Studies or its editors.
Publishing Licence 167/GP-BVHTT ISSN 1859 - 0608
RD
cademyof Social Sciences
iter of Foreign Affairs
nam
iplomaticAcademy of Vietnam
matic Academy of Vietnam
lolicy and StrategicStudies,
.e forEconomic Management
Director, Instttute of Strategic andScience
Inoi
.titule of International Relations, Ho Chi
forEconomic Management
idemy of Vietnam
stnarn
for Foreign Policy and Strategic Studies,
nyof Vietnam
demyof Vietnam
Ml)C Ll)C
I. DOl NAM
Trang
N Anh
Tac dong cua Hiep dinh d6i tac ,xuY,en Thai Binh Ducmg
(TPP) toi tien trinh hoi nhap quoc te cua Viet Nam 5
Pharn Ngac
Vai suy nghi Ngoai giao da phucmg Nam 27
Duong Van Quang
Ngoai giao da phucmg tai UNESCO 37
Pharn Xuan Nam
Kinh nghiern dira d6i thoai van hoa van hoat dong
ngoai giao cua ong cha ta trong lich sir 49
Thi My Hanh
Dong gop cua Ngo Thi Nham d6i voi ngoai giao
Nam 77
II. cAc VAN DE QUOC TE
Carlyle A. Thayer
Ban quan giira Cam-pu-chia va My 95
Trinh Th] Hoa - Huy Diing
Hop tac My - Me Cong the ky 21 111
Tr§n Thi Tam
Ban dao Tien trong loi ich chien hroc cua My
va Trung Quoc 125
Le Tung Larn
Quan he O-xtdiy-li-a - Han Quoc: Lich sir va trien vong 135
III. NGHIEN cuu - TRAO DOl
Pham Lan Dung
Nang ,cao vi va vai tro cua Uy vien khong thirong tnrc
H9i dong Bao an: Cac each tiep can 151
Vii Hai Dang - Chu H6i
Thirc trang xay dung th€ khu VIJC bao moi truong
bien tai Bien Dong 179
IV. THONG TIN - TV· LIEU
- Tom nQi dung cac bai bang tieng Anh 195
--
CONTENTS
I. VIET NAM FOREIGN POLICY
Nguyen Anh Tuan
Impacts of the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) to Vietnam
International Integration Process
Pham Ngac
Some Thoughts on Vietnam's Multilateral Diplomacy
Duong Van Quang
On the Multilateral Diplomacy in the UNESCO
Pham Xuan Nam
5
27
37
Experiences makes Cultural Dialogue on Foreign Affairs in
Vietnamese History
Nguyen Thi My Hanh
Contributions ofNgo Thi Nham to Dai Viet's Diplomacy
49
77
II. INTERNATIONAL ISSUES
Carlyle A. Thayer
On Cambodia - United States Relations
Trinh Thi Hoa - Nguyen Huy Dung
U.S. - Mekong Cooperation in the early 2pt Century
Tran Thi Tam
95
111
U.S. and China's Strategic Interest in the Korean Peninsula
LeTung Lam
Australia - South Korea Relations: Situation and Prospects
125 .
135
III. RESEARCH AND EXCHANGE
Pham Lan Dung
Enhancing the Security Council Non-Permanent Member's
Role: Different Approaches
Vu Hai Dang - Nguyen Chu Hoi
Regional Marine Environmental Protection and Regime
Building in the East Sea
151
179
IV. INFORMATION PAGES
- Summary of Articles in English
195
Nghien cuu Quae Ii sa 2 (89),
TAc DQNG cu
XUYENTHAIB
TIEN TRINH HQI N H ~
Tom tiit
Hai niim qua, cae n ~ n kit
dinh Dbi lac xuyen Thai Binh J
TPP hay con gpi IiI Trans-,
Agreement), Irong do co V i ~ 1 it
dutrc Hiep dinh nhlim thuc d6y
cac hO(J1 dting kinh Id Ihu01Ig "
thang 312012, cac ndn kinh Ii tJ
phdn. Bai vidl nay c6 gang dUQ
kinh td thanh vien khi tham giaJ
vd lac d(jng cua TPPddi voi lidn
nhu toi /idn trinh phat trien kinh
Qua trinh hinh thanh I
thanh vicn
TPP bAt ngudn nr H i ~ p d
Duong (the Pacific Closer Ecoi
• 119C vien Ngoai giao.
6/2012
Dai ngo{li Vi?t Nam
unoi thoi, Ngo Thi Nham da
ih, khien cho nha vua vui ve,
ia Quang Trung ngay ca khi
up tranh duoc phan nao nguy
ill kho khan luc gio. MQt
r hiem co cua nha ngoai
:
1 van khong bao gio quen va
cua nguoi anh hung ao vai
JJ.". Ngoi but duoi tai nang va
binh, nhan nghia cua ong da
tranh kien cuong rna
l bao ky tich ve yang cho dan
:uava ngay nay co khac nhau
Ii va pham ngoai giao
ihtrng nha ngoai giao mroc ta
6/2012
Nghien cuu Quae d s6 2 (89)/6/2012: 95-110.
BAN vt QUAN Ht GlfJ'A CAM-PU-CHIA vA MY
GS. Carlyle A. Thayer
Tom tiit
My blit aau thdt ldp quan h¢ ngoai giao voi Cam-pu-chia WtO ruim
1950 khi Cam-pu-chia tro thanh mot quoc gia lien kdt trong kh(3i Lien
hiep Phap. Quan hf My - Cam-pu-chia trai qua nhieu thay a6i va tro nen
xau di tit nhieng nom 1960 voi viec My can thiep vao midn Nam Vi¢t Nam
va Cam-pu-chia elit aut quan h¢ ngoai giao voi My WtO thong 5/1965.
Quan hf ngoai giao song phuong duac noi lai vao thong 7/1969, bi gian
doan sau khi Khame Do gianh chinh quyen vao thang 4/1975 va tidp tuc
duac n6i lai ndm 1991.
Bai vdt nay sa luac vd tac d(jng cua cac ydu t6 trong marc va quoc
d anh huang ddn quan h¢ giiia My va Cam-pu-chia giai doan tit nam
1991, tire la tit sau khi ccJ mot thoa thudn quoc d vd viec cham dut cuoc
xung d(jt keo dai han mot thdp ky a nuoc nay. I Quan h¢ song phuong
giiia My va Cam-pu-chia baa g6m nhieu linh VlfC nhu chinh tri - ngoai
giao, quoc phong - an ninh va nhdn dao - vien tro phdt trien. Do v(ly, bai
• Giao sir danh dir Chinh trj hoc, tnrong Khoa hoc Xa hQi va Nhan vim, Dai hoc
New South Wales. Bai viet hien quan diem rieng cua tac gia.
I Xem: Carlyle A. Thayer, "The UN Transitional Authority in Cambodia", trong A
Crisis ofExpectations: UN Peacekeeping in the I 990s, bien soan boi Ramesh Thakur va
Carlyle A. Thayer (Boulder: Westview Press, 1995, tr.121-l40); Viberto Selochan and
Carlyle A. Thayer, Bringing Democracy to Cambodia: Peacekeeping and Elections,
Canberra: Regime Change and Regime Maintenance in Asia and the Pacific Project,
Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, The Australian National University and
Australian Defence Studies Centre, 1996.
6/2012 95
Cae van aJ Quae d
vidt ciing neu va phon tfeh tidn trinh phat trien nu5i quan h¢ song phuong
nay tren cae khfa canh khac nhau trong thoi gian qua.
Tir nam 1975 1991, My chua tlnra nhan ca chinh quyen Khorne
Do va Cong hoa Dan chu Nhan dan Cam-pu-chia. Thang 11/1991, My
rna cira tro lai van phong ngoai giao tai Phnom Penh sau khi mroc nay,
mat chinh tri dat etLT9'C mot thoa thuan toan dien cho vAn xung etQt
Cam-pu-chia tai Paris mot thang tnroc do (10/1991). Dai sir My etU9'C cir
toi H9i dong Dan toe T6i cao, mot t6 chirc h9'}J cua tAt ca cac phe
phai chinh tri Cam-pu-chia diroi SIJ bao tro cua Lien H9'}J Qu6c? Sau
cuoc tong tuyen cir duoc Lien H9'}J Quoc giam sat vito thang 5/1993, My
ngay tire mo rong quan ngoai giao vo i Cam-pu-chia va nang cap
van phong dai dien thanh Dai sir quan.'
Do cac bat 6n chinh tri tai Cam-pu-chia VaG nam 1997,4 My tarn
dung vien tro cho chinh quyen trung Hang cua Thu tuong Hun Sen, chAm
dirt moi ho tro quoc phong va phan et6i cac khoan cho vay cua cac
tai chinh quoc to tnr cac nguon v6n nhan dao cho cac nhu cau t6i
thieu cua con ngiroi. Quan chinh tri gi[i"a My va et9 cua Thu nrong
Hun Sen x5u di nghicm trong. trlrng ph'.!t nay keo dai han mQt
ky tmac khi etLT9'c dO' hc.'J. Trong thai ky et6, ph'.!m vi va muc et9 n6i l<;1i
2 Carlyle A. Thayer, "The United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia: The
Restoration of Sovereignty", trong Peacekeepin?, and Peacemakin?,: Towards Effective
Intervention in Post-Cold War Conflicf, bien sO\ln bcri Tom Woodhouse, Robert Bruce,
and Malcolm Dando (London: Macmillan Press Ltd., and New York: St. Martin's Press,
J 998), tr.145-165.
'US Department of States. Bureau of East Asian and Pacific Affairs, Background Note:
Cambodia, January 20 IO. <http://www.state.gov/r/palei/bgn/2732/htm>.
4 Carlyle A. Thayer, "Cambodia Continues Course of Political Violence", Asia-Pacific
Defence Reporter Annual Reference Edition, 24, no. I, January-February 1998, tr.16- 17.
Nghien cuu Quae Ii sa 2 (89)
quan he co SIJ khac nhau gifra c.
phong va vien tro phat Vi
narn 2004, nhung phai toi
trien cho Cam-pu-chia. Quan hi
mot thai gian sau do voi cac clu
John Negroponte toi Phnom Pe
phong Cam-pu-chia Tea Banh t(
Khi Quoc hoi My dirng x
ngoai etU9'C dira ra lit vien tro
va thuc thi phap Tro giup I
t6 chirc phi chinh phu qu6c te
nhan vien vien tro cua My v§n t
quyen trung uong Cam-pu-chia.
MQt cua viec dung :
trien tich CIJC chinh tri cua C
Cam-pu-chia hanh cac cUQ
nhung nhin chung la cong bang
nay tuc duy tri quyen hrc c(
cir, Thu tuong Hun Sen thanh 1
et6i tao cho chinh quyen c
cQng et6ng qu6c Vi dl;l,
etU9'C len hO<;1ch vao khoang
ra cac Vl,l chinh tr,6 nhl
5 Thomas Lum, Camhodia: Backgrl
Congressional Research Service Report
(, Carlyle A. Thayer, "Cambodia and
Engagement", The Clep Distinguishe
Penh: Cambodian Institute for Cooperal
6/2012
96 6/2012
.........
Cac vall tJJ Qu6e d
t trien mdi quan song phuong
'hili gian qua.
hira nhan ca chinh quyen Khornc
un-pu-chia. Thang 11/1991, My
i Phnom Penh sau khi mroc nay,
in toan dien eho vfrn xung dQt
16 (l 011991). sir My duoc cir
chirc t?P hop ella tfrt ca cac phe
o tro ella Lien Hop Qube.
2
Sau
c giam sat vao thang 5/1993, My
so voi Cam-pu-chia va nang cfrp
-pu-ehia vao nam 1997,4 My tarn
19 ellaTM tuong Hun Sen, cham
l cac khoan eho vay ella cac
n nhan dao eho cac nhu du tbi
.iira My va de) ella Thll tuang
Ig ph<;lt nay keo dili hon mQt
, d6, ph<;lm vi va mue dQ nbi l<;1i
nsitional Authority in Cambodia: The
? and Peacemaking: Towards Effective
m b&i Tom Woodhouse, Robert Bruce,
Ltd., and New York: St. Martin's Press,
and Pacific Affairs, Background Note:
r/paleilbgn/2732/htm>.
'se of Political Violence", Asia-Pacific
D. I, January-February 1998, tr.16- 1"7.
6/2012
Nghiell cuu Qu6e Ii s6 2 (89)
quan co SlJ khac nhau giira cae mat chinh tri - ngoai giao, kinh quoc
phong va vien tro phat trien, Vi du, quan quoc phong duoc n5i lai vao
nam 2004, nhung phai tai narn 2007 My moi nbi lai vien tro phat
eho Carn-pu-chia. Quan ehinh tri va ngoai giao dat toi dinh diem
mot thai gian sau do voi cac chuyen tham ella Thir tnrong Ngoai giao My
John Negroponte toi Phnom Penh vao nam 2008 va ella BQ truong Quoc
phong Cam-pu-chia Tea Banh toi Oa-sinh-ton vao narn 2009.
Khi Quoc hQi My dung vien tro eho Cam-pu-chia, co mot sb
ngoai duoc dua ra la vien tro tren cac linh vue chong ma tuy, y to cong
va thuc thi phap luat. Tro giup nay ella MS' duoc giai ng':111 thong qua cac
t6 chirc phi ehinh phu quoc va t6 chirc ella so tai. Trcn thuc to, de
nhan vien vien tro ella My tuc lien h¢ voi cac dbi tac trong chinh
quyen trung irong Cam-pu-chia."
MQt phan ella viec dung vien tro nay diroc khoi phuc sau cac tien
trien tieh eire v0 ehinh tri ella Carn-pu-chia. Vao cac nam 1998 va 2003,
Carn-pu-chia hanh cac cuoc tong tuyen cir, tuy eo sai sot doi chut
nhung nhin chung la cong bang va 1tJ do va qua ella cac cuoc bau cir
nay tiep tuc duy tri quyen lire ella Thu tuong Hun Sen. Sau m6i cuoc bau
cir, Thu tuong Hun Sen thanh lap mot ehinh quyen lien minh WJi dang
dbi t<;10 eho ehinh ella Hun Sen c6 du\yc SlJ kinh trqng ella
eQng d6ng qube Vi d\l, Cam-pu-ehia gia ASEAN, vbn oa
dUQ'e len hO<;1eh vao khoang giua nam 1997, drr bi hoan sau khi n6
ra cae V\l b<;1o ehinh tri/) nhung sau khi ehlnh lien minh duge
5 Thomas Lum, Cambodia: Background and Us. Relu//()ns, Washington, D.C.:
Congressional Research Service Report for Congress. 18 July 2007, tr. IO.
(, Carlyle A. Thayer, "Cambodia and Regional Stabilitv: ASEAN and Constructive
Engagement", The CICf> Distinguished Lectllre Series Report Issue, No. 14 (Phnom
Penh: Cambodian Institute for Cooperation and Peace. June 1998).
6/20] 2
97
Cae van d; Quae Ii
thanh sau cuoc tong tuyen cir nam 1998, Cam-pu-ehia da diroc ti€p
nhan vao ASEAN ngay mot nam sau do. Tuy nhien, ong Hun Sen
tiep tuc thuc van hoa phi tnrng phat, Vi du, chua mot ai bi khoi t6 vi
cac vu choc phi phap xay ra vao nam 1997. Ong Hun Sen ciing
thirong xuyen sir dung uu da s6 trong Quoc hQi nroc bo quyen
trir cua cac Pho thu nrong d6i va dua ho ra toa trong b6i canh
ehinh tri do ong kiem soat.
7
Viec vi pham nhan quyen tir nam 1997 cua chinh quyen Thu tirong
Hun Sen va tri hoan thanh phien toa xet xu tQi ac chong lai loai nguoi
cua cac ciru thu linh Khame Do da lam day len SlJ binh trong nhfrng
nha phap My. Theo mot nha phan tieh, Quoc hQi My da thea du6i
chinh sach be phai can thiep vao ehinh tri noi bQ cua Cam-pu-chia
trong khi Chinh phu My lai muon theo du6i mot dirong 16i trung
Cac quan diem nay trong Quoc hQi da lam cham lai tien trinh binh
thuong hoa quan giira hai mroc.
Quan thuong mai
My la ban hang Ian cua Cam-pu-ehia va nhap khau mot luong
Ian hang det may tir Cam-pu-ehia, 97% t6ng kim ngach nhap
cua My tir Cam-pu-ehia.
9
Nganh may eua Cam-pu-ehia t<;1o ra
khoang 330.000 lam va vao nam 1998 t6i 80% t6ng kim
ng<;1eh eua nu6e nay v6i t6ng gia tri 2,5 ty USD. Nganh
7 Carlyle A. Thayer. "Cambodia Power Play", The Wall Street Journal, 4 December
2009, tr. I 1.
8 Sheldon W. Simon, "Military Support and Political Concerns", Comparative
Connections 9, No. I (April 2007). xem t(,li: http://csis.org/programlcomparative­
connections 13.
9 Lum, Cambodia, tldd., p. 8 and Khatharya Urn, "Cambodia: A Decade After the
Coup", Southeast Asian Affairs 2008, bien SO(,ln b&i Daljit Singh and Tin Maung Maung
Than (Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 2008), tr.1 II.
Nghien cteu Quae Ii s6 2 (89)
may co anh huang Ian toi chi
gifr gin quan thuong mai VI
pu-ehia toi My khong chiu anl
nay do sue ep cua Cong doan
cac tieu lao dong quoc
cong nganh det may cua C
Cam-pu-ehia tuan thu theo cac
Theo Thoa thuan thirong
tuan thu tieu chuan lao dong q
duoc t<;1O dieu kien tham nhap1
khau nay h€t han vao cuoi nat
nam 2004 va thi phan hang
du doan la se bi hang may
Hang Det may (hang da soi) e
Cam-pu-ehia va cac mroc dang
tiep tuc nhan diroc SlJuu dai
ap bien phap W d6i voi .
eho toi eu6i nam 2008. Trang t
Cam-pu-ehia sang thi tnrong tv
ky dinh khung ThuOl
Trong nhUng nam sau d6
d6i tho<;1i cae van thuc
thi sa hfru tri hai qu
trg eua My giup Cam-pu-ehi
kinh trong nu6e.
10 Lum, Cambodia, tldd, tr.8.
98 6/2012
6/2012
.llo...­
I
T
Cdc viin tl; Quae Ii
8, Cam-pu-chia dil duoc tiep
Iuy nhien, ong Hun Sen
[ du, chua mot ai bi khoi t6 vi
m 1997. Ong Hun Sen cfing
Qudc hQi uroc bo quyen
> dua ho ra toa trong b6i canh
97cua ehinh quyen Thu tirong
t xut<)i ac chong lai loai nguoi
iy len S\l binh trong nhimg
.h, Quoc hQi My dil thea du6i
ill tri nQi b<) cua Cam-pu-chia
tu6i mot dirong 16i trung lap, s
him cham lai trinh binh
u-chia va nhap khAu mot hrong
97% t6ng kim ngach nhap khau
y cua Cam-pu-chia hien t(;10 ra
1998 t6i 80% t6ng kim
gia tri 2,5 ty USD. Nganh
"he Wall Street Journal, 4 December
I Political Concerns", Comparative
http://csis.orglprogram/comparati ve­
1m, "Cambodia: A Decade After the
6'i Daljit Singh and Tin Maung Maung
dies, 2008), tr.lli.
6/2012
Nghien cuu Quac Ii sa 2 (89)
may co anh huong 160 toi chinh phu Cam-pu-ehia trong vice t<;10 va
gifr gin quan M thuong mai voi My. Xdt kh5u hang det may cua Cam­
pu-chia toi My khong chiu anh huong cua lenh tnrng phat trong thap ky
nay do sire ep cua Cong doan My va do Cam-pu-chia dil tuan thu thea
cac tieu chuan lao dong quoc Cac cong doan My dil van dong thanh
cong nganh det may cua Cam-pu-ehia khong phai chiu earn van neu
Cam-pu-chia twin thu thea cac chuan mire nay.
Thea Thoa thuan tlurong mai voi My nam 1996, neu Cam-pu-ehia
tuan thu tieu chuan lao dong quoc thi hang det may cua Cam-pu-ehia
duoc tao kien tham nhap vao thi tnrong My. H<;1n ngach iru dai nhap
nay han vao cuoi nam 2005. Cam-pu-chia gia nhap WTO vao
nam 2004 va thi phan hang may cua mroc nay tai thi tnrong My diroc
du doan hi se bi hang det may Trung Quoc hrot sau khi Hiep dinh
Hang D9t may (hang da soi) cua WTO hieu hrc vao ngay 1/1/2005.
Cam-pu-chia va cac mroc dang phat khac dil van dong My de co
tuc nhan diroc SlJ iru dili nhap kh§.u miy.IO My dil tra loi bang viec
ap bien phap tv dbi voi viec nhap khau hang may Trung Quoc
cho toi cuoi nam 2008. Trang thai gian nay, xuat kh5u hang det may cua
Cam-pu-chia sang thi truong My tang 20%. Thang 7/2006, Cam-pu-chia
ky dinh khung vS Thuong mZli va DAu tu song phuong v6i My.
Trang nhfrng nam sau do djnh khung nay dil cung d p m()t dien dim
d6i tho<;li cac d<3 thuong m<;li va dau tu song phuong nhu th\Je
thi s6 huu tri hili quan, djch V\l tai chinh. ngan hang va
tr9' cua My giup Cam-pu-ehia dZlt du9'c yeu du cua WTO va cai each
kinh trong nu6c.
10 Lum, Cambodia, tldd, tr.8.
6/2012 99
Cae vall dJ Qu6c ti
HQ-P tac ch6ng khung b&
Sau vu khung be) ngay 11/9, My tuyen b6 Dong Nam A la tran
tuyen thir hai trong cuoc toan cau chong khung b6. Cam-pu-chia
khong duoc coi la rm)t uu tien ngay luc do. Tuy vay, mot cai nhin mang
tinh khu virc cho cuoc chien chong khung b6 doi hoi My phai cai thien
quan h¢ voi cac nuoc DCmg Nam A. Cac nha phan tich eta chi ra rang voi
duong bien girri trong trai, kha nang thirc thi phap luat con va la
ngutm cung e5p VLI khi hang nhe thi Carn-pu-chia co duoc xem la noi
co cac yeu t6 thuan loi khuycn khich nhorn Jemaah Islamiyah (JI) thanh
mot can eli hoat et0ng tai day. VG khi hang nhe tai Cam-pu-chia
duoc xua; lau toi cac vung xung et0t nhir Sri Lanka hay Phi-Iip-pin.
l l
MC)i quan ngai cua My la hop ly sau khi trum khung b6 Hambali
(Riduan lsarnuddin), kc dtrng sau vu khung b6 tai Bali nam 2002, diroc
phat hicn la oa 5n nau tai Carn-pu-chia trong vong vai thang sau vu tfrn
congo Nam 2003. co quan an ninh cua Carn-pu-chia eta b5t gilr bon thanh
vicn mroc ngoai cua Jl bi cao buoc am muu khung b6 tai Phnom penh.
11
Viec thanh l(lp mot chinh quycn lien minh VaG narn 2004, sau
nhirng cua nll)t nam k2 tu CU(K b5u elf th{mg 7/2003 oa tZlo
eho chinh ella T6ng th6ng Bush tr5n an nhfrng chi trieh
trong Qu6c hOi d dfly hgp tae vai Cam-pu-ehia, trong eto co ITnh
vvc chCmg khung bC). Chinh Thu tu6ng Hun Sen eta co nhGng philn
ling rfrt tich qre. Nam 2004. Cam-pu-chia chfrp nMn trg eua My
pM huy 233 ten ILra etit d6i khong thai Lien xo etf tranh s6 vG khi nay
rai VaG tay cac t6 chtrc khLlIlg b6.
13
Cam-pu-chia lAy lam hili long khi My
II Nhu tren. tr. 13.
Ie Nhu tren. tr. 13-14.
I.; Nhu tren, tr. 13.
Nghien cuu Qubc ti s6 2 (89)
bat gilT va ket an mot thu linh c
co dinh liu toi viec kich d0ng
2000. Chinh quyen Cam-pu-el
khung b6.
Thang 8/2005, dap lai cac
nhu viec sgn sang hop tac voi
ehinh quyen Bush eta bai bo
v6n diroc ap et?t nr narn 1997. (
v6n tir Chirong trinh Cung dp ti
giup Cam-pu-chia trong lint
gioi." Thu nrong Hun Sen d6n!
lam viec tai Cam-pu-chia thea p
Viec xoa bo lenh dm v?r
tac an ninh giira hai nuoc." TU
diroc vicn tro trang bi qui
trieu USD. Trang nam 2005. 4'
cac khoa dao tao do My tai tro,
dai bicu quan sir My. Carn-j
Chuang trinh Phong thli va Ch6
etatai trg cho vi¢e giang d?y An
etOi Hoang gia Cam-pll-chia.
etZlo eho vi¢c ril pM born min, d
eua My eta giang d?y th6
li¢u n6. Cam-pu-chia cGng d?t t
trinh Giao Dao t
9
0 Quan S\I
14 Nhu tren. trIO.
15 Embassy of the United States. OffiCi
hi 1p://cam bod ia.1Isembassy.gov/defenc
6/2() J2
l()()
6/2()12
Cdc viill oJ Qu6e Ii
tuyen b6 Dong Nam A la tran
l chong khung b6. Cam-pu-chia
d6. Tuy vay, mot cai nhin mang
ng b6 doi hoi My phai cai thicn
nha phan tich da chi ra rang voi
WC thi phap luat con va la
l-pu-chia co the diroc xem la noi
16m Jemaah Islamiyah (1J) thanh
hi hang nhe tai Cam-pu-chia van
Sri Lanka hay Phi-lip-pin. I J
sau khi trum khung b6 Hambali
lung b6 tai Bali narn 2002, diroc
trong vong vai thang sau vu tAn
'am-pu-chia da b<lt gi u b6n thanh
uru khung b6 tai Phnom penh.
12
1 lien minh vao narn 2004, sau
. cuoc bau ctr thang 7/2003 eta tao
6ng Bush trAn an nhirng chi trich
6i Cam-pu-chia, trong do co Ilnh
tuang Hun Sen da co nhfrng phan
lia ch§'p nMn trg cua My
i Lien XO tranh s6 vu khi nay
l-pu-chia lAy lam hai long khi My
6/2012
Nghien cuu QuDc d sD 2 (89)
b;it gili' va an mot thu linh ella nhcm Chien binh TlJ do Cam-pu-chia
eo dinh liu toi viec kich dQng bao 10<;1n tai Cam-pu-chia til cuoi nam
2000. Chinh quyen Cam-pu-chia khang dinh rang day [a mot nhorn
khung b6.
Thang 8/2005, dap lai cac trien tich eire cua Cam-pu-chia cling
nhir viec s£n sang hQ'P tac voi My cua Cam-pu-chia trong van d6 an ninh,
chinh quyen Bush da bai bo lcnh cam vicn tro quan SlJ cho Cam-pu-chia
v6n diroc ap til nam 1997. Quyct dinh nay da t<;10 dieu kien d0 ngu(lI1
von til Chuang trinh Cung cap tai ehinh quan sir mroc ngoai diroc sir dung
giup Cam-pu-chia trong linh vue chong khung b6 va soar bien
giai.
14
Thu urong Hun Sen dong )' truy t6 d6i voi cac cong dan My
lam vice tai Carn-pu-chia theo phan quyet cua Too. an Hinh su' Quoc to.
Viec xoa bo lenh d.m vdn ngay lap tire dl'm toi vice d5y manh hop
tac an ninh giira hai nucc." Tir nam 2004 2006. Cam-pu-chia nhan
duoc vien tro trang thiet b] quoc phong va tr« giup k5 thuat tri gia 4.5
trieu LJSD. Trong nam 2005. 40 can bt) Cam-pu-chia eta duoc tham gia
cac kh6a dao t<;10 do My tai tro, d6ng thai Cam-pu-chia cling ba doan
dai quan SlJ My. Cam-pu-chia ciing tro thanh thanh vien cua
Chuang trinh Phong thu va Chong Khung b6 Khu vue - chuang trinh nay
da tai trg cho giang d<;1Y Anh ngu t<;1i Trung t5m Anh cua Qufm
dQi Hoang gia Cam-pu-chia. nhi¢m My cung cung dp tr0' giup nhan
dQ.o cho ra pha born min, dbng thcYi cac chuycn gia XLI' Iy n()
cua My eta giang d<;ly v2 th6ng an toim va chu trinh xu Iy an toan V?t
li¢u n6. Cam-pu-chia cling tieu chu5n nhan duO'c vicn tro ella chuon(J
. . ..
trinh (li[1O d\lc Dao t<;10 Quan S\T Qu6c to (lMET) van nam tai kh6a 2006.
Nhu tren, tLI O.
1.\ EmbaSSY of the United States, Office of Defense Cooper"tioll. "ODC Mission", 2005
http://cambodia.usembassy.gov/dc1encecooperationoffice.html.
6/2012 101
Cae vall Quae Ii
Vao nam 2005, quan chinh tri My - Cam-pu-chia biroc vao mot
giai dean xuong dbc tarn thai sau khi Thu urong Hun Sen tran ap thu linh
dbi l?p Sam Rainsy va cac nha hoat dong xa hQi.
16
Cuoi thang 10/2005,
vien My chinh thirc bay to thai dQ quan ngai cac cuoc cong vao
tv do va nhan quyen tai Cam-pu-chia. Nghi SI Jim Leach, Chu tich Uy
ban Quan Quoc cua vicn, chi trich manh me Thu urong Hun Sen
nhirng vi pham dbi voi quyen con nguoi va tv do bao chi.
Vao giira thang 112006, Thir tnrong Ngoai giao Christopher Hill
dU<IC phai toi Phnom Penh danh gia tinh hinh. Ngay truce chuyen
tham cua ong Hill, Thu tuong Hun Sen dfi dira ra cai ong goi la "Mon qua
d5i voi Hoa Ky' bang each tra tv do cho mot sb nha hoat dong xfi hQi va
nhan Cam-pu-chia co dong luc kh6ng chi trong viec cai thien
quan dbi voi My rna can trong viec ngan chan bAt cir sir dt giam nao
cua cac nha tai tro mroc ngoai sap t5 chirc cuoc h9P thirong nien. Luc
gio vien tro nuoc ngoai chiem toi mot mra ngan sach cua Cam-pu­
ehia. Thu linh Sam Rainsy duoc Qudc vuong Norodom Sihamoni an xa
thea nghi cua Thu tuong Hun Sen va diroc tro nha vao thang
2/2006. Qube hQi Cam-pu-ehia nhAt tri tai b5 ang nay va hai tr<;J Iy
bi each ehuc vao nam 2005. Himh dQng cua Thu tuOOg Hun Sen
Qube hQi va BQ NgO'.li Giao My phili danh gia l<;ti chinh saeh trung
, M- 18
eua y.
Sv cai thi9n quan ehinh tri My - Cam-pu-chia dfi keo theo cae
trong quan qube phong. Thang 4/2006, Tu Quan dQi
1(· Sheldon W. Simon, "Military Relations Restored with Indonesia; while U.S. Passes
on the First East Asian Summit". Comparative Connections, Vol. 7, No.4 (January
2(06). Xem http://csis.org/program/comparativeconnections
I"
Nhu tren,
I, Nhu trcn.
Nghien cuu Quae Ii s6 2 (89)
Cam-pu-chia dfi tham BQ Chi hu
tai Hawaii nghi tai tro Xcl
chia." Sau do, vao thang 7/2001
William Fallon dfi tham Cam-pi
cuoc hoi voi BQ tnrong Qu61
Cam-pu-chia hoach dao
Hoang gia Cam-pu-chia, v6n dan:
d C h' 20 N d'
91 am-pu-c la.. gay sau 0,
dfi duoc giri toi Cam-pu-chia
Cam-pu-chia.
Buoc phat trien virng
chong khung bb va quan giffa
tich eire cua tinh hinh chinh tri
dinh tai lap vien tro tnrc til
sau han 10 narn bi gian doan." LI
ap tnrng phat dbi voi Cam-p
Vao cubi nam 2007, Cam-pu-ehi
100 thu ba cua My t<;ti Dong A­
Phi-lip-pin.
22
T5ng tr9' eua
USD. Thu lInh dbi Sam Rains
I?p lu?n bu6e di m'ly se '
va t<;to can eho qual
19 Simon, "U.S. Pushes Security and TI
Connections, Vol. 8, No.2 (July 2006).
connections>
20 Sheldon W. Simon, "U.S. Strengthens
Comparative Connections, Vol. 8, No.3 ((
comparative-connections>,
21 Lum, Cambodia, tldd, tr.l.
22 Nhu tren.
102 6/2012 6/2012
......
Cae van Quae ttf
S- Cam-pu-chia biroc vao mot
tu6ng Hun Sen tran ap thu linh
xii hQi.
16
Cu6i thang 10/2005,
, ,
nngai ve cac cuoc tan cong vao
ghi sl Jim Leach, Chu tich Uy
h manh me Thu tirong Hun Sen
ri va tu do bao chi.
19 Ngoai giao Christopher Hill
tinh hinh. Ngay tnroc chuyen
dua ra cai ong goi la "M6n qua
mQt s6 nha heat dong xii hoi va
khong chi trong viec cai thien
:an chan cir SIJ dt giam nao
nrc cuoc hop thirong nien. Luc
9
t
mra ngan sach cua Cam-pu­
long Norodom Sihamoni an xa
fa diroc tro nha vao thang
b6 nhiern ong nay va hai tro Iy
cua Thu tuang Hun Sen
h gia I?i chinh sikh trirng ph?t
, Cam-pu-chia dii keo thea cac
ing 4/2006, Tu Quan dQi
d with Indonesia; while U.S. Passes
:onnections, Vol. 7, No.4 (January

6/2012
Nghien cuu Quae ttf sa 2 (89)
Cam-pu-chia dii tham BQ Chi huy Thai Birth Duong cua My (PACOM)
tai Hawaii nghi tai tro xay dung Quan doi Hoang gia Cam-pu­
chia." Sau do, VaG thang 7/2006, Tu lenh PACOM, Do d6c Hai quan
William Fallon dii tham Cam-pu-chia dap Do d6c Fallon drr c6
cuoc hoi voi BQ tnrong Quoc phong Tea Banh tra loi xuAt cua
Cam-pu-chia hoach dao tao quan SIJ cua My danh cho Quan dQi
Hoang gia Carn-pu-chia, v6n dang diroc coi la iru tien hang dau cua quan
dQi Cam-pu-chia.t" Ngay sau do, mot nh6m chuyen gia cua quan dQi My
dil duoc giri toi Cam-pu-chia danh gia nhu cau dao tao cua quan doi
Cam-pu-chia.
Buoc phat virng trong quan M thirong mai, hop tac
chong khung b6 va quan giira quan dQi hai mroc, cung voi
tich qIC cua tinh hinh chinh trj trong mroc khien chinh phu My quyet
dinh tai vien tro true tiep cho Cam-pu-chia vao thang 2/2007,
sau han 10 nam bi gian doan." Luc bay gio, My la quoc gia duy can
ap d;rtt tnrng phat d6i voi Cam-pu-chia sau cac vu bao loan nam 1997.
Vao cu6i nam 2007, Cam-pu-chia dil tro thanh mroc nhan vien tro
Ian thir ba cua My tai Dong A - Thai Binh Duong, sau In-do-ne-xi-a va
Phi-Hp-pin.r' Tong vien tro cua My cho Cam-pu-chia tri gia 62 trieu
USD. Thu linh d6i Sam Rainsy hoan nghenh dQng thai nay cua My va
buac di nay se t(,1o t6t han cho My thlJc thi nMn
va t(,1o can cho quan d6i ngo?i cua Cam-pu-chia. Ong
19 Simon, "U.S. Pushes Security and Trade Interests in Southeast Asia",
Connections, Vol. 8, No.2 (July 2006). Xem <http://csis.org/program/comparative­
connections>
20 Sheldon W. Simon, "U.S. Strengthens Ties to Southeast Asian Regionalism",
Comparative Connections, Vol. 8, NO.3 (October 2006). Xern <http://csis.org/program/
comparative-connections>.
21 Lum, Camhodia, tldd, tLI.
22 Nhu tn:'n.
6/2012 103
Cdc win ilJ Quae Ii
Rainsy khang dinh "Trung Quoc khong y gi toi nhan quyen. Chung ta
khong oat rnroc ta phai chiu thuoc rieng vao Trung Qu6C".23
B10h thuirng hoa quan
Viec My n6i lai vicn tro true tiep cho Cam-pu-chia dil bao hieu SIJ
khoi d5u cua qua trinl: nf)i lai moi quan sau sac han giira Phnom Penh
va Oa-sinh-ton trong I11Qt s6 linh VIJC. Vi du, quan he quan 51J dil dat
duoc mot buoc moi sau khi Cam-pu-chia, 15n dAu ticn sau han 30
narn, dong y cho phcp mot tau hai quan My ghe tham mroc nay. Vao
thang 2/2007, tau hai quan Gary da ghe tharn cang Sihanoukville va thuy
thu doan da cung cap dich vu y cho nguai dan gin b6n cang bay to
thicn chi. Cling vao thang 8 narn do, Tu lenh PACOM, Do d6c Hai quan
Timothy Keating oil den tharn Phnom Penh va ngo y se tro giup GaO tao
quan SIJ va cung cap cac tro giup khac. d6n, vao thang 1112007, Thuy
quan Luc chi6n My d.. 1u mo: chuong trinh dao tao cho Lire hrong Dac
nhiern Ch6ng Khung b6 QUCK gia Cam-pu-chia va tau hai quan Essex dil
ghc tham cang Sihanoukvillc Ibn thir hai trong vong mQt nam. Thuy thu
doan cling oa eung cap dich vu y t6 va nha khoa eho ngiroi dan So' tai.
Quan h¢ thirong mai tiep tuc trcn da tang tnrong. Thang 2/2007,
Thucmg m;,li 2007 oW1C trinh Icn Qu6c hQi My v6i mQt di0u khoan,
theo do, My 06i xu uu dai bi¢t 06i v6i 14 mrac oang pMt trong
do co Cam-pu-ehia. Clll1g luc d6, My va Cam-pu-chia Mnh vang
phan dAu ticn v0 Ili¢p oinh khung Thumlg m?i va DAu tu t?i Phnom
pcnh. Cac cUQc oam phan n..1y trung VflO vi¢c d.i thi¢n va djy m?nh
thuong nwi song phuong. My Cl1l1g bay to chi cung cAp tr9' giup eho
cai deh kinh tc trong mrl1C v.. 1 giup Cam-pu-chia thvc hi¢n duqc nhCrng
cam kct ella WTO.
2, Simon. "Military Slippon and Political Concerns". tldd.
Nghicn cuu Quae Iis6 2 (89)
Vao giira nam 2009, c!
tai chinh rna Ngan har
My dang hoat dong tai Car
chinh Hiep dinh Thirong rna
tro giup cho cac iru tien troi
cam ra mot ngan quy
nghiep vira, nho va cue nho
doanh thuan 19'i cua Co quar
tang nang suat cho heat don!
ty doi ngheo.i"
Viec noi lai quan s
nhirng khia canh hop tic me
IU9'ng gin gili' hoa binh chinl
cua 24 giao vicn tieng Anh.
chuyen va buon ban nguoi e
pu-chia dil co nhCrng no hrc (
quoc Tuy vay, Cam-pu-c
thuoc 16'p thir hai.
Viec n6i I?i quan cI
vao thang 9/2008, s
Negroponte tham Phnom Pe
vi¢n tr9' trong llnh VIJC y
ngu9'C cua My d6i vai phie
My van ttr ch6i tham gia tn)
Em bassy of the United Stat
http://cambod ia.lIsem bassy.gov/sp
'5 .
"Remarks by [)erllty Secretary
16 September 2008. http://www.S!
104 6/20J2
6/2012
.....
Cdc win 1M Qu6e Ii
Ygi toi nhan quyen. Chung ta
rieng vao Trung Qu6e".23
) Cam-pu-chia oil bao hieu SIJ
sau han giua Phnom Penh
du, quan quan SIJ oil dat
chia, Jan oliu ticn sau han 30
My ghe tham mroc nay. Vao
im cang Sihanoukville va thuy
oi dan gan b0n cang bay to
nh PACOM, Do o6c Hai qU{lI1
h va ngo ysc tro giup dao tao
vao thang 1112007, Thuy
nh dao tao cho Lire luong Dac
-chia va tau hai quan Essex oil
rang yang mot nam. Thuy thu
khoa cho ngm'Ji dan sa tai.
atang tnrong, Thang 2/2007,
IC hQi My v6i mOt khoan,
14 nuuc dang ph<it trong
Cam-pu-chia h;'ll1h yang
Jemg va DAu tu t<;ti Phnom
ao cai va ojy my.nh
chi cung cdp trc;r giup cho
pu-chia thlJc ou\)'C nhung
" tiM
6/2012
Nghien cuu Qu6e ti s6 2 (89)
Vao giira nam 2009. chinh quyen Obama ciing do bo nhirng han
che tai chinh rna Ngan hang XuAt nhap khfru My danh cho cac cong ty
My dang hoat o9ng tai Carn-pu-chia. Cam-pu-chia va My ciing oi€u
chinh Hiep dinh Thuong mai song phuong theo do cho phcp My co th0
tro giup cho de uu ticn trong phat kinh to cua Carn-pu-chia. My
cam ra mQt ngan quy tri gia 7.79 trieu usn h6 tro cac doanh
vira, nho va CIJC nho, h6 tro Chuong trinh t<;10 rna; tnrong kinh
doanh thuan Ic;ri cua Co quan Vien tro My (USAlD). cimg nhu h[\ tro d0
tang nang suAt cho heat d9ng kinh doanh cua cac hO gia dinh nham giam
ty doi ngheo.
24
Viec n6i lai quan song phuong My - Carn-pu-chia cung mo ra
nhirng khia canh hop tac moi. Vao thang 4/2007. Chuong trinh cua Luc
luong gin giu hoa binh chinh tlurc biit oliu tai Cam-pu-chia voi W C() mat
cua 24 giao vien Anh. Cung luc do, vao thang 6. Bao cao Van
chuyen va buon ban nguoi cua BQ Ngoai giao My da k0t luan Cam­
pu-chia dil co nhirng n6 lire dang trong vice dat toi tieu chw}n t0i tl1i0u
quoc tt. Tuy vay, Carn-pu-chia van diroc giiI trong danh such cAn chu )'
thuoc lap thir hai.
n6i lai quan h¢ chinh tri giira M5' va Cam-pu-chia dat t6i dinh
di[:m vao thang 9/2008. sau khi Thu trmrng giao My John
Negropontc tham Phnom Penh va tuyen bG rfll1g M5' Sl? chi 24 USD
vi¢n trq' trong IInh VI,fC y Ncgroponte cung clmg b6 chinh sach dao
nguq'c Clla My o6i vl'ri phicn tt)a xct xu Khomc D(). Cho t6i niim 2008,
My tu eh5i tham gia tr\fC ti0p vao phicn t()a do cae quan tinh
24 Embassy of the United States, Press Release. 22 September 200Y. Xcm tai
_092209.html.
.5 "Remarks by Deputy Secretary Negropontc in Cambodia". U.S. Department of St;l1:.
16 September 2001\. http://www.state.gov/sid/200/\1097/\7.htl11.
6/2012
10:'
Cae van i/; Quae Ii
dOc l?p va kha nang dat duoc chuan muc cong 1y quoc cua phien toa,
Theo phat ngon vien Dai sir quan My tai Cam-pu-chia, chuyen tham cua
ong Negroponte dii hien mong muon cua My muon hQ'P tac true tiep
voi lanh dao va nhan dan Cam-pu-chia.i''
HQ'P hie qu6e phimg .
Trong nam 2008-2009, quan he quoc phong My - Cam-pu-chia
duoc rna rong dang voi viec My day manh vien tro tai chinh va tang
cuong pharn vi huan luyen quan S\I.27 Vao nam 2008, My cung cftp 4
trieu USD cho cac hoat dong ra pha born min va xuat cac khoan cho
vay cling nhu dao tao tang cirong kha nang cua Quan dOi Hoang gia
Cam-pu-chia trong cac hoat dong gin giu hoa binh cua Lien HQ'P Qu6c.
28
Vao thang 6/2008, My dil quyen gop diroc 31 xe tai cho Quan dOi Hoang
gia Cam-pu-chia va ciing cung cftp vien tro giup quan dOi Cam-pu-chia
co tham gia cac cuoc tap tran da quoc gia. Vao thang 3 va 4 nam 2009,
cac tho lan hai quan My va Cam-pu-chia co cuoc tap ciru hO, ciru nan
chung dau tien. Vao thang 5 nam do, Thuy quan Luc chien My va cac SI
quan Quan dOi Hoang gia Cam-pu-chia thirc hien cuoc dien tap chung y
Vao thang 9/2009, My quyen gop diroc 20 thung trang thiet bi quan S\I
du thira (gom ao giap chong dan, tui dii chien va dong phuc nguy trang)
cho quan dOi Cam-pu-chia voi tong tri gia 6.5 trieu do 1a.
26 "Remarks by Charge d'affaires Piper Wind Campbell on America's Role in Asia",
Embassy of the United States, Speeches, 12 January 2009. http:/'cambodia.
usembassy.gov/sp_O ll209.html
27 Xem: Carlyle A. Thayer. "Southeast Asia: Patterns of Security Cooperation", ASP!
Strate}!;)' Report (Canberra: Australian Strategic Policy Institute, September 2010), tr.45­
46.
2g Cam-pu-chia da: gui cac chuyen gia ra pha bom min tui S(> gIn gifr hoa binh clla
Lien Hqp Qu6c t\Ii Xu-dang nam 2006 va tui C(>ng hoa Chat va C(>ng hoa Trung Phi
vao thang 9/2009.
Nghien ctru Quae Ii sa 2
Dinh cao cua quan (
2009 voi viec rna van phon]
Oa-sinh-tcm cua BQ tnrong (
co cuoc hoi rieng voi 1
Thir truong Ngoai giao Jam
mbi quan tam cua My d6i ,
Hoang gia trong linh vue gil
khung b6. Ong cling rnoi (
sach Quoc phong va chi ra (
moi giira hai nuoc.
Thir tnrong Steinberg'
tac an ninh song phirong, Vi
quyen va viec Cam-pu-chia 1
quoc t€ . d(lc biet quan 1
Chucmg trinh Gin giu Hoa b
quy mo toan cau voi nhiem
binh linh gin giu hoa binh V
G-8 do My tai tro. tha
Trung tam ra pha born min gi
Vao cu6i nam 2009, qt
lai dQt ngQt sau khi chinh ph
n<;ln Duy Ngo Nhl cho Trunl
Ngo<;li truang My Hillary eli
giao 200 xe v?n tai
gop phucmg v?n tai I
29 Embassy of the United States,
usem bas y.gov/pr _092309 .htm!.
30 Vao thang 6/20 I0, Trq ly
Schwartz da: tham Cam-pu-chi:
106 6/2012
6/2012

Cae win d; Qu6e Ii
ong Iy quoc cua phien toa.
am-pu-chia, chuyen tham cua
la My muon hQ'P tac true tiep
IC phong My - Cam-pu-chia
mh vien tro tai chinh va tang
o nam 2008, My cung dp 4
nin va cac khoan cho
lang ella Quan dQi Hoang gia
)a binh ella Lien Hop Qu6c.
28
31 xe tai cho Quan dQi Hoang
giup quan dQi Cam-pu-chia
1. Vao thang 3 va 4 nam 2009,
cuoc t?P ciru hQ, ciru nan
quan Luc chien My va cac sl
hien cuoc tap chung y
thung trang thiet bi quan sir
i€ n va d6ng phuc nguy trang)
5trieu do la.
pbell on America's Role in Asia",
January 2009. http:!'cambodia.
TIS of Security Cooperation", ASP!
:yInstitute, September 20 I0), tr.45­
in tai 8<) gin giG" hoa binh Clla
: hoa Chat va C<)ng hoa Trung Phi
6/2012
Nghien ctru Qu6e Ii s6 2 (89)
Dinh cao cua quan quan sir My - Carn-pu-chia dat diroc van nam
2009 voi viec rna van phong Tuy vien Quoc phong My va chuyen tham
Oa-sinh-ton cua BQ tnrong Quoc phong Carn-pu-chia Tea Banh. Ong da
co cuoc hoi rieng voi Bi;> tnrong Quoc phong My Robert Gates va
Thir tnrong Ngoai giao James Steinberg." Ong Gates da: tai khang dinh
m6i quan tam cua My d6i voi viec tang cuong kha nang cua Quan dOi
Hoang gia trong Iinh V\lC gin giu hoa binh, an ninh duorig va chong
khung b6. Ong cling moi Cam-pu-chia tham gia van D6i thoai Chinh
sach Quoc phong va chi ra cai each quoc phong la mot Iinh V\lC hop tac
moi gifra hai mroc.
Thir tnrong Steinberg va BQ tnrong Tea Banh da thao luan hop
tac an ninh song phuong, vai tro cua Cam-pu-chia trong ASEAN, nhan
quyen va viec Cam-pu-chia tham gia van cac hoat dOng gin giu hoa binh
quoc Diem di;ic biet quan trong la Cam-pu-chia quyet dinh tham gia van
Chirong trinh Gin giu Hoa binh Toan cau (GPOI) - mot chuong trinh co
quy rna toan cau voi nhiem vu dao tao va trang bi thirc cho 75.000
binh linh gin giu hoa binh van nam 2010. GPOI la sang cua Nhom
G-8 do My tai tro. Vao thang 12/2009, Cam-pu-chia bat xay dung
Trung tam ra pha born min gin giu hoa binh dum SIl bao tro cua GPOL
Vao cu6i nam 2009, quan quoc phong My - Cam-pu-chia chirng
lai dQt ngot sau khi chinh phil cua Thu urong Hun Sen tra 20 nguoi tj
n<;1n Duy Ng6 Nhl cho Trung Qu6c S\l can ngo<;1i giao clla
truang My Hillary Clinton. Vao thang 3/2010, My ngling
giao 200 xe v?n tai cho Cam-pu-chia theo Chuong trinh quyen
gop phuong v?n tai phan d6i hanh dQng tren clla Cam-pu-chia.
J O
29 Embassy of the United States, Press Release, 23 September 2009. http://cambodia.
usembasy.gov/pr_092309.html.
30 Vao thang 6/2010, Trg Iy tru6ng My vAn Dan s6, tj va di cu Eric
Schwartz da tham Cam-pu-chia (va Lao) thao voi cac quan chuc chinh phu.
6/2012 107
Cae van dJ Quae d
Tuy nhien, sau mot thai gian ngan, quan ngoai giao giira hai mroc lai
tuc da phat trien. Vao thang 6/2009, d5u tien, Cam-pu-chia tham
gia vao Chuang trinh hop tac dao tao va sang dtIu cua hai quan
(CARAT), va khai vice don tim hai quan Tortuga cua My ghe tharn.
Cung vao thang 7 nam do, Cam-pu-ehia va My dong dang eai cuoc
tran chung eo ten goi binh Angkor" trong khuon kh6 ella Chuang
trinh GPOl, voi han 1.000 quan gin gifr hoa binh cua 20 nuoc, tham gia
vao cac bai tren thao tnrong va t6ng hanh dinh tai cac dia diem khac
nhau tai Cam-pu-chia.
D\}' doan tuong lai ella quan My - Cam-pu-chia
Quan My - Carn-pu-chia co se tiep tuc da phat trien hicn nay
vi nhirng n6 lire hop tac trong ITnh VI,l"C quoc phong va chong khung b6 dft
diroc hai ruroc thict lap. eo mat cua cac cong ty My trong viec khai
thac cac gieng dau va khi d6t {11(1i duoc phat hien cua Carn-pu-chia se
dong gop eho viec mo rong hop tac song phirong. MOt t6 nira gop
phan vao m6i quan h<; nay la m6i quan Him cua chinh quyen Obama
trong viec tro giup cac mroc ha nguon song Me Kong (Viet Narn, Lao,
Carn-pu-chia va Thai Lan) phat trien vung nay. Vao nam 2009,
Ngoai tnrong My Hillary Clinton dft rna man Chuang trinh phat ha
nguon Me Kong dfry manh phat rnoi tnrong, giao due va co So' ha
tang cho khu VI,l"C. Ba drr hai Ifrn ngo?i truang eac nuac nay ddy
nwnh chuang trinh tren. tham gfrn day nhAt clla ba tai tai Phnom
Penh la vao thang 1] /201 O.
Cac vAn dan chll nhan van sc la can tra Ian nhfrt cho quan
h9 song phuang do tinh dOc d0<1n ella ong Hun Sen. Ian cua
ong Hun Scn trong cuOc bfru Cli nam 2008 cung nhu Sl,l" ung h() cua Trung
Qu6c va ngu6n tili ehfnh d()t xutIt tu dfru rna va khi d6t se la buac
giup cho ong tho at khl)i ap trong nuac tu cac nhom ho?t dOng xft hOi
Nghien ctcu Qube ti sb 2 (89
va ap lire ben ngoai do My v
viec xir Iy cac han dan
Viec Cam-pu-ehia true
no cua Trung Quoc dft
ngay 20/5/2010, nhirng nghi •
Thuong mai voi Cam-pu-ch
dm chinh phu My giam ha
chia d6i voi MY". khoa
cua Cam-pu-chia d6i voi My
nho do co tro thanh mQt r

Qua viec khai quilt qU2
tim ra cac yeu to trong mroc
chinh sach cua My va Cam
song phuong. Trong tirong
chiu anh huang cua cac m6i
dang toi tao ra mQt
chinh tri, kinh va vim he
mong muon hop tac voi AS]
va Hc.rp tac) va xay dI,T
HOi nghi ThuQ11g dinh Don!
)) Carlyle A. Thayer. "Cambodia:
trong Southeast Asian Affairs 200
Southeast Asian Studies. 2009), tr.
32 Scot Marciel, Pho Trq Iy
United States and Cambodia: Bilal
the Subcommittee on Asia. the P
Affairs Committee. Washington, [
108 6/2012
6/2012
It.
ngoai giao giua hai mroc lai
I tien, Cam-pu-ehia tham
I sang dAu cua hai quan
inTortuga ella My ghe tham.
I My dong dang eai cuoc tap
."ong khuon kh6 cua Chucmg
abinh ella 20 ruroc, tham gia
ih dinh tai cac dia khac
. Cam-pu-chia
tuc da phat trien hien nay
: phong va chong khung b6 dii
cong ty My trong viec khai
ihat hien ella Cam-pu-ehia se
phuong. Mot t6 nira gop
:fun ella ehinh quyen Obama
19 Me Kong Nam, UlO,
vung nay. Vao nam 2009,
an Chuang trinh phat trien ha
i tnrong, giao due va co so ha
. tnrong cac mroc nay day
jay ella ba toi toi Phnom
ela dm tro Ian nhfrt eho quan
Hun Sen. thfmg Ian ella
:ung nhu SlJ ung hO eua Trung
110 va khi d6t se la bu6e
tu cae nhom ho?t dong xii hoi
6/2012
Nghien elm Qu6c d s6 2 (89)
va ap luc ben ngoai do My va cac quoc gia d6ng quan diem tao ra trong
viec xu ly cac han dan chu va nhan quyen."
Viec Cam-pu-chia true xuat ngiroi ti nan Duy Ng6 NhT va nhan vay
no cua Trung Quoc dii mot s6 ngh] SI My khong hai long. Vao
ngay 20/5/2010, nhirng nghi si nay dii dua them mot khoan vao Luat
Thucmg mai voi Cam-pu-chia nam 2010 (H.R. 5320), thea do nghiem
earn ehinh phu My giam hay mien "bat eli khoan no nao cua Cam-pu­
ehia d6i voi MY". khoan nay ham y noi toi khoan no 440 trieu USD
cua Cam-pu-ehia d6i voi My nr thai Lon Nol (1970-1975).32 Mot vfrn
nho do co tro thanh mot rao can Ian sau nay.

Qua viec khai quat quan My - Cam-pu-chia, bai dii 126
tim ra cac t6 trong mroc va quoc co anh huong toi viec hoach dinh
chinh Sikh cua My va Cam-pu-ehia nham tim SlJ n6i lai quan h¢
song phucmg. Trong tuang lai, quan song phuong gifra hai mroc sc
chiu anh huang cua cac moi quan M da phucmg trong khu vue, ASEAN
dang toi tao ra mot Cong dong ASEAN dua vao ba tang: an ninh
ehinh tri, kinh va van hoa xii hoi. Chinh quyen Obama dii hien
mong muon hop tac voi ASEAN (thong qua vice ky Hiep dinh Than
thien va Hop tac) va xay dung ch6 khu vue (bang viec tham gia vao
Hoi nghi Thuong dinh Dong A). Hai nay sc tao ra mot khuon
31 Carlyle A. Thayer. "Cambodia: The Cambodian People's Party Consolidates Power",
trang Southeast Asian Affairs 2009 bien sO\ln boi Daljit Singh, (Singapore: Institute of
Southeast Asian Studies, 2009). tr.85-1 OJ.
32 Scot Marciel. Ph6 Trg Iy Ngo\li truang My vE Dong Ava Thai Binh DU011g, 'The
United Stales and Cambodia: Bilateral Relations and Bilateral Debt", Testimony Before
the Subcommittee on Asia. the Pacific, and the Global Environment, House Foreign
Affairs Committee, Washington. D.C., 14 February 2009.
6/2012 109
Cae van Quae Ii
kh6 cho quan h9 My - Cam-pu-chia. Vi du, vao nam 2009, T6ng thong
Obama da gap mat cac nha lanh dao Dong Nam A ben Hoi nghi
Thuong dinh APEC. Cac nha lanh dao Dong Nam Ada tuyen b6 rang ho
muon len lich trinh cho cac cuoc gap tiep thea Lao va Cam-pu-chia ­
von khong phai thanh vien APEC - co tham gia. T6ng thong Obama
da chu tri cuoc hop thuong dinh My - ASEAN tai My vao thang 9/2010.
ASEAN dang dfry manh mot tien trinh thao luan moi giira B<)
truong quoc phong cac mroc ASEAN va cua mot s6 mroc d6i thoai, goi
la cuoc hQP cua B<) tnrong Quoc phong ASEAN + 8. Cuoc hQP tien
diroc t6 chirc tai Ha Noi vao ngay 12110/2010 voi Sl,I tham gia cua My la
mot trong tarn doi tac tren. Khuon kh6 nay cling se gop phan dinh hinh
moi quan h9 giira My va Cam-pu-chia bang each tao ra mot khuon kh6
da phuemg cho hop tac quoc phong trong tuemg lai.
My cling dang day manh quan da phuemg trong khu VlJC d6i
pho voi cac moi de doa phi truyen thong nhu tro giup nhan dao va ciru
nan sau tham hoa, dai dich va cac benh truyen nhiem, chong rna tuy,
buon ban ngiroi, chong khung b6 ... Cac thach thirc xuyen quoc gia nay
t6t nhat la duoc xu ly duoi goc d<) da phuemg va nay cling se anh.
huang tich Cl,IC toi quan M My - Cam-pu-chia.
Cu6i cung, quan giira My va Cam-pu-chia cling se diroc dinh
hinh boi ca hoi hinh thanh Hiep dinh Thuemg mai ur do song phuemg va
SlJ quan Him cua chinh quyen Obama trong viec tro giup cac mroc ha
nguon song Me Kong phat trien vung. Vao thang 7/2010, My da
dong gop 187 USD cho xu Iy cac van nhu ngu6n nuac, an
toan thl,IC phfrm va suc kh6e c<)ng d6ng. Chuemg triOO ngu6n Me
Kong se d<)ng ll,Ic cho Phnom Penh hgp tac che hem vai My
clugc m\lc tieu phat kiOO thong qua h<)i vung.
Nghien cuu Quae ti sa 2 (89
HQP TAc
ThfJ
Tom t{it
Song Ate Cong dai 4.81
bllt nguon tic eao nguyen Ta}
an-rna, Thai Lan. UIO, Cam­
da dang sinh hoc cua song.
zon. Tai nguyen luu con
chi rieng nguon ea uti dem 1(J
thdp IcY qua. cae cuong qua,
ehinh quoc d uti W'l dang t.
muc dich khac nhau V(
voi cac nuoc ha nguon Me (
nhiing phat trdn gdn day cue;
vimg song Me 0
Song Me C6ng dai 4.8
bat nguon til cao nguyen ray
an-rna, Thai Lan. Lao, Cam-J
• Trinh Thi Hoa. Hoc vi¢n Chinh
Trung tam Phicn dich Qu6cgia, Be
6/2012
110 6/2012

Nghien cuu - Trao oJi
instead of fighters" in Quang Trung dynasty into reality. He contributed
to bringing the relations between Vietnam and China to new level.
CAMBODiA - UNITED STATES RELATIONS
Carlyle A. Thayer, Prof.
The United States first opened diplomatic relations with the
Kingdom of Cambodia in 1950 when Cambodia became an associated
state within the French Union. US -Cambodia relations has experienced
abrupt changes and reversals since 1950. Political relations deteriorated
in the early 1960s as a result of US military involvement in South
Vietnam and Cambodia broke diplomatic relations in May 1965.
Diplomatic relations were resumed in July 1969, severed after the Khmer
Rouge seized power in April 1975 and re-established in 1991.
This article explores the impacts of domestic and international
factors on US relations with Cambodia in the period after 1991 when an
international settlement brought an end to the decade-long conflict in this
country. Bilateral interstate relations between the US and Cambodia
comprise multiple dimensions including diplomatic-political, economic,
defence-security and humanitarian-development assistance. This Article
illustrates that the pace and scope of the bilateral relationship varied
across these dimensions over time.
Nghien cuu Quae d sa 2 ( 8 ~
u.s. -MEKONG CO(
Tril
The 4,800km-long Me
running from the Tibetan pia
and Viet Nam before joining
to the Amazon River. The ri
living along its banks with ar
the past decades, many poi
have been increasing their
purposes. Most recently, am
States' Lower Mekong In
development of this initiative
KOREAN PENINSUL,
OFAM
Being located at an ir
after World War II, the KOI
power dispute. Arguably, C
which have most influence 0
series of measures and polici:
6/2012
19R 6/2012
Nghien cU'U
89 Thong tin va Truycn thong cc1p
Gi<1y phcp xuat ban so: 167 GP-[3VHTT
Qu6c t ~
N9P luu chicu: Trung tam Thong tin - Tv li¢u
ISSN 1859 - 0608
HQc vien Ngoai giao thang 6 - 2012.
Ghi : 30.000d

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