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Remanufacturing Automotive Mechatronics & Electronics
Not a threat but an opportunity
Table of Contents
Foreword By the Editor ………………………………………………………………………………………..3
Preface By Prof. Rolf Steinhilper …………………………………………………………………………..5
Remanufacturing New and Future Automotive Technologies By Fernand J. Weiland…………………………………………………………………………...13
Selected and Applied Test and Diagnosis Methods for Remanufacturing Automotive Mechatronics and Electronics By Dr.-Ing. Stefan Freiberger……………………………………………………………………35
Sustainable Development by Reusing Used Automotive Electronics By Fernand J. Weiland ……………………………………………………………………….....83
Research of Internet & Scientific Databases on Reusing and Inspection of Used Electronics Fernand J. Weiland …...…………………………………………………………………………89
Remanufacturing of Mechatronic and Electronic Modules for Transportation Vehicles – Challenges and Opportunities By Rex Vandenberg……………..……………………………………………...............……….97
Remanufacturing Electronic Control Modules – Evolution in Progress By Joseph Kripli………………………………………………………………………………….111
FOREWORD OF THE EDITOR
As the Chairman of the Automotive Parts Remanufacturers Association’s Electronics & Mechatronics Division, it is my objective to ensure that our members enjoy the benefits of their membership. Among the many services an association can provide such as lobbying, facilitating networking opportunities, publishing newsletters and newspapers, etc., I decided to focus my efforts on technical communications. My objective is not to educate our members on existing products which they are already familiar with, but to inform them about future product changes and encourage them to embrace new technologies. As a new division, the Electronics & Mechatronics Division has enjoyed tremendous industry support which has been reflected by the large attendance at our meetings. Since our start in 2006, we have had many meetings, clinics and plant tours. I would like to give special thanks to all those who have contributed their time and talent as board members, as speakers, and plant owners. They all have significantly contributed to the success of this division. To encourage all members of our association to embrace the new E & M technologies, I decided to edit a small book with the aim of exploring the changes which will happen to their product lines. Many thanks go to my friends and true professionals, Joe Kripli from Flight Systems and Rex Vandenberg from Injectronics, who have greatly contributed to this book and to our clinics, it is always a joy to work with them. Special thanks and gratitude also go to Stefan Freiberger, a young, brilliant engineer who has significantly contributed to this book as both author and technical editor. My debt is also to my friend Rolf Steinhilper, who has supported me with his advice throughout the creation of this book, and has shared my enthusiasm for remanufacturing for the last 20 years. Lastly, many thanks to all the participants to our clinics, to Bill Gager, President of APRA and his staff, in particular Global Connection editor Kirsten Kase, who have helped me in getting my job done as the chairman of our division and as the editor of this book.
Fernand J. Weiland Chairman APRA Electronics & Mechatronics Division 3
1. methods and (software) tools’. Being a huge new field. Rolf Steinhilper Three areas: 1. Thus it is driven by both the transition from production-based to service-oriented 5 . Automotive Maintenance (a task undergoing radical changes because of the introduction of electronics and mechatronics into cars) and 3. SERVICE ENGINEERING – A NEW SCIENTIFIC DISCIPLINE The term ‘Service Engineering’ has now been around for a little more than ten years. Service Engineering is defined in the academic world as the ‘systematic development and design of services using appropriate models. Remanufacturing Technologies (also challenged by cars’ electronics and mechatronics) form the background of this very interesting new book edited and composed by Fernand Weiland. 2. manufacturing engineering or industrial engineering. Service Engineering is positioned inbetween engineering and economic sciences. After outlining the key challenges. which I hope to be the ignition for inspiring a sequence of more good news and valuable information for the rapidly developing remanufacturing technology of automotive electronics and mechatronics. it presents new technologies and opportunities mainly in the field of remanufacturing automotive electronics. profiting from the pioneering spirit and the expertise of a handful of innovative personalities around the globe who are willing to share their knowledge with those who are also taking part in this exciting journey. So it is a real pleasure and honor for me to give some introductory remarks in a preface to this book.Preface By Prof. Service Engineering (a new scientific discipline discovered only recently). describing a challenging and fascinating field of work besides the engineer’s classic disciplines such as design engineering. Given this definition.
6 .economies as well as by the possibilities of new information and communication technologies such as B-to-B and B-to-C activities via the internet. So far. Service Engineering – and in particular Technical Service Engineering for cars – aims at developing processes for maintaining a car’s performance (and thus also its energy consumption and emissions) on the levels it was designed for. as well as providing knowhow and spare parts to fix failures (and thus reach or even extend the product’s desired lifetime) – it is therefore of real significant economic and ecologic relevance within the total life cycle of a car. scientific research & development efforts towards innovative Technical Service Engineering is still a widely ‘unexplored territory’ – but the potentials are both huge and promising. however.
But as figure 1 shows.315 bn) Aftermarket equals 1/3 of the global automotive industry turnover of EUR 1.2. AUTOMOTIVE AFTERMARKET SERVICES – BUSINESS OF WORLD SCALE AND SCOPE The so-called ‘automotive aftermarket’ – the business of car repairs and spare part supplies – is of wide scope: both in volume and in secrecy (!).3% Used car warranty 41% Spare parts. that regarding profits. tyres 17% Financing. service 12% Sale of used cars 17% Sale of new cars 13% Fuel.653 bn = CNY 6.889 billion Continued growth over the coming years Aftermarket makes up more than 50% of profits Source: Booz Allen Hamilton from Automobilwoche no. oil.Regarding sales.12 (2005) and OICA (2007) Figure 1: Automotive Service – How big is it? 7 . the global automotive aftermarket business is worth 600 billion Euros (850 billion US $) which means only around one third of the size of the global automotive business. insurance Global aftermarket worth over EUR 600 billion (= USD 888 bn = JPY 94. the automotive aftermarket contributes three times as much than new car sales to the profits of the automotive business! Origin of profits in the automotive industry 0.
not primarily by the ‘OEM/OES’ (Original Equipment Manufacturer/Supplier). steering.The majority of the automotive service and spare parts business. Market shares of Independent Aftermarket (IAM) and Original Equipment Services (OES) in 2005 100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% 81% 54% 82% 59% 80% 66% Original Equipment Services (OES) Independent Aftermarket (IAM) Source: GEP (2005) Figure 2: Independent Aftermarket (IAM) vs. assist driving. is challenging both service operations and skills along the car’s life cycle as well as remanufacturing technologies and 8 . see figure 2. This competition between OEM/OES and IAM is tough. braking. Original Equipment Services (OES). 3. TECHNOLOGICAL TURNAROUNDS OF AUTOMOTIVE MAINTENANCE AND REMANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGIES The rapid introduction of computer controls. is done by the so called ‘IAM’ (Independent Aftermarket). but it is of course good news for both technological progress and service innovations for the customers/car owners. suspension and many other safety. transmission and/or comfort functions in today’s vehicles. to some extent depending on the geographical region it is operating in. which operate engine and power train management.
9 . Many. Figure 3: Automotive Service Engineering – New Technologies and Opportunities. electronic and mechatronic components for more and more car functions. if not most of these changes in automotive maintenance are caused by the introduction of microcontrollers.the involved failure diagnosis requirements. Figure 3 depicts the radical shift (or technological turnaround) of automotive maintenance operations.
It should be stated. deal with the development of new remanufacturing technologies and business opportunities for automotive electronics and mechatronics. 10 . The contents and results of all these projects are clearly showing that in the intersection between up-to-date know-how from the three areas Service Engineering. These developments are the focus of all following chapters of this book – so no details will be pointed out in this preface. where Prof. Rolf Steinhilper and his team of 10 engineers also operate a European Remanufacturing Technology Center. however.-Ing. Automotive Maintenance and Remanufacturing Technologies. that many recent Research and Development projects which are run together with OEMs/OESs and the IAM at the Chair Manufacturing and Remanufacturing Technology at the University of Bayreuth. many new opportunities arise. see figure 4. Dr.The remanufacturing technologies for such electronic and mechatronic components in today’s and tomorrow’s cars also need to be improved and will see some significant changes and extensions in the near future. Germany.
11 .Figure 4: Automotive Maintenance Operations.
Remanufacturing is an eco-innovation driver. grasp the opportunities in the areas of vehicle electronics and mechatronics and take action! 12 . Enjoy reading. but not as much as the people who will buy the remanufactured components and ultimately benefit. It will conquer new disciplines and new product areas like the car electronics and mechatronics and open new markets. There is a strong potential for growth – the kind of healthy. local companies. Small innovative remanufacturers often tie the most intelligent knots in the global players’ networks. ENJOY READING! Already today most world class companies have remanufacturing operations to boost their own productivity and competitiveness in the service sector. Remanufacturing offers this magic twin opportunity. particularly if customers can have some fun and save money at the same time. But remanufacturing is also a business for the small. My best wishes mainly go to the readers of this book for their interest in the further advancement of the great concept of remanufacturing. Remanufacturing technology matters. which are the backbone of every national economy. Remanufacturers are in business at the right time in the history of the world to provide answers to many of our economic. Fortunately. family-owned. We must also remember that the strongest driving force in our market place is always the consumer – ‘technological push’ needs ‘marked pull’. consumer research also indicates a rising awareness which is more than just lip service towards protecting the planet. balanced growth we need. environmental and employment challenges.4. with potentials on the economic and the environmental sides as well. So I am very grateful to my friend Fernand Weiland for publishing this book – but not only my thanks go to him but all the other authors for undertaking this effort.
“Remanufacturing means renovating used vehicle parts or components in accordance with the generally accepted state of the art so that they can perform their function similar to new ones. readjusting as necessary and submitting them to a final test. A NEW DEFINITION FOR REMANUFACTURING AUTOMOTIVE ELECTRONICS AND MECHATRONICS Until the advent of mechatronics and electronics controllers. 13 . Weiland. Cologne Germany) 1. FJW Consulting. the definition for automotive remanufacturing was clear: A remanufactured automotive component is the functional equivalent of a new component and according to the Automotive Parts Remanufacturers Association (APRA) Recommended Trade Practice the exact definition was.REMANUFACTURING NEW AND FUTURE AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGIES By Fernand J. checking these components. repairing defective components or replacing them with new. reassembling the units.” The unit will be reassembled in such a manner that it is returned to its original status and performs like new. Remanufacturing regularly consists of dismantling the used units into their components.
Figure 1: Remanufacturing process steps.
This definition, created for “traditional remanufacturing,” in the future will also apply to mechatronics, however, for electronic controllers the definition will have to be adapted. Electronic controllers, also called electronic control modules/units (sometimes colloquially called black boxes), are computers equipped with passive and active electrical/electronics components. They do not have mechanical components and therefore the need to completely disassemble the entire unit is not necessary. When an electronic unit needs to be opened, the cleaning will normally be light, since the units are hermetically sealed. Defective components will need to be changed with new, and some critical components may also be changed out completely for safety or reliability reasons. In this context it is interesting to note whether electronic control units which have already been used and continue to work properly can be reused again without any intervention. The German Fraunhofer Institute IZM has studied this criteria and an interim report is available in this book.
2. “REMANUFACTURED PARTS” ARE THE BEST CHOICE
Figure 2: Remanufactured Parts.
To service and repair motor vehicles with “used parts” or “repaired parts” is not the best choice. Used parts have not been corrected for any potential problems. They have a limited life expectancy. Not only will it not be an economical choice to use these parts, but most importantly it can be an unsafe replacement. Furthermore, used parts procured from car dismantlers are generally not easily available. “Repaired parts” have not been fully disassembled, inspected or rectified -- their full function is not certain – however, they are an environmentally friendly alternative, but not without risks to the buyer. “New parts” are not the best economic choice either, because they are more expensive then remanufactured units and they are surely not an environmentally friendly alternative. “Remanufactured parts” are simply not only the best choice and the best buy, but environmentally the only viable alternative. Remanufacturing saves material and energy and the parts are (re)manufactured to high quality standards. In comparison to manufacturing new units, remanufacturing uses 90% less material and 90% less energy!
Figure 3: Vehicles in Europe and USA.
3. GLOBAL POTENTIAL SALES FOR AUTOMOTIVE REMANUFACTURED PRODUCTS (AND MECHATRONICS)
Globally speaking, the biggest market for remanufactured products is North America. Europe is number two and the rest of the world is only an emerging market. In the United States remanufacturing has been in place since 1940 and has steadily developed over the years. Today the market is mature and remanufactured products have established a dominant position against new, used or repaired units. In Europe remanufacturing has not reached the same level, though the introduction in the United Kingdom dates back as early as 1945 and in Germany, 1947. The main reasons for this slower growth have been that Europe has been a market where garages tended to repair rather than use remanufactured units. However, in recent years this trend has changed and the popularity of remanufacturing is now progressing well. The question for America and Europe is how will the new technologies of mechatronics and electronics influence remanufacturing? Will the higher technological barriers hinder the development of remanufacturing? At this juncture no one can reliably predict which position remanufacturing will hold in 15-20 years. But encouraging all remanufacturers to embrace the change now will not only mean challenges but also opportunities. As an
and quotes for North America a market of 60 million units each year and for Europe 20 million. These product lines will increasingly equip more and more European cars and a new potential for remanufacturing will emerge. 4. the same number. 17 . there are very few reliable sources. an accurate estimation of further growth is difficult because too many factors will influence the development. one can asses that the potential in Europe leaves room for growth. Compared to the year 2000 this is two times more! Beyond this date it is difficult to predict the future of remanufacturing due to the potential impacts of mechatronics and electronics. A further area of growth is expected to come from components for heavy duty vehicles. The positive short/medium term growth will certainly come from products like air conditioning compressors. automatic transmissions. APRA is one of the only sources available. If one considers that the number of vehicles in use in the United States is around 200 million and in Europe approx.association APRA has decided to facilitate education and networking in support of these technological developments. Figure 4: European annual production of remanufactured units. Potential growth is also expected in the areas of Eastern and Southern Europe where remanufacturing is not yet as highly developed as in other parts of Europe. APRA estimates that by the year 2015 the total European volume will reach 30 million units. EUROPEAN FUTURE POTENTIAL FOR REMANUFACTURING In terms of communicating volumes or number of units remanufactured every year. However. etc.
They all have been fitted to our vehicles for many years and over time they have only slightly changed in technology. but also for the extremely important work of testing the final quality of their products. not only for the remanufacturing process. By nature remanufactures are very inventive and creative and when original technical specifications for products are not available for remanufacturing. Over the years remanufacturers have invested in very sophisticated tools. 18 . “TRADITIONAL” REMANUFACTURED PRODUCTS The list of parts which have traditionally been remanufactured. they perform reverse engineering.” is long (see table above). a great capability which remanufacturers have. All of these capabilities will help them when they face the important change from traditional components to mechatronics and electronics. also called “hard parts. Most are mechanical and hydraulic parts. electrical parts like electrical starter motors and electrical generators represent a significant part of “traditional” remanufacturing. 5. however.Figure 5: Potential units to be remanufactured. Remanufacturers have always been able to cope with technical changes.
Figure 6: Remanufacturing product life cycle. the remanufacturing volume will increase and so will productivity and profits. which is a mature product. 6. At the end of the cycle they will phase out. from “new/future products. THE REMANUFACTURING PRODUCT/TECHNOLOGY LIFE CYCLE In remanufacturing every product line/technology will follow a life cycle. Electrical power steering. But at the same time the traditional hydraulic power steering. Volume reduction can also be caused by increased original product 19 . will decrease in volume and finally will phase out and be replaced by these new electrical power steerings. and at that time the volume and prices will decline and the product will become a niche product.” to “mature products.” With products maturing. for example.” and finally to “phasing out products. are “new/future products” which will definitely increase in volume over time and follow the above outlined cycle.” to “current products. Most of the time phasing out is due to changing technology.
The number of cars in use. when up-front investments and learning cost are high. Over a period of ca. The profitability of reman components will vary significantly during their life cycle. which still have hydraulic power steering. due to economies of scale. profitability will be low. HYDRAULIC POWER STEERING VERSUS MECHATRONICS POWER STEERING A typical example to demonstrate the changes of a component during the life cycle is the power steering fitted to the Volkswagen Golf cars. but with higher volumes. Future mechatronics remanufacturing will follow this path and when it reaches the volume production phase the earnings will be very attractive. Figure 7: Evolution of vehicles in use. causing the volume required for servicing/repairing cars to decline. 7. the margins earned will reach the highest value.reliability. At the start. 15 years the conventional hydraulic power steering will gradually be replaced by the electrical assisted power steering (EAS). but starting in 2005 Volkswagen decided to install a completely new technology: the electrically driven and electronically controlled power steering. is 20 . Until 2005 this model was fitted with traditional hydraulic power steering. This is a typical example of a “traditional” component which was converted to a mechatronic unit.
8. i.e. if it hasn’t happened already. Figure 8: Mechatronics units. Fiat. Opel and others have changed to the new technology in 1998 and the aftermarket. electrical or hydraulic component will be replaced by electronically controlled components. Volkswagen is not the only OEM changing to mechatronics power steering. remanufacturers must embrace the new technology now if they wish to stay in this business. for these units has already started. Despite this. The reasons for this 21 . remanufacturing business.very significant and it will take up to 10-15 years until all Golf in use are equipped with the new mechatronic version. WILL THE COMPLEXITY OF MECHATRONICS BE A THREAT FOR REMANUFACTURING? The list of automotive mechatronics components is as long as the list of “traditional” components because any mechanical.
electronic control will also allow the customisation of car functions. The downside of this will be the proliferation or increased number of specific applications (part numbers) for each component and the question could be asked if these changes or challenges are not too many or too big for the remanufacturer to cope with. Remanufactured Electronic Controlled Units and Ignition Distributors are only two lines of many other product lines which they offer.an opportunity to install and add additional features requested by the owner/driver of the car will be presented to the technician.are many since car components need to become more efficient in terms of energy consumption.which is much easier . smaller in size and weight and faster. The only way to improve all these parameters is to control the units electronically and make them part of an “interrelated car network. safer. which was quite a challenge Figure 9: Bosch exchange program (source: Robert Bosch) Bosch is a very committed supplier of remanufactured products which they call “Exchange”.” Furthermore. 22 . With the right determination and the right investment remanufacturers can manage all this. By changing the software instead of the hardware . In fact it will not be the first time the industry will be dealing with such paradigm change. after all they have successfully managed the change from mechanical carburetors to electronically controlled engine management systems.
” The remanufacturing processes which they invented were more on the electronic side and less on the mechatronic side which were not yet developed. They were not afraid to go through a difficult learning phase and they were not reluctant to make the investments which such a new business required. “what has been done for electronics can also be done for mechatronics!” Figure 10: TRW Electrically Assisted Steering (EAS) which is electrically column driven designed for smaller vehicles (source: TRW Automotive). They are living evidence of what can be achieved by remanufacturers who are determined to accept high challenges. some remanufacturers (Original or independent remanufacturers) did not hesitate to embrace the change. The systems consist of many sensors and actuators and a computer or Electronic Control Unit (ECU). They are the proof of what remanufacturers often say. the ignition and the emissions of combustion engines. They now remanufacture all the different types of controllers and the pertaining actuators which are the precursors of the future mechatronic reman business. When the change from carburetor to electronic injection happened 25 years ago. In this book you will be reading contributions made by two of these “pioneers. WE ALL CAN LEARN FROM THE REMANUFACTURERS OF ENGINE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Engine management systems (EMS) control the fuel injection. “In remanufacturing nothing is impossible!” My conclusion is. These days nearly all cars are equipped with an EMS system. 23 .9. In total the number of functions which they control is approximately 100.
therefore the need for service or replacement often becomes necessary. Bosch. REMANUFACTURING MECHATRONICS IS A FASCINATING PROCESS What exactly is a mechatronic unit? It is the combination of a mechanical component with an electrical actuator which is electronically controlled. 24 . TRW. NSK and Koyo. The major Tier one manufacturers of these new mechatronic components are ZF.” Basically a mechatronic unit is also a control system which. in automotive applications.10. The word mechatronics means a combination of the words “mechanics” and “electronics. Figure 11: Elements of the TRW electrical column driven power steering: the electronic controller. the angle sensor and the electrical motor actuator. power steering components are constantly actuated. This makes these components very attractive to the remanufacturing business. One of the first mechatronic automotive components which is already finding its way into remanufacturing is electrical power steering! During driving. These companies have all designed different systems for different vehicles which have already been in production for a number of years. is often a part of an entire vehicle interconnected network.
This last check is one of the most important steps for the remanufacturer. After remanufacture and reassembly of all three components into a complete unit.11. Repairing electrical motors is not new to remanufacturers and rebuilding an ECU. The Electronic Control Unit (ECU) which processes the sensor data information and calculates and supplies the power. Specialized manufacturers of test equipment will provide the perfect piece of equipment required to do this final job. This automotive system is no different from many other control systems which we have used for many years in all sorts of non automotive applications. repaired and tested. 25 . The sensor which is part of the steering column that measures the angle the driver makes in turning the steering wheel. but not so if we analyse it component by component. The system can be divided into three major units: 1. that will drive the rack. as we have seen previously. 3. 2. ARE MECHATRONICS REALLY SO COMPLEX? An Electrical Assisted Steering (EAS) system may look complex. and turn the wheels of the car. The electrical motor which will rotate the column. In remanufacturing. the three components of the EAS unit will be processed separately and each will be inspected. is a process which remanufacturing specialists are very capable of performing. a final test will ensure the proper functioning of the unit.
only 10 units will have a defective microcontroller. 25 defective wiring or connectors and 40 units will show a problem with the power supply modules. A micro controller of an electrical power steering pump and the frequency of potential failures (defects) which need to be repaired during remanufacturing. Out of 100 units which are returned for reman.Figure 12: Electronic control unit of an electrical power steering pump. 26 .
The number of parameters it controls or computes is limited as are the number of electronic components.the wiring .which consists of an often easy to diagnose and easy to replace component. WHAT CAN GO WRONG IN AN ECU AND WHAT NEEDS TO BE REMANUFACTURED An ECU (electronic control unit) for a standard mechatronic unit like an EAS is significantly less complex compared to an ECU for EMS. and . Figure 13: TRW rear axle caliper is a combination of a hydraulic brake and an electrically driven parking brake (source: TRW Automotive). etc.mechanical stress and corrosion can cause a lot of problems. the remanufacturing process of this ECU should not present them with a major problem.12.for many reasons they are a weak point in any electronic unit. the number of passive and active components is modest. It is the electrical connections which are basically mechanical connections that are often the problem makers! Assuming the remanufacturer has the equipment and the data to test the unit.) normally last “forever”. In total. As a result the number of potential failures on an ECU for an EAS is often limited to the more passive components like: .connectors . 27 . Electronic semiconductors (microchips.the power supply . The microcontroller itself is often the last source of complaint. .
With the introduction of the combined hydraulic/electrical brake caliper (see figure16). These electrical calipers have a hydraulic piston coupled with an electrical motor and a gearbox. a braking system which has mechatronic components. but as for all mechatronics. Not many remanufacturers are remanufacturing these components because the reliability and the number of service incidents are so low that the volume for remanufacturing is not sufficient to justify the investment to reman on a larger scale. like electrical solenoids and an electronic controller. AFTER EMS & EAS WHICH ARE THE NEXT MECHATRONIC UNITS APPEARING IN REMANUFACTURING? After EMS (Engine Management Systems) and EAS (Electrical Assisted Steering) the next interesting area we need to look at is braking. which is also a parking brake. Figure 14: Side-mounted combined starter-generator with the electronic controller designed by Valeo (source: Valeo Automotive). remanufacturing mechatronics will enjoy a new business. 28 . Fortunately such testers exist already. Calipers are components which are highly stressed and the frequent service and repair that they require will make them an important mechatronic component for remanufacturing. A mechatronic braking system which has already existed for a number of years is ABS. Not too complex for remanufacturing. an electronic tester for inspecting and operating the calipers will be absolutely crucial.13.
29 . For StarterGenerators the controller will in addition be combined with an inverter for supplying the AC current for the motor mode. as for all mechatronics units. i. which would fit in the category of so called “micro hybrid power train. Other combined starter generators used for more powerful applications. I have chosen to discuss the Valeo design because it is the best example for illustrating the direction these applications are moving. the bigger hurdle will be. the so called “mild hybrid power trains. electrical rotating machines or starter motors and generators. At this juncture it is difficult to make an exact forecast of which of the existing new rotating machine concepts will be fitted to volume cars.” are also controlled electronically and the challenge to reman will not be very different than the Valeo machine. The mechanical/electrical concept is close to ‘traditional” rotating machines except that it is electronically controlled. The remanufacturing of these new machines will not be such a great problem.” is a side mounted combined startergenerator. the electronic controller. but let us look at a last one which in traditional remanufacturing is one of the biggest reman volume providers.There are many other areas where mechatronics will be applied.e. The Valeo design.
14. HOW REMANUFACTURERS CAN HELP GARAGE WORKSHOPS WITH BETTER DIAGNOSIS
The garage workshop is very familiar with remanufactured units which it has used extensively for repairing cars over the last several decades. Remanufactured units offer an attractive solution for returning defective cars to service. With the advent of electronics and mechatronics, remanufacturing will positively expand in so far as the remanufacturer will not only offer a product to the installer but also a technical service! The reason has to do with the increased complexity of the units and the daily struggle of the garage technician with the new technologies. Unfortunately for the garage, not only are the units more complex but also the entire electrical car connections are now part of a multiplex network called CAN bus.
On Board Diagnosis (source: Robert Bosch).
Traditionally, the garage technician repairing cars had the capability to check the components, but now with all components becoming mechatronics and interrelated, his testing possibilities for individual components are very limited. One has to rely on what the car testers will tell them about the status of the car systems, but often they will not tell him the real status of the individual components. Only the remanufacturer has this true and clear capability to inform the installer if a mechatronic unit is accurately working or not! As a result, the remanufacturer can now help the garage to perform a better diagnosis, a service which is new and will be very appreciated. Smart remanufacturers will offer this competitive advantage and will be compensated with greater market shares!
Performance of electronic control units (source: Robert Bosch). Over the last 25 years the performances of electronic controllers for EMS have increased by a factor of 100! In the same time span, the size/volume of the controllers have decreased five times. This is practically a specific performance improvement of a factor of 500!
15. MECHATRONIC COMPONENTS HAVE A MUCH SHORTER DESIGN CYCLE
If we compare the changes in Engine Management Controllers over the last three decades, we will see at least three significant paradigm changes (see figure 16). If in comparison we look at “traditional” components like Brake callipers, Hydraulic power steering, etc. we have, until the recent advent of mechatronics, not really seen one significant paradigm change over a similar period. Brake callipers, power steering and other components are only now going through a paradigm change, i.e. they will all become mechatronic components. To illustrate the current speed of change in the design cycle of electronics (and consequently, mechatronics) the best examples are personal computers, mobile phones and digital cameras. We replace these units every 3-5 years, some even more frequently. Most of the time the reasons for this frequent changing technology is found in the hardware and software. In automotive design we are seeing a similar evolution. For example, for EMS (Engine Management Systems) the product design cycles have already reached a stage of less than three years, according to a study made by the Technical University of Dresden (Germany). The bottom line of this evolution will be that design cycles for automotive components will reduce considerably and OES aftermarket sales & service divisions will be highly challenged to keep pace with these frequent changes. Fortunately remanufacturing can easily cope with these challenges. In the past remanufacturers have always supplied the aftermarket with products. It is not unusual that after more than 20 years after the OE stopped production, remanufacturers are still capable of offering a reman unit for repairing cars!
produce an all time batch. I do however. wish to emphasize that for OEMs and Tier Ones. are required to make the change. Investments of time. etc. For them. remanufacturing will be the best choice and a very cost effective and safe alternative compared to making new components. the mechatronic components which are quickly becoming obsolete. Remanufacturing needs time to prepare. such as small batch production. REMANUFACTURING IS A RELIABLE AND VERY ATTRACTIVE SOLUTION FOR SHORT. To create a sound basis for the investment. “Traditional” remanufacturers do not always have the know-how to tackle electronics and mechatronics. The conversion has already started and it will take a few years (2-5) until all new cars will be equipped with them. because it cannot happen overnight when other alternatives. They need to create a system for the return of defective units and they need to retain certain test equipment and data before they dispose of them. have failed! 17. MEDIUM & LONG TERM SUPPLIES OF COMPONENTS FOR REPAIRING VEHICLES I do not have to reiterate the fact that remanufactured products are an attractive solution for replacing defective components. will present an immense challenge in terms of securing long term (15 years and more) supplies. Mechatronics will be a new area where remanufacturers can win a competitive edge if they adopt the trend early enough. They will need to adopt the philosophy to offer remanufactured units now and not at a later date. but also of money. redesign. They need to go through a learning process which will take time. FINAL CONCLUSIONS • “Active” car components will eventually become mechatronics components. • • • 33 . It will take approximately 10 years until the majority of the cars in use are equipped with them. remanufacturers must create a robust plan. I recommend to subcontract or to work with the specialized electronics remanufactures who can give valuable support.16.
• • In the future remanufacturing mechatronics will be an attractive program. who may decide to subcontract their programs. Remanufacturers should decide soon if they want to be in the mechatronic business. Mechatronics needs high dedication. success will only come from embracing the new technology with determination. Good luck! • 34 . Mechatronics are high value products which will deliver higher margins and which will not be easily copied by low labor countries. not only to offer to the independent aftermarket but also to offer to OEMs and Tier Ones. The parts proliferation will be such that high volumes by part number will not be the norm.
Remanufacturing of Electronic Control Unit of an EHPS-Pump 8. Stefan Freiberger. Test and Diagnosis in Remanufacturing 3.Selected and Applied Test and Diagnosis Methods for Remanufacturing Automotive Mechatronics and Electronics By: Dr. Remanufacturing of Air Mass Sensors 9. Conclusion and Outlook 35 . Remanufacturing of Electro Hydraulic Power Steering Pumps 7. Test and Diagnosis of Actuators and Sensors in Remanufacturing 6. Test and Diagnosis of Electronic Control Units in Remanufacturing 5. Test and Diagnosis of Mechatronics in Remanufacturing 4. Bayreuth University Structure: 1 Automotive Mechatronics 2.-Ing.
flexibility and learning aptitude are mainly defined by the software in the electronic control unit. Through analog or digital signals. 1. e. dynamic characteristics. Material Given values Electronic control unit Actual values Energy.2 Subassemblies within Mechatronic Systems The following subsections give a closer insight to the actuators. Mechatronic systems are characterized by at least one mechanical energy flow and one transfer of information.1 Design of Mechatronic Systems The task of mechatronic systems is the arranged and controlled conversion of electrical. g. The following figure shows the design of an integrated electronic system. electrical and electronic systems are closely interconnected. sensors and electronic control units. as well as with the sensors and the actuators. the electronic control units are able to communicate with the control system. exchanging data through a communication system. hydraulic. The properties of the system. Material Actuators Basic System Sensors Mechatronic System Figure 1: Mechatronic systems. Information. the mechanical. In order to perform this task. Actuators and sensors represent the basis of the mechatronic system. to which literature increasingly refers as mechatronic system. Control System Desired values Energy. Information.1 Automotive Mechatronics 1. which represent the most important subassemblies of mechatronic systems 36 . mechanical. They are also built in the mechatronic system. thermal and pneumatic energy.
Fluid energetically actuators: e. direct current motors.2. to convert these signals and to send the signals to electronic control units. in their great dynamics. the amplitude is proportional to the measurand. This trend is to be strengthened and spread towards every vehicle class. valves.2 Sensor Subassembly The task of sensors is to measure internal and external signals of a system. Hydraulic actuators are used for several rare applications with a high requirement of energy. The advantages of electronical actuators are inherent in their convenient controllability. servo steering systems. the frequency is proportional to the measurand. Especially brushless dc motors will be installed in the future. the low costs of production and the good testability. Most of. Up to 100 electric motors are already installed in today’s luxury-class vehicles. • • • For amplitude analogue signals. Due to the many advantages of the electronical actuators. g. they are commonly used in vehicles. automotive actuators comprised of an electronical input and a mechanical output. Table 1 shows the commonly used measuring principles in today’s vehicles. 1. e.1 Actuator Subassembly In many cases. in their good degree of efficiency. barrels and pumps. For digital signals. With regard to their power-to-weight-ratio. g. The value is transmitted by one of the following ways of signals. the hydraulic actuators are clearly superior to the electronical ones. sensors can be classified according to their measuring principle. Furthermore. especially in those with medium requirement of energy.2. g. electrical signals are used as sensor output. an encoded binary signal can be transformed into the measurand. The following actuators are frequently used in vehicles: • • Electronic actuators: e. electronical valves and generators. since they posses a higher power density combined with a good reliability.1. For frequency analogue signals. 37 .
safety and comfort systems of today’s vehicles. piezo-electric (3). capacitive (2). Water temperature (4). 5. radar (11) Resistive (4). 5). Damper angle (4). the rising complexity has lead to a decrease in reliability and an increase in the number of call-backs and breakdowns. 3. magneto-resistive (10) Capacitive (2). 10. the continuing trend is a miniaturisation of the systems . optoelectronic (8) Inductive (1). actuators. Resistive Steering angle (8. 3. piezo-electric (3). and the control units is a basic requirement for the smooth functioning of the entire system. in recent years. 4. (4). Seat adjustment stroke (4) Clutch stroke (1). resistive (4). 7). 4).2. Distance Temperature Vibration Angle Inductive (1) capacitive (2). Due to the increasing number of used sensors. Optimal interaction between sensors. piezo-resistive (7) Resistive (4). capacitive (2). Oil temperature(4). supersonic (12).mainly in order to economise weight and space. Mass air flow (4) Accelerator value (1). Air flow (4).Table 1: Measurand Acceleration Measurands.3 Electronic Control Unit With the introduction of the microcontroller more and more functions are being transferred to electronic control units (ECUs). Breaking pressure (2. Measuring principle (Code of the Measuring application (Code measuring principle) of the measuring principle) Inductive (1). Exhaust gas temperature (4) Knocking sensor (3) Revolution speed Pressure Flow rate Lenth. Wheel rotation speed (1. measuring principles and applications in the vehicle. especially for innovative vehicles. hall-effect (5) Inductive (1). optical (6). Modern cars may contain up to 100 ECU’s. Charging air pressure (4. Lateral acceleration (2. Unfortunately. magneto-resistive (10) Accelerator angle (1. mostly as part of the complex mechatronic systems used in the power train. hall-effect (5). 5).hall-effect (5). together with the fact that the end-users’ costs for a single mechatronic system inside their cars range 38 . 5). Crankshaft acceleration (3) Gearbox rotation speed (1. 5). 10) Absorbing air pressure (7). optoelectronic (8). resistive (4). optoelectronic (8). This. 5) The table above shows some sensors that are used in vehicles. 1. thermoelectrical (9) Piezo-electric (3) Cross acceleration (2.
the 39 . it makes sense to carry out an entrance test and diagnosis of the whole system.like mechatronic systems. The five common steps in remanufacturing can be added to the step of entrance test and diagnosis of the system. provides a strong incentive to remanufacture these economically. The entrance test and diagnosis divides the mechatronic systems into the fractions remanufacturable and non-remanufacturable. This entrance test and diagnosis as a first step in remanufacturing mechatronic systems gives information about the condition of the system. During the second process step. before passing it on to the disassembly. Mechanic and Electromechanic Systems Remanufacturing Process Steps Quality Assurance Entrance Diagnosis of the System 1 Disassembly of the System 1 2 3 4 5 6 Mechatronic Systems 2 Thorough Cleaning 3 Test and Diagnosis of Subsystems 4 Reconditioning of Parts or Subsystems 5 Product Reassembly Final Test Figure 2: Process steps in Remanufacturing.1 Remanufacturing Process Steps for Mechatronics Especially with regard to systems that consist of networked subsystems .between 200 and 3000 Euro. 2 Test and Diagnosis in Remanufacturing 2.
suppliers and assemblage Methods) Existence of specifications. Having run through the different process steps mentioned above. the two fractions are disassembled into different levels. port information. g. The next step is the reconditioning of parts or subsystems and last but not least the product reassembly and the final test. a thorough cleaning to the fourth process step of remanufacturing: the test and diagnosis of subsystems and parts. No access to original testing tools and test benches. they will be referred to as OE manufacturerrelated remanufacturing companies. the two types of remanufacturing companies take different ways. the remanufactured mechatronic systems can be delivered to the customer with their original quality. 2. Concerning the choice of test and diagnosis methods.disassembly. original life-time. The non-remanufacturable parts are passed on towards material recycling or removal. No access to parts lists. guarantee and service. Boundary conditions for independent remanufacturing companies: • • • • No access to drawings. the casings) are disassembled. tolerances in geometry. Existence of parts-lists (element designation. Concerning the nonremanufacturable systems. In the following. The main part of the remanufacturing companies however is independent from original manufacturers and therefore these companies do not cooperate with any OE manufacturer. the sensors) or parts (e. Since the choice of the best methods for the test and diagnosis of failures strongly depends on the cooperation with the OE manufacturers. g. only the remanufacturable subassemblies (e. 40 . depending on the entrance test and diagnosis. form and position). their original effectiveness. No information concerning specifications.2 Boundary Conditions for Testing and Diagnosis in Remanufacturing Some of the remanufacturing companies work in cooperation with one or several original equipment (OE) manufacturers. several basic requirements are stipulated for the two types of remanufacturing companies: Boundary conditions for OE manufacturer-related remanufacturing companies: • • • • Existence of drawings (control plans. The remanufacturable systems run through a complete disassembly. If necessary: existence of original testing tools and test benches.
In order to carry out an analysis of the symptoms. subsystems and parts. 2. their nature. The methods can either be divided into norm-based (deductive) and modelbased (inductive) methods or into signal based. signal model based and model based methods.4 Methods for the Test and Diagnosis in Remanufacturing There are a great number of different methods to test technical systems. In account of technical or economical reasons. the steps as presented in the following figure are recommended. Only in this manner the failures.3 Steps for the Test and Diagnosis in Remanufacturing For the test and diagnosis of systems. location and dimension can be safely diagnosed. every method has to be based on analytic and heuristic knowledge.2. Model based methods use a mathematical model of the system. The symptoms are defined in such a way that deviations concerning the nominal or reference state (specifications) indicate failures. Each method has its special force and weakness. output and internal signals of the unit. concerning the correlation of symptoms and failures. Signal based methods are methods that use input. reason. 41 . not every known method can be applied in remanufacturing of mechatronic systems and their subassemblies. type. Signal model based methods are methods that use the stochastic coherences of signals or the vibration behaviour of the signals. Choice of test and diagnosis methods Generation of test cases and input signals Generation of specification Measurement under realistic conditions Evaluation of the data Figure 3: Process steps for the test and diagnosis.
1 For Independent Remanufacturing Companies (OE data are not available) The following table shows the result of an evaluation of the potential methods for the test and failure detection of mechatronic systems for remanufacturing companies. 42 .3 Test and Diagnosis of Mechatronics in Remanufacturing 3. 3. 3. Remanufacturing companies are divided into independent (OE data are not available) and OE manufacturer-related (OE data are available) companies.2.2 Selection of Methods for Remanufacturing Target of that chapter is to find out the best method or the best combination of methods for the test and diagnosis of mechatronic systems in remanufacturing companies. Potential test and diagnosis methods for mechatronic systems Signal Based Methods • • Absolute Value Control Characteristic Curves Signal Model Based Methods • • Stochastic Signal Model Spectral Analyze Model Based Methods • • • • • • Parameter Estimation State Condition Parity Space Artificial Neuronal Networks Fuzzy Models Neuro Fuzzy Models Figure 4: Potential methods for the test and diagnosis of mechatronic systems.1 Potential Methods for Remanufacturing The following figure shows potential methods for the test and diagnosis of mechatronic systems in Remanufacturing.
9 6.1 6. in % Absolute Value Control Characteristic Curves Spectroscopic Analysis Stochastic Signal Models Fuzzy Models Artificial Neuronal Networks Neuro Fuzzy Models Parameter Estimation Parity Space State Condition 37 8.8 5.5 7.0 7.2 7. The following figure shows the recommended methods during the entrance and final test and diagnosis in remanufacturing mechatronic systems.5 6.9 1.0 6.4 6.4 4.4 20 2.0 7.0 2.7 1.2 1.2 7.9 6.0 3.2 6.8 4.9 6.7 6.0 5.3 4.2 8.2 6. Imp.2 The table above shows the summary of all calculated values.8 8.7 6.7 5.1 8.3 5.2 8.3 4.0 45 5.4 8.0 8.1 3.9 8.0 35 1.4 5.4 5. 43 Efficiency Invest .6 6.7 5.6 6.7 8.5 2.1 4.6 6.1 7.9 4.5 7.0 3.9 8.6 10 6.9 8.7 7.2 3.3 6.8 2.5 10 8.2 5.5 7.8 3.7 6.2 6.5 5.3 5.8 10 8.6 6.9 4.0 7.3 8.5 4.7 6.1 5.9 23 8.1 40 9.6 6.1 6.2 5.2 8.2 3.5 40 30 30 0 5 6 7 6.0 6.4 8.1 4.0 1.9 5.5 6. in % Single Crit.2 6.4 7.Table 2: Result of an evaluation for the test and diagnosis of mechatronic systems (independent remanufacturing companies) Duration of test and diagnosis Possible ways of signalling Efforts for model creation Efficiency share Effort for model creation Efficiency share Technical effort Efficiency share Economical effort System knowledge Failure diagnosis Transferability Failure test Main Crit.9 3.7 2.1 5.5 0.6 8.7 9.5 5.0 4.7 4. Imp.2 6.3 6.3 8.3 5.1 5.2 55 7. as well as the efficiency shares and efficiencies of all potential methods for the test and diagnosis of mechatronic systems in remanufacturing.3 5.7 8.0 6.3 9.8 10 10 10 45 5.0 6.7 8.
results of FMEA analyses. Therefore. as for example cracks and deformations cannot be detected with the method of characteristic curves. a direct visual diagnosis is carried out before the characteristic curves test. their sources and consequences Information concerning the sorting of the systems for further steps Specific information resources • Test and diagnosis hardware Specification (e. failure trees. g. set output signals) Gained information • Localized and diagnosed failures Information concerning the sorting of the systems for further steps • • • Material flow All systems Systems with diagnosed failures Systems with not diagnosed failures Systems with non-repairable failures Figure 5: Entrance and final test and diagnosis of mechatronic systems for independent remanufacturing companies. localized and diagnosed. g.Entrance and final test and diagnosis of mechatronic systems: for independent remanufacturing companies Direct Visual Diagnosis Characteristic Curves Specific information resources • • Knowledge of the workers Specification (e. Some failures. input signals. 44 . that the method characteristic curves can only detect those failures that influence the output signal. which is able to detect visible structural failures. test cases. main failures. failure data bases and characteristics of the system in relation to the reference characteristics most of the failures can be safely detected. pictures of good units. FMEA results) Gained information • Localized and diagnosed visual and structural failures. It is to note. With expert knowledge.
4 6.7 6.7 8.0 6.3 6.4 7.4 8.9 50 6.7 9.5 50 3.4 8.3.7 4.6 6.9 8.3 4.2 8.4 8.5 5.9 9.7 6.8 10 10 10 45 5.2 For OE Manufacturer-related Remanufacturing Companies (OE data are available) The following table shows the result of an evaluation of the potential methods for the test and diagnosis of mechatronic systems for OE manufacturer-related remanufacturing companies.9 8.5 7.0 5 6 7 Efficiency Invest 10 The table above shows a summary of all calculated grades.9 6.0 3.6 6.0 7.0 6.6 8.2 7.2.2 55 7.7 8.0 6.8 8.2 6.0 5.5 6.7 6.7 6.5 5.6 7.2 7.6 10 6.3 7.0 7.6 6.3 9.4 6.0 6.8 5.2 8.4 4.4 5.1 8.4 7.2 3.0 6.7 5.7 5.6 6. 45 .2 6.8 10 8.0 45 5.9 5.8 2. The following figure shows the recommended methods during the entrance and final test and diagnosis within the remanufacturing of mechatronic systems.9 6.2 6. as well as the efficiency shares and efficiencies of all potential methods for the test and diagnosis of mechatronic systems.3 9.4 20 2.8 4.2 0 5.5 6.2 6. Table 3: Result of an evaluation for the test and diagnosis of mechatronic systems (OE manufacturer-related remanufacturing companies) Efficiency share Economical effort Failure diagnosis Possible ways of signalling Efficiency share Technical effort Duration of test and diagnosis Failure test Main Criteria Importance in % Single Criteria Importance in % 35 Absolute Value Control Characteristic Curves Spectroscopic Analysis Stochastic Signal Models Fuzzy Models Artificial Neuronal Networks Neuro Fuzzy Models Parameter Estimation Parity Space State Condition 1.3 6.
The main difference is that the OE manufacturer-related remanufacturing companies use the method characteristic curves. 46 . FMEA results) Gained information • Localized and diagnosed visual failures and their sources and consequences Information concerning the sorting of the systems for further steps Specific information resources • Test and diagnosis software Specification (e. input signals. the entrance test and diagnosis as well as the final test and diagnosis are similar. test cases. main failures. transmission behavior) Gained information • Localized and diagnosed failures and their sources and consequences Information concerning the sorting of the systems for further steps • • • Material flow All systems Systems with diagnosed failures Systems with not diagnosed failures Systems with non. while the independent remanufacturing companies use the method parameter estimation.Entrance and final test and diagnosis of mechatronic systems: for OE manufacturer-related remanufacturing companies Direct Visual Diagnosis Parameter Estimation Specific information resources • • Knowledge of the workers Specification (e. g. With regard to OE manufacturer-related and independent remanufacturing companies.repairable failures Figure 6: Entrance and final test and diagnosis of mechatronic systems for OE manufacturer-related remanufacturing companies. g. set output signals. pictures of good units.
47 . Potential methods for the test and diagnose of electronic control units • • • • • • • • • Signal Based Methods Automatical Optic Diagnosis Bed of Nails Test Clip Test Flying Probe Test Manual Microscopic Diagnosis X.4 Test and Diagnosis of Electronic Control Units in Remanufacturing 4. the methods fuzzy and neuro fuzzy models are not economically feasible for electronic control units. The direct visual diagnosis can be used as an additional method. It is however not regarded as an individual method.1 Potential Methods for Remanufacturing The following figure shows potential methods for the test and diagnosis of electronic control units in remanufacturing. With regard to the model based methods. The reason for the elimination of the stochastic signal methods is the extremely high amount of output signals that would have to be evaluated for the failure detection. In reference to the basic requirements. only the function test and the artificial neuronal networks will be considered further. since it is not able to substitute the other ones.Ray Diagnosis Thermal Imaging Behavioural Test Model Based Methods • • Function Test Artificial Neuronal Networks Figure 7: Potential methods for the test and diagnosis of electronic control units.
1 For Independent Remanufacturing Companies (OE data are not available) The following table shows the result of an evaluation for the test and diagnosis of electronic control units. Remanufacturing companies are divided into independent (OE data are not available) and OE manufacturer-related (OE data are available) companies. the model based methods parameter estimation. which is not given in automotive electronics.2. The effort to create a model of the unit is huge. state estimation and parity space.Because of the main reasons mentioned below. Instead of the model based methods parameter estimation.2 Selection of Methods for Remanufacturing Target of that chapter is to find out the best method or the best combination of methods for the test and diagnosis of electronic control units in remanufacturing companies. 48 . 4. These methods are only suitable for small electronic control units (controlling only up to 40 parts). 4. state extent estimation and parity space models will not either be considered: • • • Not enough knowledge is known in the field of electronic control units in remanufacturing companies. the functional test is potential for the test and diagnosis of electronic control units in remanufacturing.
6 9.5 7.8 8.9 6.3 7. as well as the efficiency shares and efficiencies of all methods for the test and diagnosis of electronic control units.3 7.9 8.5 8.7 Artificial Neuronal 8.7 8.3 10 10 8.6 9.8 5.3 8.4 5.2 6.5 9.2 7.4 2.6 1.5 1.0 7.9 7.8 8.0 4.7 6.9 8.3 4.6 10 10 2.2 6.9 3.6 5.7 3.5 8.7 3.0 7.7 9.0 1.1 6.7 4.3 8.5 1.1 6.3 1.9 1.4 6. 49 Efficiency Invest .7 3.4 5.5 4.5 4.5 1.2 7.2 5.9 8.2 8.5 4.7 8.2 8.1 7.Table 4: Result of an evaluation for electronic control units (for independent remanufacturing companies) Duration of test and diagnosis Efforts for model creation Efforts for automatisation Efficiency share Effort for model creation System knowledge Efficiency share Economical effort Failure diagnosis Efficiency share Technical effort Transferability Failure test Main Criteria Importance in % Single criteria Importance in % 37 23 40 40 60 20 43 37 40 30 30 0 5 6 7 10 Automatical Optical 8.5 8.0 2.0 10 0.3 9.7 8.0 3.0 1.7 6.4 5.9 7.3 3.4 7.5 Networks The table above shows a summary of all calculated grades.9 4.9 4.0 1.6 3.0 7.3 0.6 4.9 5.9 8.7 8.3 4.4 7.5 9.9 6.8 8.3 6.9 10 10 10 3.9 9.1 9.0 2. The following figure shows the recommended process steps for the test and diagnosis of electronic control units.7 6.5 4.0 7.0 Diagnosis Bed of Nails Test Clip-Test Flying Probe Test Manual Microscopic Diagnosis X Ray Diagnosis Thermal Imaging Behavioural Test Functional Test 1.3 6.0 6.1 9.1 8.1 7.3 2.3 5.5 8.9 4.9 9.7 0.1 5.3 8.3 8.9 5.1 8.
and software Specification (e. their reasons and effects Information concerning the sorting of the systems for further steps Specific information resources • Knowlede of the workers Specification (e. transmission) Gained information • Localized and diagnosed failures and their sources and consequences Information concerning the sorting of the systems for further steps Specific information resources • Test and diagnosis hard. g. input signals. set output signals. pictures of good units. g. test cases. main failures and FMEA results) Gained information • Localized. diagnosed visual and structural failure. g. their sources and consequences Information concerning the sorting of the systems for further steps • • • • • • Material flow All systems Systems with diagnosed failures Systems with not diagnosed failures Systems with non-repairable failures Figure 8: Entrance and final test and diagnosis of electronic control units for independent remanufacturing companies.Testing and diagnosing of electronic control units: for independent remanufacturing companies Behavioural Test Thermal Imaging Direct Visual Diagnosis Specific information resources • Test and diagnosis software Specification (e. 50 . connecting technique. temperatures and their allowed tolerances) Gained information • Localized and diagnosed functional and structural failures.
9 8.4 7.4 7.3 10 4.3 0.3 8.3 1.2 OE Manufacturer-related Remanufacturing Companies (OE data are available) The following table shows the result of an evaluation of the potential methods for the test and diagnosis of electronic control units for OE manufacturer-related remanufacturing companies.9 8.6 9.2 6.7 1.2 0.0 4. as well as the efficiency shares and efficiencies of all methods for the test and diagnosis of electronic control units.1 7.2 6.9 8.0 10 43 7.0 7.9 3.5 4.8 7.0 7.8 8.3 4.7 9.5 7.9 7.4 9.9 9.9 5.6 4.8 8.5 4.9 10 50 50 0 5 6 7 Efficiency Invest 10 4.6 3.1 7.6 9.5 1.6 7.1 8.7 8.5 1.9 9.9 3.3 9.0 8.0 4.9 2.1 4.0 Table above shows a summary of all the calculated grades.2 8.1 8.6 8.0 3.9 6.0 37 8.4 6. The following figure shows the recommended process steps for the test and diagnosing of electronic control units.9 60 10 10 10 20 10 2.7 0.2 6.9 8.Ray Diagnosis Thermal Imaging Behavioural Test Functional Test Artificial Neuronal Networks 3.7 8.5 6.2 7.9 7. 51 .2.2 8.1 5.4 7.9 10 6.9 4.4.7 6. Table 5: Result of an evaluation for electronic control units (OE manufacturer-related remanufacturing companies) Efficiency share Economical effort Failure diagnosis Efficiency share Technical effort Duration of test and diagnosis Efforts for automatisation Failure test Main Criteria Importance in % Single Criteria Importance in % 40 Automatical Optical Diagnosis Bed of Nails Test Clip Test Flying Probe Test Manual Microscopic Diagnosis X.1 7.
This process combination can be applied for every electronic control unit that is not sealed with resin material or silicone and that can be opened without destruction. power input) Gained information • Localized and diagnosed structural and functional failures and their sources a. consequences Information concerning the sorting of the systems for further steps • • • Material flow All systems Systems with diagnosed failures Systems with not diagnosed failures Systems with non-repairable failures Figure 9: Entrance and final test and diagnosis of electronic control units for OE Manufacturer-related remanufacturing companies.Testing and diagnosing of electronic control units: OE manufacturer-related remanufacturing companies Functional Test Bed of Nails Test Specific information resources • • • Test software Process model of the unit Detailed specification (e. g. the thermal imaging can be used instead of the bed of nails test. 52 . exact set parameters and their permitted tolerances) Gained information • Localized and diagnosed functional failures and their sources and consequences Information concerning the sorting of the systems for further steps Specific information resources • Test and diagnosis software and hardware (bed of nails tester) Detailed specification concerning parts (e. For some parts of the electronic control unit. g.
25 0. as electric systems. Hall-Effect Incremental. electronic systems or independent mechatronic systems. Sensor application Steering angle sensor Wheel speed sensor Steering wheel angle sensor Acceleration sensor Break pressure sensor Throttle valve potentiometer Failure rate in %/year 0. 6 Remanufacturing of Electro Hydraulic Power Steering Pumps The reasons for the choice of this system are on the one hand to be found in the relatively high failure rate and the elevated costs of brand new parts of the electro-hydraulic power steering pumps (EHPS-pumps) and on the other hand in the feasibility of remanufacturing the system. sensors represent a significant failure source. 53 . Lots of actuators and sensors are built in today’s vehicles. For the practical application an EHPS-pumps of the manufacturer TRW is being used. Table 6: Sensor type Absolute Value Induktive.5 Test and Diagnosis of Actuators and Sensors in Remanufacturing The actuators and sensors that are used within mechatronic systems and in vehicles are nowadays either assembled as electro mechanic systems.26 0.0036 Considering the table above as well as the fact that great amounts of sensors are used in vehicles.043 0.25 0. Hall-Effect Hall-Effect Piezoresistiv Resistiv Failure rates of vehicle sensors.87 0. The failure rate in the following table refers to one operating year of the sensor.
1.6. this model will be referred to as TRW_2.1 Functionality of the EHPS-pump The following figure shows a sectional view of the electro hydraulic power steering pump of the manufacturer TRW. the steering moment of the driver is decreased with the help of an EHPS-pump and a rack steering. with the help of a cogwheel pump (2) it generates a load dependent high pressure oil volume flow. The drive of the pump is affected by a brushless dc motor (4) which is regulated by an electronic control unit (3). 6. 54 .1 Description of the System Within the electro hydraulic power steering. A torsion steered valve (6) within the rack steering (5) lead the generated oil volume flow in such a way that it supports the drivers steering decision via hydraulic barrels. In the following. Figure 10: Servo steering of the manufacturer TRW (source: TRW Automotive). The pump uses steering oil from the tank (1) and. The following figure shows the assembly of an electro hydraulic power steering unit of the manufacturer TRW.
(1) Tank (2) Cogwheel pump (3) Electronic control unit (4) DC motor (5) Rack steering (6) Valve Figure 11: Electro hydraulic power steering pump of the manufacturer TRW. 6. 55 .2 Functionality of the EHPS-Pump The main components of the EHPS-pump are shown in the following figure. (1) Oil tank with refill expansion tank cap (2) Pressure control valve (3) Electric connector (4) Subassembly cogwheel pump (5) Electronic control unit (6) Hydraulic connectors (7) Brushless dc motor (8) Motorside aluminium case Figure 12: Sectional view of an EHPS-pump of the manufacturer TRW.1.
Mechanic subassemblies. the cogwheel pump aspirates the servo steering oil of the oil tank (1) in order to pump it to the hydraulic connectors (6). The inputs to the electronic control unit are the power supply from the battery and the control voltage from the engine control unit. the test and diagnosis of the subassemblies and parts. the reconditioning and the reassembly. With the help of the external and internal data. The test and diagnosis is carried out for the electronic control units and parts. namely the entrance test and diagnosis. The electronic control units are not disassembled. The cleaning of all subassemblies and parts represents the third step in remanufacturing. All steps of remanufacturing are constantly supervised by a quality controller. while the non-directly reusable components are reconditioned. Dependent on the result of the entrance test and diagnosis. The three hall sensors that measure the position and the engine speed of the rotor are integrated in the electronic control unit. localized and diagnosed failures. the cleaning. During this method. The pressure control valve (2) is in charge of the oil pressure limitation.2 Process Steps in Remanufacturing The remanufacturing of the EHPS-pump is effected according to the six steps of remanufacturing of mechatronic systems. as the cogwheel pump or the overpressure valve are disassembled into their parts. reconditioning and reassembling are comparable to the remanufacturing of mechanical systems. All EHPS-pumps are disassembled without destruction. The recondition is based on the fixing of the detected. The entrance test and diagnosis provides important information about the condition of the system and the subassemblies and in some cases even about the condition of some parts. the directly reusable components are placed in storage. are sorted out and passed on to a material recycling. the electronic control unit regulates the ramp up. oil filters etc. All the wear parts like ball bearings. After the test and diagnosis of the subassembly and the parts. the EHPS-system can be remanufactured or has to be material recycled. the disassembly. 56 . 6. Once set into operation.The dc motor (7) is coupled to the cogwheel pump (4). the operation and the shutdown of the pump. the wear parts are always replaced by new ones. After the reconditioning the mechatronic systems are completely reassembled. cleaning. all the EHPS-pumps go through a 100 % final test and diagnosis. Before the systems were sold. The steps of disassembling.
With regard to independent remanufacturing companies. and the characteristic curves. requires an automated industrial test bench. The following figure shows the relevant input and output signals of the EHPS-pump. 6. Based on the measured input and output signals. which has to be developed. ECU Voltage Input ECU Current Input Pump Voltage Input Pump Current Input EHPS-Pump as Black Box System Oil Volume Flow Pressure Measurement Figure 13: EHPS-pump as black box system.3 Entrance and Final Test and Diagnosis in Remanufacturing 6.2 Construction of the Test Bench Accomplishing the characteristic curves test. With regard to manufacturer-related remanufacturing companies the parameter estimation has been preferred to the characteristic curves test. produced and put into operation. since it provides a greater range of failures.6. can be measured. 57 . the combination of the two signal based methods.3. the direct optical diagnosis. has presented itself as the best solution.3. The following main tasks are assigned to the test bench: • Simulation and control of the environmental conditions in order to enable every operation point of the EHPS-pump.1 Choice of Methods The remanufacturing process consists of the selected methods mentioned above. The EHPS-pump can be regarded as black box and characterised on the basis of its input and output signals. the characteristic curves reflecting the function of the system.
the oil volume flow is restricted by a proportional control valve. In order to simulate the environmental conditions at the test bench.• • Measurement of the input signals and output signals of the EHPS-pump and the environmental conditions. 58 . the oil filling pump. The construction of the test bench is done with the computer aided design (CAD) program Pro/ Engineer Wildfire. The following figure shows the CAD-model of the test bench. the volume flow sensor. Evaluation of the results. The required main components. the proportional control valve. the control and measuring software are provided by suppliers. as for example the power supply. the pressure sensors. Figure 14: Construction of the test bench for EHPS-pumps. The following figure shows the real construction of the industrial test bench for EHPSpumps.
evaluation and cleanout requires about 60 seconds time. the operator is able to access to already existing test cycles and specifications of the data base. With the help of the input and output signals.3 Running the Tests The core pump is electrically and hydraulically adapted to the test bench. depending on the number of examined points. the servo steering oil is automatically pumped off the core. 59 . This data offers important information for the further remanufacturing steps. the test cycle moves the EHPS-pump into the defined operating conditions. This adds up to a clamping time of about 10 seconds per EHPS-pump. filling. The collected measured data are saved for the quality assurance on the personal computer.3. Those are then compared to the allowed specifications. measurement. On the PC.Figure 15: Industrial test bench for EHPS-pumps. Now the system is automatically filled with servo steering oil. 6. which may take up to another 10 seconds of unclamping time. After the test has been completed. The hydraulic environmental conditions of the test bench simulate the real EHPS-pump conditions in the vehicle. so that the EHPS-pump can be removed from the test bench. or they can define new ones. By regulating the proportional control valve. The measured data are printed automatically. the test bench calculates operating points. A test that includes clamping and unclamping.
the pressure of 4 bar (which corresponds to the minimal loss of pressure within the system) arises to a maximum of 88 bar. 60 . rising input and output power and nearly constant efficiency.6. By slowly closing the control valve. The characteristic curves of the EHPS-pumps can be divided into the following four sections: • • • 4 to 17 bar: „waiting range “with a constant volume flow. Volume flow in 1/min Pressure in bar Input power in W Pressure in bar Output power in W Pressure in bar Figure 16: Efficiency in % Pressure in bar Characteristic curves of a new EHPS-pump of the manufacturer TRW. output power and efficiency through pressure) of a new EHPS-pump of the manufacturer TRW. which corresponds to the maximum pressure of an EHPS-pump which is controlled by a responding internal limitation valve. The following figure shows the characteristic curves (volume flow. input power. increasing input and output power and intensely increasing efficiency. increasing input and output power and nearly constant efficiency.4 Test Bench Results The determined characteristic points of the EHPS-pumps are interconnected to a characteristic curve which serves as test result. 18 to 28 bar: „activating range “with rising volume flow. 28 to 80 bar: „working range “with decreasing volume flow.3.
twelve out of the 106 cores have not shown any reaction.• 80 to 88 bar: „over pressure range “with decreasing volume flow. decreasing output power and efficiency and increasing input power. volume flow and pressure sensors as well as the measured value acquisition that is carried out with the help of a laptop with PCMCIA-card are also installed in the vehicle. Since the TRW_2 EHPS61 . After the activation of the input signals. the inputs and outputs have to be measured in the same way compared with the test bench. in-situ measurements are carried out during various driving experiments.5 Determining the Specifications for Remanufacturing EHPS-pump manufacturer specifications concerning the test and diagnosis are generally not available. Voltage sensors. a new EHPS pump is installed in a test vehicle. 6. In order to characterize the EHPS pump during the driving experiments. Therefore. Volume stream in l/min Compression in bar Figure 17: Characteristic curves of 94 working EHPS-pumps. In order to determine specifications for the EHPS pumps.3. Only one EHPS-pump clearly shows a less volume flow and a maximum pressure lowered by 50%. The following figure shows the calculated characteristic curves volume flow through pressure of the 94 working EHPS-pumps. power input.
8 5 20 100 30 45 20 45 3. Table 7: Specifications for the EHPS-Pumpe (Type TRW_2).000 operating points within the different ranges of the EHPS-pumps are examined. The following figure shows the calculated specifications for six operating points (P1 too P6). Figure 18: In-situ measurements during driving experiments in order to determine specifications.3. A total of 10.75 540 600 320 400 55 75 3.8 5 320 420 190 250 50 75 P3 P4 P5 P6 (50bar) (65bar) (80bar) (85bar) 3. this vehicle type is the one used for the real road tests.75 4.pump is mainly installed in the Opel Astra G. The tests are carried out on a test territory that is not accessible for the public.3 3. 62 .6 Results of the Characteristic Curves The following figure shows the characteristic curves of 94 EHPS-pumps as well as the defined specifications.8 4. The following figure shows the passenger compartment with the driver and the measured value acquisition (left) and the test vehicle on the test territory (right).25 620 700 410 460 55 75 3. P1 P2 (5bar) (30bar) Volume flowmin in l/min Volume flowmax in l/min Power Inputmin in W Power Inputmax in W Power Outputmin in W Power Outputmax in W Efficiencymin in % Efficiencymax in % 3.75 680 760 440 500 55 75 0 3.6 680 760 0 500 0 75 6.
5 3 2. in which the EHPS. focussing on the six characteristic points.5 1 0.4 Summary The test and diagnosis of the electro hydraulic steering pump is carried out with the help of the combination of the two signal based methods direct visual diagnosis and calculation of the characteristic curves.5 0 0 P1 P2 P3 P4 P5 P6 10 20 30 40 50 60 Pressure in bar 70 Druck in 80 bar 90 Figure 19: Characteristic curves of 94 EHPS-pumps and specifications. During the test and diagnosis of the EHPS-pumps. The figure above shows clearly that two units exceed the defined tolerance ranges while two other systems are at the tolerance limits. 6.5 2 1. This assures a safe and economic way for the test and diagnosis.pump did not come to any harm. the functionality of the systems is examined with the help of the specially designed test bench. The entrance tests and diagnoses of the EHPSpump show the result that 12 pumps do not display any function and that some operating points of four other pumps are not within the specifications.Volumenstrom in l/min Volume flow in l/min 5 4. an appropriate test bench has been developed and used. The core suppliers do not remove or sell obviously damaged EHPS-pumps to remanufacturing companies. In order to perform the calculation of the characteristic curves.5 4 3. 63 . The great amount of working systems is to be based on the fact that the majority of the tested systems had been removed from accident vehicles.
1 System Description The electronic control unit of the electro hydraulic steering pump (EHPS-pump) regulates the start up. The input and output signals of the mechatronic system with regard to changes of the environmental conditions (e. g. Specificationss are then defined in form of permitted tolerance ranges for the characteristic curves of the electro hydraulic power steering systems. The following figure shows the electronic control unit. which is directly connected with the cogwheel pump. the load) are measured at the test bench. Operating points and characteristic curves are calculated. this test bench is able to investigate the characteristics of the system. in situmeasurements had been carried out during several real road tests. In order to shorten the total duration of the test and diagnosis. In order to investigate specifications. the operation and the shut down of the brushless motor.On the basis of input and output signals. 64 . the systems can be diagnosed and their proper functionability can be measured. 7 Remanufacturing of Electronic Control Unit of an EHPS-Pump 7. whose permanent magnets are situated within the rotor and the coils within the stator. The motor is constructed as an outboard motor. With their help. five characteristic points and their tolerance limits are selected.
The four exits of the electronic control unit are directly interconnected with the stator coils. the system is disassembled into the electronic control unit and the further parts. the test and diagnosis of subsystems and parts. 7. the mechatronic systems are tested and diagnosed. Via the power transistors. Thereupon. During the third step.Figure 20: Electronic control unit of the EHPS-pump. all subassemblies and parts are cleaned by different methods. the revolution speed and the torque of the motor are regulated. The cleaned electronic control units are then passed on to the fourth step of the remanufacturing process chain. the magnetic field within the coils. the power. The behavioural test is carried out 65 . The stator coils are closely interconnected with the electronic control unit and cannot be separated from it without destruction. They represent the exits of the four power transistors.2 Test and Diagnosis for Remanufacturing The test and diagnosis of the electronic control unit is the fourth step in the remanufacturing process of mechatronic systems. During the first step of the process chain. as described. thermal imaging and direct visual diagnosis has proved itself as the most suitable solution. Furthermore the two hall sensors are assembled on the circuit board.1 Choice of Methods The combination of the methods behavioural test. The battery voltage and the control voltage are adjacent to the entrance pins. 7.2.
Comparable input signals to operate the units. are repaired during the following step of reconditioning. In order to create the comparable environmental conditions mentioned above.before the thermal imaging. Comparable environmental conditions concerning temperature and humidity. all thermal images have to be made under similar environmental conditions. in order to locate and diagnose as many failures as possible with their sources and consequences. In order to assure the comparability of the images. Comparable surface qualities of the units through cleaning. The adaptor. the camera is fixed on a rail which runs vertically to the surface of the units. the electronic control unit and the rotor are set into a steel case. If further failures are detected. a simple test bench is used for thermal imaging. in order to determine if the core has failed or not. The electronic control unit is attached to an adaptor and charged with the load of the engine rotor. The following figure shows the test bench including the camera which was used as well as the steel case. Neglectible thermal radiation of the environment. The failed cores are passed on to the thermal imaging. a further behavioural test will examine if the proper function of the unit has been reconstructed. broken contacts and connections etc. The procedure is finished as soon as there are no failures which can be detected during the thermal imaging. 66 . Comparable stress of the unit exits.2. The behavioural test compares the output signals of the unit dependent of the used input signals with output signals of a reference unit. which is painted black on the inner side. a process is set off in order to locate. In the moment of recording: comparable turn on time for the units. so that only a neglectible thermal radiation can interfere the measurement. Same settings of the thermal imaging camera. In a defined distance. Therefore the behaviour of the unit dependent on the used input signals has been used for the test. The recognized failures. 7.2 Construction of the Test Bench The application of the method thermal imaging within remanufacturing is based on the comparison of thermal images of cores and new units (references). Through a gap on the front side of the case. in which the electronic control unit is located. as for example faulty transistors. Especially with regard to the thermal imaging of electronic control units. the thermal imaging camera can record the images.. Afterwards. the attention has to be paid to the following environmental conditions: • • • • • • • • Comparable entrance temperatures and distribution within the unit. diagnose and repair every failure.
3 Determining the Specifications for Remanufacturing The method of statistical evaluations of the new original systems is used for defining specifications for thermal imaging. The maximum allowed average temperature of one region of the core is defined to the average temperature “T” of the same region of the reference unit plus three times the empiric standard deviation of that region. the empiric standard deviation is used. The stipulated specifications are only valid for the tested electronic control unit and the defined 67 . according to the increasing number of measured data. Average temperature: T = 1 N ⋅ ∑ Ti N i =1 N 1 2 ⋅ ∑ (Ti − T ) N − 1 i =1 Empiric standard deviation: s= Results show that the needed turn on time for the units is about 30 seconds. In order to stipulate the permitted tolerance limits. 7. As a first step. As a second step the definition of the permitted tolerance limits for every essential region follows. the average reference temperatures of essential regions of the reference units are measured. The minimum allowed average temperature of one region of the core is defined to the average temperature of the same region of the reference unit minus three times the empiric standard deviation of that region. In thermal imaging the comparison of reference and core unit temperatures are used in order to locate and diagnose failures.Figure 21: Test bench for the thermal imaging of electronic control units. The empiric standard deviation “s” converges against the root mean square deviation.2.
2.5 Measured Results The following figure shows a thermal image of a reference unit. The entire construction is covered with a steel case. 7. in order to prevent any reflection of radiance. 7. After that.4 Performing the Tests The electronic control unit to be tested is mechanically interconnected. After 30 seconds. The power supply unit provides electrical power to run the electronic control unit. Altogether. For the evaluation of the images the following methods are possible: 68 . Figure 22: Photographic recording of the electronic control unit and a superimposed thermal image.2. The camera is fixed within the defined distance from the units. a thermal image requires about 40 second’s time. the thermal image of the temperature on the electronic control unit is recorded. The rotor is linked and the entrances of the units are electrically connected with a power supply unit. in order to shield foreign radiance. The metallic rotor is painted black.environmental conditions. For further units and environmental conditions. the unit can be disconnected from the power supply unit and it can be dismantled from the test bench. the specifications can be determined in the same way.
The two figures in the lower sequence show the superimposed figures of failed electronic control units. 69 . while the area where the consequence is located is marked by a black oval. the thermal visible failures within the electronic control unit can be located and diagnosed. all average temperatures at all essential regions of the cores have to be compared with the specifications.• • Manual comparison of temperatures at all essential regions Automatic comparison of temperatures at all essential regions For the evaluation of the cores. failure trees. The first sequence shows the photographic recording of the electronic control unit (left) and the superimposition of the photographic recording by a reference thermal image (right).. The software locates all discrepancies between the temperature of the core and the specified temperature. The respective area where the faulty element is located is marked by a black square. Good system knowledge of the worker and a minor complexity of the unit have positive effects on the percentage of localizable and diagnosable failures and their consequences. To minimise the effort an excel sheet is programmed which automatically defines the specifications and compares the cores with the references. With the help of expert knowledge. typical failure representations etc.
The following figure shows an example of thermal image that require a change within the temperature scale of the figure in order to offer an exact localization and diagnosis of the failures and their consequences.Figure 23: Photographic and thermal image of electronic control units. The figure above shows that failures and their consequences can have significant and clearly visible effects on the temperature distribution within the unit. 70 .
The four exits of the electronic control unit are the exits of the four power transistors that are directly interconnected with the stator windings.3 Summary The electronic control unit of the EHPS-pump. The error that is shown here is a short circuit within a diode. 7.Figure 24: Same thermal images of an electronic control unit with different temperature scales. Through the change of the temperature scale. Based on the thermal imaging. the failed part can be located more exactly. For the 71 . 80 percent of the existing failures within the electronic control units could be localized and diagnosed. the stator of the motor and the hall sensors are structurally gathered on a unit. from a range of 19°C to 31°C (see upper figure) to a range of 10°C to 90°C (see lower figure). caused by a metal particle. The thermal imaging makes it possible to recognize the failures of the cores.
test and diagnosis of the electronic control units. In contrast to the originally used volume air flow sensor. the thermal imaging and the direct visual diagnosis is applied. the hot film MAF sensor is based on a resistant bridge circuit on a ceramic plate. A symmetric tolerance band with tolerance broadness of three times the empiric standard deviation around the average temperature is used as specifications for every essential region. affected by the surrounding air mass. the air mass is determined with the help of two platinum wires. The sensor is to determine the exact amount of oxygen that is actually flowing into the engine. Via skilful linking of the resistors as Wheatstone 72 . With regard to the mass air flow sensor comes up the decision whether to take the originally used hot wire MAF sensor and the contemporarily used hot film MAF sensor. several balancing resistors. in order to calculate the actual air mass and not only the volume. Whereas for the hot wire MAF sensor. Depending on its type. the sensor consists of a heating resistor. the average temperature and the empiric standard deviations of the measured temperatures at essential regions of reference units are investigated to find out the specifications. the diagnosis. leads to a localization and diagnosis of the failures. the mass air flow sensor integrates the data of temperature and air humidity. Therefore. In 80% of the cases. some auxiliary resistors and one sensor resistor. the method of thermal imaging represents itself as technically and economically highly suitable method for the test and diagnosis of electronic control units of EHPS-pumps. The specifications for the thermal imaging are determined via statistic analyses of new electronic control units. based on the thermal image. 8 Remanufacturing of Air Mass Sensors 8. The evaluation of the images is effected via manually and automatically comparison of core temperatures at essential regions of the electronic control unit and the specifications for these regions. In cooperation with several remanufacturing companies. Therefore. The balancing resistors exclude any influence of the air temperature on the measured result. The sensor resistor is warmed up by the heat resistor. This mass is then communicated to the engine control unit and it is decisive for the proportioning of the fuel for the motor.1 Description of the System The mass air flow sensor or mass air flow meter (MAF) is used within the vehicle in order to measure the actual mass-flow of the air which is aspirated by the internal combustion engine. a combination of the behavioural test. the method of thermal imaging has already been transferred to further electronic control units like motor control units.
All the particles (oil. Within the vehicle. Wrongly measured air masses cause faulty calculations of the needed fuel amount for the engine controller. dirt. flow through the mass air flow sensor. the dependence of the sensor resistor on the surrounding air mass can be recalculated. Among others.bridges. higher fuel consumption and even sporadic breakdowns of the motor. water etc. This means that the air mass sensors provide incorrect data. 73 . worse exhaust fumes. The following figure shows the exploded assembly drawing and a view of an open MAF sensor case. as a representative for the many different types of mass air flow sensors in vehicles. They can settle down on the hot sensor plates and therefore falsify the measured size of the air mass. The following paragraphs will focus on the remanufacturing of the Bosch mass air flow sensors. Partly because of the high failure rates and the elevated prices of mass air flow sensors these subassemblies are especially suited for remanufacturing. so the motor cannot work according to its optimum. the MAF sensor is directly installed behind the air filter.) that are not sorted out by the air filter. (1) Coverage of the measuring channel (4) (1) (5) (2) (3) (2) Thin layer sensor (3) Holder tin (4) Electronic case coverage (5) Electronic control unit (6) Electronic case (7) O ring seal (8) Temperature sensor (7) (8) (6) Figure 25: Hot film mass air flow sensor of the manufacturer Bosch. there are the effects of lower engine power.
3. a measurement of the inputs and outputs and an evaluation of the measured values. For the reasons mentioned above. cleaning and reconditioning by software update. a final test and diagnosis is carried out as for any other remanufactured product. If it is proved that the remanufactured MAF sensor works correctly again. 8. If errors on the characteristic lines are detected during the entrance test and diagnosis.2 Process Steps in Remanufacturing The first step within the remanufacturing of a mass air flow sensor is the entrance test and diagnosis.3 Test and Diagnosis in Remanufacturing 8. Because of the high integration level of the electronic control unit and the imbed mass that cannot be removed without destruction of the unit. After the accomplishment of these processing steps.3. The cleaning of the sensor element and of the case can be effected without any disassembly of the coverage. they can partly be repaired by the software within the step of reconditioning. it can leave the remanufacturing company. Further requirements are a short running time as well as flexibility and a high exactness of the measured values. a determination of the operating points.1 Methods With the help of the direct visual diagnosis the sensor is mainly examined for external damages. The flexibility is related to the geometry and the measurability of the high variety of mass air flow sensors that are installed in vehicles. Given the speed and the cylinder capacity.2 Construction of the Test Bench The main task of the test bench is a simulation of the surrounding conditions. 8.8. the required air mass flow can be assessed with the help of the following formula: 1 n & & m = ρ ⋅ V = ρ ⋅ ⋅ M ⋅ VH 2 60 74 . The primary method for the test and diagnosis of the mass air flow sensors the behavioural test has been used. the remanufacturing of air mass sensors mainly consists of the steps entrance test and diagnosis. structural failures cannot be repaired economically.
2kg/m³ at 20°C.0025m²) and speed of 6500 revs per minute are assumed as the maximum variables of the vehicle volume models. For the behavioural test. it is possible to pre-determine the reference voltage with the help of a reference MAF sensor and to store this reference voltage into the test bench software. On the other hand. It can be tuned between 0kg/h and 625 kg/h by two steerable valves and by a frequency converter for the motor. the air temperature which is flowing through the mass air flow sensors at the test bench.5 litres (0. There are two principal possibilities in order to determine the reference output voltage. as well as an atmospheric pressure of 1. With this data. The two test concepts offer the advantage that the current air mass flow does not have to be measured by an extremely expensive sensor. On the one hand. it is possible to generate a vacuum between 0 and 320 mbar. The following figure shows the test bench construction made in Pro/Engineer with its main components. The required air mass flow is generated by a two leveled lateral channel blower. the formula given above calculates an air mass flow maximum of 585 kg/h. so that the reference output voltage and the core are measured simultaneously. (7) (4) (6) (1) (8) (1) Air heater (2) Blower (3) Air mass sensors (4) Valves (5) Switchboard (6) Control cabinet (7) Screen (8) Printer (3) (2) (5) Figure 26: Constructed air mass sensor test bench 75 . Furthermore. Depending on the valve positions and the speed of the blower. the physical reference MAF sensor can be fitted in-line with the core at the test bench. can be regulated between the surrounding temperature and + 60°C with the help of an air heater.A cylinder capacity of 2. the sensor output voltage of a core MAF sensor and a new reference MAF sensor are compared with regard to several operating points.
One of the 75 MAF sensors has a mechanically destroyed case.3 Test Results With the test bench described.In the control cabinet (5) are located among others the PC. as well as further measurement-.and controlling assemblies. 8.3. 75 similar used MAF sensors of one type are tested. All the MAF sensors had already been used within customer vehicles. During the test. Based on these relative divergences. the air heater (1) and the two mass air flow sensors (3). Figure 27: Applied industrial test bench for air mass sensors. depending on the position of the two valves (4). 76 . the cabling. the maximum relative divergence is determined for every mass air flow sensor (see following figure). the frequency converter. The blower (2) pipes a part of the total air mass flow. the relative divergence between the core and the reference output are calculated. characteristic points within the entire operating range (each in 5% distance) are brought up to between 0 and 100% by a gradual rising of the volume flow. regulation. another some plugs and connecting pins that are destroyed in such a way that the air mass sensors have to be sorted out in advance. The tests are performed at various temperatures. For every operating point.
4 Evaluation of the test results The following figure shows the maximum deviations of the examinee and reference outputs during the entrance test and diagnosis.10% which cannot be completely presented in the figure above. Some of the mass air flow sensors have a relative deviation of more than +/.Maximum relative divergence in % 73 Air Flow Sensors Figure 28: Maximum relative divergence of 73 used mass air flow sensors. 8. 77 . as well as possible determinations of specifications.3.
Within an admissible tolerance range of +/.3% 10 pieces 33 pieces. Another important reason is that up to 80% of the electronic control units and sensors are replaced by a wrong diagnosis in the garages. Result: • • • Two air mass sensors cannot be reconditioned.3%. a permitted tolerance range of +/.5% +/. 33 out of 73 tested mass air flow sensors (45%) are reusable without remanufacturing. since some of the cores are dismantled from accident vehicles whose air mass sensor works accurately.Maximum relative deviation in % Tolerance range of +/. The input of cores to remanufacturing companies does not only consist of defective units. The correlation described above can not only be discovered with regard to mass air flow sensors. In order to reach a quality level that is similar to the one of an original part.3% is recommended.7% +/. there are 10 directly reusable sensors out of 73 (14%). There are several reasons for the number of directly reusable systems. 78 . but also concerning many other electronic control units. 73 Air Mass Sensors Figure 29: Maximum relative deviation of 73 used mass air flow sensors and proposed tolerance ranges. If the tolerance range is set down to +/. Directly reuseable systems: 50 pieces. The remaining 63 air mass sensors go through the remanufacturing process steps.5%. Ten air mass sensors can be directly reused.
The developed and built up test bench allows an economically sensible test and diagnosis of failures. as well as the evaluation of the measured results et al. are exemplified. sustainability and costs. The used mass air flow sensors can be divided into directly reusable. The remanufacturing of the sensors that are constructed mainly as electronic control units consists of the steps entrance test and diagnosis. have especially in the last decade led to a widespread use of innovative mechatronic systems. these systems are very promising for remanufacturing. provides a particular risk for the smooth functioning of systems and the reliability of modern vehicles. the great variety of versions and the high speed of the technical innovations of mechatronic systems. inspection. The five known remanufacturing process steps. 79 . safety. Remanufacturing offers the same quality and reliability as a new product for lower costs. The signal based procedure of the behavioural test is applied for the test and diagnosis in the entrance and final test. reusable after remanufacturing and not reusable ones on the basis of the specifications and the evaluation of the entrance test and diagnosis. On the basis of 75 used and one new hot film mass air flow sensor of the same type. The high complexity. It is common to remanufacture mechanical and electro-mechanical systems of vehicles.4 Summary Because of the relatively high failure rate and the high costs for new mass air flow sensors. for mass air flow sensors. cleaning. the function of the test bench. which are disassembly. the determination of the specifications. Even reputable garages cannot repair them and therefore have to replace the systems mainly with new ones. cleaning and reconditioning. reconditioning and reassembly. The specifications are based on available original specifications. have to be supplemented for the remanufacturing of mechatronic systems by a new first step which is the entrance diagnosis. Today’s garages use on-board-diagnosis functions to detect failed mechatronic systems. followed by a final test and diagnosis. which is carried out in the same way as the entrance test and diagnosis. After the cleaning and the reconditioning the mass air flow sensors have to pass a final test and diagnosis.8. 9 Conclusion and Outlook Rising requirements for modern vehicles concerning comfort. the mass of interactions.
To characterize the feasible test methods to be used in remanufacturing. low quantities. like high variety of versions. in remanufacturing companies. Reverse engineering of original systems. A further difficulty is caused by the insufficiency of the technical information. signal model-based and model-based test methods was carried out. limited know how of the system. In-situ measurements in road tests. a value-benefit analysis of the most promising signal-based. have to be included in the decision. original systems. sensor and actuator subassemblies. The special boundary conditions. The main questions for the two steps entrance diagnosis and inspection are. which test methods and test sequences are the best choice. The final results of the chosen test methods and test sequences for independent and OEM/OES-cooperating remanufacturing companies are summarized in the following table.The most challenging steps in remanufacturing mechatronic systems are the entrance diagnosis of the complete mechatronic system and the inspection of the electronic. especially in the field of test specifications. Independent remanufacturing companies could explore the test specifications by using the following resources: • • • Statistical analyses of new. Still. Entrance and final diagnosis of: Complete mechatronic systems as well as mechatronic actuators and mechatronic sensors Independent remanufacturing companies OEM/OEScooperating remanufacturing companies Direct Visual Diagnosis + Behavioural Test Inspection of: Electronic control units as well as electronic actuators and electronic sensors Behavioural Test + Thermography Imaging + Direct Visual Diagnosis Direct Visual Diagnosis + Parameter Estimation Functional Test + Bed of Nails Test 80 . limited capital investment etc. Table 8: Chosen test methods and test sequences in remanufacturing. the complete system and subsystem tests require that test specifications are available.
Therefore 200 used electro-hydraulic power steering pumps (“core”) were collected and analyzed with the behavioural test in the entrance and final test in the remanufacturing process. Further research could discover the specifications of and provide test methods for mechatronic systems with complex external bus systems. Test specifications were calculated by statistical analyses of new. The applied and demonstrated methods of finding out specifications as well as the determined test methods and test specifications for the entrance. To perform the behavioural test. final test and the inspection contribute to the technical and economic feasibility of remanufacturing of mechatronic systems. 81 . for different sample systems. The last practical example involved 75 air flow sensors. an automated test bench was developed and produced. For the inspection of the sensors. in cooperation with different European remanufacturing companies. Out of the mass of mechatronic systems in today’s vehicles. a preliminary inquiry shows that electro-hydraulic power steering pumps are predestined for remanufacturing.The test methods and test sequences in the table above as well as the resources to explore the test specifications have successfully been adopted. A further specific aspect is the automation of thermal imaging to achieve an accurate. which is now introduced in the industrial remanufacturing process of a co-operation partner. which are today mainly constructed as electronic units. To show that the applied method of thermal imaging can be used for failure detection and isolation in the remanufacturing process step of inspection. original systems. The known original specifications could be used. The test of the sensors is based on the behavioural test and compares the behaviour of the used air flow meters with the original specifications at different operating points. The results of the thermal imaging were that the failures on the electronic control units could be detected and 80% of the failures could be isolated on the bases of the thermal images. The required test specifications were discovered by in-situ measurements in road tests with an Opel Astra G on a suitable test area. reproducible and reliable industrial test in remanufacturing companies. A very interesting final point is the estimation of the past life time and the remaining life time of cores. a proprietary test bench was developed and built. 36 electronic control units (electronic subassemblies) of the electro-hydraulic power steering pumps were selected. which appears promising by a further development and application of the parameter estimation and the thermography imaging. The test procedure is based on the comparison of the core behaviour with the defined specifications of characteristic operating points.
Fraunhofer Institute for Material Flow and Logistics IML and Retek AG . as well as logistic partners. responsible for the content which is based on Information communicated by Fraunhofer IZM. The Fraunhofer IZM (an Institute specialized in researching the reliability of electronic assemblies and micro components) is leading the project in conjunction with the automotive Tier 1 partners Continental Automotive Systems and Hella KgaA Hueck & Co. Berlin (Germany) By Fernand Weiland. 1. IZM .SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT BY REUSING USED AUTOMOTIVE ELECTRONICS Research Project ReECar performed by Fraunhofer Institute for Reliability and Microintegration. Introduction The ReECar Project is funded by the German Minister for Education and Research to support efforts to promote sustainable development by creating a basis to facilitate the reusing of old/used automotive electronic components. 83 . Figure 1: Source: Fraunhofer IZM Berlin. Callparts System GmbH.
remanufacturing is the preferred alternative. which could be up to 20 and more years! To cope with this challenge the manufacturers have only a few alternatives: long term storage. It is the most economic alternative and it is a process which has no life cycle or time restrictions. remanufacturing old/used components. and due to their short design cycles of approximately five years. downward compatibility or reusing or 2.With the advent of mechatronics. Objectives The overall objectives of the research were to support the efforts of the German automotive industry to develop a sustainable environment by: • encouraging the reuse of used automotive components • creating specifications and recommendations on how to reliably reuse the used components The main proposed steps to achieve these objectives are: • to develop a methodology to assess the environment a sustainability of different proposed strategies • to assess the feasibility of using old/used components • to develop processes on how to determine the health/conditions of used/old components • to create guidelines on how to design electronics in order to make them suitable for reusing/remanufacturing • to promote the reusing/remanufacturing of components for ongoing automotive service requirements and for supporting the challenging requirement of covering exceptional long term service requirements footnote from the editor For our industry. Remanufacturing is a safer process than simply reusing the component without processing it. periodic manufacturing. Remanufacturing can be performed at any time in the life time of a car! 84 . in the future it will be very difficult for the automobile industry to provide service replacement parts for the entire life of a car model.
can affect the components To achieve above objectives. 85 . etc) • to investigate how the environment (temperature. production year.3. the Fraunhofer IZM has arrived at the conclusion that they need to perform the following tasks: • • • • to propose tests which are a combination of functional and stress temperature tests to investigate the performances of electrolytic capacitors over time to analyze solder interconnections to investigate how humidity affects the components over time The photos below are an example on potential defects which can. appear in solder interconnections. Developing processes to assess the health/condition of used components For components which are intended to be reused as electronic automotive controllers. in the worst cases. it is vital to know their health before they are reused in remanufacturing. over time. vibration etc ). Figure 2: Source: Fraunhofer IZM Berlin. To assess the conditions/health of components the Fraunhofer IZM proposed: • to investigate how to qualify the used components • to research methods to assess the quality of the components • to research which data are required to make quality assessments of components (mileage.
but the same irregularities were also found on used units. Only minor whiskers were found in tin-plated conductors of the stocked units. some used units. The tests were run under the same conditions used for new units and the results were compared with the performances of new units from stock. tested and dismantled for visual checks. produced in 1996 (see photo below) were selected.1 Testing Long Term stored Central Electronic Control Modules from Continental For a Mercedes type E. Continental Automotive and Hella have performed preliminary tests on 10 year old used components procured from approximately 10 year old cars. since these “defects” can easily have been fixed during remanufacturing and did not influence the performances! Figure 3: Source: Continental AG. but most stored new units. 86 .4. The used units tested had been selected from a batch of units with some external damages or dirt. 4. The objective was to find out how old units perform after having been in operation in passenger cars. The results of these tests and checks proved that the performances were still in line with the original specifications. Specific investigation of Automotive used electronic components IZM. but this was not regarded as a major defect.
however. used units which had some dirt and small damages to the plastic cases. Following this. inspecting.2 Testing used ABS modules from Continental Automotive Systems As in the previous tests. The positive news was that all units tested passed all the tests successfully! More extensive tests are currently underway. the above tests have already shown how reliable old Continental units are. during one hour. the next step was to run a test for 450 hours at high temperature (110° Celsius) and perform a functional test every 30 minutes. The objective of the proposed tests was to run several stress tests to find out if the performances or the electronic modules would change and deteriorate. changing damaged connectors. Figure 4: Source: Continental AG. Humidity tests for 500 hours at 85° Celsius and 85 % relative humidity were also carried out. which consists of cleaning. provided they undergo proper remanufacturing. the old units used were selected from a batch of old. vibration tests were performed for three axis’s during eight hours.4. the temperature went from –40° to 110 ° Celsius. Footnote from the editor The quality of the old/used units can be high enough that they can be reused without risk. which consisted of 50 cycles and a 2 ° Celsius temperature change every minute. All units passed all these tests successfully! Last but not least. To start with the stress program all the used units were put to a thermal test. testing the units. 87 . An initial test showed that all the units were functioning. The final test was a thermal shock test where. changing critical components and when required.
An aging or a significant alteration of the latter one was not found either.4. one must admit that the tests performed to date are very encouraging. confirming that remanufacturing electronic controllers is a very viable solution for reusing automotive electronics. 88 .org. The final results will be communicated at a later date. The function tests were all positive and between a controller with a mileage of 10. Without trying to pre-empt the final results. Detailed results are available from Hella who will now submit these units to stress tests. Final results will be communicated by Fraunhofer IZM at www. solder interconnections and printed circuits bad performance of aged capacitors and certain selected semi-conductors increased electrical resistance of the relays and connectors changed properties of plastic materials Figure 5: Source: Hella KgaA Hueck & Co.000 and 150.000 km no difference was found. Final note from Editor The project was not completed at the time of issuing this report.ReECar.1) . similar to the ones carried out on the Continental modules (see 4.3 Testing automotive cockpit Electronic controllers from Hella Fifty old/used electronic controllers from Tier 1 manufacturer Hella were removed from old used cars and were tested and checked for the following potential failures/defects: • • • • degradation of solder joints.
around 500 hits were registered. solder joint. An important process with the reuse of circuit boards is firstly. BGA reliability. Weiland.RESEARCH OF INTERNET & SCIENTIFIC DATABASES ON REUSING AND INSPECTING USED ELECTRONICS By Fernand J. the evaluation of whether the board can be reliably reused for remanufacturing. Among the discovered data. In addition a research of relevant scientific data bases was achieved. the most relevant information involved failure rates and life time expectancy. 89 . PCB recycling. electrolytic capacitor failure. For this reason. Most of the sources found were however related to new production and the related potential defects and failures. Cologne (Germany) 1 Preface Internet research was performed using words such as PCB reuse. FJW Consulting. conductor path reliability etc. the assessment of the state of the components and secondly. the most frequent failure mechanisms and methods to diagnose them will be presented in this report. As a result.
from author Rex Vandenberg. the components. RoHS. is to assess their age or their remaining life span. with around 1000 solder joints. Not only is the status of the hardware. is vital for the proper functioning of the reused electronics. 2 Basic information on the reuse of circuit boards A manufactured circuit board ordinarily involves several dozens of active and passive elements and components. If the software is not available. The present European directive. The remanufacturer who has access to the software has the advantage of being able to reprogram the controllers with the latest software. simulation or reverse engineering are the solutions. requires the remanufacturer to determine which solder has been used because using the wrong material may cause problems. essential. but also the correct software revision embedded in the micro controllers. the remanufacturer often is aware of the mileage of the car from which a unit has been removed and is in a position to assess the age of the unit.e. i.Reuse Electronics Circuit Boards Inspection/Evaluation Circuit Boards Connections Solder Joint Mechanics Components Housing Passive Function Active Circuit Tracks Substrat Figure 1: Basic procedure for inspecting electronics. 90 . mainly with the semiconductors and the capacitors. for further information on this please read. now prohibiting the use of lead in solder. However. the chapter in this book. The difficulty with regard to reusing electronics.
These can be caused by vibration and mechanical and temperature shocks. but smaller particles or dirt can also cause serious mechanical damage. The remanufacturer can cope with this problem by sorting through more core units then he intends to remanufacture. • • • Chemical corrosion due to salt. which practically excludes such damage. and Overload due to higher current or voltages Mechanical damage was already mentioned earlier. This damage starts as micro-cracks in circuit tracks and can be difficult to detect in multi-layer boards. The main reasons for damages are due to mechanical constraints. the solder joints and a varnished protective coating. Surface mounted components Circuit tracks Components in through hole technology Substrate Figure 2: Basic construction of a circuit board. which is however easy to diagnose. the conducting tracks. Ceramic substrates are very robust. solvents and other corrosive substances.3 The circuit boards The modern electronic circuit board normally consists of a number of layers supporting the substrates.2 Inspecting the circuit tracks The circuit tracks can be damaged by: • Mechanical constraints on the supporting basis or substrate. 91 . In remanufacturing all of these elements must be inspected before the circuit board is reused. the through-holes. Humidity. A rare chemical damage like corrosion will not allow the board to be reused. 3. 3. During their operation these substrates may have suffered from chemical or mechanical activity. If they are significant the boards may not be reused again. Cleaning is usually the best solution when reusing these boards.1 Inspecting the substrates Plastic and ceramic materials are normally used as supporting basis or substrates.
but if the remanufacturer strips more units then he remanufactures. These defects can be repaired by using wire bridges for damaged circuit tracks and by replacing damaged components with new components. 92 .Chemical damage will normally show as changes to the surfaces and a visual check will be an adequate inspection. if very low in content. but usually the electronic controllers are sealed and this damage is limited to a low number of units. However humidity can. be difficult to detect. In such cases the reuse of the board will often be ruled out. or by electrostatic discharges. Electrical damage resulting from electrical overloads is caused by excessive currents during the operation of the units. Again the solution in remanufacturing is to sort through more core units than are needed. he may be able to cope with this problem. If however the circuit board is already damaged by humidity it cannot be recovered. Humidity generally disappears when the final thermal test is performed by the remanufacturer. Figure 3: Cracked solder joints (source: IZM Fraunhofer Institute Berlin). Humidity is the next possible damage.
free or lead-containing. Solder joint failure often occurs because of mechanical tensions resulting from a deformed circuit board. Under certain circumstances. During the production of new circuit boards. The state of these attachments can be visually inspected. the inspection of the quality of the soldering is performed with procedures that are also suitable for inspection during remanufacturing. The solder connections can also be damaged due to poor manufacturing or wrong solder material resulting in a deterioration of the material structure of the solder joint. A camera records figures of certain areas of the circuit board which clearly show the soldered joints with the help of image processing. 93 . They are normally without any defect or damage. The Remanufacturer needs to take great care in this process. mechanical connections and solder connections are to be distinguished. which can cause them new damage. gold. the components can be repaired. The appearance of the soldered joints is compared with already known patterns of good and bad. as damage seldom occurs to these connections. especially with regard to the aspect of lead. The advantage of this procedure is the quick and contactless inspection of the soldering joints. The main processes are visual checks of the soldering joints. cadmium or arsenic. Larger components often utilise additional screw attachments. For many components. In most cases. which permits a judgment of the soldered joint. Defective soldered joints can be repaired by re-soldering if the surrounding area of the soldered joints is not too contaminated by foreign materials. During the resoldering work.4 Inspecting the Connections Within the connections of the circuit board. metallic crystals can also be formed on the surface of the circuit tracks. The same defect can also result from undesired foreign solder metals like copper. the soldered joint and eventually its semiconductor element will be reheated. the solder connections serve also as mechanical connections. During the repair work it is important to use a solder with similar qualities to the original one. without any damage to the board or the electronic components.
the components and the circuit board have to be in a state that guarantees safe operation during the stipulated second lifetime. The major problems concerning ageing of electronic components involve electrolytic capacitors. 94 . There is extensive research about failure mechanisms of the different case types during different levels of stress. On the other hand. Most of the passive elements like resistors. Life cycle tests show that periodic stress.5 Inspecting the Components In order to be reused. With time. In summary we can say that mechanical stress on the elements is amplified by the rise or variation of temperature and vibration. their ageing process can be used to determine the approximate age of the whole circuit board. Active semiconductor components are delivered in different case styles and display different levels of sensitivity to mechanical activity of the circuit board. ceramic capacitors etc. It should however be noted that the ageing state may have been accelerated due to exceptional temperatures. are comparatively resistant against ageing if they are operated within their specifications. On the other hand. the electrolyte in the capacitor dries out which causes a loss of capacitance. by measuring the capacitance of the electrolytic capacitor an approximate estimation of the age of the capacitor and the circuit board can be made with the help of a model. especially low frequencies below 1000 Hz and raised temperatures have negative effects on the lifetime of the case and the solder connections.
or the extraction of hazardous metals like lead or cadmium. An automotive vehicle is after all not a desk computer. a cell phone or an MP 3 player! This report shows clearly the possible defects of components and how these can be detected.6 Conclusion Researching the Internet about circuit board reuse. But. demonstrate clearly that specialised remanufacturers can reliably handle these. This is indeed a substantial business but it has nothing to do with the higher level of recycling that the remanufacturers of this world are achieving. which can be found in this book. There are even attempts to dismantle circuit boards automatically with robots to recover components. The electronics remanufacturers are well aware of these potential failures. certainly not the APRA automotive remanufacturers! Our automotive remanufactured units need to be reliable and safe. I am not aware of who might use these recycled components. The reports from Flight Systems and Injectronics. 95 . revealed that the main focus for different industries seems to be the recycling of electronics to recover metals like gold. In searching the Internet one can also find companies recycling semiconductors for sale.
CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES By: Rex Vandenberg. O. You have been supplying a certain Electronic module that has been re-ordered by your customer and you can’t supply it. These may include: . Manager Director of Injectronics Australia 1.REMANUFACTURING OF MECHATRONIC AND ELECTRONIC MODULES FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES. Your customer may or may not have purchased the final all time buy from you.E.one supplier to a large vehicle manufacturer and you supply Automotive Electronic components. due to set up cost. Scenario One: You are the manager of a tier . Vehicle manufacturers.one or several microchips or components are obsolete and no longer available. The Question: How are you going to supply your customer? 97 . There could be a number of reasons you can’t supply the Electronic Module. Your production line has had a major setback and won’t be up and running again for some time. These scenarios are used to explore supply challenges and the solutions available through remanufacturing as well as the challenges and opportunities for remanufacturers both now and in the future. Your test equipment or assembly equipment is no long serviced or serviceable or is being used for other products. but there has been unprecedented demand for this product of late. Your production line has been dismantled or reset up for new products and it would be uneconomical to set it up again.M suppliers and Tier one Suppliers. Introduction The following article explores different scenarios for remanufacturers. The volume requested is so low you are not able to economically produce it.
With the sheer volume and variety of automotive electronic modules. Many tier one and OEM companies around the world are already using the services of automotive electronics and mechatronics remanufacturing companies. as a business necessity and an obligation to our environment. within them. Electronic power steering. The concept of remanufacturing vehicle electronics and mechatronics components is not new and companies like Injectronics Australia have been involved in this industry for over 20 years. How are you going to begin remanufacturing these units and keep abreast of the changes. Climate control modules.The answer is of course to supply remanufactured units. in the future? In both scenarios illustrated above. Body Control Modules. Air flow and Air mass meters.M and traditional remanufacturers are facing new and ever increasing challenges in their fields. or Brake calipers. and need to be tested differently than products you have done in the past. ABS modules. However these units now have electronics incorporated. transmission ECMs. Command centers. Scenario two Now imagine you are a traditional remanufacturer. the above supply problems are already common and will only increase in the future. You are getting an increase in inquiries to remanufacture these units. radio. the list goes on. Dash cluster and other instrumentation displays. As well as engine management systems. 98 . Television. Engine management systems have evolved in quantum leaps since the early 70’s and the modern remanufacturer of electronics and mechatronics has needed to keep up with these developments. The list includes Engine ECMs. automatic transmission units. to fulfill the supply requirements of their customers. power steering racks. remanufacturing is fast becoming an obvious choice to supply these components both from a financial point of view and very importantly.E. You may already be doing power steering pumps. Powertrain control modules. Infotainment. Satellite Navigation. O. there are many other electronic and mechatronics modules which are being remanufactured. Cruise control modules. to minimise the environmental impact. The tier one. With more and more electronics and mechatronics utilised within today’s motor vehicles.
Obsolete product replacement .Injectronics Australia has been remanufacturing many of the above components since the 1980’s and provides components and test equipment to other remanufacturing companies throughout the world including O. more environmentally friendly. Some of the reasons an OEM or a vehicle manufacturing company may use the services of an electronics and Mechatronics Remanufacturing company include: Warranty and extended warrant replacement – a vehicle manufacturer may choose to supply a remanufactured component after a certain time period due to both cost and environmental benefits. so the customer can choose if he wants the more economical. - - - 99 .E. 2. It may also be impossible as many electronic components become obsolete quickly. In other cases they may only offer a remanufactured part.Many OEM or vehicle manufacturers are turning to electronics and mechatronics remanufacturers as they simply can no longer source a new electronic module. this is increasing considerably with many OEM and vehicle manufacturing companies forming joint ventures and partnerships with existing electronic and mechatronics remanufacturing companies. remanufactured unit. They may have exhausted their all time buy of this electronic module and it would be uneconomical to tool up and produce another short run. Field service campaigns/updates – if an electronic component needs an update or modification (hardware or software) this task can be performed by an electronics and mechatronics remanufacturer instead of supplying a new unit.M and Vehicle Manufacturers In past years very few OEM and vehicle manufacturing companies remanufactured vehicle Mechatronics and electronic components.M and aftermarket companies. Remanufacturing for O. Alternative to new – some vehicle manufacturing companies are selling both new and remanufactured electronic components spare parts. However.E. side by side.
However an ever increasing trend has been to mount the ECM within the transmission itself (see figure 1).Production Line Reworks There may be times when a product was manufactured with a fault. If the transmission is to be dynamometer tested. This was done to reduce the amount of connections and wiring around the vehicle. They can then choose the more environmentally friendly approach of remanufacturing.An increasing awareness and responsibility towards the environment is already seeing OEM and vehicle manufacturers reducing their estimations for total requirements for replacement components during the life of a vehicle. This has a two fold effect in cost saving and environmental impact because: a) there is less waste and scrapage of new products when they are not used and remain as spare parts inventory at the end of the vehicle life. In this case a tier one supplier may choose to utilize the services of an electronics remanufacturer to rectify the fault before the unit is retested. 3. when the new module becomes a supply issue. Remanufacturing Challenges for the Traditional Remanufacturer Automatic Transmissions For many years. 100 . there is a requirement to simulate the vehicle signals going to the transmission ECM the CAN Bus messages need to be simulated and sent to the ECM for correct operation. b) OEM and vehicle manufacturers can turn to remanufacturers if and when they choose. . transmissions have been controlled by an Electronic Control Module (ECM). or a faulty component or a circuit board loaded incorrectly. which has been mounted externally on the transmission unit.- Going green . Now the transmission remanufacturer has to test and validate both the workmanship of the remanufactured transmission and the function of the ECM.
Figure 1: ECM within the transmission itself. controlled by a CAN Bus message which the test equipment must simulate. This may be simply switched. the vehicle CAN Bus and other signals need to be simulated and connected to the ECM. To test these units. They also have an electronic control module that takes in the torque signal as well as CAN Bus messages (such as Roadspeed) from other modules around the vehicle and in turn drives the Electric Assist Motor. These units have a heavy duty electric motor that can drive both ways. Electronic Hydraulic Power Steering Pumps EHPS While testing of the hydraulic function is similar to that of the traditional belt driven pump. or as we have seen lately. 101 . Electronic Power Steering Racks and Columns (EPS) Electronic Power Steering Pumps are slowly being replaced by full Electronic Power Steering Racks and Columns (Figure 2). the test equipment has to be able to monitor and supply enough current as well as command the pump operation.
S. These challenges include obtaining information and test equipment as well as deciding if they will remanufacture any electronics in house or externally. As this equipment is not readily obtainable. test equipment.E. 102 . In all the above examples the traditional remanufacturer is faced with new challenges. electronics and mechatronics remanufacturing companies have needed to design and manufacture their own. 4. Testing Vehicle Electronics and Mechatronics One of the essential processes in the remanufacturing of vehicle electronics and mechatronics.). for many years. One example is the Electronic Power steering tester that will be on Display at the Automechanika show in Frankfurt. been working with O. specialized componentry as well as technical knowledge on how to remanufacture these products. involves an interface between a Personal Computer and an electronic component under test. called a Virtual Automotive Simulator (V.A. Injectronics Australia has. (See figure 3) The V. is the ability to fully test all pins and functions of a module. as well as traditional remanufacturers. This testing may be required both prior to and after the remanufacturing process.M and aftermarket electronics remanufacturers. Injectronics Australia has for several years used their own designed and manufactured tester.S.A.Figure 2: Electronic Power Steering Racks and Columns. The services provided include.
A. At the end of the test a software report is generated and electronically stored and an optional printed report can be produced. connect and test. has three levels of operation which are password protected.A. Level 2: This level of operation is designed for the Technician who may want to analyze a particular circuit function for diagnostic purposes. 103 .Figure 3: Virtual Automotive Simulator. The technician can adjust and vary the inputs and monitor for the expected responses. The Injectronics Virtual Automotive Simulator or V.S.S essentially operates and drives the electronic module to be tested by simulating and stimulating the inputs and monitoring the outputs and compares these measured test results to previously recorded results of a known good unit. The V. Level 1: This level enables a worker of any skill level to simply log in.
Most electronic components have identification markings but relevant information may still be unobtainable for the component. 104 . Siemens. Jecs. An essential piece of test equipment for the remanufacturing of air flow and air mass meters is an air meter analyser. it must be able to automatically and accurately test the full output range by varying the air flow of a remanufactured air flow meter for a small four cylinder engine through to air flow meters that suit a large V8 engine. (See Figure 4) Figure 4: Test bench for air flow meter. Injectronics has designed and built its own Air Meter Analyzer (AMA) to test air mass meter brands such as Hitachi. Bosch. they may need to reverse engineer the assembly. There are different air flow load outputs such as varying voltage or varying frequencies.Level 3: This level is for the Software Programmer who writes a test script. The test script uses a multitude of pre written call up menus. As this test equipment is not available on the open market. 5. An air meter analyser needs to be able to quickly and accurately learn and store the flow characteristics of a reference unit. macros and blocks that the programmer can join together to write a test script quickly. Mitsubishi and Kefico. Identifying Electronic Components If a remanufacturer does not have access to specific circuit board and component information. Then.
c) Design and produce – in many instances an electronic component cannot be obtained and so Injectronics has needed to design and produce an electronic 105 . The reason is because. Standard components such as transistor drivers and common IC’s can usually be obtained from electronic component part suppliers. For components that are not replaced in every remanufacturing process. These components may be obsolete but are no longer required by circuit board manufacturers or stocked by their manufacturers. it is still possible that the electronic component itself cannot be obtained. b) Component brokers. Even if a component is identifiable and information is available. Replacing all possible troublesome components. 6. of course. there is the possibility of determining and sourcing a replacement component or a component that has a higher rating to ensure that it does not fail again. However in many cases one or several components may be replaced in each ECM. the next challenge is to source the components. These components cannot be obtained through the aftermarket channels. In these cases there are a number of options including: a) acquiring from donor boards – there may be excess new or second hand modules which are not necessarily the same as what needs to be remanufactured but have the same required electronic component which can be removed and used. it may be possible to take components from another core if it can’t be obtained new. the actual IC-chip component has long since finished it’s production run and is now obsolete.With reverse engineering. for that unit. Obsolete Components . In other cases by the time there is a demand for an ECM to be remanufactured. which could be 5 years after it was manufactured. they may fail in the future. it has been found over a period of time that certain components are troublesome and if they have not already failed. reduces possible warranty returns and unsatisfied customers. After the challenges of identification.Obtaining Components Another challenge for our industry is obtaining components to enable the repair of electronic and mechanical parts. There is a large industry of electronic component brokers who source electronic components from around the world. Another challenge for our industry is that IC chip manufacturers are often now producing custom components for ECM manufacturers.
106 . The original component is made on a ceramic board. and Porsche. This 40 pin component (Figure 5) is found in many European vehicles including Volvo. Figure 5: I/0 Buffer.component so that an electronic or mechatronics module can be remanufactured. Figure 6: 44 pin programmable expansion chip. Saab. however Injectronics has manufactured a replacement board and because size was not an issue it was made as a single sided board within the module. Some examples are shown. watchdog circuit and voltage reference module. The Research and Development department at Injectronics has had many years of experience at reverse engineering and designing totally new replacement components.
The original circuit board (bottom figure 7) controls the ignition drivers in a Mercedes Benz vehicle and provides feedback to the microprocessor such as burn time. It then was programmed to operate in the exact same manner as the original chip. so it could be mounted on a sub board and tracks routed to the correct pins. Figure 7: Intelligent ignition driver. Injectronics then sourced a 64 pin component which was physically smaller.This IC (Figure 6) was used in many Mitsubishi vehicles. The 2 sided circuit board (top figure 7) was designed by Injectronics and is also mounted on a cast aluminum retaining bracket. 107 . Information of this component was not available so Injectronics reverse engineered it and identified its functions.
The correct output loads also need to be connected during the test cycle. a specific testing and remanufacturing process needs to be designed for each module.7. the warranty failures can easily be maintained at a minimum. then Injectronics would need to reverse engineer the module to determine each pin function to be able to determine an exact specification. hardware version. Injectronics has more than two decades of experience simulating signals such as Crankshaft. as well as serial read back information on many inputs and outputs. All these factors are considered when setting tolerances. Many different tests may need to be performed on just one pin. the module can be communicated with by the serial data line/CAN Bus. 108 . variant coding. and remanufacturing processes and continually reviewing production and warranty claims. serial data . Designing a Test Program As there are many variations of electronic and mechatronics modules used in vehicles. In many cases. most products are close to. modules are remanufactured with electronic components that have higher specifications. or have a lower warranty fail rate than that of the new equivalent. making them even more reliable than a new. By developing stringent test programs. In many cases. Camshaft. or reprogrammed with the latest software. Wherever possible. There are some that have obtained a Quality Certification such as ISO9001:2000 like Injectronics. non remanufactured unit. 8. Quality of Mechatronics Remanufactured Electronics and The question is often asked “How does the quality of a remanufactured electronic component compare to that of a new part?” Many reputable electronics and mechatronics remanufacturing companies have developed a reputation for their exceptional quality over many years. If testing specification or serial data information is not available from the manufacturer. software version. Numerous amounts of information can be obtained via the serial data stream such as part number. fault codes. as well as setting the tolerances and developing test programs.CAN Bus.
In setting up the calibration points and specification. During this time the calibration points are learned and stored and then referenced against when testing subsequent units. a known good unit or new reference unit is connected to the VAS tester and stimulated and driven through the various test sequences.An example of some of the points tested in a current controlled Injector wave-form is seen in Figure 8 below. 109 . The test sequence may also require a vibration test and a controlled temperature variation test (cold to hot. Parameters tested are: A) static voltage B) minimum voltage C) amplitude of pre switching spike D) amplitude of post switching spike E) Injection start time (phase) F) initial pull on time G) injection duration H) switching/current control frequency Figure 7: Example of some of the points tested in a current controlled Injector wave-form. hot to cold).
for many different functions. As a result of the above variations the price of remanufacturing a module can vary between one tenth to two thirds that of a new component. we will confer with the customer and discuss the above points. 6) Writeoff ratio –Within a batch of cores there may be some units that cannot be remanufactured. Costing Remanufactured Modules The cost of remanufacturing a vehicle electronic or mechatronics module can vary depending on many factors including: 1) Quantity of units to armortize setup costs against 2) Repairability – how difficult to dismantle 3) Core – costs and availability 4) Component availability – Can components be obtained or do they need to be designed. There is an ever increasing use of these types of modules. Conclusion Electronic and mechatronic remanufacturing companies have been remanufacturing for many years with exceptional results. A project plan is then developed. in many different transportation vehicles. that is tailored to the module and the customer so Injectronics can work toward a final costing. When Injectronics is engaged to assess the suitability of remanufacturing a module.9. As a result the OEM and Vehicle Manufacturer and the traditional remanufacturer are joining with electronic and mechatronic remanufacturing companies to provide the necessary solutions. 5) Level of technology – is it a 10 pin electronic module with limited functions or a 200 pin sophisticated device which required a lot more time to develop a test. 10. 110 . Additionally there is an increasing demand to minimize inventories and provide sustainable and environmentally friendly products. or burnt circuit boards 7) Information availability – Will the customer supply all the specifications and CAN Bus information or does the remanufacturer need to determine. such as water damaged units.
REMANUFACTURING ELECTRONIC CONTROL MODULES – EVOLUTION IN PROGRESS By Joseph W. Figure 1: Group shot of Diesel electronics system. Flight Systems Electronics Group started in 1968 producing solid state relays for NASA for the Moon Rover program and eventually evolved from forklift control modules into automotive and heavy duty truck modules. Flight Systems Electronics Group Flight Systems Electronics Group manufactures and remanufactures electronic control modules for a wide variety of customers and products. 111 . President. Kripli.
then chances are you are going to have to change components anyway and therefore the process is leaner to just repair and upgrade the unit at the same time and remove this step. Ideally. Now that we have a product to remanufacture. we can establish at what change level our inventory of cores is at. we are ready to begin the process of identifying and sorting core. it is most likely that the core is not the latest part number and that there has been a number of revisions over the life of the vehicle application. The process to clean the core is typically simple with such equipment as sand blasters and a machine we refer to as a “slurry” which is a sand and water mixture which gives an excellent finish to aluminum housings. A tagging process is suggested. The failure is confirmed by connecting the appropriate scan tool in order to identify the fault code which is kept in the memory of the electronic control module. The fault code is then identified through the manufacturer’s repair manual and identified as a failed engine control module and instructed to be replaced. Typically. The core is the failed unit from the vehicle from which the failure occurred. it is important to identify what the unit part number will be as a finished unit.The first process in remanufacturing begins with the “Core”. The goal is to produce a product with the latest hardware and software revisions as to supply the customer with the best quality product. the manufacturer will begin their core program by using new electronic control modules as seed stock and place them into a product box identified as remanufactured and put in place a “core charge” which is a billing method to ensure that the failed module is returned to begin the method of core collection. 112 . The failure is typically an engine warning light on the instrument cluster or worst case. an engine “no start” condition. By identifying and sorting the core. We refer to this as “core prep”. I find that if you are going to upgrade the unit to the latest revision level. With the core process complete. we are ready to begin disassembly and cleaning of the unit. we can begin ordering components as we now understand what is required to upgrade the core to the latest revision. We do not yet know what component has failed thus causing the “check engine light” to go on. Some remanufacturers suggest pre-testing the unit. Core prep consists of removing the covers and protecting the connectors in order not to damage them in your own cleaning process thus increasing your product cost. Due to the fact that the core is a failed unit that has been on a vehicle for a number of years. you would begin a remanufacturing program with a core quantity equal to one year of unit sales. Also at this time. After the identification process.
Figure 2: Chrysler JTEC (Jeep/Truck Electronic Controller). The 113 . We get limited or no information about the failed unit. Again. some remanufacturers will suggest testing prior to the cleaning process due to the “red tag” failure. It is possible to create or reverse engineer your own. however. It is the firm belief of Flight Systems Electronics Group that 100% of units are tri-temperature tested. plus 125 degrees Celsius and ambient temperature. The tester is your most important capital equipment you have in the remanufacturing process. So the first test is hot and we separate the failures from the passed units. and if it experienced a catastrophic board failure. this is an extremely difficult and time consuming process. Also. I believe you will sort that during the cleaning process and remove 99% of the damaged product without testing as an experienced cleaning person will recognize damaged units and black burnt sections of PCB boards. due to the different variations of modules. Red tags will occur if the unit was damaged in a fire or collision. These test temperatures are normally minus 40 degrees Celsius. it can become a very large capital investment. so we do not know if the failure was only occurring in the morning or after warm-up of the engine. Now we are ready for our first test. Ideally you would receive an end of line tester from your customer or the original equipment manufacturer. I normally test hot first (plus 125 degrees Celsius) due to the fact that some units have been cleaned with water and this removes any remnants of moisture prior to connecting the tester. I find that the plastic housings are best cleaned with a water soluable cleaning solution that is biodegradable. This requirement assists with the finding of intermittent failures occurring in temperature related regions throughout the world.
if the unit requires upgrading. however. then the technician will troubleshoot the unit and likewise upgrade to the latest hardware level. Should the unit require repair. 114 . it will now move to the technician and repeat the hot and cold test. At this point. Also at this time. The unit is then tested again on the same tester and again sorted by failure and passed test criteria. we move on to the cold test. After repair and upgrade. Figure 3: Soldering 128 pin Microprocessor. This may not appear as a lean process to many people. the data acquired from the testing is vital to understanding the typical failure modes of electronic control modules in order to establish a common repair group which assists in component ordering and troubleshooting techniques. With this established it will assist you in your core sorting and improve your core purchasing.failed units are now sent to the technicians who will troubleshoot the unit and determine the failure. Keep in mind that you must repeat the hot test after you change any parts which failed the cold test. or after the unit passes the “hot” test. the technician will upgrade the unit to the latest hardware level. The cold test requires a set time to achieve the temperature of minus 40 degrees Celsius.
During the technician repair process, you will come across some units with what is referred to as “potting”, a silicon/rubber type composite used for vibration and weather protection or the components will be covered with conformal coating which is a thin coating protecting the components from erosion caused by humidity. At times, the potting material can be difficult to remove and work around. Processes must be developed to remove these coatings thus allowing the technician access to the failed component. We must reinstall the same OEM potting/conformal coating material to bring the unit back to its original conformity. After the potting is reinstalled we are now ready for final testing at ambient temperature. At this test, the electronic control module receives its software specified for the vehicle application. Some electronic control modules will use a generic software and the exact specifications will be “flashed” into the module at the dealership following installation utilizing the Vehicle Identification Number to properly link and install the correct software provided by the OEM with the correct vehicle. Should the electronic control module fail this test, it must be repaired and begin the tri-temperature testing process again to ensure that a high level of quality is maintained.
Figure 4: Instrument Cluster PCB Board.
The passed unit is now ready for packaging and shipment to the customer. Ideally you want these units to be serialized and dated for tracking capabilities. The unit should be wrapped in an anti-static paper or bubble wrap to ensure that no electro static discharge occurs when handling the unit. It should also be mentioned that ESD protection is used by the technicians and people testing the units throughout the process. Although the average vehicle averages 16 modules per vehicle today, we are not always capable nor is it always cost effective to remanufacture the unit. For example, if the unit cost is below $50 USD, then it may not be cost effective to process this unit through the rigorous remanufacturing process. Instead, it may be more cost effective to produce a low volume new build run of this electronic control module. An example would possibly be a heated seat module or a headlight module that has limited microprocessor technology within the unit, and a low failure rate in the field.
Figure 5: Chrysler SBEC1 (Single Board Electronic Controller).
Remanufacturing without a doubt reduces the impact of electronic control modules on waste landfills, thus causing a “green” effect in the electronic control modules cycle of life.
Another avenue for remanufactured electronics is certain applications referred to as “Mechatronics” which utilize a percentage of mechanical components and a percentage of electronic components. An example is GM 6’5 Liter Diesel Fuel Injection Pump required to meet certain vehicle emission levels which utilizes this split in componentry. Diesel Fuel Injection Pumps require the assistance of electronic components to assist in timing which in turn effects the combustion process. This precise timing allows for better management of the emission related gases that are exhausted from a diesel engine.
Figure 6: GM 6.5 Liter Diesel Fuel Injection Pump.
By taking the expertise we have gained from the electronics remanufacturing programs and meshing with the mechanical knowledge established over the last 40 years, we develop an ability to approach a different market from where the mechanical remanufacturers have not afforded themselves the expertise at this point in time to overcome the failure mode understood by the electronic control module technician. Thus “Mechatronics”. Thus the “Mechatronic Technician” is born.
Rolf Steinhilper University Bayreuth Ph: +49 921-55-7300 Fax: +49 921-55-7305 E-mail: Rolf. Stefan Freiberger University Bayreuth.net Rex Vandenberg Managing Director Injectronics Australia Pty Ltd Ph: +613 8792 6999 Fax +613 8795 7205 E-mail: rex.de Fernand Weiland FJW Consulting Ph: +49 2203 25577 Fax: +49 2203 292984 E-mail: fernand.weiland@t-online.Steinhilper@uni-bayreuth.de 119 . Fraunhofer Project Group Process Innovation Ph: +49 921-55-7324 Fax: +49 921-55-7305 E-mail: Stefan.com.Freiberger@uni-bayreuth.vandenberg@injectronics.Authors of the book: Joe Kripli President Flight Systems Electronics Group Ph: +1 717-932-7000 x527 Fax:717-932-7001 E-mail: email@example.com Dr.au Prof.
President Ph: 703-968-2772 ext 103 Fax: 703-968-2878 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org click “mechatronic division” Board members: Ron Carr.s.de APRA Electronics & Mechatronics Division www.com email@example.com Fernand Weiland. Gager. firstname.lastname@example.org Rolf Steinhilper.Webmaster & Communication Gregor Schlingschroeder Ph: +49 2863 92 444 11 Fax: +49 2863 92 444 21 E-mail: gregor@COEmarketing. email@example.com Aron Regev. Institutes & News Magazines links: APRA USA Automotive Parts Remanufacturers Association William C. +31 (0)20 504 28 00 fax +31 (0)20 504 28 88 E-mail: l.weiland@t-online. rolf. firstname.lastname@example.org 120 .email@example.com ReMaTec News Luuk Aleva RAI Publishing House tel.de APRA Europe .de Jeffrey Stukenborg. fernand. jeffrey.aleva@railangfords.Associations.apra.net Joe Kripli.org APRA Europe Fernand Weiland Ph: +49 2203 25577 Fax: +49 2203 292984 E-mail: Fernand:weiland@t-online.
Rochester Institute of Technology National Center for Remanufacturing and Resource Recovery Rochester.de 121 .de Remanufacturers of Automotive Electronics Flight Systems Electronics Group Ph: +1 717-932-7000 x527 Fax +1 717-932-7001 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Hitzing & Paetzold Gladbeck / Germany Tel +49 (0) 2043 94 44 49 Fax +49 (0) 2043 94 44 50 E-mail: andre.edu] Nabil Nasr [email@example.com Injectronics Australia Pty Ltd Ph: +613 8792 6999 Fax +613 8795 7205 E-mail: rex.edu] University Bayreuth Bayreuth (Germany) Ph: +49 921-55-7324 Fax: +49 921-55-7305 E-Mail: Stefan.firstname.lastname@example.org Flight Sytems Europe Bodo Ruthenberg Ph.Freiberger@uni-bayreuth. +49 89 124 76 189 E-mail: email@example.com@hitzpaetz. NY 14623 (USA) Robert German [rbgasp@rit. +49 89 124 76 187 Fx.rit.
Netherlands Leon Kleine Staarman Ph: +31-546-660418 Fax: +31-546-660419 E-mail: Leon@actronics.com Delphi Product & Service Solutions Troy MI (USA) Jeffrey S.com Robert Bosch GmbH Automotive Aftermarket Karlsruhe (Germany) Ph.com Blue Streak Canada Ph: +1 905 669 4812 Fax: +1 905 669 5179 E-mail: fabiand@bsecorp. +49 721 942-2741 Peter.com Actronics .org 122 .org For all other countries: www.s.nl To order this book pleases contact: For Europe: www.apra. Stukenborg Ph: +1 248-267-8746 Fax: +1 248-267-8877 E-mail: jeffrey.com firstname.lastname@example.org@delphi.BBA-reman UK Chris Swan Ph: +44 7967 00 1579 E-mail: email@example.com Blue Streak Europe Standard Motors Ltd Ph: +44 1623 886400 Fax: +44 1623 751761 E-mail: PDrennan-Durose@SmpEurope.bosch.Bartel@de.apra-europe.
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