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COMPUTA!'ION OF TRUE MOON .
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BY
MADHAVA

OF SANGAMAGRAMA
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VISHVESHVARANAND
INSTITUTE HOSHIARPUR
The Sphutacandrbpti of Madhava, edited here for the first time from its only known manuscript, enunciates an easy and ingenious method which would enable the accurate computation of the the Moon at intervals of about 40 minutes each throughout the day. The Chart prepared for the above purpose is so designed that, with minor changes, it could be used for several days in succession. The author, Mldhava of Sangamagrama, is an astute astronomer of mediaeval Kerala (c. 13401425), who has several works to his credit. He is wide1y quoted by later astonomers of Kerala and is also reputed for his enunciation of formulae for the accurate determination of the circumference of a circle and the nature of 7f by the method of In.;leterminat,,e ~~ series, a method which was rediscovered in ' Europe about three centuries later by James Gregory (163875) and Wilhelm Leibnitz (J 6461 "16).
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INDOLOGICAL SERIES62
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COMPU~rATION OF TRUI~ MOON
BY
MAI)HAVA OF SANGAMAGR~B.MA
Critically Edited with Introduction, Translation and Notes
By
K. V. SARMA Reader in .Sanskrit, Vishveshvaranand Institute of Sanskrit and 'Iadologlcal Studies
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HOSHIARPUR VISHVESiHVARANAND INSTITUTE
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FIRST EDITION, 1913
Publishers:
VISHVESHVARANAND OF SANSKRIT AND INDOLOGICAL
INSTITUTE
STUDIES,
PANJAB
UNIVERSITY
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A~hraJ]l, HOSliIA:RPVR
(Pb., l~d.h~J)
CO~TENTS
PREFACE
IntroductoryThe present edition MoonSentences, Appendix IVerification of the SentencesManuscript mate rialAppendices II and III =Sphutacandr apti and Venvnroha+ Venvnroha method for the MoonMadhava, the authorWorks of Madhava+Date of M§dhavaAcknowledgements
o •
715
INTRODUCTION
Object of the workPrinciple of the MethodMethod of workingDhruvasadhanas MoonSentenceNumbersZerocorrection to longitudes Longitudinal TableCorrections for the True Moon  Correction for the Equation of timeCorrection for Terrestrial longitudeCorrection for Declinational ascensional difference
SPHU1'ACANDA:. PTI OF MADHAVA
1723
Cr. Edition, with Translation and Notes
APPENDIX I
2445
Madhava's
APPENDIX II
Candravakyas
ZeroCorrections
APPENDIX
for the Aeon
6061 6263 6466
III
Some Lumpdays and their ZeroCorrections
INDEX OF VERSES
PREFACE
Introductory The Sphutacandrapti of the renowned mediaeval astronomer of Kerala, Miidhava of Sangamagrama (c. A.D. 13401425), critically edited here for the first time, enunciates an ingenious method for the computation of the True Moon. Besides being the fastest graha , the Moon has also the maximum changes in its motion, with the result that its position if calculated on the basis of its position at sunrise and/or at sunset and its average motion for the day would give only rough results. Madhava describes in the present work the construction of a Chart from which the True Moon could be read out at intervals of about 40 minutes each throughout the day. The Chart is also so designed that, with minor changes, it could be used for the succeeding days as well. The Present Edition
The critical edition of Sphutacandrnptl, presented III the following pages, is based on its only available manuscript. For facilitating the comprehension of this technical treatise, an English rendering has been added on pages facing the text. In the footnotes to the edition, an endeavour has been made to derive the several formulae enunciated by the author for the computation. The principles underlying the method have been set out in detail in the Introduction that follows this Preface. A concrete example has also been worked out in order to demonstrate the calculations, Moonsentences For ensuring accuracy in the above, it is essential that the daily motion of the Moon used for the calculations is very accurate. The Moonsentences of Vararuci, which are ordinarily used in Kerala astronomical practice;' are correct only to the minute and so can gi ve only rough results. Madhava has, therefore, computed in place of the above, more sophisticated Moonsentences:, correct to the second, for nine anomalistic cycles of the Moon (248 days) and set them out
1. For a critical edition CandravakYllni Vararudkrtani,
of these Moonsentences called Girna'; Sreyl1di see Vil1!yakara~a. (Cr. ed. by T. S. K. Sastri
and K. V. Sarma, K. S. Res. Inst.,
Madrasd,
1962), App. II, pp 12534.
8
COMPUTATION
OF TRUE: MOON
in the form of a Table. A critical edition of this Table, which begins with the sentence silam rajna~ sriye, has been added to the present edition as Appendix I.
Verification of the Sentences
The said Moonsentences are ad hoc mnemonic expressions, independent of each other and having no contextual sequence. Quite often, they do not have any logical sense either. This nature of these sentences, apart from creating conditions for errors to creep in, also debars the correction of such errors with reference to the context or grammar. The same holds good mutatis mutandis in the verification of doubtful readings. Two metho ds have been enunciated in the manuscripts of these Sentences for the correction of errors and for the clarification of doubts. These methods have been duly noticed at the close of the edition of the Sentences and have been demonstra ted by concrete examples.
Manuscript
Material
Text: The present edition of Sphut acandr apti is based on its only available manuscript which originally belonged to the collection of the Namput iri brahman house of Kutal lur Mana in S. Malabar (Kerala) and is now deposited in the Kerala University Oriental Research Institute and Mss. Library, Trivandrum, as its Ms. No. 1055A. The work is inscribed in Malayalam script on the first two folios of this palmleaf codex of J yotisa works, lOt" X 21", with 11 lines a page and about 45 letters per line. The mansucript is old and slightly damaged and the edges are all frayed. The writing is small, clear and inked. It has passed through the hands of a revisor whose corrections can be identified by their not being inked. The text presented is generally correct and free from errors. Besides the Sphutacandr apti, which is catalogued as A, the codex contains the undermentioned works: B. Muhurt adi p ak a by Narayana, son of Kesa va ; C. Muhurtara tna by Govinda; D. Acnrasangraha by ParameSvara; E. Sodasakriyavidhi F. Muhurt ap aiicasika ; G. Aciiradarsana and H. Muhurt astaka. MoonSentences: The edition of Madhavas Moonsentences (ViliptadiCandravakyi1ni) is based on four independent manuscripts, called here A, B, C, D, all in palmleaf, inscribed in Malayalam script. Of these, A, which is taken as the standard in this edition on account of its textual purity, and C belong to the Oriental Research Institute and Manuscripts Library, Kerala University,
· PB~EFACE being Mss. Nos. lMC. 595A "(cataloguetlas Vilipt adi vakyanngal) and C. 2297C, an uncatalogued stray leaf at the end. Ms. B belongs to H. H. The Maharaja's Palace Collection! Trivandrum, and is inscribed on a few stray uncatalogued leaves at the end of Ms. No. 4116, Drgganitakrama. Ms. D occurs as the third work in a codex of astronomical works beginning with the Pancabodha preserved in the private collection of Elamprakkotattu Mana, Eravoor (near Tr ipu nit hura, Cochin) and carries the inscription 'Kurallur Meletattu Paiicabodh adi' indicating that it originally belonged to the Namputiri house of Kutallur Meletattu in S. Malabar. Mss, A, Band D are complete, while C breaks off in the middle of the 31st viikya, the rest of the leaves being lost. All the manuscripts exhibit minor differences from one another and sometimes present entirely different vaky as, but to the same import. Possibly: these variants go back to the author himself. Appendices II and HI Trivandrum,
In continuation of the Sphutacandr apti, the text manuscript contains two short tracts. The first depicts the Yugabhogadhruvas, (Zerocorrections per aeon) of the planets correct to 1/60th of a second. These verses, have been taken from the Grahacaranibondhana of Haridatta! and seem to have been extracted here for some practical use an account of their forming an independent unit. The second tract, which is more interesting, sets out large chunks of full days, ranging from 16,45,705 to 248 with their dhruva for the Moon correct to the second. These are obviously intended for the subtraction of days in chunks and correction of the results by the application of the corresponding dhruvas in the computation of the Moon. The dhr uva of the last of these chunks, viz. 248 (devab prajiio nunami, is given as or27°43' 29", the mnemonic sentence therefor being dhir o'lam bhasuro jnnnt, This mnemonic resembles closely the corresponding mnemonic of Madhava's Moonsentences, which reads as dhiragir bhasura.: indicating the possibility of common authorship. Both these tracts have been included in the present volume as Appendices II and III, in the form of Tables, with the numerical figures of the sentences duly set out against them.
1. Cr. ed. by K. V. Sarma, (K. S. Res. Inse., Madras4. 1954), pp;3;4.·~
2. See Appendix I, below.
SPhut.2
10
Sphutacandriptj
tOMPut
ATION
or:
TR Ok
MoON
and Vet)varoha
The wellknown Venvaroha of the author! deals with the Same subject as the present work, but in a better organis:ed manner. It incorporates most of the verses of the present work, often in an improved form. It seems very likely that the author wrote the present work first and recast it later as Venvtiroha. This deduction is substantiated from another source. Now, in the present manuscript after the natural closing of the work with the verse silam rlljna~ sriye etc, are found, in continuation, the following lines:
''fitr8 'fitt'fq~t;:f ~t{
s,,~~
tflCfi{T'~a'!.,
sr~~n~~~T'n[~]'!ftc!'
(~ij'T~tfC(lt~"f;~a~
II
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[corrected to ifT'Efct)sf\=ll q:)
It may be seen that some of these lines are repetitions of earlier lines revised in the form in which they occur in the Venvnroha ; some of the lines depict new ideas not found in the present work, but pertinent to it and also find a place in the Venvnroha, thus confirming the suggestion that the Venvaroha in 75 verses is a revised version of the present work in 51 verses. 1. Ct. ed. by K.V. Sluaa, (TripunithuJtl., 1956), 'with the Mal.,II.1Il
csunlll.ntuJ of A"ut& Pi,lra.i.
PRE1FACE
Venviroha Method for the Moon
The facile method enunciated by Madhava for the computation of Moon seems to have caught the fancy of later astronomers who have pursued it further. They us€~dfresh dates and revised figures for calculations and extended the method by introducing innovations with a view to securing greater accuracy. It has been possible for the present writer to identify the undermentioned texts of this genre, which are mostly anonymous.'
Drg Vel}varohakriyl1, in 14 verses, beginning with venvarohakriyn seyam drslJnitii'tra likhyate, an uncatalogued anonymous tract found inscribed on if. 16365 of Ms. 5867 of the Kerala University 1.
Oriental Res. Institute, Trivandrum. 2. Venvnrobastaka by Putumana Somayaji, in 8 verses beginning with 'rukso'yam kruddhitasyo'nitakalidivasat, again an uncatalogued tract found in three folios towards the close of Ms. 404 of the said Institute. 3. Suksmacandr asphutnnayanam, in 15 verses, beginning with 'tennddhnksept sur yah' kalir athn, an anonymous tract found inscribed in some of the miscellaneous leaves at the end of a manuscript of Venvaroha in the: private collection of the Elarnprakkotattu Mana, Eravoor (Tripunithura, Kerala), with an incomplete commentary in Malayalam. The two tracts said miscellaneous 4. A short noticed below" found tract in the same codex in the
:
leaves, are also related to the Venvaroha
in 10 verses, beginning with slik~me1)a dhruvawith dhtpatir
samskiiraharakeQodayajanmanll.
5. Another short tract in 8 verses, beginning nalatul yo'nnm 'sivadut a' hatam dinam.
It is proposed to bring out a critical edition of these tracts also, in due course, along with the Venviiroha of Madhava.
1. The identification of such works is a problem for the reason that these short tracts are, more often than not, found inscribed in stray leaves at the ends of manuscripts and are left uncatalogucd as insignificant sets of verses which do not make up fullfledged texts. Qu ite often all unidentifiable tracts at the ends of manuscripts are clubbed together in catalogues under innocuous tid es like G(7)itak1'iylJ, eI yo ~illavi,ayo9 etc,
1~
COMPUTATION OF TRUE MOON
Midhava, tbe Author
Among the severa I astute astronomers of Kerala of the middle ages, Madhava of Sangamagrama holds a position of eminence. Till recently, he was unknown to the scholarly world, especially outside his native land. He hailed from the village of Sangarnagrama, the modern Irinjalakkuda, near Cochin, in Central Kerala, the name of his house being [ranni ninna palli to be identified with one of the two still existing houses in the village, named Irififianaval]i and Irii'inllrappalli. This information the author gives in his Venvaroha and is corroborated by his commentator Acyuta.! Madhava was the teacher of Paramesvara, (A,D, 13601455), the promulgator of the Drgganita school of Kerala astronomy and is frequently quoted in the mediaeval astronomical litera1ture of Kerala with the appellation of Golavid ('Adept in Spherics'). Thus Nrlakantha Sornayaji (14441545 A.D.), while referring to Paramesvar a in his AryabhatlyaBhll$yasays,: Paramelvaras tu ... Mndhavndibhyo "Golavidbhyo' Ganitagolayuktir api bnl ya eva samyag grhUva .... 2 Acyuta Pisarati uses the same appellation for Madhava in the introductory verse to his Sphutanirnaya .' vande 'golavidas' ca Mndhavamukhan etc. " Works of Midhava \ The Venvaroha' depicting a facile method for the computation of the Moon and the Moonsentences," commencing with sUam
1.
ct. Gr~~'f~ftoac~
~~nrf.:r
Com. in Malayalam
R~H) fq~lIalIT
I
B")Slf ~l:n~;:r~rT;rf;:r
. lfffiT~ fq~ri
lfT'qq: II (verse 13) G[~!f'qr~a{Gi
i!fiTIJ~fq~fq'l~t~i=t=«J:,
~9: ~ ~<{T+rfuilq_ ~;;T~"f~' '{"{foOf f.,c:'t qfooro' ~~~ ~~~tqq
On this, pp. fJ7.
~~
I
=
~~fs:ot 1
fq~r~f{ == q~
I op , cit.,
,
~F~ ;:rUtf~~~
If,~qi=!.
see K.V. Sarma, Introduction
to his edn, of Ve~varoha.,
2. Edn., Trivandrum Sanskrit Series, No. 185, p. 154. For. other similar statements, see ib., p. 75; tac C(I. Sangamagramajena 'Golatattvavi da' Madhave7la pradarsitam; p. 108: ata eva 'GolavidJ' Miidhavel1(J k~epava.tiJm sphlltapakramanayane gattitavises7ab, prad ar eit ai; 3. Cr. ed, by K. V. Sarma, commentary of Acyuta. 4. Ed. as Appendix I, below.
(Tripunithura, 1956),
with
the Ma layalam
PR.EFACE
rl1jnab [riye were the only works of Mndhava known till recently. It bas been shown lately! that he is the author also of Lagnaprakarana in six chapters, Aganita, an extensive work on the computation of planets, using novel methodologies and two short tracts entitled Modhvamonavonanrokara and Mahajyanayanaprakara. Still another work possibly composed by him is the Gol avnd a, which seems to have helped to stabilise his appella tion as 'Golavid': Sphutacandrtipti, edited here, is the latest addition to his works." Besides the said fullfledged works, a number of stray verses of Madhava are quoted by later astronomers like Nilakantha Somayaji, Narayana," commentator of the Lilavati, Sankara, commentator of Tantrasangraha etc. One of his significant contributions to mathematics, known from these quotations, is his enunciation of formulae for.. the accurate determination pf ~.!l.e.t2r~umference of a circle and the value of 71 by the method of indetlrriiTnate .series, a method which ,__ was rediscovered in Europe nearly three hundred years later by James Gregory (163875 A. D. ) and Gottfried 'Vilhelm Leibnitz (16461716 A. D ...B ) His jive parasparany aya contains the enunciation, probably for the first time in India, of the formula for the sine of the sum of two angles, sine (A+B)=sin A. Cos B + Cos A. Sine B. The study and interpretation, in terms of modern mathematics, of the enunciations of Madhava in his stray verses and in his fullfledged works is bound to yield valuable results in the history of Hindu astronomy. Date of Midhav3l Certain directions given in the Sphuiacandr apti give a general indication of its date of composition. Thus, for the calculation of the Mean Sun we are asked to subtract from the current Kal iday the
1. See K.V. Sarma. 'Date of Madbava, a littleknown Indian astronomer", Quarterly Jl. of the Mythic Society, (Bangalorc).49 (195859) 18386; Intr o, to the editon of Ve7;waroha, pp. 89; History of the Keral a school of Hindu astronomy, (Hosb iarpu r, 1972), pp. 51~n, 15I. 2. In my History of the Kerala school of Hindu a5tf'onom" op , de., pp. 32.33, 117. I had mentioned this text as an anonymous work related to the Ve~varoha of Ma dhava. However, a closer examinaticn of the work with a view to editing it established its being an earlier work of Mndhlva himself. 3. On this, see Hiltar).! of the Keraia school of 1:lindll astronomy, op, cit.,
tiP. 2026.
14 kha1)qa 15,02,008
COMPUTATION
OF TRUE MOON
and 5180 anomalistic cycles of the Moon. If there be further days, the number of such days has to be multiplied by the mean daiJy motion and added (verses 2021). This would show that the work was composed about this time. This date would be 15,02,008 days (Kali 4112, A.D. 1010) plus 5180 anomalistic cycles of the Moon (390 ye ars), i.e., about 1400 A.D. Madhava's recently identified work, Aganita, to his date. Indicating the sodhyabdas ('deductive computation of the planets, the author states: 1320 also gi Yes a clue years') for the
~IfiTCi~r~ ''tl'')IIi)'",({ ,{lQ'li'llt~;r,
1318
f~:
trt(jll'~)ifi)'''t:fl~l~·''a~Cf~htff\ila Vq: II ~ ~
1340
'~~)ifi)'''''nj''~l'~
1158
!Jllifitf! I
'~"~Oll)'''~lifit;~'~
1301
"''{iirrlCf~~: I
'QiR~)~)'",,'~m~ti ~'ta
1276
'tih~fSlllY'l~'1IiT;~~ .. q;qilltfita
tI'I':
II
The 'deductive years' for the different planets Mars etc. are Saka 1320, 1318, 1340, 1158, 1301 and 1276, corresponding to A. D. 1398, 1396, 1418, 1236, 1379 and 1354. In consonance with the principle of iodhyabdas, these figures represent the largest number of years possible to be cut off for the different planets at the time when the work was written. The date of composition of the work would thus, be just ahead of the largest 'deductive year' mentioned, which in the present case, is A.D. 1418. A clue to the date of birth of Madhava is provided by that of his younger contemporary and pupil, Pararnesvara who Was born c. 1360. From the above considerations Madhava have lived between A. D. 1340 and 1425. could be supposed
to
PRE~ACE
Acknowledgements
In the preparation and presentation of this volume, I had had the benefit of the valuable cooperation and advice of Prof. T.S. Kuppanna Sastri, lately of the Presidency College, Madras, for" which I am particularly thankful to him. I am indebted also to the authorities of the Kerala University Oriental Research Institute and Manuscripts Library, Trivandrum, and Shri Tratan Nampntirippad of the E lamprakkotattu Mana, Eravoor, for permitting me kindly to utilise the manuscripts in their possession, for this edition. The credit for the neat printing and getup of this volume goes to the V. V.R.I. Press, Hoshiarpur.
K. V. Sarma Vishveshvaranand Institute, Hoshiarpur, Independ ence Day, August 15, 1973
INTRODUCTION
OBJECT OF THE WORK
The Sphutacandriipati Madhava enunciates an easy and ingenious method which would enable one to compute True Moon at intervals of about 40 minutes each, throughout the day, Now, amongst the celestial bodies, the Moon has not only the fastest motion, of about 13° per day, but also the greatest variation in motion. On account of this, True Moon for any specific moment if calculated by the rule of three using its true position and motion, at sunrise, as is generally done in the case of the other planets, cannot be expected to give correct results, the possibility of error being as large as 10 vinadikas, Even if the calculation is done using its true positron and motions at sunrise and sunset, the results obtained would sti 11 be far from accurate. Accurate results can be obtained only by the second or third differences, which, however, would entail inordinate la bour. The method described in the present work obviates this labour and makes it possible to read out from a chart the True longitude of the Moon accurately at nine times a day, at intervals of a little over six and a half nadikns (2 hrs. 40 min.), From the True Moon at the quarter (40 min.) of these intervals, the True Moon at any moment falling within any such 40minuteinterval can be calculated by the rule of three, to get remarkably accurate results. The fact that calculations are made correct to seconds adds to the accuracy of the results.
PRINCIPLE OF THE METHOD
Certain peculiarities of the popular Moonsentences (Candravllkyas) of the Kerala astronomer Vararuci have provided the clue to Our author for devising the method described here. The said sentences comprise of 248 expressions couched in the Katapayadi notation and give the longitudinal positions of the Moon for consecutive days contained in 9 full lunar anomalistic cycles of 27 days, 33 nadikas and 16.24/55 vinadikas each. These Candravakyas can be used from the moment when the anomaly is zero, i.e., from the conjunction of the Moon and its Higher Apsis iCandraTungayoga),
Spbuta3
17
18
CbMPUT ATiON OF THE MOON
which occurs at the end of every anomalistic cycle, which may be at any time of the day and not necessarily at sunrise. At sunrise, say, on the current day, suppose a full days and b partday have gone by since when the anomaly was las t zero. This would mean that we can commence using the Candravnkyas, one per day, from the moment which is exactly (a+b) days before the current day. Now, let us consider a moment which is b day before the current day. Since b is only a fraction of a day, this Moment will fall in the previous day, its nadivinadi being the same as the moment of the end of the cycle a days ago. So, if we add to the Moon's Dhruva (zero correction) at the end of the cycle, the Moonsentence equal to a, the result will be the True Moon (Candr aSphuiav for that Moment on the previous day. Now, the above argument will apply not only for the endmoment of the last cycle, but also for the endmoment of any cycle before that, the corresponding Moments being exactly (a+b) days+ 1 cycle. (a+b) dayslZ cycles, (a +b) d ayslS cycles etc. before sunrise on the current day, (i.e., the end of the final Kalidina, for the current day). Only, for every additional cycle by which the moment is pushed backwards, a zerocorrection of 3°4'7 5 ~", which is the Dhruva for one cycle, will have to be deducted. For nine such previous zero anomalies (by the reckoning of which one full series of 248 days and 248 Candravnkyas would be exhausted), True Moons can be obtained at nine Moments on the day previous to the current day, i.e., the last day of the Kalidina, The intervals between consecutive Moments will be a little more than 6i nndtkas, and a quarter thereof, for which the longitudes could be calculated by the rule of three, would be about 4(}minutes. If the true Moons at the nine Moments are required for the current day and the succeeding days, they could be had by adding the succeeding relevant Candravnkya in p lace of the vnkya first used. For this reason, when the Moments, Vakyas and True Moons for any day, during a 248 day period, have been calculated and duly entered in a Table, the Tables for the further days could be prepared with ease therefrom.
It is to be noted here that this method
depends
on the accident of days,
that an anomalistic cycle does not consist of a whole number
INTRODUCTION
19
,in which case, one would, again and again, be getting tude and that for the same moment.'
It is again to be noted
the same longi
that, in order to secure a high degree of accuracy, the author has devised a new set of Moonsentences, correct to the second, for use in the calculation of the Moon by the method set out in the present work.! in place of the commonly used candravakyas of Vararuci which are correct only to minutes.!
METHOD OF WORKING
Dhruvasadhana In actual working, the author has introduced several ingenious innovations with a view to lighten the labour involved and to arrive at quick results. Thus, by calculating backwards, he has arrived at an Epoch tKhandadina), viz .• Kalidina J 5,02,008 (dinanamrtmusnsyai (verse 5), at the end of which a conjunction of the Moon and its Higher Apsis t CandraTungaYogav had occurred. Thus, an anomalistic cycle of the Moon commenced at sunrise, at the expiry of the said Khand adina, thereby removing the partday, viz .., b of (a+b) days (vide supra), and enabling calculations with full days. For computing the True Moon on any particular day, subtract the above Khand adina from the Kalidina for that day and find out the number of completed anomalistic cycles which have gone by subsequent to the epoch. For this, the remaining days (KhaIJ4ase~a) is asked to be multiplied by 6845 Oivaduta) and divided by 188,611 (paryl1ptahrdaYfJ), the underlying reason being that the period of a cycle is given by the fraction 138,61 t /6845 days which works out to 27 days, 33 naqikas, 1624/55 vinadikas (verse 5). The quotient is called the 'First result' (Agrimaphala). The further eight results are also noted by reducing [the quotient progressively by I, 2 etc.
:lIP
1. Of VakYQS. new appropriately.
COUHe
this could be obviated by using, instead of the current Vakyas constructed for Jractions of days and applying them wb ich commence with
2. For a cri+ical edition of these Moonsentences, ~ilam Tttjnaly, sri ye , see Appendix: I. below. 3. For an edition of Vararuci's Candravakyas, see by T. 3. K. Sa stri and K. V. Sarma, (K. S. R. Institute,
Vakyakarar.aa, Mad~as4,
Cr. ed. 1962). pp.
~2534.
20
COMPUTATION
OF TRUE
MOON
These nine figures, which are termed Dhruvasadhanas, basis for the calculation of the Dhruvas etc. (verse 6).
form
the
Example: Kalidina taken
Subtracting Remainder
=18,46,496 = 15,02,008
= 3,44,488
dinanamriinustisya
(Kh01J4ase$a) result'
No. of completed cycles or 'First (Agrimapha/a)
= 12,502
Remainder
=5,638
=
Kha1Jqase$a x sivadrua pcryaptahtdaya 3,44,488 x 6845 1,88,611
The nine Dhruva ..sndhanas will be 12,502; 12,501 ; 12,500; ••• 12494. Moonsentence Numbers (V!kyasailkhyas)
the Next is to be ascertained current anomalistic cycle, the serial number of the day taken, of the Vakya, in and those of the
further eight Moments in the preceding eight cycles. Since the remainder left in the division for getting the full cycles gone by (verse 5) is really the num ber of days in the current cycle multiplied by 6845 (sivaduta), the said number can be retrieved by dividing the remainder by 6845. Again, since the preceding eight Moments will frecede the first Moment successively by one full cycle each, their vakyanumbers can be ascertained by adding I,88.611 to the respective remainders and dividing by 6845 and adding the quotient got to the immediately preceding vakyanumber. Example (contd.) : 1 2 3 4 83
5
6
7
8
9
Remainders: Vakyanumbers ZeroMoments
5638 2589 6385 3336 287
o
28
55
4083 1034 4830 1781 111 138 166 193 221
(Dhruvakalas) / stvaduta
Now, the first Moment (Dhruvakalav falls at Remainder days before sunrise of the current day, or, in other words, 1 Remainder ,. sivaduta (6845Rema d ays,
z.e.
6
.
sivaduraRemainder " d sivadut a "(5
ays, . 12 1369 naqiklis
=
6845~ X 0 na4,kfJS= 684 RemalDder}
inde r)
INTRO:>UCTION
21 preceding Remainder) eight 1369
12
after
(verse
sunrise on the previous
I
day.
The
Moments nadikiJs
will fall, similarly
at
( 684 5relevant
8).
(6845Remainde r) Moment nit vina.
Example (contd.) Remainder 1. 5638
2. 2589
3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 6385 3336 287 4083 1034 4830 1781
1207 4256 460 3509 6558 2762
5811
2015 5064
to longitudes (Dhruvas)
10 37 4 30 57 24 50 17 44
3S
18
2 45
29
13
56 40 23
ZeroCorrection
Next is to be, ascertained the Zerocorrections at the nine ZeroMoments (Dhruvakalasy. The two items which go to make up these corrections are: (1) the Moon's longitude at epoch, and (2) the additional longit ude due to the cycles which have gone by. For facilitating calculation, the author has isolated two lumps iKhandas) of cycles and indicated the corrections due to them: (i) 5105 (manakama) cycles) the longitude due to which added to the zerocorrection at the epoch, viz., Kaliday 15,02,008 idinanamrnnusasya), gives a result ending in complete minutes, being 51"24°_47' (sattvavan rl1ma~), and (ii) 69 (dhrti) cycles, the longitude due to which, again ending in complete minutes, is 71"1 °44'/ ivisvaikanathahv. For each additional cycle, the longitude is given as 3a4'6tr' (verse 10), which is 1/69 of 71"1°44" In actual practice. however. it is sufficient to calculate the correction for the First result iAgrimaphala, verses 56) ; Since the further eight results are successively 1 less than the First, their corrections can be had by diminishing the previous corrections by 3°4'6 22"
23
Example (contd.)
The corrections, would be : (i) Oi)
6r
In
the
example
taken,
calculated
as above
130
10
12' 37"
8 30
6
22
COMPUTATION
OF TRUE MOON
(iii) 6" 7° (iv) 6 4 (v) 6 0 (vi) 5 27 (vii) 5 24 (viii) 5 21 (ix) 5 18 Table of Longitudes
4' 23"
0 17
56
10
3 56
52
47 43
49
42
39
The above results have now to be adapted for nine Moments in the Kaliday taken, in order to enable the corresponding longitudes to be read out with ease. For this the nine Moments are rearranged in the ascending order and posted in a table with the corresponding Vnkyas, Vtikyasankhyns and Dhruvas against each. The sum of the Vnkyas and the Dhruvas will give the Sphuta (True longitude) of the Moon at the different Moments. Table Moment
I
I sankhya Vakya55 0 193 138 83 28 221 166 111
J
Vakya r
0
I
Dhruva
"
na.
4 10 17 24 30 37 44 50 57
vina·l
2 35 40 13 45 23 56 29
18
0 4 49 000 o 22 54 o 18 4 o 13 15 0 8 25 1 1 19 o 26 30 o 21 4l
26 0 2 36 11 46 52 30 9
Ir
6 6 5 5 6 6 5 5
6
0
I
7 13 21 27 4 10 18 24
o
," 4 23 12 37 43 49 52 3 o 17 8 30 39 42 47 56 56 10
True Moon r
6 6
0
6 6 6 6 6 6 6
11 13 14 15 17 18 19 21 22
53 12 37 56 15 34 59 18 37
49 37 51 39 28 16 34 26 19
"
earlier, the above Chart can be readjusted to give the True Moon for the nine Moments on any other day if the Vak.ya for the required day is used in place of the vakya used here. Corrections for the True Moon
As instructed
The True Moon read out from the Chart would be correct only as reckoned from the zero meridian at Ujjain, It has, therefore, to be reduced to the local place, by the application of corrections for the Equation of time, Terrestrial longitude and Declensional Ascensional Difference, before the Chart becomes ready for use. These corrections are derived in the manner generally prescribed in astronomical manuals,
INT'RODUCTION Correction for the Equation of Time (Bhujantarasarhskara}
In the calculation of the Mean Sun iSuryamadhyamav required for this correction, the labour is lightened, again, by the use of a Kha1J4a• It is instructed that for 5180 tadikurmai cycles, the Sun's Dhruva is l1rllo5'1l" (karkasnnekatcar yakrts, For the further com'leted cyc1es, it is 27°9'28~ft/' each. That for the days etc. elapsed in the current cycle is to be found by multiplying the same by the Mean Daily Motion of the Sun, viz., 59'8 "4B7' The sum of these three would give the Mean Sun, which has to be calculated for the nine Moments (verses 2223). Exumple (contd.) First result
12502 Dhruva
Less 51 80 (1j,dikurma) cycles
Remainder=
7322
Dhruva for 7322 cycles at
2r ··9'28"
9  19  1456 3526
per cycle Do. at
l'/'
per cycle of the day=O
000
Vnkyasankhyii
Sun's motion for 0°==0 X 59'.S4,s,/, Mean Sun at sunrise Mean motion for the relevant Moment, vlz, 10 nCl.35 vina. X 59'.84.8/' Mean
SUD
0
9  0 55 33 10 26 9  1  5 59
for First result
The Mea~ Sun minus its Higher Apsis (Mandocca), viz., 2r18° . (dll~tii stri) will give its Kendra. This Kendra is converted into arc and its sine read off from the of Table of smes, This divided by 160 will give the correction for the Equation of Time (Bhujiintar asamsknrav in vinadikas (verse 24), Correction for Terrestrial Longitude
The Correction for Terrestriall Longitude (Desnnt arasamsknra) depends upon the eastwest distance of the place in question from the Ujjain meridian which is to be known from tradition (verses 25..26).
COMPUTATlON
OF TRUE MooN
Correction
for Decl, Ascensional Difference
The R Sine of Sunplusprecession in the sine table gunodynnt: (153) etc. gives the Declensional Ascensional Difference (eara) in terms of gurvaksar as for places where the equinoctial shadow measures two angulas, For the place in question it will have to be derived from the above by the rule of three. The algebraic .. urn of these three corrections is now to be applied to the Dhruvakal as (ZeroMoments) to get the Vakyaknlas (True ZeroMoments). The sum of the Vak.yas and the corresponding. Dhruvas will give the True Moon at these Vakyakalas (True ZeroMoments) (verse 35). The True Moons now recorded in the Chart just over six and a half nndiktts (about 2 hrs, Moons at one fourth these intervals might now rule of three posted in the chart so that the intervals could be read out directly therefrom. are for intervals of 40 min). The True be calculated by the Moon at 40minute
~~!:r~lIT~q
i~T
~~:;.r;:~tft~:
COMPUTATION
BY MADHAVA
OF TRUE MOON
OF SANGAMAGRAMA
~i'lt"~r~;rNer~t ·
t$~~~rfu:
[~1f~T:q~1J)"'!. ]
If~~~~r~vr~ftQt~f~tctTfij~frG::q~~Cfil! I
:>r~~l~~f~otf
fat=~~
[ ~;:~)~~~: ]
'+l~
l{~:
It ~ 1I
~~)S'q:
~l{~iTserTcr:q;;~~r~~ij'wqTC!
I
3J"Qllt~ ~epl=tsf~q'l ;r ~1I1~ lI'f~TfCffcr~"lf: I
~
"
~cr~~qTitfqCfiltar
':I
ij" ~
~TfcCf;rt
iff(f'\ It~l~
g~H!f+lf ~ur~ lttSlfT'l ij"TCfcftifTCfcr)Sf1=lfG:I
....
~q~~lf: ,
5fUJaTt=ijclr
~q~~: ....
fSp 'i ~';lfa ll)flt
1502008
'~)'iij;rT~~T~lij';:f
~cqT
1. 2.
fC::~~Tf~ Cfi~~cr~ I
188611
(qltTtcr~({lt'~
lfC! II~11
~f~:
The Ms., Kef. VnL 10 55A,
begins with the words:
J!;fmurQ6it iJlf: I
This line occurs among the extra verses after the work as :
srur~lf srur~rl=~;rt
~T~qT 'fT~T~~'lf~:
'I
I
The last two letters have, later, been struck off and revise d tOf~'f 'I:
COMPUTATION OF TRUE MOON
By
MADHA VA OF SANGAMAGRAMA
(In vocation) (God Siva), which removes the root cause of worldly extistence (ana), is adorned by the river (viz., Ganges), and is shedding cool moonlight on account of the rays emanating from the moon ensconced in its crown. (Object 2. (Herein below) is Moon by means of placing, cal expressions (vakyas) (previous) conjuction of the of the work)
1. I adore that divine effulgence
expounded the Computation of True daily, one below the other, nine numerias calculated from (the time of) the Moon and its Higher Apsis.
3. (Ifever there be) one who is not delighted on hearing about this method, let him not accept it. To be sure, he will not have the ability (to practise it). 4. Oh! ye good souls! I, Madhava, bow before you and beseech you. For, what does not one obtain from you who are bent upon elevating those who bend before you. (Dhruvasadhanas) 56. From the elapsed Kalidays (for any desired date) deduct (a khanda, lump number of days, equal to) 15,02,008 idtnanamrlinUs(lsya). Multiply the remainder (khaIJClasesa) by 6845 (sivaduta) and divide by 1,68,611 iparyapt ahrdaya ).1 The quotient (got is
1.  Rationale; Dinanamranusas.va (15.02,008) is a Kha1J,{la (Lump of days) a.tthe end of which the Moon and its Higher Apsis are in conjunction at mean sunrise at Ujjain, This Lump can, therefore be discarded and calculations need be based only on the remaining days (Khat)l;iasella). Now, 6845 (aivaduta) anomalistic cycles of the Moon are contained in 1886,1 (paryliPtahrda.va) days. Hence the anomaEstic cycles completed during the K ha1J..r;la8e~ais given by the expression:
Kha1pjaae{la
X 6845
l886Jl
28
SPHU'f ACANDRXPTl
~~a a~ cpcfotrT
cr~lfJfT1Jffq~~~lcn~ I ,.,
~ ~T"1t~trT:
]
6845
fum{ ~ 'f~Cf~ij'T't(ir qTCflf~~~lflSf~l'fT,
188611
mr: I
~~:srf~w::crqlfTtcr~~lTT'C!: ?fi'Frr: qU: U\311
6845
12
'lqet! 6~~fJT~f~cr'fQT~~cn'Cf",fsr~r'~crTC! I '
1369
'~crT~lf'~aT
ifT~lf) qcr~~?rT
~lr fllcn: II t;1I
G ~cn:
J
5105
Sf24 °47'
f~tffTfC{
'trfCfCfr;:r
""
~Tl{)'
"l{lt=f~Tir'sf'fit
69
Cfi~ I
OF
SANGAMAGRA.MA
MA.DHA V A
called Dhruvasadhana and) is to be used for deriving the several Zero~corrections (Dhruvas) to be used for calculations which will be enunciated below. The first Dhruva (is to be calculated) using this quotient itself (Agrimophala), while the further eight (Dhruvasi are to be derived from this Dhruva reduced increasingly by 1.
(MoonSentenceNumbers) 7. Divide the remainder (in the division in 5) by 6845 (sivadtuo). The quotient obtained will be the first MoonSentenceNumber ( Vilkyasankhyll ).1 The further (eight Sentencenumbers can be obtained) in the same manner from the division by 6842 (SivadUta) of the successive remainders to which 1}883611 (puryaptohrdayas has been added. (ZeroMoments) 8. Subtract (each of the nine) remainders (obtained in 7) from 6845 (Sivaduta). Multiply the (nine) balances by 12 (priya) and divide by 1369 (dhrt alayav. The (nine) results obtained will be m na4ikos and are (to be called) ZeroMoments (Dhruvakalasi."
(ZeroCor 9.
rections)
At the end of 5105 (manaknmai (cycles) of the first (Dhruvasndhana, viz., the Agrimaphala of 56), the Zerocorrection, beginning r24°27' (sattvaviin rama~). with minutes, is 5 For each increase of
1. Rationale: The remainder (of the division in 5) is, in fact. the number of days in the current anornalistic cycle multiplied by 6845 (sivaduta); hence the division of this remainder by 6845 to get days. It OO1Y be noted here that since ~86l1 _')~ 68i5  .... days, 33 nil .• 16 vina., the further Vakyasankh~a5 1 will successivel y increase by 27 or 28. 2. Rationale: Remainder
~
(in verse 5) 6845~_ 12 ~na
dR' ays= rlk ... as. 1
emaln d er X  60 6845
nafjl'kJ'is ...
. = R emarn d er X
136~
30
SPHU'l' ACANDRX PTt
3
4
~a)sf~ct~ ~~t~T 'q)'~urr, 'fq'~urT: Cfl~T: ,
7 23
«T~rlfccrT
~qt~~ ~erCfiT~f~~~rifltc!'
'An.tl1~q~" ~~crT lf~Tsf~CfioiT)sf;~,,: '1~~ II
cr: «T'9 cr~ ~~ ~~:
.. n
ij'~
6erCflf~~~lfT
I II~~ n
crC{~qT ~CfT~"cc~T~ ~q«r~Cfitfi~TFqcrT:
13;f~P:~Tcqf:aCfi)S~~cr ~1J:rr~)~~q ~if: I
~f,,~)~fq~~1lT g:tftfcr~q~~lfTf~er~ ~" It
.:)
1. the work.
Verses 1314 occur among the extra verses after the close of They are editorially inserted here in consonance with their in this context in the
Ve'}vlJrQha,
sense and similar occurrence
the
revised version of (he present work.
OF SANGAMAGRAMA
·
. MXDHAVA
31
zerocorrection
IS
69 idhiti]
(cycles,
thereafter),
the
increase
in
7rlo44'
(visvaikanlUha).l
10. (To get the Dhruva for) the remaining cycles, multiply the same by 3 (go), getting thereby degrees, by 4 (vi), getting thereby minutes, and by 7 (su), getting thereby seconds; in the case of seconds, however, reduce them by 1/23 (of the number of the said cycles)." (The Chart) 11. When all the Dhruvas have been calculated (as instructed in 910) and so also the Dhruvakiilas (as instructed in 8), arrange them in (the ascending) order, so that the smallest iDhruvakala) comes as the first and the largest as the last. 12. Alongside each (of the Dhruvakalas), chart the corresponding Dhruvas with their respective Vakyasankhyas . Chart also the Phalas which enabled the calculation (of the above), for use (later) in the computation of the Mean Sun. 1314. Here (in the chart of verses I 112, above), there will be apparent a natural order, irrespective of (the two) sides of the day, viz., day and night, as in climbing a bamboo tree (wherein the branches wi 11be found equally distributed on its two sides). Thus, the
1. Rationale:: 5105 (manakllma) anomalistic cycles are chosen in such a manner that their Dhruva added to the Dhruv a of the Khattr;la 15,02,008, ( dinanamranusi]sya) ends in full minutes and not be carried forward to seconds. 69 (dhrti) is the least number Dhruva will end in full minutes. 5r 24°271 of anomalistic cycles for which, too, the
this connection, that the Dhruvo in it the Dhruv a of the elapsed Khaf.l.r;la also. Therefore 5105 (milnakama) cycles should be reduced from the Agrimaphala only once, even if it is possible to reduce it by 5105 more than once. For further reductions, 69 (dhrLi) and its Dhruv a alone should be made use of.
It has to be remembered, lsatttJQvc.H:l rArnaM, includes
in
(69)
+ viavaikanathiJ
dhrti
2.
Rationale:
For dhrti (69) Kendra cycles, the Moon's (71 10044'). Dhruva for 1 cycle =
Dhruva=
dhrti
+
viBvaikanatha dhrti
69
" '
=
from
which
the
p_or_3°_4'_622" = por.3°.4'_ ( 7~); 23 23 comnleted 1 circle could be dropped.
33
SPHUTACAN DRAPTt
sr~!,~~!;f~Tlf~lf
srfilfilt1.{~~f~crT I
8"0 ~qT5=~~TS;r')qt ~clJqtflJ)s;:tr~r
II~xu
~cof~~9:~q~Tt{
55
lfT qTCflfij'~r.rT sqq;~rfcT ,
193
l'QT~'iiTijT
3176
~ij:
sr ~trTC!, '1 ~C{ ~'!!f03:yi)frflT): II~~U
1035 2 7
'(fr~ii;T~r'cr
fCf~lf
'~lTT'fT~:7 '51" '~UfT~
l~'~~ T=C:q'tIC! I
~o~
~r~TTf~ 'Cf'fUT cr~ ~?tS~~
~;f~: ij'TSlia a~~t=a~+r, I
808
~q£fi'Fi)sfq ~
era:
747
l'ij'CfT~'~fft=f2
I~Tif~Ti=f'~a'i :q 11 ~ 1:; II
~n·t:("i="'it=cr~TQTa ~P:rHT af~q~lfra I ,
tt;pf~r?q;:(f~
Cfili Cf1cTQ!ffac 9'l};:O~lf: It ~ t u
3'iT~! qlSclf~Cf~scltci ~iipr , qrCf~~!fT,
I. This and the
~
oitetlrS~qT ~~Cf, I
B1crT 'lr~lf:, ~r iffcr:
next two lines occur as :
l~
~r~~)fEf)llT
in a slightly
Il~
011
different
form arnong the extra verses after the work,
,~~' ~'hn ~1_!ic; ~lIT<::~qnifTCI. '~;erCfir'fEf~r ~r
3176 1035
f
j(frr~"tiT~TC{'
2 7
'~qTifTCfi'~~ci~rqrf({
cr~q~ ,
'sr'~orTC!. 'ij"~oi ~uf ';fj]:nq_ og:rCfrrq~!1qT: II
2. F or the ms. reads ~}f;; which is wrong. . emendation is based on the parallel verse in the author's Venvaroha,
3.
~"a;r
The
This line occurs among the extra verses after the work as:
<={nTqlSC:'qt=a~ «~T oi{ifiT ~({llqqt:if: ,
,
.33
Dhruvas will be, in order, successively greater than the one before, the Vakyasaflk hyiis being so in the descending order. If otherwise, the order will be reversed (in both). 15. This method of work has been spelt out for (the benefit) of one who has forgotten the tradition. Otherwise, one would have an easy understanding thereof from tradition itself. 1617. When the Vnkyasankhyii for a (particular) Dhruvakiila is considered, the uakyasankyt: next to it will be less than it by 55 (.vasa) or greater than it by 193 (gulikai. The (Dhruvas) for these two ivlz., 55 and 193 days) will be given by 3176 (tirthakanga) divided by 1035 imrgiinika) multiplied, respectively, by 2 (pra) and 7 (su). The results, which will be in degrees, are to be added to or subtracted from the previous Dhruvas,' 18. When a Dhruvakiila has been calculated from a number (viz., 6845 minus the remainder, vide verse .8), the subsequent (Dhruvakalas) would have been derived from numbers increased by 747 isarvarthai or 808 (dznadana).2 19. In the said) corrections removed by one, of the (relevant) case of a succeeding (Dhruvakllla), all (the aboveshould be applied, inversely. In the case of those two or three (intervening Dhruvakalass, the sum corrections (should be similarly applied).
20. Again, at 60 nadikas (after or before) a Dhruvakala, the corresponding Vnkyasankhya will increase or decrease by 1. But the Dhruva will not change. Indeed, this is a universal rule.
3176 mrgantka 1035 which is the Dhruva for one anomalistic cycle (vide 10). Since one cycle equal to 27i days, roughly. (vide verse 7), Dhruv a for 2 cycles or 55 days = 1~ Rationale
:
Now.
tirthakiln~a
is
2X
3176 pra 1035
X
tirthaklinga mrgaruka
Dhruva
2.
for
7 cycles
or 193 days=7
X 3176 =su X__!~,:_~h,,!<_a_i~,,_~ 1035 mrglin'lka •
This is demonstrated in the example worked 'out in tha Introduction above, p.21. where the figures are: 460, 1207,2015. 2762,3509,4256,5064,5811 and 6558.
Sphuta5
spaUTACANDlt!Ptt
L
~(~ cr~q
~ClCfII
(WI
~f:~~~: J
ql':~1:
;cr~TCflf~~:
~f!
I
~CfCfiT~,! tfiTlff5i=lf: ~~~!f)T~:,
~ftsf~crTtraIt ~ ttl
5180
IFIIQ5'11"
I~Tf({fq' sf;p:J1:f) ~ 'Cflcti~Ti1ep~Tq~~' qcillfelj fcrfifcoTfG: r:rWT~, srfoCfi~ ~'i: II~~II
27°9'28" 9 31
'({r~J'ef');:r~@'ag:cr O~~'CTt 'e;:rcgttt'~~~ I qrCf~«~qlq~T~
~lf: aeCfiJ~
]
of~~sfqaq:
II~ ~11
[ ~\ifT;:a;,(~f'fir~:
ij'~!JiT~~~lf~T~~
f~To i1@1fflf ~)1~1C! I
160
~'3i'6~T~rC! ~CfuT ':JfTotfr'q:rr fGf~Tf~Cfi'r: 1I~'6'1I
4 (Of 01'1'. pclge). Rationale: ThE~ Dhrullaualas have been reckoned as from mean sunrise at Ujja jn, They should be reckoned from true sunrise of place, which depends on : (i) the Sun's equation of the centre, (ii) the reduction to the equator, (iii) the longitude of place, and (iv) the declinational ascensional difference (carardha) at place for that day. Of these, item (ii) is neglected by earlier asrrono ners like jhyabha~a. and not given by our author in this work, following Aryabha~a, though he must have known its need. Item 0) is given here. The equation of the centre is taken as 129' X R Sin Mandaleendra I 3438 (Ar,abha~a) and the True Sun rises earlier or later, as this is negative or positive, at the. rate of 1 1'rll~a of time per minute of arc. Therefore, it is equal to R. Sin Mandakendra X 129 J (3438 X 6) = R. Sin Mandahendra /160 in vina(liluls. and is additive for the first six signs of Mandakendra and su btractive for the next six. It may be noted that item verses 2732, below. (iii) is given in verses
2526 and
item
(iv)
in
OF SANGAMAGR.lMA
MADHAVA
(Correction
to ·the Dhruvakalas)
21. To the Dhruvakiilas derived in this manner, along with their Vakyasankhyas and Dhruvas (verses 1620), or calculated in the manner enunciated before (verses 79), anothercorrection has to be applied. That is stated hereinbelow.
(Mean Sun)
2223. At the end of 5180 (lJdikflrma) (anomalistic cyles) contained in the first result (Agrimaphala, being the first Dhruvasadhana, vide verses 56), the Mean Sun, correct to the seconds, is 1IrIlo5' II" (karkaslJnekakilryakrt).l For each remaining (cycle) the Mean Sun is (to be calculated at the rate of) 2709'28" (daradhinasukhami plus 9/31" (dhz{yuga)2 (and added). Again, (is to be calculated and added, the Mean Sun) for (the number of days equal to) the Vakyasankhya and for that portion of the day under consideration upto the time (of each Dhruvaka[a).3 (The Correction for the Equation of Time
due to the Equation of the Centre) 24. The sine of arc of the difference between the Mean Sun and (the Sun's) Higher Apsis (viz., 2r18°, du~tii str,) divided by 160 (i1tapa) would give vinii4ikas.4 These should be added (to the Dhruvakalasy if Sun minus Apsis (Kendra) is less than a halfcircle (6r) and subtracted if greater.
: 5180 (adiku:rma) is a certain number of anomalistic cycles. the Mean Sun for which period when added to. the Mean Sun of the Khatp;la 15,02,008 (dzl1anamranusasya) gives a result in full seconds, viz., 11r11°5'11" (karkaJilnekakaryakrt). 2. Rationale: The Mean Motion of the Sun in one anomalistic 9" 27o.9'28=darildhinasukham+ ~ 3. author's 4. The Mean Motion (verse of the Sun 38),
1S
1. Rationale
cycle is
__ dh _ 1yu~ calculation. as given in the
for this
Ve1}viiroha,
59'8 
8" .)7
(See opposite page).
36
8PHU'fACANDRA.PTI [ ~T;:G'{~f~r~:
J
~~T;:cf'~R~crT: ....
!,lT~ q~:qrCf ~ll~~r:rT~~T .... ....
1
crf[e:t
ql=sr~Tlfrf~
af~(1:arCftTTli"a I t ~ Y..ll
{lfcrIT f~fccr~T: ~eruffl:r;~1=f'elf ~fcr f~~crj I
255 56
Ql[clf~lfuTer~ offen: 'f~f~~'Cifr'~crl1T'~r:II ~ ~11 "
L :q~~~~T~
%
J
~~tt~~lI' ;:r+ri1 ~
158
ij'Pl'1 tlfT~lf
~)1~TC!I
'wr)?IT;rr' ~lJ) ~T~T
~urT~~<:~~Tf{lt II~ \311
.[ ~~Jft~fflTf~:q~\Tlrr:]
153 305 457 607
T!J)~Tif
756
~;ft~T;:f
903
ij"~f~~:
1048
~;::rTaif: I
1190
~'1fTij";:r
1329
.
~;:rccr~
1464 1953
~cn.,Tep fiffccrolflf:
1595
II~t:; II
1721 q"{T~~a
2156
'='
er"{r~lf)
1840
cfta~~) +r~+rr~lf
2059
'"
I
'1cft~li ~(JJTfccrOfli
2245
tilffipSQT
2391
&lifTq~: 1I~ til
2448 f~GfTeCf~: I
2551
·2323
f~Cf~Tf~
2493 i[~~q~
~
~~fif~: ~
2525
q)TroTif~
2544
;'\
.
f~f~f~@T
~q; ~"{: ~~: ~if\;
"~oU
OFSANGAMAGRAMA (Correction
·
MADHAVA Longitude}
37
for Terrestrial
25. Then again, the corrective (vinCJqikfls), on account of the place (in question) being situated to the east or west of the central (Ujjain) meridian, (has to be calculated). Its measure (for the place) 18 to be known from the traditional knowledge of the learned. 26. Therefore, when the correction in minutes to the Mean Moon (for the place, as got by tradition) has been found to be additive or subtractive, the minutes are to be multiplied by 255 (SHira) and divided by 56 (tam a) and applied inversely as vinadikas.)
(Correction
for Declinational
Ascenslonal Difference)
27. The True Sun is then computed and the precession added. Its R Sine in the Sine Table (below) beginning with 153 (gUI')Odylina) is then noted in order to compute the Declinational Difference
( Caradalay,
2830. Sr. No. (14) (58) (912) (1316)
(I 720)
Gurvaksar as (2/:5 second)
153 756 1329 1840 2245 2493 305 903 1464 1953 2323 2525 457 1048 1595 2059 2391 2544 607 1190 1721 2156 2448 2551
(2124)
1. Rationale: The sun rises at the rate of 10 vina(likiJs earlier or later, as the place is 10 east or west of the standard meridian and this is additive or subtractive, respectively, to get the true Dhruv ahala. Expert astronomers find this time by various means, and usually express it in terms of correction to the Mean Moon, which. obviously, is negative for the east, and positive for the west. This is transmitted through tradition to succeeding astronomers. This can be reconverted into viniu,liklJ s by multiplying the Moon 5 correction by 255 and dividing by 56. since the mean motion in 255 vintt{likils is 56'. Since the correction.vin1J(likas and the Moon's correct ion are opposite in sign, the sign Is asked to 1;1e reversed,
38
SPHU'fACANDRaPTI
~Tlfr ~~CfaT l{~ Ti~~TcqCfifl1~
~ctt~~T
a~ it;Cf~l!'
:q~G~
~ff~
fq~T~
II~ ~ II
'cr
~a ~GfCfiT~T:
'~CfiCflfCf)T~T:
15
~«~ifcrT:
I
:er~TqqT~~~Cf)T~T~
f?{;:rTef
'~Cf)''lTf~Cf)T: II~ 'tll
[ :qr~~c:
]
a~ ~Gf;:r~q~~rf~
aG~Cf~;:cr~T~~ a~lf ~
qTCflfrf;:r ~~cQTTa:!: II ~ XII
+fi::.rc~~qTcrcr:I
...
crc~T~tTq;:f lfatcr~f[alfr~d~lJ
... 'I ~ ~ II
I.
For ~'bflf
the ms, reads ~Cflfflf and for :qrO:ff~ at the end of the The emendation is in
line it reads :qfq~J both of which are wrong.
consonance with the parallel lines in the author' s Vc'}v~rohat
OF
SANGAMAGRAMA
·
MADHAVA
39
It is to be noted that the above (table) gives the halfascensiona l differences (Caradala) expressed in terms of gurvaksaras and pertain to a place where the equinoctial shadow is two fingers' breadh (angulas).l
~l.
32. (When the equinoctial shadow of the place in question is) less or more than (2 angulus), (the halfascensional difference) will be proportional (to the shadow). Its positive or negative nature is to be understood from the SayanaSun being in (the six signs) from aries (ajiJdi) or from libra ( jukndi). 3334a. When the sign of all the three is the same, (the total correction) is their sum; when one is different, (the total correction) is the difference between it and the sum of the other two. The Vakyakalas duly corrected (as above) will be the (correct) Dhruv akiila (True Dhruvakalasi.
34b·35a. Fifteen (Suka) nl1qikas corrected merely by the halfascentional difference will give (the length of) the halfday. Those (Vakyaklilas) which are less than the length of the (full) day (i.e., twice the halfday as found above) will fall during daytime and the other (VtJkyakalas) will fall during nighttime.
(True Moon) 35b36. The sum of the (relevant) Vakyas (Moonsentences) and the (relevant) Dhruvas will give the True Moons (at those Vakyakalas). The True Moon (for times) in between (two VnkyakiJlas) will have be calculated by interpolation. The Moon's motion during an interva 1 is the difference between the two (relevant) True Moons (and hence the said interpolation).
1. This would correspond to a region having a lat itu de of Kerala, from where the author of this work hailed.
91
6,
like Central
SPHU1' ACANbRAPT I
221
220
ICf)O)~'
'fif~~';f* f~q~~~ecf clf\1f~cl[er:
27 . 28
I
l'f~.iTi!f~GfPflf~~lfr~t
'~~'
'~:i§';rCl)S~lf~T It ~ \911
60
cr~;:cr~ f.,~clt~G;:rTs=qT
"'l~
l;:rcr'~
ero: I
II~t:; I'
fq?::et;:c~e~+r,«:qT~Tq~)fGff
fCf~efttlcritcrT~ a~T
fcrf~cCfTtli ~fa ~T£Crq
..J
.....
I
cr;:i[Sl.11{ WCq'T
~lfi[r (Jc'~f~lfri{
II~t, I
1550
~tfC'\ilJTtcilT ~lf' ~aT
~fcr1le~rSflf
crc~~T
IIYo II
OF
SANGAMAGRAMA
MADHAV
A
41
(Another method for True Moon at any time during the interval) 37. time is (Another method to derive the True Moon at any desired now stated. If the desired time is) later (than the Vnkyakala nearest to it), some add 221 tkathorav to the Vakyasankhya and (if the desired time is) earlier, subtract from it 220 (nisthur ay. Or perform the operation with 27 (sukha) and 28 (dubkha), applied in the reverse order.' 38. Multiply the difference, i.e., the rate of the daily motion of the Viikya got, by the desired time, in nndikas, .and divide the product by 60 (nati). The result should be added to the Moo ns longitude (of the relevant Vnk yakala) if (the desired time) is later and subtractad if earlier.
(True
Sun at desired time)
39. In the case of the Sun, too, (its True position at any desired time) can be computed using its True Motion. Computation of the True Sun can be done also by finding the Mean Sun (at the time) using its Mean Motion. 40. R Cosine of the Mean SunminusHigher Apsis is to be divided by ]550 (atmi1saya) and the result applied to the Sun's Mean Motion, positively (when it is) in the six signs beginning with Cancer (Karki) and negatively in the six signs beginning with Capricorn (Nakra).2 The True (Daily) Motion of the Sun is got.
Rationale : Subtraction of 27 from above or addition of 28 from below gives the midvakya, whose rate is taken as the average for the interval. This rate being for one day or 60 na(/,ikas, the division by 60 is done. Addition of 221 is the same as subtraction of 27, and subtraction of 220 is the same as adding 28, the total being 248. Either can be chosen according to convenience.
1.
2. Rationale: Since the Sun's equation of centre is proportional to the Sun's Sin Mandakendra. the variation in it causing true daily motion is proportionate to the Cosine, and, therefore, zero at 90° and 2700 of Kendra.
Spbu~a6
lJPHUTACANDRAPTt
8
31
GCCO~ erT '\ifij'lT'fG: fqG:~cr fcrf<?ftCIr~
~~TcCfT~Cft~rrt'~~~
aa~cr ~;;~ll"
I
Il¥ ~ U
'~f;eFW=rr«~)FrclTl{' 'f;:r:itr~l1G:;:nfo~C!'I
"+lTlllJf!rlfgr+rf;:r): ~~elJfl1~ fq~: Il¥';( II
'qr"~T2f ;rf~~~)ifJ:lf;' '1l: ~T ~f~l1f;r~cr;:r:'
~ql CTrl(elflf1'
~lf'
I
~rlf<tT~mf~crT U){~II
f~~lfT lTfa: I
IfCl);:;~~~l(G;r)~crflr ~;;:
fif\ifi{T:q«l(~lftcr:
~q~T~T~crij'~efiT~:
~f~~f(fSf ~clJij"l '1't)(1I
~~~'! crillSlfff
~~1=[~qCffij~lr
I
~~«~trCfTCflt~
ll¥ Y,.I I
'I'~~ut5cllli
~CJlf:
tfi~ljCfafqq~lTTq: I
~ f~ ac~fiicft f'fclf ~qclftfil~lf'<{ l'Ja: 1I¥~II
1.
This verse occurs among the extra verses after the work and with its paraUel verse in the
bas been inserted here in consonance
author's
Ve1}vQ,roha.
• OF SANGAMAGRIMA
MADHAVA
43
41. Alternative ly, take the reading for Sun·minusHigher Apsis in the Sine Table beginning with janena.t Add to it 1/31 (yugllmsa) of itself and apply the result, taken as seconds, to the Mean Motion of the Sun, its being positive or negative being the same as before, (i.e., as stated previous verse). (The Sun's True Motion is got). 42. The two positions of the True Sun (in its course) correct to seconds, when its daily motion is exactly 1°, are lor27°3' 10" (i~(aizganasakho nit yam), and 6t8°56' ·50" (nifse~amadanllrtfnut). 43. The Mean Suns at these positions are, according to Aryabhata, lor25°4'25" (saurtva nai sironamyah) and 6rIoo55'35" (suit Il;u~miniketanab). 44. When the (true) position (Sphuta) (of the Sun) is equal to its Higher Apsis, it will have the slowest motion. And, when it is equal to its Lower Apsis, it will have its fastest motion. 45. The corrections prescribed for the Dhruvaknlas are to be (computed and) applied also to the mnemonics for the Sun's transits (from one sign to another) so that correct results might be obtained. 46. This correction can be applied inversely also to the Ahargana (Total number of Kalidays up to the current day). When corrected in this manner, it will give the True Ahargana which elapsed at sunrise (on that day).
This is the table of the Gr ahacaranibandhuna of Haridatta 1954, p. 19) :
1.
Mandajyas of the Sun enunciated in the (ed, K.V. Sarma, K.S.R. Institute, Madras.
8
(18)
17
25 85 121
33
41 q~;r 97
49
\ifit'f 72 ~~'f 116
B"clt'l ~
f~fW'lT
91
~r~ry
102 ~~;rfll' 128 107 112 ~q'Cfl: I
129
(916) (1724)
~rnif 1i~
119
78
lfTf.r<T
124
~iT~
q:q"{~
Wli«t
126
129
(f~p:r t:rr;:~lf
q~~lI' ~~Cf;
~T~~lI' ~Uq' 'fTVf): II
These are the Sun's equation of the centre for every 31° of Kendra beginning from 00 tel 90°. These are proportionate to Sin Kendra. When shifted by 90°, so as to begin from 90° onwards, these will be equal to the Cosines, and proportionate to the variations in the equation of the centre causing the true motion. Since the constant variation is 1/6Q X (1+1/31) of 129·~ the instruction to take it,5 seconds etc;.
44
SPHU'f ACANDRAPTI
S161
87
rC~T~
35
~Ii'fcr~T;:f
ij"C{
sn CftO~
277
'«~'1T'~crl{ I
sr~crr'~cn'@;nq:
tti'ffr~T 'tCI'ij"~~Cfcrlt ... II){\.911
[ ~~v.r«qrfccr: J
q~crTq~~C~ ij;:;rlJT ij'lf~f'1
;:iTCfa~,{T
q({~~
,II
II~~(I
f~:[
!)ccrr
~~~sfq
cr:
~fcr ij'f~clf ij~~~r~ ~;:ct ~rq ~cr: ~CfTl!: I ~ijf:q~ ~fcrlir ~lJTcrT ~Fl1T~ QTf~ij) rrfcr: II X 0 II
'm~ ~T~:
12°2'35"
f~lt' ~c~T sn~
CfTCflJijfTcf
~ij
~ij~;:r
f~fJf~l{
II
I
fGff~carfG:ct
aiflflfT"{f;q
X ~ 1,3
[ ~f~
tI~q~l'f~"TetqCfJ:t1'
f1je'itrS::Tfa: 'I~ntaT I ]
1.
2.
Verses 4748 For
llf:qlJf
occur among the extra
verses at the close of
lj";:tflr;:rrO:qu;:C!"n I
the work and are inserted here as required by their sense and propriety.
'fTCfCll1~cr"U. the ms. reads,
The
correction follows its parallel verse in the author's VeTJvaroha. himself, (see Preface, p. 10), 2l of them being revised versions of verses in the text. The rest have been fitted into this edition on the basis of the parallel verses in the author's Ve'l')lJroha. 3. After this occur 7i verses, obviously written by Madhava
OF SANGAMAGRAMA
·
MaDHAVA
45
(Nnde) The first result (Agrimaphala of verses 56) is reduced by 5161 (kant am karma) and multiplied by 87 (sadana). From the result subtract 35 (mula) and add to the remainder its 277th (samsl1ra) part. (The result obtained is in) minutes and is to be subtracted from 6r to get (the position of) the Node, Its position for the (different) Vnkyaknlas is to be computed proportionately using the Vakyasankhyas in the same manner as that prescribed for the Sun.! (Conclusion) 49. Stating but this much and that in a succinct manner, possibly certain details might have been left out by me, at places, under the presumption that those (details) are (generally) known. Mayall those (details) be before your (mind's eye). 50. With a view to dispel the doubts of good men, the motion of the Moon has been set out in a proper manner, concisely, by a man of intellect (which I consider myself to be). 51. By the very same person who composed the set of Moonsentences, beginning wi th silam rajfla(t sriye (12°_2'..35"), correct to the seconds, has this work, too, been composed. (Thus ends 4748.
THE COMPUTATION OF TRUE MOON
by Mtldha va of Sangamagrama)
1. Rationale: It is taken that the motion of the Node is (87+87/277) minutes per Moon's anornalistic cycle. At 5161 Moon's anomalistic cycles after the Kkandadina, the Ksepa for the Node is (35+35/2.77) minutes, negative. Hence the subtraction of 35. Since the Node's motion is retrograde, the total result is to be subtracted from the position of the Node at the beginning of Ka li , which is 6 rlisis. The use of proportion for the days gone during the current cycle is obvious, the motion of the Node being uniform,
APPENDIX
I
~1{!ll1=I\1f
t
1fN~Pt
f'1it'elnr~
ul~
~Tir:
N~T~
Vakya No. Vakya
_:q;~~,~q(f;rl
Rlisir 0 0 1
BhagaO
12 24 6 18 1 14
Kalil' Vikalli," 2
8 21
1.
~1~~m: f'lit'
fqfrri ~~c(l" ..
\"I'm': ~1Sf) ;rTl(i,!3
35
39 33 16 17
2.
3.
4.
aqAJ cifq:'f:
i\'q) '{"~~
~
flfn=f ...
1
2
44
19
5. 6. 7.
8.
9. 10.
g~loo $T flW;;:r{:
f~
.
~T~ffil:
2
2
8
12 33
28
~lTIS~'!.
27
10
59
6 21 25
18
fa if'l \"Iit=('~!'it=("
3 3 4 4
~,.r~: gqq
~q'l
if
r~f'tl":
24 7
21
8
ttC'
57
58
11.
ilii~)qi.:4
1.
This critical edition of the Vakyas is based on the following four independent 2297C; mss; : A. Kerala No. Univ., Ms. No. Me S95A ; C. Ker. Unlv., No. C. of the Viikyas in B B. Trivandrum Palace, 4116B;
D. Kutalltlr Meletattu Mana Ms. If: ; D
2. 3. 4.
A. A.
a ; B.
~{1Tf=.:fir~TSOlfTq: I Some
and D are entirely different and represent different versions.
~T:; B.
f
A. for q~q::, A reads il"lGf, a scribal error similarity in the Malayalam script.
4(j
on account
of
M!bHAVA'S CANDRAVAKYAS
f/Dkya
41
Kala' 8 24 43 VikalD." 21 31 25
No.
Vakya Olivt ::;r;:r: 1H;;:n~
'" qttT')~c:r~) f;:rl'fl:
1t~1
RaSir
5 5 6 6 7
7
BhagaO
6
12. 13.
20
4
14. 15. 16.
17. 18.
f~.qi
'" ;nrr) lI'T;fTfqqf~:
19 3 17
1
1
30 21
41
",r~!fi'?;~' " ifi'
~i~,,~a''';i(:
l!11fer;:r,;r ~;:i(Tt!.
qft1Jfits.w~
15
21 17
8 8 8
9
35
42
19. 20.
21. 22. 23. 24. 25.
1S
28 II 24
7
0 29
42
f"'~TqT~)sf~,(li(:
p\) fil{~qT:
fa;rtitT ~'"
20
31 6 48 4
o
fcUT;Q12
9 10 10 II
40
22 52
q,)df"("('l'ti
<OJ
"'$
'efl"~t3 ~T'T"tiq:
19 2 14
qmrr"'~) frrqq'l
lTtr' ~dfi!(qqq:
~~) ... fqf~f~~~CR::
'"
]0
19
26.
27. 28. 29. 30.
11
11
32
37
26
8
23
25
,cr;~~,") f~5
tT)(!ftff~;:r~:
SlQq) ~~);iRf1
0
0 1
46
29
20
2
29
38
12 7
31.
32. 33. 34.
~,,)6 QT1J1'Cf'fi: flf)'I
'11T9f{))~) ~~q
..
1
14
27 10 23
5S
23 4 0
1
2 2
3
11 6
'6f!fSCffif;fI,fiT'{lt!
~" 9f'lt
'11:
1. D. ~'q{,,~iqfifQ'T
3.
2. 4.
B.
f~ ')~Ir,
corrupt.
A. ~Tq:urT, corrupt.
B. 'l'T'l)sf~:
A. ~)m
5,
6.
C Breaks off with this word.
48
ViikylJ No. Vakya
~(:ft: ~~&qo;:r'fr;l
APPENDIX Rlisir
I Bhliga{)
Kala'
n« a1" a
I
35.
3
3 4 4
6
11 38
20
14
35
33 9 47 6 17
36.
37. 3 8. 39. 40. 41.
~n..) ~n f~; fff)t; ..
19
3
17
~~T "l)S~"1C:n~2 ~cifC(q... lStn~: "fe(:
~ait" i1·0~"t~:
~~~qTff)l~
5
~
1
20
~13
15
29 14
33
51
"~ISQT ~r~~nq,4
m;i i{fC!r fqq~" q~.;:i)SfQ'I~a :
5
6 6 7 7 8
5
3
42.
43.
10 26
37 39 30 6
28 12 26 10
24 7 20 3 16 28 10
41
34 35
44. 45.
46.
;rlit;;~T~ fSllts~
'1'"61) ;qT(f1:~:
\;1'"
",tT)5 fifCfiS:~ 00
3
53
47.
48.
111!1fHT if
f~6
8
9 9
~H' ...
~ci't~~;7 ~f;."f,,: _01ii!_ ClrT'12~;ils
~Tif
28
34
42 54
44
49.
50. 51. 52. 53.
,qiTS:w",;rt
10 10 10 11
25
2
1TTIl'=srT ",f'(f<iffo:r~
Q;:f ~)~) ~~f;if~q ...
\1~
13 9 59 39
26
39 46 49
fql'''CfTlIflt
54. 55.
56. 57.
~iru;q~~ f?4~:
•
Q'Q)slI"1rf;tf$
'11I1fo~ri~qq~ ..
11 0 0
0
22
4
26
51
16
51
57
,,'h:i ~1q',vft,i~1 :
2.
28
A. ~;:rT
'"
23
1. 3.
.J.
L"
A. ;:r~r: A. ~zfA. {Wf);:r)s;:rW
~n
4. 6. 8.
D. ifbf~T~: B. D.
fC{qatcr
7. B. &:T,(:
A. ilITlJf~q;:iT
"
MADHAVA'S Viikya No.
Vakya
In&; ;:r)qqo 3=\ilHff ... '"
CANDRAVAKYAS
RlJs;r
1 1
49 Kalii' 9 Vika!ii,"
BhagaO
11
58.
59.
23
53 27
2
q)~n'i~ tritlfT'!_
23
6
30
4 52 54
60.
61.
~Vf~)S",;:Cff~~:l
Sfn!{)2 ~Tq) ~(=l:nf{:
2 2
18 1 15 28
12
26
62.
63.
~~r~T~lIT o:nrrr:
" :qq(W{: iflTqq'l~:
3 3
3 4
4
50
13 46 34
34
16
54
64.
65.
66. 6"1.
~nt'qT 9 .1c{~TqT
"l1f' l1T"1~~~~ (=fq'fC(i"fff~echr ...
~~:~c()S2Uq:
33
16 28 7
68.
\{'l
let""
5
5 6
10
24
43 59 17
36
1l'(0'(
'!.
69. 70.
71. 72. 73. 74. 75.
76.
!f1its~'.u ~f it '!
fCfj~cn rr1nrfff:s
~'r!;i l{,
4
9 23
7
21
53
14
~!ii~'
6
7 7 8
8
50
58
43
0
~Trr;:qq'QT ~6':
Efl~I~:
f~~Pl~i1f:
5 19
3
55 39 10
24
11 48
..c.G l:il~i'qt(C{:
~T.n~nq)s=;f",!(1
'Rr;:rClTfn:c:tTQfll: ;fTt'qfen:.)er: ~Tenq, eru ~1'iTlSJlIT f",~'t
\Writs;:q) rr~q~)'i~tta' ...
"Cfi;:~T;:if)~
9
9
3
56
16
77.
9 10
29 12
24
24
8
39
14 29
8
78. 79.
80.
81.
....
10
11
\;,tflf:
6
58
8
15 30 0
~r 1)T~ft'tTsferEfl: q~: ~T~l ",IQiq6
11
0
19
1
82,
13
1.
3.
D.
~~rf~~Tfiito; q
2.
4.
D.
D. [iiI"T}1tif~:
B. ifTiflslf~r '..
~Tm
D. iffqTSi~HFrfS!1i:
5.
Spbu~a7
50
V4kya No.
83. f 4. ~~, Pilkya FltJt: 'fi1fq~~: ;iTqf~",
APPENDIX
t BhagaO
13 25
7
19 2
RiiHt
0
Kala' Vikolall
15 18
26 42
11
33
34
0
1
"\
85.
86.
,~q,~l n~"llf: s
~11jf'!iiC£,fq"
f~l1t~~.~Tt: f~f~".:T cn~~~1: arll~T"T t1~t:l1 ... qll if" S1q':
'lIltt
I 2 2
27 3 39 55 40 59 4·
22 39
87. 88. 89.
90. 91.
~lit)Sf£t~)' f~'1i{:3
9 48 42 52 17 58 51 55 8
14
27
2
3 3 4
10 24
7 21
.. ~~~W:
92. 93. 94. 95.
96.
~n~\j() ,~;rs~~ "
~"ilTlIQflll1.:;1I:
rft"T9Tq~
4
"\
ifsffll" '
5 5 6
0
r:
5
20
4
""RilT "~9:
qqT: ~~T ctill;a
Co C"
8
35 36
25 44
1
97. 98.
99.
.Q~T~
l1fli(qftt:
18
3
qlf(;~)sr(~ ~Cf
7
39 19
qqRlll: ~;:;:qn,i4
:q.::ra5 a[qIqt:i)~: ...
7 8 8 8 9 9 10
17
1
13 16 8
46
100.
101.
26
17 40 11
S
"'5Q) \j(';~!;i{:
15 28
12
] 02. 103. 104. 10 S.
~f'+(~~1si!~~:
1fiTQ 1s;wi C lqft:t: 7
",'{"Ii
10 18 10
,,~il ...
2S
8
if~~;:r)
"iIl8 "AI:
34
1.
B. ~ (wrong) B.
2. D. ~1.i't~it)
4. 6.
B.D. ij'O=O:lfT~:
B. ~Ti~
3.
?
~;ft~.ft~ ;r~
:qc:~:
S. B.D.
B.  "{f~qf(f: (corrupt) ; D. ctifltT ilrl1T ~ ltf't:
S. D. ~cr{¥frftsr.i ~ij;
MXDHAVA'S VlJkya Na.
CANDRAVXKYAS
51 Kala' 48 13 28 Jlikala"
Viikya
'SIil~ ~iT ~~;:rTlii: c
Raiif
BhDgaO 20 3 15 27 9 21 3 15 28 10 23 6
19
106. 107. 108. 109. 110. 111. 112. 113. 114. 115. 116. 117. 118. 119. 120. 121. 122. 123. 124. 125. 126. 127. 128. 129.
10 11 11 11
0
32 44 32
49 53 9 10 19 39 48
fq~~mqm
~!fiAill
'Ii~T~R) 'i't(~q: f(icti ~~, !!(: ~lill': It),,,)
1'(];)2
35
38 41 46
1iI2ifQi r((QTOT3
J;f(iiQ':
0
I
qitr:' f1l{'Q(~ittfI8..
q~111qtiq: "
rq1lfi"~uif~QE(Tt!
~ct) ~Tc(;;f ~
.
1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 7 7 8 8
51
17 49 35 36
a;.i ~i~"fllio' ~~~l'gifH,;r,'W,
~~T
46
53 36 39
~Pi"i~i~qT
~lt:
S3
25 11 10 18 33 52 10
fq,,~1 ;ni.f: ~1[T ~vr: Qt({{f
..
3 17 1
15
51
21 39 46 21
""fo~)sq 'fil;:rnr:
fq,,~,!qffi'~TC!.
,,~ ~,qift:'i~)~:
29
13 28
tfio)~)"qqfa: ..
1ft1'lT) "
il(t~~fa
S6
59
~~hn'si~t(fl5
\"I)Efi)Sf~~lql'~~6 ~"1l1;:) itA qil'q .. '(~q~lSi cttf~~7 ...
12
26 10
25
34 32 18
13
37 42
24 2. 6,
1.
3.
D. fq11rifrtr~t=fTl['fi: '"
B. IJro1
B.
fC[q~r
4. B. 'li=lIT B. ~rflf~Q"
S. B. t:("\l:rF( lj~Tf~6lfT«:
7.
B.
~fct~ $q~;;;r;
52
APPENDIX
I
Vakya No. 130. 131.
Vakya ~nl=i()sf"ri ~~;{:r:
'Sf~T~;i{: ~~)~T:
Rasir
9
BhagaO 7 21 4
Kalii'
Vika!ll' 37 12 10
0
50
7
9 10 10 10 11 11 0 0
132.
133. 134. 135.
~f~qi;:f
ftf~T
;rtial
...
8 54
"T~,f;r;Ii:i
iii' ~~"
16 29
11
23 6
1 ,"iJOlt(: ~fttt~)f~~Q~ ...
26 46
57 2 4 7
2
17 21
~iff(f;
,;rq
qT~if~
J 36. 137.
138. 139. 140. 141. 142.
~lfioEU" ql~qft;c:
"f~~;Ht(I:
i(Q~;('~t(T ct(c:rf~~~)S~;:rt(!2 ~1;:rT~) G~'~IIi<,;q: ~;f'~~T
20
36 41 1
18
0
1
1 1 2 2
12 24 6
19 2 15 28 12 26 10 24 9
23 7 21
15 29 5S
33 25
~=toln
54
12 18 54 57
S51T'~Vl) ~)6lf"fio:
143.
144. 145. 146. 147. 148. 149. 150. 151. 152. 153_ 154.
~c) (:I'l\=11ftt~l'ft 'etTQr ~n:l~sfi{i.=f:
'''1'''lq~T~ql~:
3
3 3 4
4
33
57 36 28 31
43 0
ci~'~1,,;~~)q')
rq'l)~~r~:
3
36
7
4
,qlifT~:q(:lT f,{qc:r:
sr~:
00
~r't:t() Q)q) f~qqla4 ...
Q(Oll q;rhi'(VTT '~t:I) ~ f'l!{oif.{T ~"Trtt~'w,{~T 1!;fhffaT~~T ifHftt(....
5 5
6 6 7 7
17
1
6 7
32
19
36
48
"1~iijlijfl~C! ~T~: q
59
1.
B. ~~rr:;:r:"fiquifni:
2.
B. f~;:its~;;rrlf:
~.
A. l)~;
4,
D.
l()qf;rlfl(;
MADHAVA'S Vakya No. 155. 156. 157. 158. 1 S 9. 160. 161. 162. 163. 164. 165. 166. 167. 168. 169. 170. 171. 172. 173. 174. 175. 176.
Vakya
CANDRAVAKYAS
53
Rasi"
8 8 9
9
BhagaO
5
Kalal
Vikala"
9
qifT T'JT
q~G1'l
53
46 26 51 1 55 34 1 17 24 28 30 35 45 4 35 19 19 34 4
49
qr~t{~~qfq~Q.T fq:all: ~l~T;i(f .. f'l: '"
19 3 16
0
21 18
qt"{:
~~hg Q)i T
29
6 13 42
a;:rq) ~t1f;:r~t;:r~l(:1 q)!fivifq~fq;:n~r
5tifq) ~QHti{lG:qT: 'SI'litqTSS~;:i ~~qTa:
10
10 10 11
12 25 8 20 2 14 26 8 20 3 15 28
12
0 58
,,;:r~lfT ft=f,ql~12
fiilfi1Jf3~f~fio:
..:I
11
0 0 0 1
1
f~~q,fq;:~)~lnu, ,
",,) ;:r '1);n:a~ ""
18
30 3 21 33 18 42 7 8 13 17 33
fTt;:r~t~) qw;:r)Sq" ... ~'T1JT)5 ~t2~1~~:
i(t<?l)s~r"l;_;rit7(:
\if!!') =srtofT ~~"{: Siq;e)sli ~To{:6 '" Qf",~1 fllTa' ~qT~" 7
2 2
2
qTitfiql~f fq~T
G(T~qSq~)8\if;:rTi ttl¥=l(ql: ~c(ti SIll: ...
ift~Tfg CflPq;:r)Sqt9
'"
3 3 4
4
11
24 8 21 5
5
46
1. 5.
A. ~~) ~Tf;Y'lT 'l1=lf: (corrupt)
fefl$OT
2. 4.
D.
'\_rf ~cir'l ~~(:)pn(q)
'51"~~:
~O:\jf~;:sr:
3. D. 7. D.
'"
D. rr):q~:
B. 2;UuT
ij";::r;~)S~
6. D.
Cfifq~:
8.
B. ~T1J:Sq'6'lT
9. B. CJT~lf~'l)of (corrupt) ; D. ~q:T~');y)~qr
54
APPENDIX
I
VlJkya No. 177. 178. 179. 180. 181. 182. 183. 184. 185. 186. 187. 188. 189. 190. 191. 192. 193. 194. 195. !96. 197.
Vakya
~~~~"lfTf~lfif9: e
~,,~ ~;fti:fl!.l II ;c:{ii:ff~;iqfa'
Riisir 5
BhagaO
Kala' Vikala"
53 8 26 45 0 10 9 57 30
19
4
55
27 49
6 6 7 7 8 8 8 9
18 2 17 1 IS 28 12
qTql~) ct1'{ilU'l:
q)~~1 it=E~T2 1fiq1l ...
34
32 19
,trrq3 'l ffiflfl'liq:
9q~;n:
:qt,{T~l
9Tqq'1:
55
26 57 IS
55
"'i!J'{r:sr:
"),,)s",~Jf~at:nq:4
lIclfl
5 QiClT 9~111:
9
10 10 11 II 11
0
25
8 21 4 16
49
51
rrr~ft ~fjrqi{lrt;Q:
~i) ~iTfI;lf:SlT~: fln~6 ~~fsU:f)7 fC(~TqCfl:
fc:{~)'Nq~T i:flf!filfifq8
39
12 34 46 51 S4 56 3 17 41
22
50
14
qo:rtta'1
~r~f 9 1'Ii<=lf(
~tTlfqr~iU'
sn~lfq ISIJf~Sfl1O q~:nm ::rI)~"TflfT
;filTH q);nllf: ~\iQ:
..
28
10
9
38
2
'"
0 1 1 1 2
22
4 17 29 11
51
34 28 31
l!f'{: galf) 'l,{lft12 ql~fcq) lllf;;,{:
~
1. 3. 5. B. D. ij'?[rfGl'r;:r fCf'fTQ": B. qF~: ; D. t:Fa: D. ~~ror~r ~~cit
2.
4.
D. qlf~l{f;:r=;;~r B. f~Q~tq: ; D.
~lfiJT1f~···
6.
C[ 10.
D. srr,{Gief ~<=srrrJcltJl'... ...
\iq~f~ •••
7. B. '1ffsr~) 9. D. ~:!~T~({rf'{q):
11.
8. B.
flJr
D. sr~TCft'l 1j,{Tft: B. ~~llftlJ'... .
B.
~cm1
l2~
MAbHAVA's
CANDRAVAKYAS
Vakya No.
198. 199~ 200. 201. 202. 203. 204. 205. 206. ~07. 208. 209. 210. 211. 212. 213. 214. 215. 216.
t='fl~ \JIll) qf~1So:1
Kola'
2 3
3
Vikala'f 7
24 7
18 9 15 37 14
4
lfTitt:f'l: ~T2,,~2
EflVT:
5 26
'fiT '" ~T'iT liRT ~~l~u crT "
ilfi'~141Ciq)S~R'''.... 3 (fi!(t
20
3.
4 4
23
21
17 1 15 29 13
27
aQffCf,,1tifif~n
~M,«;r~',,:
~" t{;I:f;Q'lf(VTT'f'
5
56
2
5
5 6 6 7 7
7
17 34
58
\i(it
fq~1=;(lfn=r
38
37 23 31
45 16
~f~~T~n :a;srf(ll'
53 1I
24
29
~~"'Tq6 51'llT~:
srrta'~~': f!iTqq1~",.t~6
Q1QCfT:
12 26 10
8 8
9 9
10
:qrqr Cf1~)ft~~7
=sJ~~;:q";:iT\'i"")s;~: q~ q)~TG:~qTi:.8
24
8 21
4
24 5
45 35 56
42 44
...
32
43
aqT\"IT¥i) ~:r;:r) fiftlr1l..
q~Cftt={~
.
.
17 ;:r'T2qTltT~ q¥:(f1=(
"\
39
20 48
5
11
11 11 0
o
12
217.
218. 219.
~TfTffqq.~rni ql~TlI'lTq
32
~;l(nrq"lO
SnnCfT'l "\ ql'~:
..
"\
2S
7
22
2
14
1.
S~
D. D.
q'_.~:q'ch:rf"f:
ifi'~~:
2. D. lfTi1rferifT"ft ;:rrlJ': 4. B.D. errhur:
6. B. ~r~T '{Pift) 8. 10.
B. ~1f)~~TqlJ:;:if: D. ~)~rlJ) ;:rrlf~Efi~q':
3. D. 7.
tfritllCfT;; ....
<fifOit'
D. crq~!I'Tsrq~) f&
9. D. sr~rrw"'\s~Cfrfij':fl'iC5fi'f....
56
APPENDIX
I
VlJkya No.
Vakya
Riisif
BJlagaO 19 1
Ka/a' 17 19 23 33 51 20 3
1 14
VikaliJ,"
220. 221.
222.
sih{c~~1q)slt,!1 qTqrfqq:2
!Ii t=(!;ff't3
0
1
43
52 59
qf~q~~ ~~~~~1"!.
!fil~)
1 1 2 2 3 3 3 4
4
13 25 7 20 3
223. 224. 225. 226. 227. 228.
229.
if~1 ~'{Qlt:
31 36 59
48
C!'Wlt~~) ;:r~T: ?:l~:hn: snst=(~;::n: ... q'hT'WT t=(1~t=(rrr:
q:j;:;rTG'il) ~a'fiH:r: ~~q) l()~' '{:W ~"iH")'q~ttqr
..
16
29 ]2 26 10
24
32 51 37 51 !52
16
230. 231. 232. 233. 234. 235. 236. 237. 238. 239. 240.
q~q" ~~T ~fct: , '"
~q'{~'ftr;:{~t~" ...
aq)Q'{r:
'"
43 26 22 29 43
1
5 5
~~f~":
~na),)fc:r;q t:!~: ,
~a' 4 ifi'Hiq~)S~if~t~:
6
6 7 7 8
8 9
8
23
10 16 10
18
...
~~T;:f '':i1~Fnqq ...
7 21 5 19 3
20 36 46
47
qlqa~
qrS(~~q
~lffs,C!. qT "1t=(~:5
;rr~: ~qif~Efi) qTrr)%l~)
"'
17
4
f~
;:roo:
36
11 31
1
8
QT;:rQ,q:~q);;:T
9
10
17
0
24 I. 242.
~2: f~Tt=()s2~":
~~,,)6 .~iqT"T~=q:
7
10
1:3
35
26
_1.
3.
D.
fq(q)T~r: eflrrco!:J:
... c:. '"
D. l'.lTl1Ff'~1SC:~;'ff)
4.
6.
B. ~r;c:r for qe .. ...
D. if~oft
S.
D. B'~W(aT) c:rr llilT
f~
MADHAVA'3
CANDRAVAKYAS Riisir 10
11
BhllgaO
I a a Kalii' V'Ii 1"
57
Vakya No. 243. 244. 245. 246, 247. 248.
Vllkya
G(T~sf~~f~~Of(!q(l
:.l6 8
24 59 22 34 40
33 27 4 54 95 29
ffllfttt"hi'~t;nllCfi: f!fw:ri~t !t~c,,~qr ~
l(lq) q~~;
11
0
21 3 15
~Sll 'f;rt;re:q
qttlTt;{i~t
(2
0 0
27
43
[ if({ 'fI~qvr~~ltTf:tqfct"(f;qnTf~ fqf~taTfcr.~;:icnffllTf;:r I ] 3
1.
2.
B. il'T~iTSf~Qfif~ f;:r~lIi{ ; D. D. 'Cf~T~1 ~
<l~~~~g;srrr~ifi!
~~11.
verses which set out a of any Sentence in the
3. Ms. B carries the following two verificatory method for checking, in case of doubt, the correctness above Table :
248
~tc~~lf);:r'~~;::~'''CfTq2i (:lc5ffcrmffJCFif
"I
I
Cf~l:fr'CT~t;Gi'fqCf.,{T~ f[~Ufr'afCfqriifcrra:'
225
I
I
'f~@~T'tCfCfi~T~T;f ~~cqrCli ~~f~tc'f
5I"fcfl:ftn;f crcr~ c1t~q:
"'\
u.~ p::rr~ q,qlt'~)'Cf.,lf III '" ""
.
Tratl$.: 248 (devendra) minus the number of the desired (i.e., the doubtful) Sentence is (to be termed) the former's Complementary Sentence (pratipoBika). Take the (two) Sentences above and below it and find their difference. Subtract from this difference twice the Initial Sentence of the Table (viz., Jilam rajna~ sri}le). Divide this difference by 225 (.W~hara) and subtract the quotient from the Complementary Sentence. Subtract the Remainder from the Final Sentence (of the Table, viz., dhiragir bhasurlJ). The result will be
Sphuta8
APPENDIX
t
the correct 'Checking
figures of the
cf'Eiu d (i e, dc u l tfu l) Ser t er ce.
j hi'S
is (stated)
the
of the Sentences',
Example:
Let the no of the doubtful Complementary Sentence, Sentence be 50
(24850)=198
r
0
i
II
Sentence Do. Difference
above Do., viz, below Do., viz.~
199
197
3
7
9
5
2
11
41
27
31 34
10
25
Sentence. 2X (012235)
Twice the Initial Difference: Do. divided
=
24
1
5
22
24 22
7
by 225, i.e., correction Sentence (193)

Complementary Correction Difference
Sent.)=
2
24
18
22
(i.e., Corrected (2'18) Compi.
2
(12)
24 27
3
17
45 29
Final Sentence Final
43 25
minus Cor. Cornpl. Sent.
10
the value
44
50tb
It may be noted chat Sentence,
that the result
15
of the
desired
"iz., bhiive smaro'nganlinam
In ms. 0, in continuation
s,at.
vakyas, the initial Ie rters
of the
(pratikas),
obviously for
according facilitating (11)
to this
IDSI.,
of vakpa numbers
11,21,31 etc. are given,
recollection: (21) (31) (41) (51)
(61)
U~rr1i....,
• s=
(71)
~ir{
(81 ),
~~;;;:r)
(91) ~
~~r.it
(101) ijQ~) (161)
SP{i!f: (221)
mlf~1
(111)
(121)
rnr.r:
(131)
ar lfl'
(141)
'tq
~~lii
(I7l)
Of)fo'i)
(181)
Sl'clfT«f:;:r: ifl&"r'Cf~1 ~a;:r "
(191) (2Jl)
(211)
.
(151)
srCf:g::
•
qzrf«
(241)
(231)
1iTilSfr
rr1"ilr
i;Tq~~"t
J!ir"t'iT'{
il~(
~:
MADHAVA'S
CAr.DRAVAKYA8
59
Ms. D then continues doubtful Sentence :
with a verse
for checking
the correctness
of any
248
~c~lJT;{_c~['
~r~T~qfq~(tiG
)<fll{
I
~Te~~Tr"cr~T~Mrqq~Tq_'(fsr)lflliT'ttf~~ II
Trans.; (Sentence number) 248 (dflvendra) minu .. the number of the desired (i.e., doubtful) Sentence (will give the number of the complementary Sentence) ; this (Sentence) when subtracted from the Final Sentence will give the (Rougb) desired Sentence, (which needs the following correction). Find the difference between the Sentence just above (the desired Sentence) and the one below it, halve his differerl'ce and divide by 112 (pripakal. Add the quotient to (Rough) desired Sentence (as found above. The result will be the correct desired Sentence). This is (the method) to derive the (doubtful) Sentence). Example: Rough desired Sentence
Let the no. of the desired Sentence be 50 248 (dellendra) minus 50 =198 r The Final Sentence (248) Do. minus Sentence 198 Rough desired Sentence Correction Sentence just above (199) Do. just below (197) Difference Half of difference Initial Sentence
=
0
h
= =
(2)
27 43
24
29
2
10
18
7 22
3 25
3
7
9
5

2
11 41 2.5
27
31
34
47 35
12 43 12 2 41
Difference Divided Correct by 112. i.e., Correction Sentence
"
12 22
desired
Correctio:l
added to the Rough Sentence
10
3
25
22
44
'f'f(ltL~t
10
It may be PPtfP
t hat
3 25
tn
Of{
this
~1lJ"
j'9 t l.e
5eth
~(J1t;r((',
lI tHe
rn
~:
Tt
'.:HT~)IfUcH: '" '"'
SfJ 0°' '..40"· 48'"
3f24o ..37' 26"24'" Cf~~~T~~~T~
7
6r15°4' 19" 12'"
'ef;:~
"{T~
~~f~1f9:m;:"l!
~q'lfT2
I
1 F16°50'52"48'II
fsrlf;y~l
'tT~
~ifq"~7
~cr~+rR if~
~lT~)lfT:
II ~ II I
~n~ ~lfT
~Tcn:fq+r~~RTl!
1.
These
three verses give the zerocorrections,
correct to tat
paras (1!60th of a second) for Moon etc. per yuga (aeon, of 2,10,389 days). The verses occur in the Grahacnranibandhana (1.1719) of Haridatta (A.D. 683) the basic manual of the Parahita school of Kerala astronomy (Ed. by K.V. Sarma. K.S. Res. Inst., Madrasa, 1954), preceded by the following verses :
ar~,rc"ilfilI~ ~llrcr. ('CfTiij"rr;:1'!~' (2.10,389) ~rrl{ IIt~11
~~+i'trr~cf
*
~m~ ~~pn;rfqCJr~cr~ I
for ifcf
~'1lfT,
*
which latter has been
~Tf~qS:'lif?[ iiTfq;:~'1 raT:;'q qtfll
yet iiI! II ~ ~ II
2.
tr~r ~q~r ,(corrupt),
restored from the Grahacaranibandhana. 60
APPENDIX II
ZERO·CORRECTIONS FOR THE AEON
r
0
,
7
" '"
40 7 31 7
26
Moon Mars Mercury Jupiter Venus Saturn Moon's Higher Apsis Moon's Foot Node ( the
5 2
10
48
12
27 33
6 57
7
6
0 12 24 12 12
48
22 4S
24 37
3
6
15
4
19 43 52
are
1
4 30
1 1 16 50
above verses)
by foot,
to be understood. as ( 1!60th second), to
(giving) the Zerocorrections,
correct to the tatpara in order. per aeon.
the planets from Moon to Node,
61
~:
~fa::q;r ~:ro~T:
{~)~) if~rl=~~lfr
,
a(f)'1~~e:qtl[~err~:q ~~T;;lq' I ~~lf:' II ~ H
'+r'lm ~9:~~(lr:' '~erlJf~"f~)~
'~n::r 'elllflflJ'ir~;;Tl{' II ":( II
'qTcnrnil ~crlf)' "~Tt'lf elfT~r~''lT'tft'l~' I ~ ""
'etTGfT ~~;r~:tnrft''+rT2if1q) ~;f:
'~T~Trtlrf~STUflfTiq:' '&lTurl~)'s~ ~~Teltr;ft' I 'f:fT6~: 5I'rc<i 'IT' 'f;;(li ~ci ff~~ ~~il' 11 ~
"+nucpT'U ~lt'lr' 'cl1fqqTiT ~t'i)
.
II
r[iZt
;;'ll{" 1
c:. "
';r)it ;:r~)S;:r;:r' ':QlJTt1)~r~:
~~l~')rr:' II ¥ II
'sr')a)s;;;:o:
~n;:rr'
,",,,
'CfiT~or~c;;j~Cfilift CfiT' I
IlfJlff '11"
lTT;:J~)'
'frrflf
"\
fqu~lfq.,:
CflTCfiT:' X 11 II
'crT~ tTT~T ;r;;J;J'
41+r~O qfq~
'~)~Tij'T~: miff' '~i):;lf) f~:qc£T",!~Trr:' t I ~ II
'i tfrqr;:r'TlT' I "
'~;:~~~)~;;1!' l~',;i fG('~Tf~~) ~f;:p=r:' I t<:W ~~) if l;ft , 'f~olf) IT)rf't 'tf~~T":'II
'~({~i:lT
\9 II
~~"{~r' '~:r;:~ijG('T'1s.:
~1:' ,
':cru~= ij'Plirr) rr' ',:!~f+r;;~q{:;zfa~rr' II t:; It '~~TfCfWT 1_'1,!' '~rllTf'li=~faq)JtFfr' I '~)GfT~l=lfT 'lrr+!.' 'llTU ij'Tl=ijT iJ('q'TllT ~' II ~ II '~~T~ft;:f ~Ff~' '\ij'Turr iTT~S~~rlfT;;T' I 'fcr~crtfRij) ~rif)' '~?f~Tslj ~~: srr~:t J I Z II '~crQerT ens: 'l) ~T,i' '«)ij'~a'~ urfsrlfT ;:r rfll' I , ~ ~ '~q: 5n~) rr;:f' l'tft~)S~ +rT~~) ~Fft' II Z ~ II ~~iTCf)~~T~ qT~ (~Pf(folf)f~;:rfTUf: «1:!f~tSC:: I fqcp~l~: P]~:qi~~aC::')lf+n ~T qcrT fQ:a')ltsf~111 II
0
~ =< II
62
APPENDIX III
SOME LUMP DAYS AND THEIR TRUEMOON
ZEROCORRECTIONS Lump Days 16,45,705 16,33,333 16,20,961 16.08,589 15,21,985 12,372 12,124 ZeroCorrections Rusir 5 7
9
Bhngd? 1 3 6
8
Kala'
37 49
I
Vikala" 34 24 14 4
11
1
13
23 27
35
48 4 33 2 31 41 58 14 31 47 4
56
10 41 31 21 11 44 15
47
9
9
o
22 15 7 2
4
9093 6062
3031
9 10
11
2976
I1
10
2728
2481
9
8 7 6 5
4
7 9
2232
1984 1736 1488 1240 992
18 49 21 52
11
14
16
20
37 53 10
18 20
23
58 26 57
3 2 1
744
496 248 In the first
23
25 27
o
And,
26
43
the number part, the correct
29
of days to be True Moon, to the second
part of each halfverse,
deducted are indicated.
in the second Zerocorrection,
being (also) the corresponding
lvika/lJ),
has been indicated. 63
~~l1«Tq\ifqT"'Cfwar
~~~lnT:
r:
~~)~tqi~'JIi"fUfCfiT
6T~P:If"cqf~~) 13 a
~~ rin~trl ~r~:rr27 l~
b
'l~~'e:;rhtGfr(j 24 b 3T~)q:
=;P1{~)
2a
~cf~~n:qCf)fJt~ 31 b rr)o5)rr:e:Ts~if App. III. 4 b
:q'U:S:
ar;:r;pr"{~{
:J;f~
1b
tP:qii{TifT App. III. 8 b
f~~ ~J1:l{fu;:rr~ App. II. 1 b
22 b 19 a
a
arctlfeq fq:f~,p:ffrf~
6Tft:li;:rrif;a~Tci)a'" .... aI~1flJfscl:[lf
~fln ~'[fGfClT 31 a
Cf
. Q'fCfl:[: 46
~a 't!CfCflT(flT:~~:
36 a
:>
34 a
erer ~qr5=~ij'r~fTtft 15 b erff:
a
~qrt~~Cfa;:r 18 b
Qo~Cl~~8'~I~fiF e
onf~cti~f;,r'1q;~ 2 2 a ~
ql~q<_;qcr;j ~cq:r 11 b
B'i~~jif .... 50
~fCT ~f&1crr
(jQTsf~,~ a~t~r lOa ~
~c~ cr~q qrt~q => 21 a
am
!
I
;:~(ifTftT"fiT<rt g 32 a 24 a
{;:~.rG:T'lrtl{
~Jf"a;:+r'Olf~"
~ti~T~'fT~~)
App, App. III. 7 a
43 b
i
acifiT~J1re1:fqr~lJ
QC'lli
crT \if~rrTf~
fif~~~tic
41 a
allr
Cf;::l~~liir 39 b
eq<!qf{
fifczf 42 9:~Hnq 14 a
~:P:r~T~
a
a~iQ'"{
j~
'" =>
38 a
ucrr ~crTctqelfnf I 2 b
~Cflfe:?q;:a=t CfiT~ 19 b
afil~t ~l=sr~Tinf;a 2 5 b
~~lf cl'C:F.fiT\1''lQrf 3 6 b
~;:pft~if ....
!ifioT"i
Cflri~
frrtio ~
Cfili'fq@~ ~q: 47 a
40 b
..
.,;:)
16 a
~% 3 7 a
aT'fCf)t~~rC!.~i'TTrtT~: 1 7 Cfr?f 'C;fT'U if;:rtr App. III.
C'\ '"
a 6a
Ell ;:rf=tfq, ~f~lH 5 0 b
C!ur'~if>
~if~~
28 b 6b 33 a
CflTf2: \ilfrc'ff~~~a r
a~Gf.I~Hfq.riiJf,
~Uf)ur;:{ llt=1)~T;:f28 a
64
aqTi1~f~t{t~
INDEX
OF
VERSES
65
a,,! t=crqc{~Uilf.f 3S b
fSTlI1T+iT 'l;rer;:r'li6 App. II. 2 b
a
cr: ~ref a::r
i:fT"{rqj~
,;>
a~ ~~: 1 2
23 a 3S a
srta)S;:rrcr: ~r;:rr App. HI. 5
'"
a
~;:~ci~f~flSf~~T
'=
30 b
III. 4 a
4b
f~;rq'T'1'T~~lftij':
+l~r'tlrorT ~~;:rT App.
f~fcr
;ref ~1~ App. II. 1
a
+ler~~lf:
'"
srlJfa)r;:r~a
i!r;:rif"u'~T~r.n;f ~:3n~)
5a
+lJtfifT~lJ'a~Tif):
~ ~Cfif1l ~~~lf
42b
o:r;:r'f App. Ill. 11 b
~
it~rq£rT 'Lilli f
?Ifif~T~ i[q.1Jf fq ~
t{i{11T
"
33 b
App. III. 9 a
J3 b
ififB"T
rn~: HJpr:App. III. 1 a srurUTq App. III. 3 a
37 b 5b
1l~: f~t6qqfca 7 b ~
If)~f~<f~ ~P!l)Uiq'TCt~lfTzrt
fqG:errt~e~ 38 b
App. III. 2 b
18 a 21 b
l{"{r~lI') c{T6l1ttT29 a
t{r~ 1fG:'1~~rtft
~aH'l{~CfT 8 b
~efCf)T~sfq q;ffi: "" ~Cf:tiT~tf ttlpns;:q: ...
q)qf if) tTT;:r~)App. III. ~~ l;~) ;:rfrtT App. ~'flfa
..
a;; CficfQ'lr 6 a
III. 7 h
f~CfftfG:ij"~q:q'Tc:r 9 a .. ~T~)~T+~=ifltT App, III. 1 b
ij'CI)~q
~1lfrfCT'fl{ 29 b LOa
q1.nhnC{~~c~49 a
ct~6'~m~'aT'{rw App, II. 2 a
qTCfl:l"~~lfT ~<:rT ilTar:
'0
ifTm qt>G'ilicr~Stltci
f'1'~:q«ifflfTcr:
44 b
c:'\ ..
20 b
ifTqT
~lfT
;r;:rlf App, III. 9 b
QmTr6AT'IlScT App. II. 3 b qTcrl~'1 P;16ztTApp. :.
CfICf~~lfT<{~T~
~lf: 23 b
III. 2 a
qTCfll~~~rctIUT~ .... CfTCflf 4 8 b q'TCflf~~'lr~a?1T'i:ftStl) fq!fi~T~:
'"
14 b
qT~ Ql~ irJlT App, II. 3
qq~ 8~~q"{f~6 8
'"
a
~c::q;;~: App. III. 12 t
..
a
fGt~~1fffet f~tcn~ 41 b
fc1~tlicli\iicr'~
f~\ljlf ~;~
Sl1l'f~~ Sl1l'flr 4 a
A'~ ~ C{P.flJ'fqCf)l C! 2 b
39 a
~r7JtfG: 17 b
lOb
SIlJ6c~~SR'lt~~ ..:>
15 a
25 a
fqf~ccrlfG:~ q:I"lf 51 b fq~~~ilT
~T'i"t A pp. III.
sr~aT;'ti!f@;:rTq_ 4 7 b
SIlCfi q'q:qrcr... «~~~~nlfT ~ Sphu~a9
~Glf:lT lfi~~T App. III. 8 a
COMPUTATION
OF TRUE
MO:>N
;rrcl'('~trof"lit 2 6 b
",qflfcu ~qi~er 1J a ~
.
~'!ITQrrrr
~;r: 16 b
~Tlf~seffs~:jf<fiT~ ~
32 b
49 b
f~~qqrl.1Jf~1at:! 1 a f~lf~~Ti?(j 5 b
ffT:[ i!i~q' "+rfitfcr
~~11fT fqCifi<nT~'~ a
lOb
f::rr~Tf~;fQf'1"~: 30
..:>
\l:q~~JP:rreJlt!
Hri~T
45 b III. 11 a
r~ficT~ f~q~;::rT(ar 7 a
~n~ ~t~:
ens: ;:rr App. ...
f~~ 51 a ; App, I. 1
lOa
~~1~~; 5fl~ 'IT App, 111. 3· b ~~t\~cl(" ~rr~T~ 27 a
~quf ~q)'IO~l;r 40 a ~q~a(n'ff1:TCifiT=tUf 3 b
~T ire{ ;rfqQJ~);:f':q: 43 a
~;aT'CfltT ~Trf+r ... App. Ill.
~~T~~~T?l ql~ App, Ill. 12 a
ifl ::q
~~T:Q:qa~ll(f~ 4 4 a it: f~cqT f~QTCll~
..
fq~~~'fTl!Jrt::q 9 b
48 a
~ f~ ~Hij~~aT frt~zi 46 b
~)~Tij'r<:: ~nif1App, HI. 6 b
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