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CHM116A Lecture 3-Student (Revised)

CHM116A Lecture 3-Student (Revised)

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02/21/2014

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CHM 116 Spring 2012

Today’s Lecture
Section 16.1, 16.2, 16.3

Next Lecture
Read Sec. 16.3, 16.4 In Silberberg

Lecture 3: Learning Objectives

See Silverberg, pp. 665 - 666

The Great Questions
The human condition is to search for answers -- we want to understand our world. Science is the pursuit of understanding the physical world by answering two fundamental questions: I. Why? II. How? The study of chemical thermodynamics  The study of chemical kinetics

Chemical Kinetics

The quantitative study of the rates of chemical reactions and the factors upon which chemical reactions depend.

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First quantitative measurements done in 1850 by Wilhelmy on a reaction of sucrose. He noted that at any instant of time

In 1864 Guldberg & Waage found that at constant T, the rate of an homogeneous reaction is usually proportional to some power of the concentration of the reactants. Using the “Law of Mass Action”

DEMO

The Rate of a Reaction

Often, but not always, the rate of reaction is not constant through out but decreases with time due to decrease in the concentration of reactants.

The Rate of a Reaction
The rate of a reaction varies with time as the reaction proceeds!
Average Rate: Total change in conc. over a period of time Instantaneous Rate: Rate at a particular instant in time Initial Rate: Instantaneous rate when reactants are mixed To measure initial rate: Determine slope of line tangent to the curve at t = 0

Instantaneous Rate of a Reaction
[A] vs time for the reaction A  B
Instantaneous rate at t = slope of tangent at t Instantaneous rate at 8s y Rate = x 0.025 - 0.14 Rate = 10 - 1
x

y

Rate = 0.013 mol L-1 s-1

Instantaneous Rate Changes with Time
Initial rate = rate at t = 0
[A] vs time for the reaction A B
As the instantaneous rate changes with time, the slope decreases. Rate is not constant with time in this reaction! (Sometimes it is-see later)

Measurements should be made at initial conditions, because:
1. Concentration of reactants can be accurately measured. 2. Measurements are done before any competing reactions might start or change in temperature.

Example:
F2 (g) + 2 ClO2 (g)  2 FClO2 (g)

Measurements should be made at initial conditions, because:
1. Concentration of reactants can be accurately measured.

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2. Measurements are done before any competing reactions might start or change in temperature.

Example:
F2 (g) + 2 ClO2 (g)  2 FClO2 (g)

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