1 I.


José Basco y Vargas was the 44th governor of the Philippines under Spanish colonial rule, from 1778 to 1787. He was the most economic minded governor-general. He established the Sociedad Económica de los Amigos del País, or the Economic Society of Friends of the Country. He also made the colony independent, by freeing it from the control of New Spain, which is today Mexico. His accomplishments can be stated in the following:

they also gained the desire for freedom and improvement in their lives. vessels journeying between Barcelona and Manila no longer had to pass by the Cape of Good Hope. The Filipinos not only gained more knowledge and information about the world at large. bringing with them a lot of progressive ideas. at the southern tip of Africa. Thus. THE BEGINNINGS OF FILIPINO NATIONALISM The Opening of Suez Canal The opening of Manila (1834) and other parts of the Philippine to foreign trade brought not only economic prosperity to the country but also a remarkable transformation in the life of the Filipinos. The Suez Canal. It was built by a French engineer named Ferdinand de Lesseps. which connected the Red Sea and the Mediterranean Sea. was inaugurated in 1869. they were able to shorten their traveling time from three months to 32 days. More and more foreign merchants and businessmen came to the colony. By passing through the Canal.2 II. trading in the Philippines became increasingly profitable. . Thanks to the Suez Canal.

and government soldiers executed many of the participants and began to crack down on a burgeoning nationalist movement.3 THE BEGINNINGS OF FILIPINO NATIONALISM III. office holders and letrados in suits. Cavite Mutiny The Cavite Mutiny of 1872 was an uprising of military personnel of Fort San Felipe. principalia in short black jackets worn over untucked baro. they were mostly Spanish soldiers and the Guardia Civil in their fine uniforms. Around 200 soldiers and laborers rose up in the belief that it would elevate to a national uprising. . They were in a festive mood for they had come to witness a public execution. At first. In the cold. rotund friars with their sacristans. people started to gather on the grassy field of Bagumbayan (now Rizal Park) south of Intramuros. the Spanish arsenal in Cavite. 1872. Many scholars believe that the Cavite Mutiny of 1872 was the beginning of Filipino nationalism that would eventually lead to the Philippine Revolution of 1896. 1872. gray dawn of the 17th of February. always a fiesta in the Spanish establishment. The mutiny was unsuccessful. Philippines on January 20.

who had been sentenced to death for sedition against the Spanish Crown and were to be executed by garrote. mechanical strangulation. Father Mariano Gomez was a strong advocate of the rights of the secular clergy. Manila. there had been an unresolved issue about secularization in the Philippines that resulted a conflict among the religious regulars and the church seculars. 1872. Gomez and Zamora. and Jacinto Zamora. These three martyrs were sentenced to death by means of the garrote. executed on February 17. on the charges of subversion and inciting revolution after the Cavite mutiny.Fathers Mariano Gómez.4 THE BEGINNINGS OF FILIPINO NATIONALISM IV. . bound and manacled. Fathers Burgos. The Execution of GomBurZa GOMBURZA stands for the names of the three Filipino priests. at Bagumbayan. José Apolonio Burgos. Prior to the execution of the three Filipino martyrs. They were the condemned men. escorted by Spanish friars. The three priests in black cassocks. guards and drummers appeared at a gate in the walled city.

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