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Aeroacoustics Modeling
By:
Sandeep Sovani, Ph.D.
Senior Consulting Engineer
Fluent Inc., Ann Arbor, MI
March 18th, 2005
Presented at Fluent Lunch and Learn seminar series
St. John’s Conference Center, Plymouth, MI
2
Welcome!
Fluent Inc.’s Lunch’N’Learn Seminar Series
z Topical seminars on leading edge CFD applications
z Held frequently
Aeroacoustics Modeling – March 18, 2005
FloWizard – April 22, 2005
Unsteady Flow Modeling – April 29, 2005
Multiphase Modeling – May 20, 2005
z Purpose
Inform the FLUENT community about the subject
fDiscuss basics, physics, theory, modeling techniques,
fTools available in FLUENT to model the subject
fExamples
3
Outline
Aeroacoustics Basics
Simulation Methods
z Computational Aeroacoustics (CAA)
z Segregated SourcePropagation Methods (SSPM)
Fundamentals
Variational Methods
Boundary Element Methods
Integral Methods
z Stochastic Noise Generation and Radiation (SNGR)
Summary
Bibliography
Simulation Guide
4
Basics: Acoustics
Definitions
z Acoustics = The scientific study of sound
[1]
z Sound = Pressure waves radiating in any material medium
History
z Sound was recognized to be a wave phenomenon over 2000
years ago!
[2]
Chrysippus (Greek philosoper, 240 BC)
Vetruvius (Roman architect and engineer, 25 BC)
Sound has essential characteristics of waves
z It has a “source”
Oscillatory disturbance
z It “propagates” in a “medium”
Transports energy without transporting matter
5
Basics: Acoustics
Source, Medium, Propagation, Receiver
Source
Medium
Wave Propagation
Source
Medium
Wave Propagation
Receiver
6
Basics: Acoustics
Acoustics is subclassified based on
[2]
z Source
Aeroacoustics
Vibroacoustics
Etc.
z Medium
Hydroacoustics
Seismology
Etc.
z Etc…
7
Basics: Aeroacoustics
Aeroacoustics
z Subarea of acoustics where the source of sound is fluid flow
Characteristics
z No moving boundaries
such as electric speakers, vibrating strings, or vocal chords
z Unsteady fluid flow always produces pressure oscillations
therefore is inherently a source of sound
Examples
z Whistles
z HVAC vent noise
z Automotive wind noise
8
Basics: Aeroacoustics
Sound
Flow
Acoustic Medium
Receiver
Source
Source ≡ Transient pressure variation caused by the flow
Sound ≡ Pressure waves propagating in the acoustic medium
9
Basics: Characteristics of Sound
Sound waves have several key attributes
z Compressible phenomenon
z Wave amplitude is very small
z Sound waves carry only a tiny fraction of the energy contained
in the mean flow
E.g. Acoustic energy generated by Boeing 747 during takeoff is
not enough to boil an egg!
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
1.E04 1.E03 1.E02 1.E01 1.E+00 1.E+01 1.E+02
Pressure (Pascal)
S
P
L
(
d
B
)


.

\

=
ref
rms
p
p'
20log SPL
10
2 5
/ 10 2 m N p
ref
−
× =
1atm = 1E+5 Pa
10
Outline
Aeroacoustics Basics
Simulation Methods
z Computational Aeroacoustics (CAA)
z Segregated SourcePropagation Methods (SSPM)
Fundamentals
Variational Methods
Boundary Element Methods
Integral Methods
z Stochastic Noise Generation and Radiation (SNGR)
Summary
Bibliography
Simulation Guide
11
Outputs typically desired from a aeroacoustics study
z Source Strengths
Source Ranking
z Frequency Spectrum
At observer
z Directivity
Simulation: Objectives
12
Simulation: Aspects
To obtain the desired outputs two aspects need to
be simulated
z Sound source
Provides source characteristics and rankings
z Sound propagation
Propagation of sound from the source to the receiver
fRequires input of source characteristics
fProvides
» Sound spectrum and receiver
» Sound directivity
Aeroacoustics simulation essentially involves
computing these two aspects
13
Simulation: Approaches
There are 3 primary simulation approaches
z Computational Aeroacoustics (CAA)
Sometimes referred to as Direct Noise Computation (DNC)
Sound sources and propagation solved in a single
comprehensive model
z Segregated SourcePropagation Methods (SSPM)
Sound source and propagation solved separately via two
separate computations
f Integral Methods
f Boundary Element Methods
f Variational Methods
z Stochastic Noise Generation and Radiation (SNGR)
We will discuss each of these methods in detail
z Theory
z Applicability
z Advantages/Disadvantages
z Examples
14
Outline
Aeroacoustics Basics
Simulation Methods
z Computational Aeroacoustics (CAA)
z Segregated SourcePropagation Methods (SSPM)
Fundamentals
Variational Methods
Boundary Element Methods
Integral Methods
z Stochastic Noise Generation and Radiation (SNGR)
Summary
Bibliography
Simulation Guide
15
CAA: Theory
CAA = Computational AeroAcoustics
CAA :: Aeroacoustics
DNS :: Turbulence
z Direct simulation; no models involved
Premise
z Fluid flow at sound source and sound propagation, both
are fluid phenomena
Therefore both are governed by NavierStokes equations
z Solve transient NS equations to calculate both
Sound generation
Propagation
fDomain spans from sources to receivers
z Most straightforward in terms of both implementation
and usage
A comprehensive CFD code such as FLUENT solves the
NavierStokes equations
Simply conduct a transient CFD solution and measure
static pressure at mike as function of time
16
CAA: Theory
Sound Source
Receiver
p’(t)
Propagation
Computational Domain
17
Practical problems in using CAA
1] Frequency range (20 Hz ~ 20,000 Hz)
z Acoustic timescales are often orders of magnitude
greater than turbulence timescales
z Simulation needs to be run for long real time with a
small timesteps, i.e. for large no. of timesteps
2] Radiation to Far Field
z Domain needs to extend from source to receiver
z Large mesh sizes for farfield sound problems
e.g. aircraft noise heard on the ground
CAA: Applicability
18
3] Acoustic Pressure Magnitude
z Magnitude of the acoustic pressure is much less than
the hydrodynamic pressure
z Necessitates use of very high order discretization
schemes to propagate sound over long distances
Still then, can only propagate sound over limited distance
CAA: Applicability
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
1.E04 1.E03 1.E02 1.E01 1.E+00 1.E+01 1.E+02
Pressure (Pascal)
S
P
L
(
d
B
)
p
atm
~ 1E+5 Pa
19
CAA: Applicability
CAA is practically applicable only to cases
where these 3 obstacles are relatively minor
z Frequency range
Lower the better
z Distance between source(s) and receiver(s)
Smaller the better
z Sound pressure
Larger the better
20
CAA: Applicability
Region of practical applicability
Quantitative expressions for the bounding lines of the “region of
practical applicability” are still a open matter for research
Region of practical applicability
Distance Between Source and Receiver
F
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y
Increasing Sound Pressure
21
CAA: Advantages/Disadvantages
Advantages
z Simple to implement
Single simulation solves sound generation as well as
propagation
z Can account for flowsound “coupling”
Cases where sound has backward effect on flow
Disadvantages
z Limited applicability
As discussed on previous slides
z Computationally expensive
Large meshes
Long transient computations
z Mesh needs to be carefully prepared to capture
sources properly
22
Gaussian pulse initialized, σ = 1m; Mesh size ∆x = 0.2m, 2σ/∆x = 10
Coupled explicit solver, CFL=0.75; Inviscid, 2
nd
order upwind
Pressure outlet BC with NRBC
Pulse leaves domain with no
reflection
Standard pressure outlet BC
Pulse reflects as expansion
wave at open boundary
CAA: Example1: 1DPressure Pulse
Courtesy: Dr. Thomas Scheidegger
23
Circular piston in infinite wall
r =0.1m, 2D axisymmetric
Domain size 2m, ∆x=0.005m, 160,000 grid points
Vibration frequency f =3000Hz, amplitude 0.5mm
λ=0.11m, λ/∆x=22, Coupled explicit solver, CFL=0.75
Inviscid, 2
nd
order upwind discretization
– Analytical solution for
first minimum in directivity:
sin Θ
1
= 3.83/kr kr >> 1
CAA: Example2: Circular Piston
MDM mesh
motion
Courtesy: Dr. Thomas
Scheidegger
24
CAA: Example2: Circular Piston
Courtesy: Dr. Thomas Scheidegger
25
λ/∆x=44
kr = 2.72
Θ
1
≈ 80.7
o
160,000 grid points
Marginally resolved
propagation
λ/∆x=11
160,000
grid points
– Acoustic beaming
for higher frequencies
correctly predicted
– Analytical solution for
first minimum in directivity:
sin Θ
1
= 3.83/kr kr >> 1
f =1500Hz
λ/∆x=22
kr = 5.43
Θ
1
≈ 44.8
o
160,000 grid points
f =3000Hz
λ/∆x=22
kr = 10.86
Θ
1
≈ 20.7
o
640,000 grid points
f =6000Hz
Courtesy: Dr. Thomas
Scheidegger
26
CAA: Example3: Side Window Buffeting
Buffeting
z Loud throbbing sound/pulsation felt inside a car cabin
when the window(s) or sunroof are open
z Also known as “windthrob”
Example
z Aimed at predicting sound pressure spectrum at
driver’s and passenger’s ears when side window is
open
z Parametric studies
Effect of position inside the cabin
Different window openings
Different mirror designs
27
CAA: Example3: Side Window Buffeting
References:
z Passenger Car:
Hendriana, D., Sovani, S.D., and Scheimann, M. On
simulating passenger car side window buffeting, SAE
International Paper 2003011316 (2003)
[3]
z SUV:
An, C.F., Alaie, S.M., Sovani, S.D., Scislowicz M.,
Singh, K., Side window buffeting characteristics of a
SUV, Vehicle Aerodynamics, Vol. SP1874, pp. 43  53,
SAE International Paper 2004010230 (2004)
[4]
28
CAA: Example3: Side Window Buffeting
The figure that originally appeared on this page has been removed.
See Figures 1 and 2 from SAE paper 2003011316
Courtesy: DaimlerChrysler Corp.
29
CAA: Example3: Side Window Buffeting
The figure that originally appeared on this page has been removed.
See Figure 4 from SAE paper 2003011316
Courtesy: DaimlerChrysler Corp.
30
CAA: Example3: Side Window Buffeting
The figure that originally appeared on this page has been removed.
See Figure 3 and Tables 2,3 from SAE paper 2003011316
Courtesy: DaimlerChrysler Corp.
31
Pressure Variation
z 60 mph, 5 degree yaw
CAA: Example3: Side Window Buffeting
Courtesy: DaimlerChrysler Corp.
The figure that originally appeared on this page has been removed.
See Figure 6 from SAE paper 2003011316
32
Velocity Magnitude Variation
z 60 mph, 5 degree yaw
CAA: Example3: Side Window Buffeting
Courtesy: DaimlerChrysler Corp.
The figure that originally appeared on this page has been removed.
See Figure 7 from SAE paper 2003011316
33
SPL spectrum at driver’s ear
z 60 mph, 5 degree yaw
CAA: Example3: Side Window Buffeting
Courtesy: DaimlerChrysler Corp.
The figure that originally appeared on this page has been removed.
See Figure 10 from SAE paper 2003011316
34
Effect of Position in the Cabin
z 60 mph, 5 degree yaw
CAA: Example3: Side Window Buffeting
Courtesy: DaimlerChrysler Corp.
The figure that originally appeared on this page has been removed.
See Figure 13 from SAE paper 2003011316
35
Effect of Exhauster and Slightly Opening the Rear Window
z 60 mph, 5 degree yaw
CAA: Example3: Side Window Buffeting
Courtesy: DaimlerChrysler Corp.
The figure that originally appeared on this page has been removed.
See Figure 14 from SAE paper 2003011316
36
Difference
between two
mirror housing
designs
CAA: Example3: Side Window Buffeting
Courtesy: DaimlerChrysler Corp.
The figure that originally appeared on this page has been removed.
See Figures 7 and 15 from SAE paper 2003011316
37
Difference between two mirror housing designs
z 60 mph, 5 degree yaw
CAA: Example3: Side Window Buffeting
Courtesy: DaimlerChrysler Corp.
The figure that originally appeared on this page has been removed.
See Figures 18 from SAE paper 2003011316
38
CAA: Example4: Side View Mirror
Sound radiated from a generic automotive sideview mirror
[14]
z SVMs are strong contributors to wind noise
z Bluff bodies prominently protruding from vehicle surface
Produce highly turbulent, transient wakes that are sources of
sound (unsteady pressure variation)
39
CAA: Example4: Side View Mirror
Generic Side View Mirror
z Half cylinder (0.2m dia. and height), topped with a
quarter sphere
z Mounted on a flat plate
z Experimental flow/sound measurements reported in literature
Hold et al. (AIAA991896)
[5]
and Seigert et al. (AIAA991895)
[6]
40
Boundary Conditions
z Inlet velocity = 200 km/hr
z Re = 7 × 10
5
CAA: Example4: Side View Mirror
Velocity
Inlet
Pressure FarField
Symmetry
Walls
41
CAA: Example4: Side View Mirror
Inlet
Mirror
Mesh
z All hex mesh, 1.4 million cells
42
Solution Settings:
z CFD code: Fluent 6.1
Finite Volume Method based
NavierStokes Solver
z Solver: Segregated Implicit
z Turbulence Model: LES
SmagorinskyLilly subgrid scale model
z Discretization schemes:
Time: 2
nd
order implicit
Momentum: 2
nd
order upwind
PressureVelocity Coupling: SIMPLE
Transient Solution:
z Timestep size: 60 microsecond
z Total timesteps: 2100
z Run time: 4.75 days
z Hardware: 2 processors, Intel P4,
2.2 GHz, RedHat Linux
CAA: Example4: Side View Mirror
43
CAA: Example4: Side View Mirror
Flow Velocity and Pressure
z Velocity magnitude on horizontal plane
z Static pressure on vertical plane
44
Microphone Locations
CAA: Example4: Side View Mirror
Side View
Top View
Pt 101
45
CAA: Example4: Side View Mirror
Sound Pressure Spectrum
[14]
Reference for
Experimental Data:
Hold et al. (AIAA99
1896)
[5]
and Seigert
et al. (AIAA99
1895)
[6]
10
30
50
70
90
110
0 500 1000 1500 2000
Frequency (Hz)
S
P
L
(
d
B
)
Experimental
CFD  CAA
CFD  AA
Point 101
46
Inlet
Throttle
Body
Throttle
Plate
Sidebranch
Cavity
Intake
Manifold
Outlet
Inclined
Face
Automotive air intake manifolds can produce loud whistles
(tonal noise)
In this example we study such whistle production with CAA
[7]
CAA: Example5: Air Intake Whistle
47
CAA: Example5: Air Intake Whistle
Two cases were studied
z Baseline (Produced Strong
Whistle)
z Modified (Attenuated Whistle)
Simulation were carried in two
stages
z 2D (Along centerline cut of the
geometry)
z 3D (Work in progress)
Airflow
θ=43°
Baseline
θ=43°
Airflow
Modified
48
43°
418000 2D Quad Cells,
4kε RNG Turbulent Model
4Unsteady Simulation
4Coupled Solver
42
nd
Order Upwind
4Time Step = 2.5e05s
4Run Time = 0.04s
4Ideal Gas Law
4Double Precision
Solver
High Mesh
Density
Inlet
(101325 Pa)
Throttle
Plate
Sump
Zip Tube
Outlet
92325Pa
δP = 9kPa
Monitor
Point A
CAA: Example5: Air Intake Whistle
49
CAA: Example5: Air Intake Whistle
Velocity Magnitude in Modified Geometry
Ref: SAE Paper 2005012364 Kannan et al.
“Computational Aeroacoustics Simulation of Whistle
Noise in An Automotive AirIntake System”
50
CAA: Example5: Air Intake Whistle
Baseline Design
z Sound spectrum measured at sump bottom
Experimental  3D
159dB @
2125Hz
80
90
100
110
120
130
140
150
160
170
180
0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 5000
Frequency (Hz)
S
P
L
(
d
B
)
Computational  2D
153dB @
1710 Hz
Ref: SAE Paper 2005012364 Kannan et al.
“Computational Aeroacoustics Simulation of Whistle
Noise in An Automotive AirIntake System”
51
CAA: Example5: Air Intake Whistle
Modified Design
z Sound spectrum measured at sump bottom
Experimental  3D
Computational  2D
137dB @
2125Hz
80
90
100
110
120
130
140
150
160
170
180
0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 5000
Frequency (Hz)
S
P
L
(
d
B
)
150 dB @
1710 Hz
Ref: SAE Paper 2005012364 Kannan et al.
“Computational Aeroacoustics Simulation of Whistle
Noise in An Automotive AirIntake System”
52
Difference between CFD and experimentally measured
spectra
z Primarily due to strong 3D effects in experiments
In reality flow passes around the sides of the throttle plates
Side flow affects the shear layer on the sump
z Present CFD simulations are only 2D
All air flow has to pass above or below the throttle plate
Impingement length is different, therefore Strouhal number (St
= fL/U) is different
Excitation happens at fixed St, so greater L in 2D causes peak
to occur at lower f
3D CFD simulations are in progress
z Show great improvement in accuracy
Sample results seen in “FLUENT6 for Acoustics Modeling”
[8]
z Results to be presented in Fluent CFD Summit 2005 to be
held in Dearborn, MI, June79 2005
CAA: Example5: Air Intake Whistle
53
CAA: Examples Overview
Region of practical applicability
Distance Between Source and Receiver
F
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y
Increasing Sound Pressure
AirIntake Whistle
Generic Side View Mirror
Side Window Buffeting
54
Outline
Aeroacoustics Basics
Simulation Methods
z Computational Aeroacoustics (CAA)
z Segregated SourcePropagation Methods (SSPM)
Fundamentals
Variational Methods
Boundary Element Methods
Integral Methods
z Stochastic Noise Generation and Radiation (SNGR)
Summary
Bibliography
Simulation Guide
55
SSPM: Theory
Segregated SourcePropagation Methods
z Sound generation and propagation are independent phenomena
in most cases
They happen at vastly different scales
f Flow pressure ~ 1 kPa; Acoustics pressure ~ 1 mPa
f Turbulence length scales ~ 1µm; Acoustic wavelengths ~1m
f Turbulence time scales ~ 1 µs; Acoustic timescales ~ 1ms
z Problem domain can be thought to be composed of
two “layers”
Flow field
fGoverns sound generation
fNavierStokes equations
Acoustic field
fGoverns sound propagation
fWave equation
z Advantages
Reduced computational effort
Expanded applicability to a wide variety of problems
56
Derivation of the Wave Equation
z Linearized Continuity Equation (For fluctuations)
z Linearized Momentum Equation
(No convection, no body forces, no viscous stresses)
z Eliminate
z Use isentropic relation for speed of sound
z Wave Equation
0
' '
=
∂
∂
+
∂
∂
i
i
x
u
t
ρ
ρ
' '
2
ρ c p =
s
p
c 
.

\

∂
∂
=
ρ
2
0
' '
2
2
2
2
2
=
∂
∂
−
∂
∂
i
x
p
c
t
p
i o
u' ρ
0
' '
2
2
2
2
=
∂
∂
−
∂
∂
i
x
p
t
ρ
0
' '
0
=
∂
∂
+
∂
∂
i
i
x
p
t
u
ρ
SSPM: Theory
57
Connection between the
two segregated parts of
the problem: source and
propagation
z Sir James Lighthill provided
the mathematical foundation
for connecting the source
and propagation parts
z Famous “Lighthill’s Acoustic
Analogy”
[9]
SSPM: Theory
58
Lighthill’s Acoustic Analogy
[9]
z Continuity Equation
z Momentum Equation
(Convection included, but no viscous stresses)
In a conservative form
z Eliminate
0 ) ( =
∂
∂
+
∂
∂
i
i
u
x t
ρ
ρ
i j
i
j
i
x
p
x
u
u
t
u
∂
∂
− =
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
∂
∂
+
∂
∂
ρ
i j
j i
i
x
p
x
u u
t
u
∂
∂
− =
∂
∂
+
∂
∂
ρ
ρ
i i j i
j i
x x
p
x x
u u
t ∂ ∂
∂
+
∂ ∂
∂
=
∂
∂
2
2
2
2
) ( ρ
ρ
SSPM: Theory
i
u ρ
59
Lighthill’s Acoustic Analogy (continued)
z The previous equation can be cast in the form of a wave
equation in an undisturbed medium at rest by subtracting
from both sides:
z This gives “Lighthill’s Equation”
Where
This is referred to as “Lighthill’s tensor”
For nearly isentropic flows:
SSPM: Theory
i i
o
x x
c
∂ ∂
∂ '
2
2
ρ
j i
ij
i i
x x
T
x x
c
t ∂ ∂
∂
=
∂ ∂
∂
−
∂
∂
2
2
2
0
2
2
' ' ρ ρ
ij o j i ij
c p u u T δ ρ ρ ) (
2
− + =
j i o ij
u u T ρ ≈
60
Lighthill’s Acoustic Analogy (continued)
z Lighthill’s equation can be thought of as a wave equation with
a source term
Wave Equation
Lighthill’s Equation
z Lighthill’s tensor representing the sound source can be
calculated by solving NavierStokes equations using CFD
0
' '
2
2
0
2
2
=
∂ ∂
∂
−
∂
∂
i i
x x
p
c
t
p
SSPM: Theory
j i
ij
i i
x x
T
x x
c
t ∂ ∂
∂
=
∂ ∂
∂
−
∂
∂
2
2
2
0
2
2
' ' ρ ρ
Propagation Source
61
Computing Propagation
z Once CFD provides sound source information the problem
reduces to solving for sound propagation
z Several methods exist for this with varying level of
simplification
Rigorous Lighthill equation solution
f Finite Difference Methods
f Variational Methods (Finite Element)
[10]
Boundary Element Methods
Integral Methods
f Kirchoff’s Method
[11]
f FfowcsWilliams and Hawkings Method
[12]
z Discussion on development of most of these methods is
beyond the scope of this presentation.
See references for more information
SSPM: Theory
62
FLUENT provides features to compute sound propagation
using several of these methods
z Variational Methods (Finite Element Method)
ACTRANLA is a third party Lighthill’s equation solver code
developed by Free Field Technologies
f Fluent has an interface to export Lighthill’s tensor and other variables
to ACTRAN
z Boundary Element Method
SYSNOISE is a third party BEM code developed by LMS
International
f Fluent has an interface to export surface pressure fluctuation to
SYSNOISE
» Being a Boundary Element code SYSNOISE needs only the
pressure fluctuation on the boundaries
z Integral Methods
FLUENT has an inbuilt sound propagation module based on the
FfowcsWilliams and Hawkings (FWH) Method
[12]
f Part of the standard FLUENT package, no addon components
required
SSPM: Implementation
63
SSPM Implementation follows these steps for each method
z Perform well resolved transient simulation of flow in and
around the sound source regions
Save required data (such as Lighthill’s tensor, or timevarying
surface pressure) on source regions
z Read saved data into the sound propagation solver (ACTRAN,
SYSNOISE, or FLUENT’s inbuilt FWH module)
Perform sound propagation computation
z Postprocess acoustic results
Sound spectra, Directivity
SSPM: Implementation
Source
Receiver
p’(t)
CFD Domain
Sound
Propagation
64
Outline
Aeroacoustics Basics
Simulation Methods
z Computational Aeroacoustics (CAA)
z Segregated SourcePropagation Methods (SSPM)
Fundamentals
Variational Methods
Boundary Element Methods
Integral Methods
z Stochastic Noise Generation and Radiation (SNGR)
Summary
Bibliography
Simulation Guide
65
FLUENT’s FWH module
z The most general Acoustic Analogybased integral
formulation today is the FfowcsWilliams Hawking’s
(FWH) method[13]
Allows
fMoving surfaces
fPermeable surfaces
LighthillCurle’s integral is a subset of the FWH
formulation
z Essentially an integral method
Store timevarying pressure at all points on the identified
source surfaces during a transient CFD simulation
After transient CFD simulation is completed, an automatic
“oneclick” routine provides sound pressure signal at
predefined receiver locations
SSPM: FWH Method
66
SSPM: FWH Method
Benefits
z Less computation expense
Small CFD Domain
fonly covering source area
Ideal for farfield applications
Disadvantages
z Cannot account for backward effect of sound on flow
z Cannot account for reflections
z Needs straight line of sight from source to receiver
67
Fluent 6.2 implements the FWH integral method
in its most general form
z Allowable source surfaces
Walls (impermeable)
Permeable source surfaces (interiors, inlets, outlets,
sliding interface)
fCan be used to account for quadrupole sources by wrapping
an interior source surface around a quadrupole volume
source
Moving/rotating source surfaces
z Special addition
steady state fan noise (Gutin noise)
z Multiple source surfaces and multiple receivers allowed
SSPM: FWH Method
68
Fluent6.2 FWH Implementation
z Timedomain implementation
Forwardtime formulation
f allows for ‘on the fly’ simultaneous noise calculations
z Usable with segregated and coupled implicit solvers
z Compressible or incompressible source data
z 3D and 2D planar implementation
FWH not available for axisymmetric solver
Targeted applications
z External aerodynamic noise
Side view mirrors, Louvers, ….
Landing gear, highlift devices, …
z Fan/rotor noise
z Jet noise
SSPM: FWH Method
69
10
30
50
70
90
110
0 500 1000 1500 2000
Frequency (Hz)
S
P
L
(
d
B
)
Experimental
CFD  CAA
CFD  AA
Point 101
Generic Side View Mirror
[14]
Source Surfaces
SSPM: FWH Method: Example 1
70
Landing gear scale model
M=0.2, Re
D
=1.23x10
6
Segregated solver, incompressible
LES, Smagorinsky, C
s
=0.1
2
nd
order in time, ∆t=2.5x10
6
s
Bounded centraldifferencing in space
Mesh:
5.3M cells
173,000 surfaces trielements, ∆s=0.0135D
6 prism layers, h
1
=1.6x10
3
D
Run time:
3min 40s per time step, 4 nodes
9950 time steps for flow to pass through
domain (18D), ≈ 25 days run time
FWH analysis:
Source data extraction after one flow pass
Source data sampled during 0.9 flow
passes
SSPM: FWH Method: Example 2
71
SSPM: FWH Method: Example 2
Cells are
clustered in
wake and
near landing
gear
72
SSPM: FWH Method: Example 2
Vortical structures, (ω
2
 S
ji
S
ij
)/2 = (u
0
/D)
2
73
SSPM: FWH Method: Example 2
p(t)
receivers 1, 3
93.4 dB
98.3 dB 92.9 dB
96.8 dB
Receiver
OASP
SPL receivers 1, 3
92.3 dB
74
Automotive Apillar Rain Gutter
[15]
z Air speed = 22.35 m/s
z Reynolds number of 40,000
β
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
α
Flow
Microphone
SSPM: FWH Method: Example 3
75
Rain gutter: Flow structure
Static pressure
contours
Vorticity Isosurface
colored by velocity mag.
Static pressure
contours
Rain gutter
SSPM: FWH Method: Example 3
76
Rain gutter: Flow structure
Rain gutter
Contours of Velocity Magnitude
on the symmetry plane
SSPM: FWH Method: Example 3
77
Rain Gutter: Surface pressure fluctuation
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
0 500 1000 1500 2000
x (m)
S
P
L
(
d
B
)
Experiment (Kumarasamy and Karbon)
Fluent (LES Central Differencing)
Kumarasamy and Karbon CFD
Rain Gutter
LES
Central Differencing
Run 2
Model A
Timestep size = 8E5 sec
POINT 5; 0.05 m upstream of
the raingutter's vertical side
CFD spectrum is average of
5 samples. Each sample was
measured for 0.1 sec.
Surface Pressure Spectrum
(Upstream Microphone)
Reference:
Kumarasamy S. and
Karbon K., “Aeroacoustics
of an Automobile APillar
Rain Gutter:
Computational and
Experimental Study,” SAE
Paper 1999011128,
(1999)
[16]
SSPM: FWH Method: Example 3
78
Rain Gutter: Sound at farfield microphone
Reference:
Kumarasamy S. and
Karbon K., “Aeroacoustics
of an Automobile APillar
Rain Gutter:
Computational and
Experimental Study,” SAE
Paper 1999011128,
(1999)
[16]
0
20
40
60
80
100
0 500 1000 1500 2000
Frequency (Hz)
S
P
L
(
d
B
)
Experiment (Kumarasamy and Karbon)
Fluent (LES  Central Differencing)
Kumarasamy and Karbon  CFD
Rain Gutter
LES
Central Differencing
Run 2
Model A
Timestep size = 8E5 sec
Farfield microphone location
CFD spectrum is average of
5 samples. Each sample was
measured for 0.058 sec.
SSPM: FWH Method: Example 3
79
Outline
Aeroacoustics Basics
Simulation Methods
z Computational Aeroacoustics (CAA)
z Segregated SourcePropagation Methods (SSPM)
Fundamentals
Variational Methods
Boundary Element Methods
Integral Methods
z Stochastic Noise Generation and Radiation (SNGR)
Summary
Bibliography
Simulation Guide
80
Rationale
z Unsteady simulations (LES and DES) are timeconsuming
z Steady RANS results contain a fair amount of useful
information
mean velocity components,
mean pressure,
turbulent kinetic energy,
rate of dissipation, etc.
z This information can be used to shed some light on
broadband (turbulence) noise
z Can’t avoid approximation
z Yet potentially very useful to:
screen “noisier” designs
Identify the primary source of the noise
SNGR
81
FLUENT6.2’s Offering:
Broadband Noise Source Models
Source terms in the acoustic
equations
z Lilley’s equation
z Linearized Euler equation (LEE)
Proudman’s formula for turbulence
noise
[17]
Turbulent boundary layer noise
model
[17]
Jet noise source models
z Ribner
z Goldstein
All these models require steady
RANS results only.
SNGR
82
Steady RANS results used to “synthesize” turbulent
velocity fields with the stochastic noise generation and
radiation (SNGR) method.
FLUENT reports the r.m.s. values of the source terms.
z Selfnoise sources
z Shearnoise sources
.
Isosurface of
Lilley’s acoustic
source (total)
strength
SNGR
BB Model 1: Lilley’s Acoustic Sources
83
Source terms in LEE (Linearized Euler Equation)
z Steady RANS (kε, kω, RSM) results are used to “synthesize”
turbulent velocity fields with the SNGR method.
z FLUENT reports r.m.s. values of the source terms in the
individual coordinate directions.
Selfnoise source
Shearnoise source
.
43 42 1 4 4 3 4 4 2 1
noise Self noise Shear − −
∂
∂
−
∂
∂
−
∂
∂
− = ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ +
∂
∂
+
∂
∂
j
ti
tj
j
i
tj
j
ti
j
j
ai
j
ai
x
u
u
x
U
u
x
u
U
x
u
U
t
u
BB Model 2: LEE Source Terms
SNGR
84
Originally derived by Proudman (1952) for noise due to
isotropic turbulence (quadrupole sources)
Recently rederived (Lilley, 1993) and confirmed using
DNS (Sarkar and Hussaini, 1993)
Simple yet very useful to determine the local contribution
to the total acoustic power.
Developed by Fluent Inc.
z Based on LighthillCurle formulation
BB Model 3: Proudman Acoustic Power
BB Model 4: Boundary Layer Noise
SNGR
85
SNGR: Example
Broadband noise source models are practically
useful for
z Determine prominent noise generating regions in a flow
domain
z Determine noise rankings of different variations of a
design
Current example demonstrates how the BB
models can be used to determine noise rankings
amongst several ducts
[17]
Acknowledgements: Study conducted in collaboration with
Delphi Thermal and Interior Systems
86
SNGR: Example
Generic HVAC duct
z Baseline design
z Three additional design variation
z Aim: determine noise ranking with BB models and
compare with experimentally determined noise
rankings
The figure that originally appeared on this page has been removed.
See SAE paper 2005012495 “On Predicting the Aeroacoustic
Performance of Ducts with Broadband Noise Source Models.”
87
SNGR: Example
Design Variations
Baseline: Design 1
Design 3
The figures that originally appeared on this page have been
removed.
See SAE paper 2005012495 “On Predicting the Aeroacoustic
Performance of Ducts with Broadband Noise Source Models.”
Design 2
Design 4
88
SNGR: Example
Mesh
The figure that originally appeared on this page has been removed.
See SAE paper 2005012495 “On Predicting the Aeroacoustic
Performance of Ducts with Broadband Noise Source Models.”
89
SNGR: Example
Solver Settings and Boundary Conditions
Steady state,
Segregated
Implicit
Double Precision
RNG ke
2
nd
order
2
nd
order upwind
SIMPLEC
Air (incompressible)
• Solver
• Precision
• Turbulence Model
• Pressure discretization
• Momentum
discretization
• Pressurevelocity
coupling
• Fluid
Setting Function
7.507 m/s
(=300 cfm)
÷
÷
0 Pa (gage)
÷
Constant Velocity
Interior
No slip wall
Constant
Pressure
No slip wall
• Duct Inlet
• Duct Outlet
• Duct boundaries
• Plenum Outlet
• Plenum
boundaries
Value Boundary
Condition
Boundary
90
SNGR: Example
Flow Structure: Contours of velocity magnitude
The figure that originally appeared on this page has been removed.
See SAE paper 2005012495 “On Predicting the Aeroacoustic
Performance of Ducts with Broadband Noise Source Models.”
91
SNGR: Example
Acoustic power generated inside the duct as estimated
from the BB models
z (1) Proudman Formula (Representative of quadrupole
contribution)
z (2) Turbulent Boundary Layer Noise (Representative of
dipole contribution)
Design4
Design3
Design2
Design1
Dipole Source Power
Surface Integral of
Surface Acoustic
Power
Quadrapole Source Power
Volume Integral Volumetric
Acoustic Power
Design
The data that originally appeared on this page
has been removed.
See SAE paper 2005012495 “On Predicting
the Aeroacoustic Performance of Ducts with
Broadband Noise Source Models.”
92
SNGR: Example
Experimental Measurements
z Sound spectrum measured at a point 1 m directly
downstream of the duct’s outlet
Acknowledgements: Study conducted in collaboration with
Delphi Thermal and Interior Systems
The figure that originally appeared on this page has been removed.
See SAE paper 2005012495 “On Predicting the Aeroacoustic
Performance of Ducts with Broadband Noise Source Models.”
93
Outline
Aeroacoustics Basics
Simulation Methods
z Computational Aeroacoustics (CAA)
z Segregated SourcePropagation Methods (SSPM)
Fundamentals
Variational Methods
Boundary Element Methods
Integral Methods
z Stochastic Noise Generation and Radiation (SNGR)
Summary
Bibliography
Simulation Guide
94
Summary
FLUENT offers a fully integrated, comprehensive aero
acoustics capability.
1. Direct CAA using transient flow solvers
2. FWH integral method – most general acoustic analogy
based method
3. Suite of broadband noise source models
4. Source data export in an universal format to 3
rd
party
codes (ACTRAN, SYSNOISE)
z Spectral analysis utility (FFT)
z All these can be done within FLUENT
No add on modules necessary
We are committed to offering bestinclass aero
acoustics capability fully integrated to CFD.
95
Outline
Aeroacoustics Basics
Simulation Methods
z Computational Aeroacoustics (CAA)
z Segregated SourcePropagation Methods (SSPM)
Fundamentals
Variational Methods
Boundary Element Methods
Integral Methods
z Stochastic Noise Generation and Radiation (SNGR)
Summary
Bibliography
Simulation Guide
96
Bibliography
1. Oxford English Dictionary
2. Pierce AD, Acoustics: An introduction to its physical principles and
applications, Acoustical Society of America, Woodbury, NY (1994)
3. Hendriana, D., Sovani, S.D., and Scheimann, M., “On simulating
passenger car side window buffeting,” SAE International Paper 200301
1316 (2003)
4. An, C.F., Alaie, S.M., Sovani, S.D., Scislowicz M., Singh, K., “Side
window buffeting characteristics of a SUV,” Vehicle Aerodynamics, Vol.
SP1874, pp. 43  53, SAE International Paper 2004010230 (2004)
5. Hold R., Brenneis A. Eberle A., Schwarz V., and Siegert R., “Numerical
simulation of aeroacoustic sound generated by generic bodies placed on
a plate: Part I – Prediction of aeroacoustic sources,” AIAA Paper no. 99
1896, 5th AIAA/CEAS Aeroacoustics Conference, Seattle WA, May 10 –
12 (1999)
6. Siegert R., Schwarz V., and Reichenberger J., “Numerical simulation of
aeroacoustic sound generated by generic bodies placed on a plate: Part II
– Prediction of radiated sound pressure,” AIAA Paper no. 991895, 5th
AIAA/CEAS Aeroacoustics Conference, Seattle WA, May 10 – 12 (1999)
97
Bibliography
7. Kannan V., Sovani S.D., Greeley, D., and Khondge A., “Computational
Aeroacoustics Simulation of Whistle Noise in an Automotive AirIntake
System,” SAE International Paper No. 2005012364 (2005)
8. Fluent Inc., Brochure “FLUENT6 for Acoustics Modeling”, Lebanon, NH
(2005)
9. Lighthill M. J., “On Sound Generated Aerodynamically, I. General Theory,”
Proc. Roy. Soc. London, A211, page 564, (1952).
10. Caro S., Ploumhans P. and Gallez X., “Implementation of Lighthill’s
acoustic analogy in a finite/infinite elements framework,” 10
th
AIAA/CEAS
Aeroacoustics Conference, AIAA Paper number 20042891 (2004)
11. Lyrintzis A.S., “Surface integral methods in computational aeroacoustics –
From the (CFD) nearfield to the (Acoustic) farfield,” International Journal
of Aeroacoustics, vol. 2, pp. 95128, (2003)
12. Kim S.E., Dai Y., Koutsavdis E., Sovani S., Kadam N., Ravuri K.M.R., “A
versatile implementation of acoustic analogy based noise prediction
method in a generalpurpose CFD code,” AIAA paper 20033202 (2003)
98
Bibliography
13. Ffowcs Williams, J.E. and Hawkins, D.L., “Sound generation by
turbulence and surfaces in arbitrary motion,” Proceedings of the Royal
Society of London A, vol. 264, pp. 321342 (1969)
14. Lokhande B.S., Sovani S.D., Xu J., “Computational Aeroacoustic Analysis
of a Generic Side View Mirror,” SAE Paper 2003011698 (2003)
15. Sovani S.D. and Chen K.H., “Aeroacoustics of an "Automobile" APillar
"Rain Gutter": A Numerical Study with the FfowcsWilliams and Hawkings
Method,” SAE Paper 2005012492 (2005)
16. Kumarasamy S. and Karbon K., “Aeroacoustics of an Automobile APillar
Rain Gutter: Computational and Experimental Study,” SAE Paper 1999
011128, (1999)
17. Khondge A.D., Sovani S.D., Kim S.E., Farag A.A., and Guzy S.C., “On
Predicting the Aeroacoustic Performance of Ducts with Broadband Noise
Source Models,” SAE Paper 2005012495 (2005)
99
Outline
Aeroacoustics Basics
Simulation Methods
z Computational Aeroacoustics (CAA)
z Segregated SourcePropagation Methods (SSPM)
Fundamentals
Variational Methods
Boundary Element Methods
Integral Methods
z Stochastic Noise Generation and Radiation (SNGR)
Summary
Bibliography
Simulation Guide
z CAA
z FWH Method
100
Mesh:
z Mesh needs to be carefully prepared
z In source region
Mesh edge length =
length scale of turbulent eddies
whose timescale is 1/(max frequency)
z In transmission region
Mesh edge length =
{shortest sound wavelength of interest}/10
5
Source Region
Receiver
p’(t)
Transmission
Region
Simulation Guide: CAA
101
Solution:
z Transient; Compressible
Time step = 1/(max frequency)/10
Run simulation for
total real time = (1/(min frequency))*10
z LES preferred, but not necessary
z Monitor static pressure at microphone location
Pressure vs. Time signal
Take FFT to get SPL spectrum
Simulation Guide: CAA
102
Outline
Aeroacoustics Basics
Simulation Methods
z Computational Aeroacoustics (CAA)
z Segregated SourcePropagation Methods (SSPM)
Fundamentals
Variational Methods
Boundary Element Methods
Integral Methods
z Stochastic Noise Generation and Radiation (SNGR)
Summary
Bibliography
Simulation Guide
z CAA
z FWH Method
103
Mesh:
z Required only in source region
z Needs to be carefully prepared
Mesh edge length =
length scale of turbulent eddies
whose timescale is 1/(max frequency)
z Wall source surfaces
Include all walls that will experience transient
pressure fluctuation
z Interior source surfaces
need to enclose dominant sources and important scattering
surfaces
Quadrupole sources inside permeable source surfaces are
accounted for
Acoustic pressure field needs to be resolved accurately within
the region enclosed by interior source surfaces
5
Simulation Guide: FWH Method
104
Mesh
z Interior source surfaces need to completely enclose
dominant sources and important scattering surfaces
wall source
surface
Interior source surfaces
interior source surface
Duct
Simulation Guide: FWH Method
105
Simulation Guide: FWH Method
Simulation Procedure
STEP1: Processing
1(A) Setup Fluent case;
Activate FWH acoustics model
Select ‘Export Acoustic Source Data’ option
Select source surfaces from available Fluent zones in
Acoustic Sources panel
Specify write frequency
1(B) Run transient simulation
• Acoustics source data written in
• .index file and
• .asd files
106
Simulation Procedure
STEP2: PostProcessing
2(A) Specify receiver locations in Acoustic
Receivers panel
2(B) Read .index and .asd files
Compute/write acoustic signals
• pressure vs. time at each receiver
2(C) Use FFT tool
• transform acoustic signal to frequency spectrum
• PSD vs. frequency
Simulation Guide: FWH Method
107
1(A) Setup FWH Model
Define → Models → Acoustics…
z Select source data export or simultaneous FWH calculation
z Set model parameters
Farfield density
Farfield speed of sound
z Set references values for SPL calculation
Simulation Guide: FWH Method
108
1(A) Setup FWH Model
Define → Models → Acoustics…→ Sources…
z Select all source surfaces
‘On the fly’ FWH calculation requires consistent surface selection at
all time steps
If source data is exported, redundant surfaces may be selected
– Allows identification of contributions
from different sources
z For permeable (interior) surfaces,
Fluent requires the specification
of the ‘inner’ cell zone
z Select write frequency for source
data export
Source data does not need to be
exported every time step
fwh3
Simulation Guide: FWH Method
109
Simulation Guide: FWH Method
1(B) Solution
z Transient
Time step = 1/(max frequency)/10
Run simulation for
total real time = (1/(min frequency))*10
z LES preferred, but not necessary
110
2(A) Set receivers
Define → Models → Acoustics…→ Receivers…
zSpecify receiver locations
Each receiver generates a signal (.ard) file
Receiver location can be inside or outside the CFD
domain
Simulation Guide: FWH Method
111
2(B) Compute sound from saved source data
Solve → Acoustic Signals…
Load .index file
– automatically updates the available source data list
Select the source data (.asd files) to be processed
– can use subset (in time) of source data
– Choose the source zones
(i.e source surfaces) to be
used
– ‘Compute/Write’ calculates
acoustic signal for the
selected receivers and
writes out the receiver
(.ard) files
.
Simulation Guide: FWH Method
112
0
c y x t
i i
− + =τ
i
y x −
Raw receiver signal Autopruned signal
Receiver signal is calculated ‘forward in time’
z All sources radiate at emission time τ
z Signals from different sources arrive at the receiver at different
times , depending on the sourcereceiver
distance
z Tails of assembled receiver signal are automatically trimmed
where signal is incomplete (pruning)
Autopruning control in TUI
/define/models/acoustics/autoprune
Simulation Guide: FWH Method
113
2(C) Convert sound signal to spectrum
Plot → FFT…
General FFT utility
z Process receiver data directly
or read any Fluent xyfile
z Yaxis functions:
Power Spectral Density (PSD),
Sound Pressure Level (SPL),
A, B, CWeighted
z Xaxis functions:
Frequency,
Strouhal Number,
Fourier Mode,
Octave,
1/3Octave Band
Simulation Guide: FWH Method
114
Plot → FFT… → Plot/Modify Input Signal…
Allows modification of signal before
subsequent FFT analysis
z Subtract mean value
z Clip to range
z Windowing options
Hamming
Hanning
Barlett
Blackman
Reports signal statistics
z min/max, mean, variance
Plot/Write acoustic signal
Simulation Guide: FWH Method
115
Simulation Guide: FWH Method
Original Data Pruned Data
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