Review Notes & Questionnaires in Police Photography, Personal Identification, Forensic Ballistics & Forensic Chemistry by Melcon S.

Lapina, MSCrim
Personalities in Photography 1. 2. Joseph Nicéphore Niépce: Heliography – writing of the sun. Louis Jacques Mande Daguerre: Daguerreotype – photograph on a silver or a silver-covered copper plate; positive image. Fixation is permanent by hypo. William Henry Fox Talbot: Calotype – paper negative with light sensitive compounds on the surface. Fixation is partial. John Frederick William Herschel: Coined photography. Applied terms negative and positive to photography. Frederick Scott Archer: Collodion process – preceded the modern gelatin emulsion. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13.

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3.

4.

5.

Richard Leach Maddox: Lightweight gelatin negative plates George Eastman: Eastman Kodak Company & roll of film Alhazen: Described camera obscura. JM Petzval: Designed the first lens specifically for photographic use. Geronimo Cardano: Fitted a biconvex to the camera obscura. Thomas Sutton: Patented the first single-lens reflex. Vioglander: Produced a lens for the use in the first all-metal unitized camera. Daniel Batbaro: Suggested the use of diaphragm to sharpen the image.

Definition of Terms 1. 2. Etymological/Literal: To write with light. Gr. Phos – light & Graphia – write Modern Definition: Reproduction of images: light, sensitized materials, camera and its accessories, and the chemical processes. 3. Technical/Legal: Chemical, thermal, electrical or electronic recording of the images of scenes, or objects thru XUVI. Police Photography: Photography applied to police work. Forensic Photography: Documenting crime scene & evidence for laboratory examination and court trial.

4. 5.

Camera Obscura  Latin veiled chamber or dark room  An optical device in drawing or entertainment. Camera    

Light-tight box – devoid of light Lens – focusing rays of light Film holder Shutter  Viewing system  Film advancer  Shutter speed  Lens aperture  Focusing mechanism Types of Camera

1. 2. 3.

Viewfinder Type: Smallest & simplest type; a.k.a. instamatic; suffers parallax error Single Lens Reflex: Looking behind the lens of the camera; eliminates parallax error Twin Lens Reflex Type: Two lenses: viewing and focusing lens, & taking lens; suffers parallax error

4. 5.

View or Press Type: Biggest and most sophisticated; not for candid & action photography Special Cameras: Polaroid, panoramic cameras, aerial cameras, miniature and ultra-miniature cameras, digital cameras

Control of Camera Type Focusing Diaphragm Shutter Description Setting of proper distance in order to form sharp image. Usu. serves as aperture stop, & controls aperture; like iris of eye. Barriers of rays of light

Review Notes & Questionnaires in Police Photography, Personal Identification, Forensic Ballistics & Forensic Chemistry by Melcon S. Lapina, MSCrim

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Focusing Type 1. 2. 3. Rangefinder Type: For viewfinder, instamatic camera and 35mm cameras: 1. coincidence – object appears double when out of focus; 2. split – object appears split when out of focus. Ground Glass Type: Object appears blurred when out of focus. Scale Bed Type: Focusing is made by calculating or estimating the distance of object to be photographed. Focusing ring is adjusted to corresponding estimated distance. Characteristics: 1. 2. 3. 4. A.k.a. Lens Opening or Aperture Size of aperture: measured by f/numbers or f/stops Ratio of f/# to aperture: larger number of f/# : smaller aperture. Small aperture: increased depth of field – nearest and farthest object in the same sharpness. Characteristics 1. 2. 3. Allows light to pass for a determined period of time. Purpose: Expose photographic film, light-sensitive electronic sensor to light. Shutter Speed. About exposure time, the effective length of time a shutter is open.

Diaphragm

Shutter

Factors 1. 2. 3. 4.

The light sensitivity of the film, which is determined through its ISO; The lighting condition; The motion of the subjects on different angles; and The purpose of the photographs to be taken, etc.

Shutter is expressed in a fraction of a second. The different shutter speeds are: 1, 2 or 1/2 sec, 4 or 1/4 sec, 8 or 1/8 sec, 15 or 1/15 sec, 30 or 1/30 sec, 60 or 1/60 sec, 125 or 1/125 sec, 250 or 1/250, 500 or 1/500 sec, 1000 or 1/1000, 2000 or 1/2000. Camera shutters often include one or two other settings for making very long exposures: B (for bulb) — keep the shutter open as long as the shutter release is held. T (for time) — keep the shutter open until the shutter release is pressed again. Exposure: Aperture & Shutter Speed

Both control the amount of light reaching the film. Aperture Lens opening Smaller opening Exposure Priority Aperture Priority Purpose Show entire scene Select or highlight particular object in scene Aperture Small Big Shutter Speed Slow Fast Result Good depth of field. Object selected – sharply focused. Foreground and background – poor. Shutter Speed

compensation

Time shutter is open Longer time

Review Notes & Questionnaires in Police Photography, Personal Identification, Forensic Ballistics & Forensic Chemistry by Melcon S. Lapina, MSCrim

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Shutter Speed Priority Purpose Maximizing sharpness Taking nightscapes Freezing action in mid-air Shutter Speed Slow Very slow Fast Aperture Small Very small Big Much of scene is sharp. Cityscapes at night are clearly seen using available light. Action is frozen. Result

Lens – lens is an optical device with perfect or approximate axial symmetry which transmits and refracts light, converging or diverging the beam.

Lens Aberration SPHERICAL ABERRATION - When light passing through near the central part of a converging lens is bended more sharply than those rays falling in the edge, thus the rays coming from the edges are focused on a plane nearer the lens than those coming from the central part. COMA - This is another form of spherical aberration but is concerned with the light rays entering the lens obliquely. The defect is noticeable only on the outer edges and not on the central part of the lens. If a lens has coma, circular objects reproduced at the corners of the negative are comet-like form. Just like the spherical aberration, it is reduced by combinations of lenses of different curvatures. CURVATURE OF FIELD - This is a kind of defect where the image formed by a lens comes to a sharper focus in curved surface than a flat surface. The correction of this defect is similar to spherical aberration and coma. DISTORTION - A lens with distortion is incapable of rendering straight lines correctly; either horizontal or vertical lines in an object. This is caused by the placement of the diaphragm. If the diaphragm is placed in front of the lens, straight lines near the edges of the object tends to bulge outside. This is Types of Lenses (as to degree of correction to lens aberration) 1. Achromatic lens – corrected for chromatic aberration. known as the barrel distortion. If the diaphragm is placed behind the lens, straight lines near the edges tends to bend inward. This is known as the pincushion distortion. CHROMATIC ABERRATION - This defect is the inability of the lens to bring photographic rays of different wavelengths to the same focus. Ultraviolet rays are bent the most while infrared rays are bent to the least when they pass through the lens. This defect is reduced by utilizing compound lenses made up of single lens made up of glass of different curvatures. ASTIGMATISM - This defect is present when the size of image produced by photographic rays of one wavelength is different from the size produced by another. Size of the image increases as the wavelength of the rays decreases. In color photography it produces a rainbow colored fringes around the edges of objects while in black and white photography, it appears as a slight blue. CHROMATIC DIFFERENCE OF MAGNIFICATION – inability of lens to produce image sizes of objects with different colors. FLARES – optical and mechanical defect. 2. Rapid-rectilinear lens – corrected for distortion. 3. Anastigmat lens – corrected for astigmatism as well as the other lens defects.

Review Notes & Questionnaires in Police Photography, Personal Identification, Forensic Ballistics & Forensic Chemistry by Melcon S. Lapina, MSCrim
4. Apochromatic lens – also corrected for astigmatism but with higher degree of correction to color. Focal Length Focal length is the distance measured from the optical center of the lens to the film plane when the lens is set or focused at infinity position or far distance. Focal distance is the distance from the optical center of the lens to the film plane. 3. Wide-angles A lens with a focal length of 50mm is known as a standard lens – the view that it gives is similar to that of the human eye. Any lens with a shorter focal length, and wider angle of view, is known as wide-angle. How Focal Length Affects Image Size Lenses work on the principle that light affecting from a subject can be bent using the refractive properties of glass to form a miniature image of the subject. Lenses with short focal lengths, such as the wide-angle lens, produce a small image. Telephoto lenses, with longer focal lengths, produce a larger image, when taken from the same distance. Telephoto Lenses Telephotos are lenses with focal lengths greater than 50mm. They range from 70mm short telephotos to ‘long toms‘ with focal lengths of 1000mm or more. Zoom Lens It is a kind of lens with variable focal length. Factors Affecting Depth of Field These diagrams show how aperture, focused distance and focal length can individually affect how much of a scene is in focus. The shaded area indicates the amount of depth of field in front of, and behind, the subject. 1. Aperture – The larger the aperture the less depth of field. For maximum depth of field, use the smallest aperture 2. Focused Distance – The closer the subject you focus on, the less depth of field. Depth of field is greater with distance subjects. 3. Focal Length – The longer the lens you use, the less depth of field you will have. Wide-angle lenses give the greatest depth of field. FILMS & PAPERS A. BLACK & WHITE FILMS 1. Emulsion - a suspension of a sensitive silver salt or a mixture of silver halides in a viscous medium (as a gelatin solution) forming a coating on photographic plates, film, or paper. Gray or Anti-Halation Backing - a layer found in modern photographic films. It is placed between the light-sensitive emulsion and the tough film base, or sometimes on the back of the film base. The light that

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passes through the emulsion and the base is absorbed by the opaque anti-halation layer. This keeps that light from reflecting off the pressure plate or anything else behind the film and re-exposing the emulsion, reducing contrast. The antihalation layer is rendered transparent or washed from the film (as in K-14 films) during processing of the film. Film Base - A film base is a transparent substrate which acts as a support medium for the photosensitive emulsion that lies atop it. Despite the numerous layers and coatings associated with the emulsion layer, the base generally accounts for the vast majority of the thickness of any given film stock. Historically there have been three major types of film base in use: cellulose nitrate, cellulose acetate (cellulose diacetate, cellulose acetate propionate, cellulose acetate butyrate, and cellulose triacetate), and polyethylene trephthalate polyester (Kodak trade-name: ESTAR).

Characteristics of B & W Films: 1. Emulsion Speed 2. Spectral Sensitivity 3. Granularity or Graininess Emulsion Speed a. ASA (American Standards Association) rating. This is expressed in arithmetical value. b. DIN (Deutsche Industrie Normen) rating, which is expressed in logarithmic value. c. ISO (International Standards Organization) rating. This is expressed in the combined arithmetical and logarithmic values. Spectral Sensitivity a. Blue sensitive film – sensitive to UV rays and blue color only b. Orthochromatic film – sensitive to UV rays, to blue and green color. It is not sensitive to red color. c. Panchromatic film – sensitive to UV radiation to blue, green, and red light or all colors. d. Infra-red film – sensitive to UV rays, to blue, green, red light and infrared rays. Granularity or Graininess This refers to the size of the metallic silver grains that are formed after development of an exposed film. Generally, the size of metallic silver grains are dependent on the emulsion speed of the film and the type of developing solution that is used in processing. RULES to remember: 1. The lower the emulsion speed rating of the film, the finer is the grain.

2.

Review Notes & Questionnaires in Police Photography, Personal Identification, Forensic Ballistics & Forensic Chemistry by Melcon S. Lapina, MSCrim
2. 3. The higher the emulsion speed rating of the film, the bigger are the grains. A film developer will produce a finer grain that a paper developer when used for film processing.

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2. # 2 are used on normal exposed or normal contrast negatives. 3. # 3 to 5 used in under-exposed or high contrast negatives. FILTERS In photography, a filter is a camera accessory consisting of an optical filter that can be inserted in the optical path. The filter can be a square or rectangle shape mounted in a holder accessory, or, more commonly, a glass or plastic disk with a metal or plastic ring frame, which can be screwed in front of the lens. TYPES OF FILTERS a. Light Balancing Filter b. Color Compensating Filter c. Neutral Density Filter d. Polarizing Filter Light Balance Filter A filter used to change the color quality of the exposing light in order to secure proper color balance for artificial light films. Color Compensating Filter This is used to change the over-all color balance of photographic result obtained with color films and to compensate for deficiencies in the quality of exposing energy. Neutral Density Filter This filter is used when the light is too bright to allow the use of desired f-number or shutter speed with a particular film. Polarizing Filter It is used to reduce or minimize reflections on subjects like water glass, and highly polished surfaces. EXPOSURE Exposure is simply a combination of the aperture and shutter speed. Thus, it is defined as the product of the total light intensity and the length of time it strikes the emulsion. Exposure is subjective and errors in calculation will result to “overexposure” or “underexposure”. Proper exposure is dependent on: a. Film speed b. Lighting condition c. Type of subject Light: Its Characteristics & Sources Light is a form of energy, and to understand light we begin with the electromagnetic spectrum which is basically a grouping of all electromagnetic radiation arranged according to the amount of energy contained in the radiation.

B. COLOR FILMS A color film is a multi-layer emulsion coated on the same support or base. Main types of color film in current use  Color negative film forms a negative (color-reversed) image when exposed, which is permanently fixed during developing. This is then exposed onto photographic paper to form a positive image. Ex: Kodacolor  Color reversal film, also known as slide film, forms a negative image when exposed, which is reversed to a positive image during developing. The film can then be projected onto a screen. Ex: Kodachrome C. Photographic Papers (Black & White)

Photographic paper is exposed to light in a controlled manner, either by placing a negative in contact with the paper directly to produce a contact print, by using an enlarger in order to create a latent image, by exposing in some types of camera to produce a photographic negative, or by placing objects upon it to produce photograms. Photographic papers are subsequently developed using the gelatin-silver process to create a visible image. Characteristics of a Photographic Paper 1. Chloride paper – has a slow speed and is suited for contact printing. 2. Bromide paper – has a fast speed and is recommended for projection printing or enlarging. 3. Chloro-bromide paper – is a multi-speed and could be used in both contact printing and enlarging. Exposure and development latitude Latitude is the degree or amount of which you can deviate from the ideal exposure or development without appreciable loss of print quality. 1. Exposure latitude Generally, photographic papers do not have a wide exposure latitude so exposure must be critical at all times. 2. Development latitude Papers that do not change appreciable in contrast and image tone with reasonable variations in development has a good latitude. However, for best quality the developing time should be as near as those prescribed by the manufacturer. Contrast Range or Grade In most photographic papers, the contrast range or grade are indicated by numbers – # 0 to 5 1. # 0 & 1 are used on over-exposed or low contrast negative.

Review Notes & Questionnaires in Police Photography, Personal Identification, Forensic Ballistics & Forensic Chemistry by Melcon S. Lapina, MSCrim
Visible light is a part of this electromagnetic spectrum that creates the sensation of light when it falls on the human eye. The properties of all electromagnetic radiation can be described by three inter-related terms. These are wavelength, frequency and energy. Since light is a part of this spectrum, it too can be described by these terms. Hence, it is important to understand these terms as a first step towards understanding light. Wavelength Simplistically, we can think of light traveling as a wave. A typical wave form (e.g., ripples on the surface of water) has crests (or peaks) and troughs (or valleys). The distance between two consecutive peaks (or troughs) is called the wavelength, and is denoted by the Greek letter λ (lambda).

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The wavelengths of visible light are measured in nanometers (nm) where 1 nm = 1 billionth of a meter (10-9 meters). The wavelength of visible light is between 400700nm. The combined effect of the complete range of radiation between 400-700nm appears as white light to the human eye. Rainbow Colors:      

Violet - 400 to 440nm Blue - 440 to 490nm Green - 490 to 540nm Yellow - 540 to 590nm Orange - 600 to 650nm Red - 650 to 700nm

4 PHOTOGRAPHIC RAYS OF MODERN PHOTOGRAPHY  X-rays – 1 to 30 nm  UV rays – 30 to 400 nm  Visible light – 400 to 700 nm  Infrared rays – 700 to 1,000+ nm.

PRIMARY COLORS OF LIGHT   
NOTE: 1. 2.

SECONDARY LIGHT   

COLORS

OF

Red Green Blue

Yellow Cyan Magenta

White is the presence of all colors Black is the absence of all colors or the absence of light.

PRIMARY COLORS OF COLORING MATTERS  Red  Yellow  Blue BENDING OF LIGHT When traveling in open space, light travels in a straight line (186,000 miles/second). However, when light comes in contact with an object, it may be bended in the following manner: Reflection of Light 1. Specular or Regular Reflection - If the reflecting surface is very smooth, the reflection of light that occurs is called specular or regular reflection. 2. Diffuse or Irregular Reflection – When light strikes a rough or granular surface, it bounces off in all directions due to the microscopic irregularities of the interface. Refraction It is the change in direction of a wave due to a change in its speed. This is most commonly observed when a wave passes from one medium to another. Diffraction

It is described as the apparent bending of waves around small obstacles and the spreading out of waves past small openings. It is also described as the bending of light when it hits a sharp edge of an opaque object. Examples of Diffraction 1. The closely spaced tracks on a CD or DVD act as a diffraction grating to form the familiar rainbow pattern we see when looking at a disk; 2. The hologram (a picture that changes when looked at from different angles) on a credit card; Kinds of Objects 1. Transparent objects – allows sufficient visible light to pass through them that the object on the other side may be clearly seen. 2. Translucent objects – allows light to pass, however diffuse it sufficiently that objects on the other side may not be clearly distinguished. In some cases the objects on the other side may be recognizable but sharp detail and outlines are obscured. 3. Opaque objects – so greatly diffuse the light that recognizing the object on the other side is very difficult if not impossible. Sources of Light 1. Natural Light Source 2. Artificial Light Source Natural Light Source (Sunlight) 1. Bright sunlight – a lighting condition where objects in open space cast a deep and uniform or distinct shadow.

Review Notes & Questionnaires in Police Photography, Personal Identification, Forensic Ballistics & Forensic Chemistry by Melcon S. Lapina, MSCrim
2. 3. Hazy Sunlight – objects in open space cast a transparent shadow. Dull Sunlight – objects in open space cast no shadow. 1. Cloudy bright – objects in open space cast no shadow but objects at far distance are clearly visible. 2. Cloudy dull – objects in open space cast not shadow and visibility of distant objects are already limited.

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Panchromatic materials – handled in total darkness. Blue films, orthochromatic films and printing papers – handled under a safelight. Equipment for Film Processing a. Tank or tray b. Developing reel c. Opener for film cartridge (pliers) d. Scissors to cut the tongue of the film e. Thermometer f. Timer g. Funnel h. Photographic sponge i. Film clips for drying j. glass or plastic bottles (gallon size) for storing mixed solutions. PHOTOGRAPHIC PRINTING 1. Contact Printing – It is a procedure of exposing photographic print materials while it is pressed in contact with the negative being reproduced. 2. Projection Printing or Enlarging – It is a type of printing where the image in a negative is optically projected or enlarged onto a print material for exposure to produce a picture image. The main equipment is Enlarger, the so-called camera in reverse. EQUIPMENT FOR PAPER DEVELOPING 1. Three plastic trays – one each for the developer, stop-bath, and the fixer. (The size of the tray is determined by the largest prints size). 2. Metal, plastic, or bamboo tong preferably with rubber ends to hold the prints. 3. Rubber (surgical) hand gloves. 4. Timers 5. Paper cutter 6. A bigger tray or tank for washing prints. APPLICATION TO POLICE WORK GENERAL APPLICATION  Identification purposes  Recording and preserving of evidences  Discovering and proving of evidences not readily seen by the naked eye.  Recording action of offenders  For court exhibits  For crime prevention  Public information  Police training PHOTOGRAPHING CRIME SCENE: Rules Photograph all evidences before anything is touched or moved Record position & condition of scene before making any change BEST EVIDENCE RULE & PHOTOGRAPH Photograph not legal substitute to object or article itself

Artificial Light Source Light sources of this category are man-made and is divided into the continuous radiation and the short duration. Forensic Light Sources 1. UV Lamp 2. LASER – Light Amplification through Simulated Emission of Radiation. 3. Alternative Light Sources 4. Forensic Light Sources DEVELOPING, PRINTING AND ENLARGING CHEMICAL PROCESSING 1. Black & White Processing – development, stop-bath, and fixation. 2. Color Processing – development, stop-fix, and stabilizer. Development It is the conversion of latent image in an emulsion into visible image. 1. B & W Emulsion – reducing exposed silver halide crystals (black silver) into metallic silver. (Same reaction is found in photographic papers.) 2. Color Emulsion – Developed silver is replaced with cyan, yellow, and magenta dye. Stop-Bath The purpose of the stop bath is to halt the development of the film, plate, or paper by either washing off the developing chemical or neutralizing it. Fixation The fixer removes the unexposed silver halide remaining on the Photographic film or photographic paper, leaving behind the reduced metallic silver that forms the image, making it insensitive to further action by light. Without fixing, the remaining silver halide would quickly darken and cause severe fogging of the image. The most common salts used are sodium thiosulfate - commonly called hypo - and ammonium thiosulfate, commonly used in modern rapid fixer formula. FILM PROCESSING It can be carried out in trays, tanks, or mechanized equipment. NOTE:

Review Notes & Questionnaires in Police Photography, Personal Identification, Forensic Ballistics & Forensic Chemistry by Melcon S. Lapina, MSCrim
Photograph of revolver alone not admissible in court; weapon itself be brought in court Photograph will suffice without object: Photographs of o Buildings/roads o Perishable evidence: skid marks o Wounds & bruises -

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PREPARATION & PRESENTATION OF PHOTOGRAPHIC EVIDENCE Nature & offense & feature that establish elements of offense should be shown. PREPARING FOR COURT EXHIBIT Photograph: faithful representation of subject matter

Viewer should receive impression of scene as object & not being mislead any important aspect Free from distortion of lines of shapes & of any tone relationship Important subject matter: in sharp focus Admissibility: o Serves in place of object/verbal description of it o Designs to prove point/bearing on issue, ex: comparison photograph of evidence

GRUESOME PICTURE: Admissible if To illustrate relevant facts Not prejudice judge against defendant SPECIFIC APPLICATIONS 1. Identification Photographs 2. Crime-Scene Photography

References 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Forensic Photography for Criminology Students and Practitioners by WAYNEFRED H. VILLARBA, Ph. D. Crim The Complete Idiot’s Guide to: Photography Like a Pro The Everything Photography Book by Eliot Khuner with Sonia Weiss John Hedgecoe’s 35mm Photography Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary 11th ed. www.en.wikipedia.com TEST OF RETENTION

1. An art or science, which deals with the reproduction of images through the action of light, upon sensitized materials (film or paper), with the aid of image forming device and the chemical processes involved therein. a. photography b. police photography c. forensic photography d. commercial photography 2. Art or science that deals with the study of the principles of photography, the preparation of photographic evidence and application to police work. a. photography b. police photography c. forensic photography d. commercial photography 3. The art of producing an accurate reproduction of a crime scene or an accident scene for the benefit of a court or to aid in the investigation. It is part of the process of evidence collecting. It provides investigators with photos of bodies, places and items involved in the crime. a. photography b. police photography c. forensic photography d. commercial photography 4. Photographs made to illustrate and usually sell a service or product. These images are generally done with an advertising agency, design firm or with an in-house corporate design team. a. photography b. police photography c. forensic photography d. commercial photography 5. What is the general rule in taking photographs at the crime scene? a. take many photographs …b. take photographs only on very important items… c. take as many photographs as there films available… d. take photographs of items relevant to the crime under investigation 6. A good photograph of the scene is a. of artistic material b. permanent record c. a product of scientific procedure d. commercially viable 7. In court proceeding, judges, fiscal and defense lawyers, generally never visited the crime scene. Photographs greatly facilitate them in interpreting the scene. Therefore, photographers should bear in mind to obtain photographs conforming to the following criteria, EXCEPT a. normal b. sharp c. reflective of environment d. free of distortion 8. Literally means dark chamber a. diaeta aquilus b. anacleta atramentum c. thalamus attratus d. camera obscura 9. Achieved the first permanent photograph in a camera on a pewter plate coated with light gray bitumen after an 8-hour exposure. a. Niepce b. Daguerre c. Talbot d. Eastman 10. A French artist and chemist and a partner of Niepce, recognized for his invention of a process of photography. a. Niepce b. Daguerre c. Talbot d. Eastman 11. The inventor of the negative/positive photographic process, the precursor to most photographic processes of the 19th and 20th centuries. He was also a noted photographer who made major contributions to the development of photography as an artistic medium. . a. Niepce b. Daguerre c. Fox Talbot d. Eastman

Review Notes & Questionnaires in Police Photography, Personal Identification, Forensic Ballistics & Forensic Chemistry by Melcon S. Lapina, MSCrim

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12. Founded the Kodak Company and invented the roll of film, helping to bring photography to the mainstream. . a. Niepce b. Daguerre c. Fox Talbot d. Eastman 13. The world’s first permanent photograph produced by Joseph Nicephore Niepce. a. heliograph b. daguerreotype c. calotype d. ambrotype 14. An early type of photograph in which the image is exposed directly onto a mirror-polished surface of silver bearing a coating of silver halide particles deposited by iodine vapor. a. heliograph b. daguerreotype c. calotype d. ambrotype 15. An early photographic process introduced in 1841 using paper coated with silver iodide. a. heliograph b. daguerreotype c. calotype d. ambrotype 16. Designed the first lens specifically for photographic use a. Geronimo Cardano b. Alhazen c. Thomas Sutton d. JM Petzval 17. Fitted a biconvex to the camera obscura. a. Geronimo Cardano b. Alhazen c. Thomas Sutton d. JM Petzval 18. Described camera obscura. a. Geronimo Cardano b. Alhazen c. Thomas Sutton d. JM Petzval 19. Patented the first single-lens reflex. a. Geronimo Cardano b. Alhazen c. Thomas Sutton d. JM Petzval 20. Suggested the use of diaphragm to sharpen the image. a. Vioglander b. William Fox Talbot c. Louis Jacques Mande Daguerre d. Daniel Batbaro 21. Produced a lens for the use in the first all-metal unitized camera. a. Vioglander b. William Fox Talbot c. Louis Jacques Mande Daguerre d. Daniel Batbaro 22. Photographic process using collodion in place of albumin. a. heliograph b. ambrotypes c. daguerreotype d. calotype 23. A police photograph of a suspect’s face or profile. a. portrait parle b. police file c. mug shot d. rogues’ gallery 24. A collection of pictures of persons arrested as criminals. a. portrait parle b. police file c. mug shot d. rogues’ gallery 25. The basic function of camera is a. to record a permanent image b. to pass through a lens and converge on the film c. to form a latent image on the film d. to make the latent image visible 26. Cameras for police work is known as ______________ and are designed “to capture images in one single instant in time and space on film”. a. moving cameras b. still cameras c. digital cameras d. cinematographic cameras 27. Following are the elements of photography, EXCEPT a. camera b. light c. dark room d. sensitized materials 28. A radiant electromagnetic energy that can be detected by the human eye. a. spectrum b. color c. prism d. light 29. A continuum of color formed when a beam of white light is dispersed so that its component wavelengths are arranged in order. a. spectrum b. color c. prism d. light 30. A phenomenon of light or visual perception that enables one to differentiate otherwise identical objects. a. spectrum b. color c. prism d. light 31. A transparent body that is bounded in part by two nonparallel plane faces and is used to refract or disperse a beam of light. a. spectrum b. color c. prism d. light 32. Its wavelength ranges from 700 – 800 millimicrons. It is not a color or any kind of red. It is an invisible ray and detected by the skin as heat. a. visible light b. UV light c. x-rays d. infrared light 33. The wavelength of this light is from 400-700 millimicrons, which produces a white light. a. visible light b. UV light c. x-rays d. infrared light 34. Its position falls between X-ray and Visible wavelength. Its wavelength ranges from about 200 to 400 millimicrons. a. visible light b. UV light c. x-rays d. infrared light 35. Is electromagnetic energy having a wavelength that ranges from 10 to 30 millimicrons. It can penetrate on opaque object. a. visible light b. UV light c. x-rays d. infrared light 36. A special form of oxygen that protects the living organism on earth that is produced by UV rays from the sun. a. opaque b. proton c. hemisphere d. ozone 37. This is the transmission of light on any material as it passes through it. a. absorption b. reflection c. refraction d. diffusion 38. The bouncing back of light upon hitting an object or material. a. absorption b. reflection c. refraction d. diffusion 39. Change of direction of light as it passes on an object or materials. a. absorption b. reflection c. refraction d. diffusion 40. Objects that caused absorption are a. opaque b. translucent c. fluorescence d. transparent 41. Caused reflection a. opaque b. translucent c. fluorescence d. transparent 42. Refraction occurs on these objects a. opaque b. translucent c. fluorescence d. transparent 43. Object that possesses ultra-violet constituents give up energy in the form of visible light that produces ____________ objects if special lighting is applied. a. opaque b. translucent c. fluorescence d. transparent 44. Comes to existence without the intervention of man. a. artificial light b. visible light c. invisible light d. natural light 45. Man made. a. artificial light b. visible light c. invisible light d. natural light 46. Object in open space casts a deep and uniform shadow (f/11) a. rainy sunlight b. bright sunlight c. hazy sunlight d. dull sunlight

Review Notes & Questionnaires in Police Photography, Personal Identification, Forensic Ballistics & Forensic Chemistry by Melcon S. Lapina, MSCrim

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47. Produces transparent shadow of object in open space a. rainy sunlight b. bright sunlight c. hazy sunlight d. dull sunlight 48. Causes no shadow of object in open space. a. rainy sunlight b. bright sunlight c. hazy sunlight d. dull sunlight 49. A reflectorized light or spotlight. a. photoflood lamp b. flash bulb c. electronic flash d. fluorescent lamp 50. Chemical lamp as it generates lights by the rapid combustion of metal in oxygen. a. photoflood lamp b. flash bulb c. electronic flash d. fluorescent lamp 51. It produces light by instantaneous electrical discharges between two electrodes in a gas filled glass bulb. a. photoflood lamp b. flash bulb c. electronic flash d. fluorescent lamp 52. Tube lamp wherein the walls are coated with materials capable of incandescing. a. photoflood lamp b. flash bulb c. electronic flash d. fluorescent lamp 53. Special type of artificial light that is capable of producing infrared radiation. a. infrared lamp b. UV lamp c. x-ray lamp d. fluorescent lamp 54. A gas lamp burning disulfide vapor in oxygen or in nitric oxide. a. infrared lamp b. UV lamp c. x-ray lamp d. fluorescent lamp 55. A light tight box, with a means of forming the image (lens), holding sensitized materials (film holder), and with a means of controlling the amount of light that reach the film. a. shutter b. aperture c. camera d. lens 56. It is an enclosure that devoid lights. a. lens b. film holder c. shutter d. light tight box 57. The only responsible in focusing the rays of light coming from the subject. a. lens b. film holder c. shutter d. light tight box 58. It is always located at the opposite side of the lens of the camera. a. lens b. film holder c. shutter d. light tight box 59. It served as the barriers of the rays of light that will enter and affect the film inside the camera. It usually placed at the path of the light passing thru the lens. a. lens b. film holder c. shutter d. light tight box 60. The smallest and simplest type of camera. This is also known as Instamatic camera. a. Single-Lens Reflex b. TwinLens Reflex c. Press Type Camera d. viewfinder type 61. The best way to determine the entire coverage of the camera is to look behind the lens of the camera. In this manner, the object can be framed properly and recorded on the film. This type of camera eliminates the problem on parallax error. a. Single-Lens Reflex b. Twin-Lens Reflex c. Press Type Camera d. viewfinder type 62. Has two lenses, one for the viewing and focusing of the subject, and the other is the taking lens. In this type of camera, the image to be photographed is seen as flat surface as the image is reflected by the mirror behind the viewing lens. This suffers also parallax error. a. Single-Lens Reflex b. Twin-Lens Reflex c. Press Type Camera d. viewfinder type 63. The biggest and most sophisticated among the different types of camera. This type of camera is practically useless for candid and action photography. a. Single-Lens Reflex b. Twin-Lens Reflex c. Press Type Camera d. viewfinder type 64. The difference between the image seen by the viewing system and that recorded on the film. Problems occur as the subject moves closer to the taking lens when using Twin-Lens Reflex (TLR) cameras. a. aberration b. shutter error c. diaphragm error d. parallax error 65. A lens fault in which light rays are not focused properly thereby degrading the image. a. aberration b. shutter error c. diaphragm error d. parallax error 66. Lens aberration in which light of different wavelength is focused at different distances behind the lens. It can be corrected by combining different types of glass lens. a. astigmatism b. chromatic aberration c. spherical aberration d. coma 67. Light rays from the subject on the lens axis passing through off-center areas of the lens focus at different distances from the light rays that pass directly through the center of the lens. a. astigmatism b. chromatic aberration c. spherical aberration d. coma 68. A lens aberration in which off-axis light rays focus at different distances when they pass through different areas of the lens. a. astigmatism b. chromatic aberration c. spherical aberration d. coma 69. A lens aberration in which light rays that pass obliquely through the lens are focused, not as a point but as a line. a. astigmatism b. chromatic aberration c. spherical aberration d. coma 70. The plane of sharpest focus is a curved rather than flat surface needed in the film plane. a. asymmetrical aberration b. curvature of field c. distortion d. chromatic aberration 71. Outer parts of the image produced by the lens will be magnified either less or more than the outer images a. asymmetrical aberration b. curvature of field c. distortion d. chromatic aberration 72. Inability of the lens to produce images of objects with different colors. a. asymmetrical aberration b. curvature of field c. distortion d. chromatic aberration 73. A lens corrected for chromatic aberrations. a. achromatic lens b. rapid rectilinear lens c. anastigmatic lens d. apochromatic lens 74. Distortion is being corrected. a. achromatic lens b. rapid rectilinear lens c. anastigmatic lens d. apochromatic lens

Review Notes & Questionnaires in Police Photography, Personal Identification, Forensic Ballistics & Forensic Chemistry by Melcon S. Lapina, MSCrim

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75. Corrected for astigmatism. a. achromatic lens b. rapid rectilinear lens c. anastigmatic lens d. apochromatic lens 76. Lens designed so that all the three primary colors are brought to focus at a single point. a. achromatic lens b. rapid rectilinear lens c. anastigmatic lens d. apochromatic lens 77. One of the following is NOT a primary color. a. yellow b. red c. green d. blue 78. Red + green = a. orange b. yellow c. cyan d. magenta 79. Green + blue = a. orange b. yellow c. cyan d. magenta 80. Blue + red = a. orange b. yellow c. cyan d. magenta 81. Contain minute grains of silver halide suspended on animal gelatin and coated with celluloid materials. a. films b. emulsion c. filters d. sensitized paper 82. A film is composed of the following, EXCEPT a. thin coat of animal gelatin b. silver bromide c. anti-halation backing d. base 83. It is expressed in arithmetical value system. a. BSI b. ISO c. ASA d. DIN 84. This is expressed in logarithmic value system. a. BSI b. ISO c. ASA d. DIN 85. When the available light is dim, this type of film is the best choice because of the low reflecting power of the subject against a reflecting background, which is low in contrast but high in brightness. a. fast speed film b. panchromatic film c. colored film d. orthochromatic film 86. This is sensitive to all colors especially to blue and violet. a. fast speed film b. panchromatic film c. colored film d. orthochromatic film 87. A mixture of the three basic colors of the visible spectrum. a. fast speed film b. panchromatic film c. colored film d. orthochromatic film 88. Film sensitive to all colors except red. Sensitive to ultraviolet rays and to the primary colors. a. fast speed film b. panchromatic film c. colored film d. orthochromatic film 89. The material necessary to produce a positive print is a. sensitized paper b. film c. emulsion d. filter 90. A homogenous medium, which absorbs and transmits differentially light rays passing through it. a. sensitized paper b. filter c. film d. emulsion 91. The number of times that the normal exposures must be multiplied is called a. aperture setting b. exposure setting c. filter factor d. film speed 92. To change the response of film so that all colors are recorded as approximately the relative brightness values seen by the eyes. a. contrast filter b. polarizing filter c. neutral density filter d. correction filter 93. Used to change the relative brightness values so that two colors which would otherwise be recorded as nearly the same will have decidedly different brightness in picture. a. contrast filter b. polarizing filter c. neutral density filter d. correction filter 94. Used to reduce or eliminate reflections on highly reflective surfaces. a. contrast filter b. polarizing filter c. neutral density filter d. correction filter 95. Used for reducing the amount of light transmitted without changing the color value. a. contrast filter b. polarizing filter c. neutral density filter d. correction filter 96. To make the latent image visible and permanent, chemical processing is necessary. a. negative b. density c. contrast d. development 97. The developed image is the reverse of the original objects photographed and called a. negative b. density c. contrast d. development 98. The degree of darkness of the images developed. It can either be too dark or too light, depending upon the amount of the metallic silver formed. a. negative b. density c. contrast d. development 99. The difference between one tone and another, which is so apparent when the density of the image is viewed. a. negative b. density c. contrast d. development 100. In grains and suspended in the surface of the film. a. metallic silver b. black silver c. silver nitrate d. silver halide 101. The chemical change that occurs when film is exposed. a. metallic silver b. black silver c. silver nitrate d. silver halide 102. The converted chemical during development. a. metallic silver b. black silver c. silver nitrate d. silver halide 103. The distance from the center of the lens to the point at which it focuses light rays from a distant object. a. depth of focus b. circle of confusion c. focal length d. depth of field 104. The distance within which all objects will produce an acceptably sharp image on the film. a. depth of focus b. circle of confusion c. focal length d. depth of field 105. The permissible error in focusing within the camera itself. a. depth of focus b. hyperfocal distance c. focal length d. depth of field 106. Measured from the nearest to the farther object in apparent sharp focus when the lens is set or focused at a particular distance. a. depth of focus b. hyperfocal distance c. focal length d. depth of field 107. Developer for films. a. S26 b. N72 c. D-76 d. Dektol 108. For developing photo paper. a. S26 b. N72 c. D-76 d. Dektol

Review Notes & Questionnaires in Police Photography, Personal Identification, Forensic Ballistics & Forensic Chemistry by Melcon S. Lapina, MSCrim

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109. An intermediate bath between the developer and the fixer, it is usually a combination of acetic acid or just plain water. a. stop bath b. fixation c. development d. washing and drying 110. The process of removing unexposed silver halides remaining in the emulsion after the first stage of development of the latent image. a. stop bath b. fixation c. development d. washing and drying 111. Vinegar is its household name. a. potassium nitrate b. sodium chloride c. acetic acid d. sodium peroxide 112. Developing agent. a. sodium sulfite b. sodium carbonate c. potassium bromide d. hydroquinone 113. Preservative. a. sodium sulfite b. sodium carbonate c. potassium bromide d. hydroquinone 114. Accelerator. a. sodium sulfite b. sodium carbonate c. potassium bromide d. hydroquinone 115. Restrainer or preventor. a. sodium sulfite b. sodium carbonate c. potassium bromide d. hydroquinone 116. Dissolving agent. a. acetic acid b. potassium alum c. sodium carbonate d. sodium thiosulfate 117. Neutralizer. a. acetic acid b. potassium alum c. sodium carbonate d. sodium thiosulfate 118. Hardener. a. acetic acid b. potassium alum c. sodium carbonate d. sodium thiosulfate 119. The science of obtaining photographic magnification of minute objects by using a camera attached to a compound microscope. a. macrophotography b. microphotography c. photomicrography d. photomicrography 120. The process of obtaining a magnified photograph of a small object without the use of a microscope, by using a short focus lens and a long bellow extension. a. macrophotography b. microphotography c. photomicrography d. photomicrography 121. Photography of small objects by the use of short-focus lens on a long bellows camera. a. macrophotography b. microphotography c. photomicrography d. photomicrography 122. It is the photography seen thru the microscope. It is a camera combined with a microscope for high magnification. a. macrophotography b. microphotography c. photomicrography d. photomicrography

PERSONAL IDENTIFICATION

HISTORY OF FINGERPRINTS Systems of ID       Branding and even maiming were used to mark the criminal; Cutting of hand of thief; Tattooing to identify and prevent desertion of mercenary soldiers; Visual memories (camera eyes) to identify previously arrested offenders by sight; Photography Bertillon System: (1) photograph, (2) portrait parle, (3) anthropometry; proven inaccurate in Will and William West Case

Fingerprints  Prehistoric o Nova Scotia – picture writing of a hand with ridge patterns o Babylon – fingerprints were used on clay tablets for business transactions. o Ancient China – thumb prints were found on clay seals. o 14th century Persia - various official government papers had fingerprints (impressions) Personalities: o Nehemiah Grew (1641-1712) – described:  Innumerable little ridges, of equal bigness on ends of first joints of fingers  Sweat pores, epidermal ridges & their arrangements o Govard Bidloo (1685) – illustrated friction ridge & pore structure on underside of fingers; did not mention individuality of friction ridges o Marcello Malpighi (1686) – Treatise: ridges, spirals, & loops; Malpighi layer – layer of skin approximately 1.88mm thick. o J.C.A. Mayer (1788) – 1st to state repetitiveness & similarity of friction ridge patterns, & non-duplication of ridges o John Evangelist Purkinje (1823) – Thesis: 9 fingerprint patterns; no mention about personal identification. o Inez Whipple & Harris Hawthorne Wilder (1904) – explained:  Development and origin of friction ridges  Ridge configuration on volar surfaces

Review Notes & Questionnaires in Police Photography, Personal Identification, Forensic Ballistics & Forensic Chemistry by Melcon S. Lapina, MSCrim o

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Harold Cummins & Charles Midloo (1943) – described formation & development of volar pads on human fetus o Alfred Hale (1952) – studied cross-sections of fetal skin; described formation of friction ridges during fetal development & differential growth of friction ridges. o Sir William Herschel (1856) – First used fingerprints on native contracts in Jungipoor, India; no thought toward personal identification; noted that no changes in his fingerprints recorded over period of 57 years. o Henry Faulds (1880) – Took up study of skin furrows; contribution: (1) fingerprint: means of identification, & (2) method of classification; 1st fingerprint identification of greasy fingerprint left on alcohol bottle. o Gilbert Thompson (1882) – Used his thumb print on document to prevent forgery – first known use of fingerprints in the U.S. o Alphonse Bertillon (1882) – Bertillon System: Anthropometry, Photography & Portrait Parle o Mark Twain (Samuel L. Clemens) (1883) – Recognized value of fingerprints to personal identification in his fiction books. o Sir Francis Galton (1888) – Fingerprints as means of identification in 1880s; originated 1 in 64 billion chance of 2 fingerprints being same; ridge characteristics – minutiae or Galton’s details o Juan Vucetich (1891) – Began fingerprint files based on Galton pattern types; made first criminal fingerprint identification in 1892 (Francis Rojas case); devised his own system of classification. o Azizul Haque & Hem Chandra Bose (1897) – 2 Indian fingerprint experts credited w/ primary development of Henry System of fingerprint classification (named for their supervisor, Edward Richard Henry). o Sir Edward Richard Henry (1901) – Widely known for his Henry System of Classification. o Dr. Henry P. DeForrest (1902) – Pioneers U.S. fingerprinting. o Edmond Locard (1918) – Originated 12 points in arriving at individualization; advanced poroscopy as a means of identification o Salil Kumar (1905-1988) – advanced edgeoscopy: using specific ridge-edge shapes to supplement fingerprint individualization. Topic: Philippine Setting o Mr. Jones – first taught FP in PC in 1900 o Bureau of Prisons – 1918 Carpetas bore FP o Lt. Asa N. Darby – established modern & complete FP files under Philippine Commonwealth o Capt Thomas Dugan (NYPD) & Flaviano Guerrero (FBI) – gave first examinations in FP in 1937. o Agustin Patricio – topped 1st examinatins in FP in 1937 o People vs Medina, 59 Phil. 330 (Dec. 28, 1933) – 1st conviction based on FP o Plaridel Education Institute (now PCCR) – 1st school to teach FP & other police sciences

Reference:
1. 2. 3. 4. Beralde, W. R. (2010). Personal Identification. In W. R. Beralde, Personal Identification (pp. 19-21). Tuguegarao: WILBER Publishing House Book. German, E. (2012, January 21). The History of Fingerprints. Retrieved May 5, 2012, from Latent Print Examination: Fingerprints, Palmprints and Footprints: http://onin.com/fp/fphistory.html Montalba, E. T. (2010). Fingerprinting: A Means of Personal Identification. Quezon: Wiseman's Books Trading, Inc. McRoberts, A. The "Fingerprint Sourcebook. In J. G. Barnes, History (pp. 1-21). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice Office of Justice Programs.

Scientific Basis of Friction Skin Identification FINGERPRINT defined Fingerprint is an impression of the friction ridge of all or any part of the finger. SWGFAST, Glossary Consolidated 09-09-03 ver. 1.0 http://www.swgfast.org/Glossary_Consolidated_ver_1. pdf Tenets of Friction Skin Identification: (1) Unique & (2) Permanent Nature of Friction Skin: 1. Undersides of fingers, palms, toes, & soles – corrugated skin structure: volar skin – biologist, friction skin – fingerprint examiner, and fingerprints – public 2. Friction skin: (1) ridges - elevated areas, and (2) furrows - depressions 3. Friction skin; 2 main layers: (1) epidermis – outer layer, and (2) dermis - the inner layer. 4. Epidermis: (1) generating layer – innermost layer; creates new cells, and (2) outer layer mostly dead cells.

Review Notes & Questionnaires in Police Photography, Personal Identification, Forensic Ballistics & Forensic Chemistry by Melcon S. Lapina, MSCrim Summary of Formation of Ridges  General patterns on the volar areas are determined by heredity and genetic master plan.  Friction ridges are randomly formed because of biological variation.  Biological variations are due to environmental influences occurring during fetal development.  Environmental influences: pressures, stresses, and other physical factors such as disease and nutrition. Thus, no two areas of friction skin will ever be the same. FINGERPRINT PATTERN INTERPRETATION In a Nutshell TYPES OF PATTERNS I. Arch (5%): a. Plain Arch b. Tented Arch II. Loop (60%): a. Radial Loop b. Ulnar Loop III. Whorl (35%): a. Plain Whorl b. Central Pocket Loop c. Double Loop d. Accidental Loop

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 Identical twins may have similar friction skin patterns but their individual ridge formations will not be the same.  Ridges are formed and become unique and permanent during approximately the fourth month of fetal life.

Reference: Leo, W. (2004). Fingerprint Identification. LawTech Custom Publishing, Inc.

I. ARCHES: Plain Arch and Tented Arch  Plain Arch: (1) ridges enter upon one side, (2) make a rise or wave in the center, (3) and flow or tend to flow out upon the opposite side. o No (1) looping ridge, (2) an upthrust ridge, (3) an angle, or (4) a recurve. o Indicated by: (1) Capital “A” in fingers number 2 and 7; (2) Small “a” in fingers other than 2 and 7.  Tented Arch: possesses an (1) angle, (2) an upthrust, or (3) two of the three basic characteristics of the loop. o Angular Type Tented Arch: (1) formed by two ridges meeting at an angle; (2) one continuous ridge cannot form an angle; and (3) angle must be 90 degrees or less. o Upthrust Type Tented Arch: (1) an upthrust must be an ending ridge – a ridge which ends in space; (2) an upthrust must make a definite change of direction from the basic ridge. It must be an angle of forty-five degrees or more from base ridge; and (3) an upthrust must be as high as the surrounding ridges are thick.  NOTE: Dots have no direction. o Loop Type (Lacking One Characteristic): (1) one which approaches the loop, (2) may have any combination of two of the three basic loop characteristics, (3) lacking the third. Note: These three loop characteristics are, to repeat: (a) A sufficient recurve. (b) A delta. (c) A ridge count across a looping ridge o Tented arches are indicated by: (1) Capital “T” in fingers number 2 and 7, and (2) Small “t” in fingers other than 2 and 7.

II. LOOP PATTERNS: (1) one or more ridges enter upon either side, (2) recurve, (3) touch or pass an imaginary line between delta and core, and (4) pass out or tend to pass out upon the same side the ridges entered.  Basic Requirements of a Loop: (1) Sufficient recurve, (2) Delta, and (3) Ridge count across a looping ridge  Ridge Counting: Rules to Remember o Draw a line between delta and core. o As long as you touch or cross a ridge, you have a ridge count. o One ridge must be a looping ridge. o The delta and core are not included in the ridge count. o Fragments and dots are counted as ridges only if they appear as thick as the surrounding ridges. o If you cross a bifurcation, count each of its arms. o If the delta is on the only loop, there is no ridge count.  TYPES OF LOOPS o Ulnar loops flow toward the little finger – Ulna bone –  Indicated by a diagonal line in the direction the loop flows.  Remember: (1) Right hand ulna = Delta on left side; and (2) Left hand ulna = Delta on right side. o Radial loops flow toward the thumb – Radius bone –  Indicated by a Capital “R” in fingers two and seven and by a small “r” in all other fingers.  Remember: (1) Right hand radial = Delta on right side; and (2) Left hand radial = Delta on left side.

III. WHORL PATTERNS  Plain Whorl: (1) consists of one or more ridges which make or tend to make a complete circuit,

Review Notes & Questionnaires in Police Photography, Personal Identification, Forensic Ballistics & Forensic Chemistry by Melcon S. Lapina, MSCrim (2) with two deltas, (3) between which, when an imaginary line is drawn, at least one recurving ridge within the inner pattern area is cut or touched. o Remember: (1) Two deltas and at least one ridge making a complete circuit or variant of a circle. (2) An imaginary line drawn from delta to delta must cut or touch at least one recurving ridge within the inner pattern area.  Central Pocket Loop Whorl: (1) consists of at least one recurving ridge, or (2) an obstruction at right angles to the line of flow, (3) with two deltas, (4) between which, when an imaginary line is drawn, no recurving ridge within the inner pattern area is cut or touched. o Recurving Type: Similar to plain whorl, two deltas and at least one ridge making a complete circuit. o Difference from a plain whorl – An imaginary line drawn from delta to delta must not cut or touch a recurving ridge in front of the inner delta.  Double Loop Whorl: (1) consists of two separate loop formations, (2) with two separate, and (3) distinct sets of shoulders and two deltas. o Remember: (1) 2 separate loop formations, (2) 2 separate and distinct sets of shoulders, and (3) 2 deltas. o No ridge count is needed for loops in a double loop whorl. o The appendage rule for double loops is the same as that for plain loops.  Plain loop appendage rule – Sufficient recurve consists of the space between the shoulders of a loop, free of any appendages which abut upon it at a right angle on the outside of the recurve. o “S” type whorls and “interlocking loops” are not double loop whorls.  Accidental Whorl: (1) consists of a combination of two different types of patterns with the exception of the plain arch, (2) with two or more RULES IN THE SELECTION OF TYPELINES, CORE & DELTA TYPELINES: (1) two innermost ridges that start or go parallel, (2) diverge and surround or tend to surround the pattern area: (a) core, (b) delta and (3) ridges which are used in the classification of a loop. RULES 1. Typelines are not always two continuous ridges, but are often broken. When there is a definite break in a typeline, the ridge immediately outside of it is considered as its continuation. 2. When locating typelines, it is necessary to keep in mind the difference between a divergence and a bifurcation.

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deltas, or (3) a pattern which possesses some of the requirements for two or more different types or a pattern which conforms which conforms to none of the definitions. o Remember: (1) combination of two different types of patterns with the exception of the plain arch, (2) two or more deltas. Only pattern which may possess two or more deltas, (3) patterns possessing some of the requirements of two or more different types, with the exception of the plain arch. o Patterns conforming to none of the definitions.  WHORL SYMBOLS: (1) Plain Whorl – W, (2) Double Loop – D, (3) Central Pocket – C, (4) Accidental – X o For classifying and general searching, “W” is used to indicate all whorl types below the fingerprint block. o Type of whorl should be indicated in the upper left hand corner of the fingerprint block.  WHORL TRACINGS o Trace from left delta to a point opposite the right delta. o Trace from the farthest left delta to a point opposite the farthest right delta when there are three or more deltas present. o Drop down at ending ridges. o Follow the lower fork at a bifurcation. o Stop at a point opposite the right delta and count ridges between that point and the delta. o Do not count delta or tracing ridge. The tracing ridge is the ridge where the tracing stopped opposite the right delta. o It is not necessary to count more than three ridges.

References: (1) The Science of Fingerprints, FBI, (2) Henry Fingerprint Classification and Identification, Sirchie Crime Scene Technology School Youngsville, North Carolina

3. The arms of a bifurcation on which the delta is located cannot be used for typelines. 4. Angles cannot be considered for typelines.

THE DELTA: (1) point on a ridge at or nearest to the point of divergence of two typelines, and (2) is located at or directly in front of the point of divergence. DELTA RULES The left delta is on the bifurcation (1) When there are two or more possible bifurcation deltas that conform to the definition, the one nearest the core should be chosen.

Review Notes & Questionnaires in Police Photography, Personal Identification, Forensic Ballistics & Forensic Chemistry by Melcon S. Lapina, MSCrim (2) The delta may not be located in the middle of a ridge running between type lines towards the core, but at the end nearest to the core. (3) A dot may be used as a delta. A dot has no direction. (4) The delta may not be located at a bifurcation that does not open toward the core. (5) When there is a choice between a bifurcation and another type of delta, the bifurcation is selected.

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“Small Letter” classification.), (3) Major, (4) Final, (2) Key plus Extensions

Classification line: Key, Major, Primary, Secondary, Subsecondary, and Final Primary Classification: Whorl Division – based on the appearance of whorl. Predetermined number: (1) Fingers 1 & 2 = 16; (2) Fingers 3 & 4 = 8; (3) Fingers 5 & 6 = 4; (4) Fingers 7 & 8 = 2; and (5) Fingers 9 & 10 = 1 Predetermined number will only be considered if WHORL appears Add all the odd numbered fingers plus 1; add all the even numbered fingers plus 1. Evenumerator and Oddenominator If no whorls are present on the even fingers, the value given is 1. If no whorls are present on the odd fingers, the value is 1. There are 1,024 possible Primary combinations.

THE CORE: (1) Approximate center of the pattern. (2) It is placed upon or within the innermost sufficient recurve. CORE RULES: (1) The core is located on the shoulder of the innermost loop farthest from the delta. (2) The core is located on the spike or rod in the center of the innermost recurve, provided the spike or rod rises high as the shoulders. (3) If there is an even number of spikes or rods shoulder-high, the core is located on the end of the farthest of the innermost spikes from the delta, whether or not the spike or rod touches the inside of the recurve. (4) If there is an odd number of spikes or rods at shoulder-height, the core is located on the end of the center spike, whether or not it touches the inside of the recurve. (5) Interlocking loops: Join the two loops with an imaginary recurve, making one loop with a rod or rod inside. Count the rod(s) shoulder-high and then fix the core. Reference: Latent Fingerprints: From Crime Scene to Courtroom, Sirchie Fingerprint Laboratories, Inc. FINGERPRINT CLASSIFICATION CLASSIFICATION FORMULA “Blocking Out” step – identifying all 10 fingers as to pattern type. o Index Fingers (No. 2 and No. 7) – capital letter to indicate the pattern type except an ulnar loop: (1) Arch: A, (2) Tented Arch: T, (3) Radial Loop: R, (4) Ulnar Loop: in any finger are designated by a diagonal line slanting in the direction of the loop, and (5) Whorl: W o All other fingers – small letter except for ulnar loops. All whorls – capital “W”: (1) Small Letter Designation: a, t, r; (2) Ulnar Loop: Right Hand \, Left Hand / - The classification formula is composed of the following divisions: (1) Primary, (2) Secondary, (3) Subsecondary (may be replaced by the

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Secondary Classification. 1. Capital Letter: type of pattern appearing on the index fingers (Fingers No. 2 and 7). Capital letters are used to indicate patterns: (1) A – Plain Arch, (2) T – Tented Arch, (3) R – Radial Loop, (4) U – Ulnar Loop, (5) W – Whorl (all types) a. 25 possible combinations in the Secondary. b. Placed to the right of the Primary in the classification formula. c. The right hand is placed above the line and the left hand is below the line. 2. Small Letter: small letter patterns of the ART: arches, radial loops, and tented arches on fingers No. 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10. a. The dash (-) indicates absence of ART. b. No dash (-) in thumbs if they are not ART c. If two or more small letter patterns exist consecutively, you may use a number to indicate the series such as:

Sub-secondary Classification: Found thru examination of fingers 2,3,4,7,8,9. Not necessary for most filing systems if a Small Letter classification was possible. Even one Small Letter such as a plain arch, tented arch or radial loop out of ten fingers is enough to eliminate this step. Only loops (ridge count) and whorls (ridge trace) are considered. Loop: (1) Index: (a) Inner (I) = 1-9, (b) Outer (O) = 10+; (2) Middle: (a) Inner (I) = 1-10, (b) Outer (O) = 11+; Ring: (a) Inner (I) = 1-13, (b) Outer (O) = 14+;

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Review Notes & Questionnaires in Police Photography, Personal Identification, Forensic Ballistics & Forensic Chemistry by Melcon S. Lapina, MSCrim Whorls: “I” (Inner) = ridge trace (RT) going inward with 3 or more intervening ridges between RT and Delta; “M” (Meeting) = RT going inward or outward with less than 3 intervening ridges between RT and Delta; “O” (Outer) = RT) going outward with 3 or more intervening ridges between RT and Delta The sub-secondary is brought up to the classification line to the right of the Secondary.

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The Major Division: concerned only with the thumbs (Fingers No. 1 and 6). There are two formulas for the right thumb. These formulas are used when there are loops or at least one whorl on either thumb. Eliminated if a Small Letter Classification was possible. When loops and/or whorls are present on the thumbs, ridge-count the loops and ridge-trace the whorls. If both thumbs are whorls, perform a ridge tracing on each and place the resulting I, M, or O on the classification line to the left of the primary. The right hand tracing goes above the line, and the left hand goes below the line. When a Loop appears on either or both thumbs, proceed as follows: a. Look at the left thumb first b. If the ridge count on the left thumb is from 1 to 11, it is given the designation of “S” (Small). If the count is 12 -16, it is an “M” (Medium), and if the count is 17 or more, it is an “L” (Large). c. Now look at the right thumb. When the left thumb is 16 or less or it is a whorl, use the following formula: No. 1: 1 – 11 = S; 12 – 16 = M; 17 or more = L When the left thumb is 17 or over, use the following: No. 2: 1 – 17 = S; 18 – 22 = M; 23 or more = L Note: If the left thumb is a whorl and the right thumb is a loop, use formula No. 1 above. -

left hand is ridge counted from the right delta. o Special Whorl Situations:  Horizontal double loop whorls are counted from the delta (selected per the above) to the nearest core.  A vertical double loop whorl is counted from the left delta to the upright loop.  If there are two or more cores (accidental whorls), the ridge count is made from the left delta (right hand) or right delta (left hand) to the nearest core. A loop on Finger No. 5 eliminates the need to ridge-count a whorl on Finger No. 10. Note: If Fingers No. 5 and 10 are arches or tented arches, there is no final

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The Key: found by ridge-counting the first loop appearing on the fingerprint record card – beginning with the right thumb – exclusive of the little fingers (which are used for the Final). The Key, no matter where it is found, is always placed to the extreme left of the numerator of the classification formula:

Extensions: used only when filing systems become (1) too large or (2) cumbersome WCDX Extension: Used for large Whorl Groups such as: 32/32 o W,C,D,X (capital letters) – whorl pattern on index fingers. o w, c, d, x (lower case letters) – whorl pattern on all other fingers. o Placed above the sub-secondary (instead of using a second sub-secondary).

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Second Sub-Secondary: used when a group of fingerprints becomes too (1) cumbersome and (2) unwieldy. Placed directly above the Sub-Secondary. Use the following chart (based on ridge counts): Index – 1-5=S, 6-12=M, 13 or +=L; Middle – 1– 8 = S, 9–14 = M, 15 or + = L; Ring – 1–10=S, 11–18=M, 19 or more=L

The Final: The Final is taken from the little fingers, Fingers No. 5 and 10. If both little fingers are loops, Finger No. 5 has priority. When a loop and a whorl occur, the loop is given priority. If no loops occur, a whorl is used. A whorl pattern is treated as an ulnar loop (if no loops are present), and ridges are counted. o Thus, a whorl on the right hand is ridgecounted from the left delta. A whorl on the

The NCIC Classification System: second classification system currently in use in the U.S. National Crime Information Center (NCIC) Classification System. Computerized database that allows law enforcement agencies nationwide access to

Review Notes & Questionnaires in Police Photography, Personal Identification, Forensic Ballistics & Forensic Chemistry by Melcon S. Lapina, MSCrim among other thing, wanted bulletins and warrants for outstanding suspects and fugitives. Developed and used as a short cut to the Henry System; individual suspected of being a subject of want or warrant could be eliminated quickly. Letter or Number Codes: (1) Plain arch=AA, (2) Tented arch=TT, (3) Ulnar loop=The ridge

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count, (4) Radial loop=The ridge count plus 50, (5) Plain whorl=P plus the tracing I, M, or O, (6) Central Pocket loop=C plus the tracing I, M, or O, (7) Double loop whorl =small d plus tracing I, M, or O, (8) Accidental=X plus the tracing, I, M, or O, (9) Missing finger=XX, (10) Scar or mutilation=SR

Classification of Scarred Patterns—Amputations—Missing at Birth Classification of scarred patterns Rule 1. (So) Scarred Impression – Characteristics: - general type of pattern; or - ridge tracing; or cannot be determined with reasonable accuracy - ridge count Classification: general classification and subclassification is that of the corresponding finger of the other hand. Rule 2. Partially Scarred (general type cannot be determined) – Characteristics: large scar around the core general type cannot be determined with reasonable accuracy - ridges can be accurately subclassified by ridge tracings or counting Classification: primary value of the pattern of the corresponding finger and the subclassification value as indicated by the ridges of partially scarred impressions. Rule 3. Partially Scarred (general type can be determined) – Characteristics: general type of pattern can be determined with reasonable accuracy; - ridges cannot be traced or counted so as to fall within the proper subsecondary classification Classification:  ridge count or tracing value of the corresponding finger of the other hand, if the corresponding finger is of the same general type. scarred impression should be given the probable value and referenced to all other possibilities, If the corresponding finger is not of the same general type. Rule 4. (So) Scarred (general type and ridge tracing and count cannot be determined) – Characteristics: general type of pattern and ridge tracing or count cannot be determined with reasonable accuracy; - corresponding finger of the other hand is similarly scarred. Classification: whorls with meeting tracings. Application of the Rule 1. It looks like any pattern 2. If opposite finger is a. an arch or tented arch or whorl, classification is arch, tented arch, or whorl (with the same tracing). (Rule 1) b. small-count loop, classification is loop of the same count. (Rule 1) c. scarred in the same fashion or were amputated or missing, classification is whorls with meeting tracings. (Rule 4)

Classification of amputations and fingers missing at birth

Rule 1. Amputation Group; Amputation or Missing of Finger -

Statement

of

Separate filing of fingerprint cards having one or more amputations (Amputation) Card must contain express statement of subject about

Review Notes & Questionnaires in Police Photography, Personal Identification, Forensic Ballistics & Forensic Chemistry by Melcon S. Lapina, MSCrim amputation of finger or missing of finger since birth. Rule 2. One Amputation; Classification Corresponds to Opposite Finger If one finger is amputated, classification corresponds with the opposite finger and referenced to every other possible classification. Rule 3. Two or More Amputations; Classification Corresponds to Opposite Fingers -

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Rule 4. Opposite Amputated Fingers; Classification is whorls with meeting tracings. If amputated fingers are opposite each other, classification is whorls with meeting tracings. Rule 5. Missing Fingers Treated as Amputations Rule 6. All 10 Fingers Amputated or Missing at Birth

- If all 10 fingers are amputated or missing at If two or more fingers are amputated, birth, classification is: classification corresponds with the opposite fingers and with no additional references. M 32 W MMM. M 32 W MMM

Rule 7. Both Hands Amputated or Missing at Birth If both hands are amputated or missing at birth, footprints should be taken, i.e., if the police maintains a footprint file such as the FBI. Rule 8. Partially Amputated Fingers Partially amputated fingers are left to the discretion of the classifier as there was no definite rule to this effect. General Guidelines  Half or more than half of the pattern area missing: classification of the opposite finger.  Two or more fingers with half or more than half of the pattern area missing. Classification of the opposite fingers and governed by the rules concerning amputations.  Tip Amputation (less than half of the first joint amputated) – classified as it appears and referenced to the opposite finger.

Rule 1. Recently Injured, Bandaged Not Sufficient to File Fingerprint Card If the injury is temporary, and if possible, these prints should not be taken until after healing. Rule 2. Injured Fingers Impossible to Ink If injured fingers are impossible to ink, classification of unprinted fingers correspond with the opposite fingers. If injured fingers which are impossible to ink, classification is whorls with meeting tracings.

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Reference: 1. Latent Fingerprints: From Crime Scene to Courtroom, Sirchie Fingerprint Laboratories, Inc. 2. Leo, William, Fingerprint Identification, LawTech Custom Publishing, Inc. 3. Federal Bureau of Investigation, The Science of Fingerprints, United States Government Printing Office.

Classification of bandaged or imprinted fingers

FINGERPRINT RECORDING (Methods and Recommended Procedures)
Some methods: (1) an ink slab and roller; (2) PRINTMATIC™ Roller; (3) Porelon® Pads, PRINTMATIC™ Impeccable Ceramic, Thermoplastic and Flawless Pads; and (4) KlearInk™ Ceramic Pads. WORK TABLE HEIGHT: 39" from the floor. CARD SIZE: 8" x 8" PREPARING THE INK SLAB Slab and Roller Method:

Review Notes & Questionnaires in Police Photography, Personal Identification, Forensic Ballistics & Forensic Chemistry by Melcon S. Lapina, MSCrim Amount of ink: about ¼" (0.6cm) Roller is lifted off the slab after each stoke and returned to starting point Do not use a back-and-forth motion with the roller. Repeat several times until a thin film of ink forms on roller. -

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Each finger is inked and rolled individually After the right hand, ink and roll the fingers on the left hand. Record the plain impressions of both hands. Thumbs in (toward body of subject) Other fingers out (away from body of subject)

INKING AND ROLLING THE FINGERS To avoid smearing: inking and rolling the fingers on the right hand. LATENT PRINT DEVELOPMENT - Purpose of developing fingerprints: to make is visible so that it may be preserved and compared. - Types of fingerprints: (1) visible, (2) plastic, or (3) latent prints. Composition of Latent Fingerprints: Types of Glands 1. ECCRINE GLANDS – found all over the body but higher density on friction ridge surfaces (palms & soles). Secretions: mostly water, amino acids, proteins, and lipids. Powder can be classified into two: traditional and advanced. 1. Traditional Powder – includes black, white, silver, red, and gray. The choice of powder depends on the kinds of surface on which the print is found. But when in doubt as to which powder is used, a practical rule of thumb is to make a test print on the same or similar surface first. c. Powder is composed of 98% Anthracene and 1% aluminum dust. It is suitable for rough, contaminated and multi-colored surfaces. Latent prints treated with this powder can only be seen after exposing the print to radiation. d. Bichromatic Powder – Bichromatic powder can be used on either light or dark surface. It appears black when used on a light colored surface and silver on a dark colored surface. When a print developed by a bichromatic powder is lifted with tape and placed on a white backing card, the latent print will appear dark. e. Magneta Flake – coated with milled ironflaked powder with amino acid to a specific weight. Every particle of the powder is guaranteed to react with latent prints as it contains amino acid. Chemical Method of Developing Latent Prints In choosing a chemical developing technique, the investigator must be aware of the type of surfaces upon which latent prints are suspected to be present. For this purpose, surfaces are divided into three: 1. Porous surface – where water can absorb into

Reference: Technical Information: Fingerprint Taking Procedures and Methods, SIRCHIE® Laboratories, Inc., Youngsville, N.C.

2. SEBACEOUS GLANDS – dermis layer of skin; found throughout the body; associated with body hair: on scalp, face, anus, nose, mouth, and external portions of ear. 3. APOCRINE GLANDS – secretions from coarse hair of armpits and pubic area. POWDERING METHOD Types of Powders 2. Advanced Powders – include, but are not limited to the following: a. Magnetic Powders – are composed of some 98% iron filings with only one to two percent (1-2%) developing powder. They can develop better prints on the following surfaces: shiny magazine covers, boxes with a coated surface, and some plastic materials. b. Fluorescent Powder – Fluorescent 2. Non-porous surface – water cannot absorb into 3. Semi-porous surface – water is superficially absorbed such as Styrofoam. Porous Surfaces 1. Iodine Fuming – used for paper, cardboard and similar surfaces. Iodine crystals are converted to vapors without going into the process of liquefication when subjected to heat, a process known as sublimation. When using this process, an investigator should have a ready camera to take photograph of the developed prints as the same is not permanent. It should be used before Ninhydrin or silver nitrate. 2. Ninhydrin – prints treated with this chemical will appear purple in color. In performing this developing technique, paper and other similar surfaces are sprayed, soaked or brushed with Ninhydrin solution. Development is seen with ridges of purple color gradually appearing. Care should be taken not to handle treated material with bare hands to avoid investigator’s prints from contaminating into the material. 3. Physical Developer – a silver-based reagent that reacts with components of fingerprint residue. The reaction is shown by gray color reaction on

Review Notes & Evaluation in Police Photography, Personal Identification, Forensic Ballistics & Forensic Chemistry By MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim paper, cardboard, and similar surfaces. Physical developer is usually used on paper previously treated with Ninhydrin. 4. Silver Nitrate – This technique should be used as a last process. This is done by spraying, soaking or brushing the materials with silver nitrate solution. Development takes place after exposing the treated material with strong light such as ultraviolet light. As soon as the prints appear, photograph should be taken immediately as the reaction will continue,

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resulting to paper and other similar surfaces turning into dark. Non-Porous Surfaces Super Glue Fuming (Cyanoacrylate Ester) Super glue is a household name for bulldog, mighty bond, quicktite and other adhesive of cyanoacrylate composition available in the market. When heated, cyanoacrylate fumes are released and polymerized on latent prints. Development is seen as a white blob.

MISCELLANEOUS Fingerprint Classification Systems 1. The Henry Classification System – developed by Henry in the late 1800s. 2. Icnofalangometric System – the original name of the system developed by Vucetich in 1891 3. Dactiloscopy – the new name of the system developed by Vucetich. 4. The Oloriz System of Classification – developed by Oloriz. Identakey – developed in the 1930s by G. Tyler Mairs. 5. The American System of Fingerprint Classification – developed by Parke in 1903. 6. The Conley System. The Flack-Conley System – developed in 1906 in New Jersey, an improved Conley System. 7. NCIC Fingerprint Classification System. Collins System – a classification system for single fingerprints used in Scotland Yard in the early 1900s. 8. Jorgensen System – a classification system for single fingerprints used in the early 1900s. 9. Battley System – a classification system for single fingerprints used in the 1930s. Poroscopy – refers to the examination of the shape, size and arrangement of the small opening on friction ridge through which body fluids are secreted or released. Podoscopy – a term coined by Wilder and Wentwrth which refers to the examination of the soles and their significance in personal identification. Chiroscopy – It is the examination and thorough study fo the palms of the human hand as a point in identifying persons. Edgeoscopy – the study of the morphological characteristics of friction ridges; shape or contour of the edges of friction ridges. Ridgeology – describes the individualization process of any area of friction skin using all available detail. Reference
 Agas, Bautista, Guevara, and Tatoy, Ma. Paulina Corazon S., Criminalistics, 2009, Wiseman’s Books Trading, Inc., Quezon City. Asbaugh, David R., Ridgeology: Modern Evaluative Friction Ridge Identification, Forensic Identifciation Support Section, Royal Canadian Mounted Police

Related Friction Ridge Identification
Test Your Retention

1. A 32 over 32 would indicate all _________ patterns in primary classification. a. whorl b. loop c. tented arch d. radial 2. A British anthropologist and a cousin of Charles Darwin, who began his observations of fingerprints as a means of identification in the 1880's. According to his calculations, the odds of two individual fingerprints being the same were 1 in 64 billion. He identified the characteristics by which fingerprints can be identified. These same characteristics (minutia) are basically still in use today, and are often referred to as ________ Details, after his name. a. Bertillon b. Twain c. Galton d. Thompson 3. A Clerk in the Prefecture of Police of at Paris, France, who devised a system of classification, known as Anthropometry. System included measurements such as head length, head width, length of the middle finger, length of the left foot; and length of the forearm from the elbow to the tip of the middle finger. a. Alphonse Bertillon b. Mark Twain c. Sir Francis Galton d. Gilbert Thompson 4. A delta may be any of the following, EXCEPT a. bifurcation opening towards the delta b. dot or fragment as thick as the other ridges c. a point on the first recurving ridge located nearest to the center and in front of the divergence of the type lines d. a meeting of two ridges

Review Notes & Evaluation in Police Photography, Personal Identification, Forensic Ballistics & Forensic Chemistry By MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim 5. A French anthropologist who devised a system to measure and record the dimensions of certain bony parts of the body. He is considered as the Father of Personal Identification. a. Edmond Locard b. Alphonse Bertillon c. Sir Edward Richard Henry d. Juan Vucetich 6. A line which is drawn: 1. from delta to core in ridge counting of loop and 2. extreme left delta to extreme right delta in ridge tracing the whorl. a. continuous line b. fragmentary line c. imaginary line d. straight line 7. A pattern consisting of a combination of two different types of pattern, with the exception of the plain arch, with two or more deltas; or a pattern which possesses some of the requirements for two or more different types; or a pattern which conforms to none of the definitions. a. accidental b. plain whorl c. double loop d. central pocket loop 8. A pattern which looks like a double loop but cannot be considered as such because one side of one loop forms the side of the other. a. accidental b. central pocket loop c. plain whorl d. double loop 9. A primary of 1 over 1 indicates that there are no a. arch b. whorl c. loop d. pattern 10. A professor of anatomy at the University of Bologna, noted in his treatise; ridges, spirals and loops in fingerprints. A layer of skin was named after him, which is approximately 1.8mm thick. a. John Evangelist Purkinje b. Sir William Herschel c. Dr. Henry Faulds d. Marcello Malpighi 11. A recurve is said to be sufficient when it has a. no rods in the center rising as high as the shoulder of the recurve b. no ridge count between the delta and the core c. no break occurring in its flow d. no appendage at right angle 12. A second classification system currently in use in the United States. a. National Crime Information Council b. National Center for Crime Information c. National Crime Information Center d. National Council for Information on Crime 13. A surface where water can absorb into. a. non-porous surface b. porous surface c. semi-porous surface d. smooth surface 14. A system of identification based on anthropometry, photographs and portrait parle. a. Bertillon System b. Personal Identification System c. Physical Description System d. ID System 15. According to the narrow meaning of the words in fingerprint parlance, a single ridge may bifurcate, but it may not be said to diverge. Therefore, with one exception, the two forks of a bifurcation may never constitute TYPE LINES. The exception is when the forks a. run parallel after bifurcating and then converge b. diverge and then run parallel after bifurcating c. converge and then run parallel after bifurcating d. run parallel after bifurcating and then diverge. 16. All areas of friction skin are totally individual. When sufficient detail is present, it can be individualized. In other words, when someone is identified as the donor of a print, it establishes that person as the only person in the world who could have that print. a. Infallible b. Unique c. Permanent d. Classifiable 17. All other tracings where intervening ridges between ridge traced and delta are less than three. a. meeting b. converging c. inner d. outer 18. An Argentine Police Official, began the first fingerprint files based on Galton pattern types. At first, He included the Bertillon System with the files. He made the first criminal fingerprint identification in 1892. He was able to identify Francis Rojas, a woman who murdered her two sons and cut her own throat in an attempt to place blame on another. Her bloody print was left on a door post, proving her identity as the murderer. a. Sir Edward Richard Henry b. Hem Chandra Bose c. Dr. Henry P. DeForrest d. Juan Vucetich 19. An author who related a murderer who was identified by the use of fingerprint identification in his book, “Life on the Mississippi”. a. Alphonse Bertillon b. Mark Twain c. Sir Francis Galton d. Gilbert Thompson 20. An ending ridge of any length rising at a sufficient degree from the horizontal plane; i.e., 45° or more. a. recurve b. loop c. upthrust d. angle 21. An impression of the friction ridge of all or any part of the finger. a. fingerprint b. palmprint c. soleprint d. handprint 22. Are never formed by a single ridge but by the abutting of one ridge against another. a. angles b. continuous ridges c. focal points d. appendages 23. Condition before fragments and dots are counted. a. they must be touched or cut by the imaginary line b. they must be as thick and heavy as other ridges c. they must be in the line of flow d. they must be found inside the pattern area 24. Consists of at least one recurving ridge, or an obstruction at right angles to the line of flow, with two deltas, between which, when an imaginary line is drawn, no recurving ridge within the inner pattern area is cut or touched. a. central pocket loop b. accidental c. plain whorl d. double loop 25. Consists of the simplest form of whorl construction and is the most common of the whorl subdivisions. It is designated by the symbol "W" for both general classification and extension purposes. a. central pocket loop b. accidental c. plain whorl d. double loop 26. Depressions between the ridges a. epidermis b. dermis c. ridges d. furrows 27. Fingerprints were used on clay tablets for business transactions. a. Ancient Babylon b. Ancient China c. 14th Century Persia d. Nova Scotia 28. Following are the essential elements of a loop, EXCEPT a. core b. sufficient recurve c. delta d. ridge count across a looping ridge 29. Following are the major types of fingerprint patterns, EXCEPT a. arch b. twinned loop c. loop d. whorl 30. For extension purposes, accidental whorl has a letter symbol a. D b. C c. W d. X

Review Notes & Evaluation in Police Photography, Personal Identification, Forensic Ballistics & Forensic Chemistry By MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim 31. Friction skin is formed during fetal life. The location, appearance and relationships of the features remain unchanged throughout a person’s lifetime, with the exception of permanent damage such as injuries that result in permanent scars. a. Infallible b. Unique c. Permanent d. Classifiable 32. Has two deltas and at least one ridge making a complete circuit, which may be spiral, oval, circular, or any variant of a circle. An imaginary line drawn between the two deltas must touch or cross at least one of the recurving ridges within the inner pattern area. a. central pocket loop b. accidental c. double loop d. plain whorl 33. He appeared before the inquiry committee to explain the system published in his recent book "The Classification and Use of Fingerprints." He is considered as the Father of Fingerprint Identification. a. Sir Edward Richard Henry b. Hem Chandra Bose c. Dr. Henry P. DeForrest d. Juan Vucetich 34. He first used fingerprints on native contracts in Hooghly district in Jungipoor, India. a. John Evangelist Purkinje b. Sir William Herschel c. Dr. Henry Faulds d. Marcello Malpighi 35. He pioneers U.S. fingerprinting. a. Sir Edward Richard Henry b. Hem Chandra Bose c. Dr. Henry P. DeForrest d. Juan Vucetich 36. He published his thesis discussing 9 fingerprint patterns, but he too made no mention of the value of fingerprints for personal identification. a. John Evangelist Purkinje b. Sir William Herschel c. Dr. Henry Faulds d. Marcello Malpighi 37. He used his own thumb print on a document to prevent forgery. This is the first known use of fingerprints in the United States. a. Alphonse Bertillon b. Mark Twain c. Sir Francis Galton d. Gilbert Thompson 38. He wrote that if 12 points (Galton's Details) were the same between two fingerprints, it would suffice as a positive identification. His 12 points seems to have been based on an unscientific "improvement" over the eleven anthropometric measurements (arm length, height, etc.) used to "identify" criminals before the adoption of fingerprints. a. Harry H. Caldwell b. Azizul Haque c. Francis Rojas d. Edmond Locard 39. How do you classify a pattern consisting of loop and plain arch. a. accidental b. loop c. plain whorl d. double loop 40. If an appendage is present between the shoulders of a loop (innermost recurve), the one being considered for purposes of locating the core is a. next loop outside with no appendage at right angle b. next loop inside c. the same loop even with an appendage d. next loop outside with appendage at right angle 41. If the ridge traced passes inside of (above) the right delta, and three or more ridges intervene between the tracing ridge and the delta, the tracing is designated as an a. outer b. small c. inner d. meeting 42. In a double loop or accidental the problem of where to stop tracing is sometimes presented. The rule is, when the tracing passes inside of the right delta, stop at the nearest point to the right delta on the a. backward trend b. sideward trend c. downward trend d. upward trend 43. In blocking, the appropriate small letter should be placed for every pattern except the ulnar loop and the a. ulnar loop b. plain whorl c. radial loop d. double loop 44. In earlier civilizations, these were used to mark the criminal for what he was. a. DNA fingerprinting b. painting c. branding and maiming d. beheading 45. In inking, the thumbs. a. impressed simultaneously b. rolled away from the body of the subject c. rolled depending on the desire of the operator d. rolled toward the body of the subject 46. In locating the delta, which of the following statements will you consider first. a. Dots and fragments may only be considered as bifurcation if they are as thick as the other ridges. b. The delta may not be located in the middle of a ridge running between the type lines toward the core, but at the nearer end only. c. Delta must be located midway between two diverging type lines at or just in front of where they diverge. d. Bifurcation takes precedence over any possible deltas. 47. In primary classification, the values of the whorls appearing in the odd number fingers are added up, plus 1 for the total a. denominator b. numerator c. quotient d. product 48. In ridge tracing, the reference is on a. upper side or point of the extreme right delta b. lower side or point of the extreme left delta c. upper side or point of the moderate left delta d. upper side or point of the moderate right delta 49. In the classification line, the order should be a. primary, secondary, subsecondary, final, key, major b. major, key, primary, secondary, subsecondary final c. key, major, primary, secondary, subsecondary, final d. primary, secondary, subsecondary, major, key, final 50. Inner layer of the skin. a. epidermis b. dermis c. ridges d. furrows 51. It is obtained by counting the ridges of the first loop appearing on the fingerprint card (beginning with the right thumb), exclusive of the little fingers which are never considered for the key as they are reserved for the final. a. primary b. key c. final d. major 52. It is placed just to the left of the primary in the classification formula. Where whorls appear in the thumbs following the whorl tracings subsecondary classification. a. subsecondary b. final c. major division d. key 53. Located along the undersides of the fingers, palms, toes, and soles appear corrugated skin structure known to the biologist as a. friction skin b. fingerprints c. handprints d. volar skin 54. Located along the undersides of the fingers, palms, toes, and soles appear corrugated skin structure known to the fingerprint examiner as a. friction skin b. fingerprints c. handprints d. volar skin 55. Located along the undersides of the fingers, palms, toes, and soles appear corrugated skin structure known to the public as a. friction skin b. fingerprints c. handprints d. volar skin

Review Notes & Evaluation in Police Photography, Personal Identification, Forensic Ballistics & Forensic Chemistry By MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim 56. Loops interlocking at the center: The shoulder line is found to cross exactly at the point of intersection of the two loops. Core is located a. below the point of intersection b. at the point of intersection c. above the point of intersection d. at the shoulder farther from the delta 57. Loops which flow in the direction of the ulna bone (toward the little finger) are called a. central pocket loop b. double loop c. radial loop d. ulnar loop 58. May be defined as the two innermost ridges which start parallel, diverge, and surround or tend to surround the pattern area. a. Divergence b. Pattern Area c. Type Lines d. Bifurcation 59. Most of the ridges enter upon one side of the impression and flow or tend to flow out upon the other side, as in the plain arch type; however, the ridge or ridges at the center do not. a. plain whorl b. plain arch c. tented arch d. looptype arch 60. One of the following is NOT a type of whorl. a. central pocket loop b. loop c. double loop d. accidental 61. One of the following statements concerning friction skin is NOT true. a. Identical twins have similar friction skin patterns and as such, their individual ridge formations are the same. b. Ridges are formed and become unique and permanent during approximately the fourth month of fetal life. c. Biological variations are due to environmental influences occurring during fetal development. d. General patterns on the volar areas are determined by heredity and genetic master plan. 62. One of the two Indian fingerprint experts who were credited with primary development of the Henry System of fingerprint classification (named for their supervisor, Edward Richard Henry). a. Sir Edward Richard Henry b. Hem Chandra Bose c. Dr. Henry P. DeForrest d. Juan Vucetich 63. Otherwise termed as the whorl division. a. key b. final c. secondary d. primary 64. Picture writing of a hand with ridge patterns was discovered in a. Ancient Babylon b. Ancient China c. 14th Century Persia d. Nova Scotia 65. Rule in Blocking: Under the index fingers the appropriate capital letters should be placed for every pattern except the a. ulnar loop b. plain whorl c. radial loop d. double loop 66. Rule in ridge counting: In the event there is a bifurcation of a ridge exactly at the point where the imaginary line would be drawn, how many ridges are counted. a. two b. one c. three d. zero 67. Secondary classification: RIGHT HAND: 1 = \, 2 = R, 3 = \, 4 = \, 5 = \; LEFT HAND: 6 = a, 7 = /, 8 = /, 9 = /, 10 = /. a. R/aU b. aR3r/rU2ra c. U/R d. W/W 68. Subsecondary classification: RIGHT HAND: 1 = \; ridge count: 26 , 2 = R; ridge count: 12, 3 = W; ridge traced: O, 4 = \; ridge count: 17, 5 = \; ridge count: 12; LEFT HAND: 6 = W; ridge traced: I, 7 = W; ridge traced: M, 8 = /; ridge count: 18, 9 = W; ridge count: I, 10 = /; ridge count 15. a. MOI/OOO b. OOO/MOI c. IMO/IOI d. IOI/IMO 69. That part of a recurving ridge between the shoulders of a loop. It must be free of any appendages abutting upon the outside of the recurve at a right angle. a. appendage b. sufficient recurve c. loop d. shoulder 70. That point on a ridge at or in front of and nearest the center of the divergence of the type lines. a. focal point b. bifurcation c. delta d. core 71. That type of fingerprint pattern in which one or more of the ridges enter on either side of the impression, recurve, touch or pass an imaginary line drawn from the delta to the core, and terminate or tend to terminate on or toward the same side of the impression from whence such ridge or ridges entered. a. arch b. whorl c. twinned loop d. loop 72. The approximate center of the finger impression. a. focal point b. bifurcation c. delta d. core 73. The approximate height of the inking area and cardholder from the floor. a. 39" b.50" c. 30"d. 40" 74. The British Surgeon-Superintendent of Tsukiji Hospital in Tokyo, Japan, who took up the study of "skin-furrows" after noticing finger marks on specimens of "prehistoric" pottery. He published an article in the Scientific Journal, "Nature" (nature). He discussed fingerprints as a means of personal identification, and the use of printers ink as a method for obtaining such fingerprints. He is also credited with the first fingerprint identification of a greasy fingerprint left on an alcohol bottle. a. John Evangelist Purkinje b. Sir William Herschel c. Dr. Henry Faulds d. Marcello Malpighi 75. The core is placed upon or within the innermost a. pattern area b. meeting ridges forming an angle c. ridges that run parallel d. sufficient recurve 76. The delta may not be located in the middle of a ridge running between the type lines toward the core. The location of the delta in this case depends entirely upon the point of origin of the ridge running between the type lines toward the core. If the ridge enters the pattern area from a point ABOVE the divergence of the type lines, the DELTA is located on a. end nearer the core b. nearer end c. center of the ridge d. at the centermost point of the divergence of the type lines 77. The delta may not be located in the middle of a ridge running between the type lines toward the core. The location of the delta in this case depends entirely upon the point of origin of the ridge running between the type lines toward the core. If the ridge enters the pattern area from a point BELOW the divergence of the type lines, the DELTA is located on a. at the centermost point of the divergence of the type lines b. center of the ridge c. end nearer the core d. nearer end 78. The double rows of peg-like formations that covered the dermis. a. sebaceous layer b. subcutaneous layer c. generating layer d. papillae

Review Notes & Evaluation in Police Photography, Personal Identification, Forensic Ballistics & Forensic Chemistry By MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim 79. The elevated areas of friction skin a. epidermis b. dermis c. ridges d. furrows 80. The essential explanation for fingerprints having supplanted other methods of establishing the identities of criminals reluctant to admit previous arrests. a. Fingerprints offer an infallible means of identification. b. Fingerprints are unique. c. Fingerprints are permanent d. Fingerprints cannot lie. 81. The extraordinary visual memories of police officers – camera eyes and photography were not the answer to the criminal identification. This is because a. Observation through personal appearance is subject to personal perception of the observer b. Photographs may be ruined. c. Officers may fail to refer to his memories or photographs on file. d. Personal appearances change. 82. The forking or dividing of one line into two or more branches. a. Divergence b. Pattern Area c. Type Lines d. Bifurcation 83. The identical twins that put a doubt to Bertillon System of identification adopted in the U.S. Penitentiary at Leavenworth, Kansas in 1903. Their Bertillon measurements were close enough to identify them as the same person. a. John and Johnson Howard b. James and Jake Watson c. Will and William West d. Romeo and Romulo Vicar 84. The innermost layer of the epidermis where new cells are created. a. sebaceous layer b. subcutaneous layer c. generating layer d. papillae 85. The island formed in front of the diverging sides of the banks where the stream empties at its mouth corresponds to the _____ in fingerprints, which is the first obstruction of any nature at the point of divergence of the type lines in front of or nearest the center of the divergence. a. core b. delta c. shoulder of the recurve d. spike 86. The number of ridges intervening between the delta and the core. a. converging ridges b. intervening ridges c. ridge trace d. ridge count 87. The only part of the finger impression with which we are concerned in regard to interpretation and classification. It is present in all patterns, of course, but in many arches and tented arches it is impossible to define. It is that part of a loop or whorl in which appear the cores, deltas, and ridges with which we are concerned in classifying. a. Divergence b. Pattern Area c. Type Lines d. Bifurcation 88. The outer layer of the skin. a. epidermis b. dermis c. ridges d. furrows 89. The patterns to which numerical values are assigned in deriving the "primary" in the extension of the Henry System of fingerprint classification used by the Federal Bureau of Investigation are the whorl-type patterns, which occur in about 30 percent of all fingerprints. It is that type of pattern in which at least two deltas are present with a recurve in front in each. a. twinned loop b. loop c. arch d. whorl 90. The points at which the recurving ridge definitely turns inward or curves. a. points of divergence b. pattern area c. shoulders d. focal points 91. The ridge count of the loop in the right little (5) finger. If finger #5 is not a loop, use the left little (10) finger. a. primary b. key c. major d. final 92. The ridge traced passes outside (below) the right delta, and three or more ridges intervene between the tracing ridge and the right delta, the tracing is designated as an a. meeting b. converging c. inner d. outer 93. The ridge traced stops upon reaching a. at the point farthest or on the extreme right delta b. at the center or on the right delta c. at the point nearest or opposite the extreme right delta d. at the point nearest or opposite the extreme left delta 94. The ridges enter on one side of the impression and flow or tend to flow out the other with a rise or wave in the center. a. plain whorl b. plain arch c. tented arch d. loop-type arch 95. The science of fingerprint identification stands out among all other forensic sciences for many reasons, including the following, EXCEPT a. No two fingerprints have ever been found alike in many billions of human and automated computer comparisons. b. Fingerprint identification ranks second in DNA to identify murderers, rapists, and other serious offenders c. Remains the most commonly used forensic evidence worldwide - in most jurisdictions fingerprint examination cases match or outnumber all other forensic examination casework combined. d. Continues to expand as the premier method for identifying persons, with tens of thousands of persons added to fingerprint repositories daily in America alone - far outdistancing similar databases in growth. 96. The spreading apart of two lines which have been running parallel or nearly parallel. a. Divergence b. Pattern Area c. Type Lines d. Bifurcation 97. The total possible primary classifications from 1 over 1 to 32 over 32. a. 2,024 b. 1,500 c. 1,024 d. 3,000 98. The type approaching the loop type, possessing two of the basic or essential characteristics of the loop, but lacking the third. a. arch possessing an upthrust b. loop-type arch c. plain d. arch possessing an angle 99. The type in which one or more ridges at the center form an upthrust. a. arch possessing an upthrust b. loop-type arch c. plain d. arch possessing an angle 100. The type tented arch in which ridges at the center form a definite angle; i.e., 90° or less. a. arch possessing an upthrust b. loop-type arch c. plain d. arch possessing an angle 101. This constitutes about 65% of all prints. a. arch b. whorl c. loop d. twinned loop 102. Those which flow in the direction of the radius bone are called a. radial loop b. double loop c. central pocket loop d. ulnar loop 103. Thumb prints were found on clay seals. a. Ancient Babylon b. Ancient China c. 14th Century Persia d. Nova Scotia

Review Notes & Evaluation in Police Photography, Personal Identification, Forensic Ballistics & Forensic Chemistry By MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim 104. Two separate loop formations, with two separate and distinct sets of shoulders, and two deltas. a. plain whorl b. double loop c. central pocket loop d. accidental 105. Type lines are not always two continuous ridges. In fact, they are more often found to be broken. When there is a definite break in a type line, the ridge immediately _______ of it is considered as its continuation. a. upside b. inside c. outside d. forward 106. Used in classifying loops and whorls and are enclosed within their pattern areas. They are otherwise termed as core and delta. a. angles b. focal points c. pattern areas d. appendages 107. Various official government papers had fingerprints (impressions), and one government official, a doctor, observed that no two fingerprints were exactly alike. a. Ancient Babylon b. Ancient China c. 14th Century Persia d. Nova Scotia 108. What is the primary classification in the following data. RIGHT HAND: 1 = W, 2 = W, 3 = \, 4 = W, 5 = \; LEFT HAND: 6 = W, 7 = W, 8 = /, 9 = /, 10 = /. a. 19/29 b. 20/30 c. 21/31 d. 29/19 109. When may whorl be ridge counted instead of ridge traced? a. final b. major c. primary d. key 110. When the core is located on a spike which touches the inside of the innermost recurving ridge, the recurve is included in the ridge count only a. when the delta is located above a line drawn at right angles to the spike b. when the delta is found in the center of a line drawn at right angles to the spike c. when the delta is located below a line drawn at right angles to the spike. d. when the delta is found inside the pattern area 111. When the innermost sufficient recurve contains an uneven number of rods rising as high as the shoulders, the core is placed upon a. shoulder of the loop nearer from the delta b. end of the center rod c. shoulder of the loop farther from the delta d. end of the farther one of the two center rods 112. When the innermost sufficient recurve contains no ending ridge or rod rising as high as the shoulders of the loop, the core is placed on the a. shoulder of the loop farther from the delta b. shoulder of the loop nearer from the delta c. end of the center rod d. end of the farther one of the two center rods 113. When there are two or more possible deltas which conform to the definition, a. one nearest to the core b. one farthest to the core c. one centermost to the point of divergence of type lines d. one centermost to the pattern area 114. When there is a choice between a bifurcation and another type of delta, which would be considered as the delta? a. point of the first recurving ridge b. meeting of two ridges c. fragments d. bifurcation 115. Whorls are grouped together under the general classification of "Whorl" and are designated by the letter a. W b. C c. D d. X FORENSIC BALLISTICS
Definition of Terms

Ballistics – about motion of projectiles Gr. ballein or ballo: to throw Roman ballista: a catapult Branches – VIPs of Firearms 1. Col Calvin H. Goddard: Father of Modern Ballistics; Invented comparison microscope & helixometer John M. Browning: wizard of modern firearms; pioneered the breech loading single-shot rifle; invented: Winchester rifle, pump-action shotgun, Colt 45 automatic Samuel Colt: produced first practical revolver – Colt 45 Henry Derringer: gave his name to a whole class of firearms manufacturer of the Pocket Pistol Lt. Col. Patrick Ferguson: designed his own rifle Alexander John Forsyth: invented the percussion system of ignition Uziel Gal: invented the Uzi submachine gun John C. Garand:father of semi-automatic US Rifle Cal. 30 M1 Mikhail Kalashnikov: Russian designer of AK-47 John Mahon Marlin: founder of Marlin Firearms Company famous for Marlin cal. 22 Carbine Eliphalet Remington: one of first rifle makers James Wolfe Ripley: stimulated the development of the Model 1855 rifled musket Benjamin Robins: one of first to state sound ballistics theories

• • • • • • •

2. Interior ballistics – ANYTHING taking place IN & ON the gun prior to bullet leaving muzzle. Exterior ballistics – ANYTHING taking place when bullet is OUTSIDE of muzzle. Terminal ballistics – ANYTHING taking place on TARGET. Forensic ballistics – proper term: firearms identification 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13.

Firearms – Legal definition – Sec. 877, RACP & Sec. 290 of NIRC: weapons that discharge projectile by gunpowder & other explosives Technical definition – instrument for propulsion of projectiles by gases of gunpowder. Other definitions – weapon designed to expel projectile

Review Notes & Evaluation in Police Photography, Personal Identification, Forensic Ballistics & Forensic Chemistry By MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim
14. Elisha King Root: helped Samuel Colt synthesize the manufacturing of firearms 15. Berthold Schwartz and Roger Bacon: credited to have invented the first gunpowder 16. Horace Smith: founded the Smith & Wesson; pioneered making of breech-loading rifle 17. Daniel B. Wesson: partner of Horace Smith in revolver making 18. David “Carbine” Williams: maker of first known carbine firearms 19. Oliver Fisher Winchester: Manufactured Winchester repeating rifle 20. Eugene Stoner: developer and designer of AR15/M16 rifle 21. John T. Thompson: Pioneered making of Thompson submachine gun - first hand held machine gun. 22. Melvin M. Johnson Jr: Invented Johnson Model 1941 rifle - one of most innovative rifles of its time period 23. Dr. Richard Gatling: Patented design of Gatling Gun - six-barreled, hand cranked weapon capable of firing 200 rounds per minute 24. Hiram Maxim: inventor of Maxim Machine gun & Maxim Silencer 25. George Luger: did lasting design work in connection with 9 mm parabellum cartridge 26. Carl Walther: developed a reliable small caliber automatic pistol in 1866 Important Points in Firearms History    The use of gunpowder started in China; The Mongols brought the technology to the Middle East; and The Arabs in turn brought it to Europe. Small arms: Ex:  Machine guns: M-60, Bren gun, BAR, mounted .30 & .50 cal guns  Shoulder arms: rifle, carbine, shotgun  Handguns: revolver, pistol Mechanical Construction    Muzzle-loading Short, large caliber barrel Flared at muzzle

Musket:  Muzzle-loading  Smooth bore  Fired from shoulder Rifled musket:  Made in 19th century  Much more accurate than smooth-bore musket Classification of Firearms General Classif

• • • •

Smooth bore – shotguns & muskets Rifled bore – with riflings (lands & grooves)

Main Classif Artillery – more than 1 inch diameter projectile Small arms – less than 1 inch diameter projectile; portable & can be handled by only 1 man.

Firearm Forerunners Any weapon that propels projectiles, e.g. bow & arrow; Ancient Firearms: Arquebus:  Used 15th – 17th century  Muzzle loading  Smoothbore  Forerunner of rifle & long arms Blunderbuss:

• • • • • • •
AMMUNITION

Single-shot firearms Repeating Arms Bolt-action Type Lever-action Type Slide-action Type Semiautomatic Automatic action

Definition

Legal definition – NIRC & RACP

• •

Loaded shell – rifles, muskets, carbines, shotguns, revolvers and pistols from which a ball, bullet, shot, shell or other missile; NOTE: with use of gunpowder/other explosives Ammunition for air rifles

• • • • •

Group of cartridges Single unit Single cartridge Single round Complete unfired unit consisting of a bullet, cartridge case, gunpowder and primer

Technical definition –

Evolution of Cartridge

Review Notes & Evaluation in Police Photography, Personal Identification, Forensic Ballistics & Forensic Chemistry By MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim
  Powder charge & ball bullets loaded one after the other Powder charge & shot wrapped in paper – Latin charta, paper & French cartouche, roll of paper 4. b. c. d. cal. .22 long – short bullet, long shell cal. .22 L.R. – long bullet, long shell cal. .22 Magnum – extra long bullet, extra long shell

Parts of Cartridge  Bullet – a.k.a. slug  Cartridge case – a.k.a. shell or casing  Gunpowder – a.k.a. propellant or powder charge  Primer – cup of highly sensitive priming mixture, ignited thru percussion. Classification of Cartridges According to the Type of Firearms used:  revolver cartridges  pistol cartridges  rifle cartridges  shotgun cartridges According to Location of Primers: 1. Pin-fire cartridges – a. Obsolete b. Made by Monsieur Le Facheux of Paris in 1836 c. Contained pin at the head which (end protrusion) is hit by a hammer for ignition 2. Rim-fire cartridges – a. .22 pistols, revolvers & rifles b. Priming mixture inside and around the rim. c. Hammer or firing pin strikes the rim for ignition d. Identifiable thru its headstamp Rim-fire cartridges – Further classification: a. cal. .22 short – short bullet, short shell

Center-fire cartridges – a. Used in most modern firearms b. Primer cup at the center c. Firing pin hits the center d. Flame passes thru vent or flash hole igniting powder charge

Shotgun Shells   Single unit of ammunition for shotguns Parts: o tubular case (paper, plastic or metal), o metallic base (with primer, powder or propellant), o wads, and o shots or pellets. Importance of wads: o sealer of gun bore preventing gas pressure leaking around shot charge o together with pellets, wads provide information as to maker of ammo & type & gauge of shotgun .

Cartridge Cases Definition: tubular metallic or non-metallic container which holds together the bullet, gunpowder, and the primer. Other terms: shell or casing Functions: Holder: bullet, gunpowder & primer; Waterproof container: gunpowder; and Sealer: gas at the breech end of the barrel

3.

Parts of Cartridge Case Classification of Cartridge Cases According to Case Shape:

According to Head

BULLETS

Definition of Bullet  Cylindrical projectile  Propelled by expansive force of gases from burning gunpowder

Origin of Bullets  Were not originally used in firearms but in sling  Used in firearms – placed in front of gunpowder

Review Notes & Evaluation in Police Photography, Personal Identification, Forensic Ballistics & Forensic Chemistry By MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim
    Lead balls as projectiles – bullet from French boulette, little ball Delvigne, a French infantry officer, invented breech in 1826 giving way to breech loading system Pointed bullets – a.k.a. conical bullets; hollow base which expands upon firing, engaging the rifling Modern bullet: o Copper jacketed bullet Elongated bullet with a lead core in a copper coating Greater muzzle velocity o Spitzer bullet Flew for greater distances more accurately carried more energy o Boat tail bullet Streamlined base for spitzer bullet Reduces form drag

According to Mechanical Construction

Lead Bullets –

• • • • •

lead or alloys of lead, tin, and antimony,

Jacketed Bullets – Gilding metal – a copper alloy of approximately 90% copper and 10% zinc.

Copper-plated steel : jacket of caliber .45 bullets. NOTE: Primary function: to prevent adherence of Mattel (lead) to inside of gun barrel.

Bullet Classification According to Bullet Shape

According to Bullet Type

Rifle Bullets

• • • • • • • •

solid lead solid hollow-point solid paper-patched metal-cased soft metal-cased hollow point metal point rifled slug 5. 4. 1. 2. 3. Ball Bullets – soft lead cores inside a jacket; used against personnel only Armor-piercing Bullets – hardened steel cores; fired at vehicles and other armored targets. Tracer Bullets – base contains chemical compound USU barium nitrates, catches fire when the bullet is projected; seen during nighttime. Incendiary Bullets – contain mixture fires on impact; used on combustible targets: gasoline depot, aircrafts, etc. Explosive/fragmentary Bullets – contain high charge of explosives; limited to 20 millimeter and above.

Primers Description of Primer   Portion of cartridge Consists of a brass or gilding metal cup o Cup contains highly sensitive mixture of chemical compound o Cup is ignited by percussion Used for igniting the gunpowder or the powder charge  Priming mixture may be contained in o Separate primer cup (center fire) o Bottom rim (rim fire) Priming Methods 1. External priming a. Matchlock 

Review Notes & Evaluation in Police Photography, Personal Identification, Forensic Ballistics & Forensic Chemistry By MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim
b. Wheel-lock c. Flintlock d. Caplock Internal priming a. Magnum primers: contain compound & hotter flame b. Berdan primers: c. Boxer primers:


more priming

Priming Mixture – highly sensitive chemical mixture contained in the primer cup Anvil – where priming mixture is crushed by a blow from the firing pin Disc – small paper or tin foil pressed over the priming mixture; its purpose is to a) hold the priming mixture in place, and b) to exclude moisture

2.

• •

Parts of Primer

Primer Composition Primer Cup – container of the priming mixture 1. 2. 3. Potassium chlorate (initiator and fuel) - - 45% Antimony sulphide (element and fuel) - - 23% Fulminate of mercury (initiator) - - - - - - - 32%

Gunpowder Characteristics of Gunpowder  A.k.a. propellant, powder charge  Ignited by the primer flash  Converted to gas under high pressure  Propels bullet or shot thru barrel Classification & Composition Black powder –

• • • • •
Ballistics Examination and Investigation

Sulphur (10%) Charcoal (15%)

Smokeless powder (nitrocellulose-based) – Nitrocellulose (60 parts) Nitroglycerine (35 parts) Vaseline (5 parts)

potassium nitrate (75%)

CRIME SCENE SEARCH AND PRESENTATION OF BALLISTIC EVIDENCES General Search  Firearm evidences/ballistics exhibits  Other traces  Search: well-planned & organized  Take attention on minute details  Extreme patience and keen observation Collection of Physical Evidence  Collect all articles  Do not MAC: M-utilate, A-lter, C-ontaminate  Sketch & photograph  Features of firearm to take note: (1) type, (2) caliber, (3) serial #, (4) whether loaded or not, (5) position of firearm in relation to body, (6) distinct/significant features, (7) place & date of discovery Collection of Physical Evidence Features of bullet or bullets to take note:  type of bullet

   

caliber of the bullet shape or form of the bullet presence of metal or bullet fragments place and date of recovery

Collection of Physical Evidence Features of shell or shells to take note:     number of shells and their order of recovery caliber of the shells trademark or brand of the shells place and date of recovery

Collecting firearm:  Handkerchief/non-metallic string into trigger guard  Cocked firearm: lump of paper/cloth inserted on open hammer Marking of Physical Evidence: Don’ts  Don’t rely on memory  Don’t use universal marks such as “X”  Don’t move or mark without first taking photographs

Marking Firearms and Firearms Evidence: Guiding Principle  Court is satisfied that this is the item (gun, bullet, cartridge, wad, etc.) that was collected.  Unmarkable item: secured in a suitable container, the container marked as to item number, date, time, finder, description, location found, etc., sealed and the seal marked in such a way that breaking of the seal would be discernible.

Review Notes & Evaluation in Police Photography, Personal Identification, Forensic Ballistics & Forensic Chemistry By MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

Important Note When marking, consider the following:  all class and individual characteristics  any trace evidence deposits  If in doubt: o wrap the item in a tissue o clean piece of paper o secure and seal in a vial o other appropriate container o thoroughly mark the sealed container Transmittal of Physical Evidences: Establish Chain of Possession  who recovered evidences  who received exhibits from him  exact time exhibits were submitted  date and time received  issuance of receipt and by whom  location of evidence at any given time ARMS MANUFACTURING PROCESSES RELATED TO FIREARMS IDENTIFICATION

How Barrel Is Made Drilling – cutting a hole inside the barrel Reaming – removing scars and scratches left after drilling Rifling – grooving inside the barrels

• • •

Broach, Gang Broach, Single Button

How Breechface Is Made  Machine cut  Machine or hand filing and grinding  Finishing operation NOTE: Breechface – Where cartridge case and primer are forced backwards. Shell will be imprinted with breechface markings How Firing Pin Is Made  Cut and shaped  Fire finishing according to the grade of weapon

Class Characteristics

   

common to a group or family of items determinable even prior to the manufacture of the firearms factory specifications and within the control of man basis for identifying a certain group of class of firearms

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

bore diameter (caliber) number of lands and grooves width of land width of grooves direction of twist pitch of rifling depth of grooves

Individual Characteristics

    

markings peculiar and not found in all other firearms Determinable only after the manufacture of firearm beyond the control of man have random distribution caused by tools in in their normal operation

   

groove marks – caused by the grooves skid marks – due to worn out barrel stripping marks/shaving marks – due to bullet “jumping” the rifling slippage marks – caused by rotating resistance of bullet upon entering rifling of breech end.

Marks Found on “Fired Bullets”  land marks – caused by the lands

Marks Found on “Fired Shells”

Review Notes & Evaluation in Police Photography, Personal Identification, Forensic Ballistics & Forensic Chemistry By MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim
    firing pin marks – caused by a firing pin after hitting the primer cup breechface marks – due to impact created by the banging of the shell head and breechblock surface extractor marks – created by the action of the extracting mechanism on the empty shells; usually located on the extracting grooves of the shell ejector marks – commonly found among cartridges fired from automatic weapons; also located near the rim of the cartridge Marks Found on “Fired Shells” shearing marks – striations on the primer caused by sudden movement while being hit by the firing pin; also called “secondary firing pin marks”  chamber marks – are mostly found around the body of the fired cartridge case and they are caused by the irregularities in the inside walls of the chamber  magazine lip markings – found at both sides of the rim of the shell and these are caused by the magazine lips during reloading of the cartridges into the magazine for firing.

Summary of Marks Left on Expended Cartridges

Principles of identification of Bullets  No two barrels are microscopically identical.  Bullet is engraved by riflings of barrel from where it was fired.  Barrel leaves thumb mark on bullet. Principles of identification of Shells  Breechface & striker leave microscopical individualities.  Firearm leaves fingerprint on cartridge case.  Breechface is distinct. Test of Retention

1. .12 gauge indicates that a. the bore diameter is capable of releasing 12 pellets in a single shot b. the bore diameter is equal to the lead ball weighing 1/12 of a pound c. the bore diameter will fit 1/12 pound lead ball d. the bore diameter can fit to a 12 inch pellets 2. .38 Caliber is equivalent to a. 11 mm b. 9 mm c. 7.65 mm d. 7.63 mm 3. “Bullet Wipe” around the margin of a bullet hole: a. is a close-proximity discharge phenomena b. is composed of soot, bullet metal, primer residue and – on occasion – bullet lubricants c. occurs only after the bore of the gun has been fouled by a previous shot d. is only detectable by infrared photography and is not useful as evidence 4. 6 lands and 6 grooves, left hand twist, narrow land and broad grooves (6-L-G2x). a. Browning Type b. Colt Type c. Steyr Type d. Smith and Wesson Type 5. A bullet made from paraffin usually used for short range indoor target shooting. a. wax bullet b. dum-dum bullet c. wad cutter bullet d. lead bullet 6. A cartridge giving a muzzle velocity of less than 1850 ft/sec. a. low power b. high power c. high intensity d. medium power 7. A cylindrical bullet design having a sharp shouldered nose intended to cut target paper clearly to facilitate easy and accurate scoring. a. incendiary bullets b. dum-dum bullets c. gas check bullets d. wad cutter bullet

Review Notes & Evaluation in Police Photography, Personal Identification, Forensic Ballistics & Forensic Chemistry By MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim 8. A design where the breech mechanism is cycled by an external lever generally below the receiver. a. single shot firearms b. repeating arms c. slide action type d. lever action type 9. A firearm requiring a separate pull of the trigger for each shot fired, and which uses the energy of discharge to perform a portion of the operating or firing cycle. a. submachine gun type b. semiautomatic type c. automatic action type d. machine gun type 10. A firearm with Caliber .30 is equivalent to a. 11 mm b. 9 mm c. 7.65 mm d. 7.63 mm 11. A French word which means a small ball. a. ballista b. ballo c. boulder d. boulette 12. A German monk who was credited along with Roger Bacon, an English monk, with the invention of gunpowder. a. Berthold Schwartz b. Eugene Stoner c. Sir Sydney Smith d. Mauser 13. A Greek word which means to throw. a. boulette b. ballo c. ballista d. forensis 14. A gun barrel with very wide lands will have a. narrow grooves b. very wide grooves c. half as many grooves d. very deep grooves 15. A Latin word which means marketplace. a. balla b. ballo c. ballista d. forensis 16. A means of ignition of a propellant charge by a mechanical blow against the primer or percussion cap. a. pin-fire cartridge b. rim-fire cartridge c. center-fire cartridge d. percussion 17. A mechanical mixture of charcoal, sulfur and salt peter. a. smokeless powder b. black powder c. explosive d. primer 18. A projectile propelled from a firearm. A metallic or non-metallic cylindrical projectile. a. shot b. pellet c. bullet d. slug 19. A shotshell wad is recovered from the ground near the victim of a shotgun shooting. Which of the following could NOT be determined from the laboratory examination of this wad? a. the brand of shotshell b. the gauge of the shell c. the type of shotgun d. the gauge of the shotgun 20. A smooth bore weapon designed to shoot a number of lead pellets in one charge. a. carbine b. shotgun c. rifle d. musket 21. A term used to describe a complete unfired unit consisting of bullet, primer, cartridge case and gunpowder. a. slug b. ammunition c. cartridge d. bullet 22. A type of weapon designed to shoot pellets by means of compressed air. a. double action b. automatic c. air rifle d. single action 23. A unit of measurement used to express the diameter of the barrel. a. gauge b. measurement c. rifling d. caliber 24. Adopted by the Swiss government as their standard service weapon. a. SIG b. MAUSER c. ARMALITE d. CETME 25. Also pump action. a. single shot firearms b. repeating arms c. slide action type d. lever action type 26. An army officer gun designer. a. Oscar Mossberge b. Kijiro Nambu c. John Mahlon Marlin d. Sergei Mossin 27. An internal mandrel with rifling configuration which forms rifling in the barrel by means of external hammering. Also known as HAMMER FORGING. a. broach, gang b. scrape c. swage d. button 28. Any of various powder used in firearms as propellant charge. a. primer b. explosive c. wad d. gunpowder 29. Automatic Machine Gun. The first fully automatic gun, utilizing the recoil of the piece to load and fire the next charge was developed. a. 1884 b. 1885 c. 1845 d. 1858 30. Barbed spear in hunting large fish. a. harpoons b. multi-barreled guns c. liberator d. flare guns 31. Bullets fired from a worn-out barrel, oily barrels and slightly over-sized barrels. a. skidmarks b. slippage marks c. landmarks d. groovemarks 32. Caliber .30: a short barreled rifle, having a barrel no longer than 22 inches. a. carbine b. shotgun c. rifle d. musket 33. Caliber .45 is equivalent to a. 11 mm b. 9 mm c. 7.65 mm d. 7.63 mm 34. Cartridge cases can be made from a. steel b. aluminum c. brass d. all of these 35. Cartridge type that gives a muzzle velocity of between 1925 and 2500 ft/sec. a. low power b. high power c. high intensity d. medium power 36. Cartridge. Paper cartridges were developed. This combined both powder and ball about this period. This greatly speeded loading and reduced the hazards for carrying loose powder. a. 1350 b. 1498 c. 1575 d. 1313 37. Center-Fire Cartridge. The Morse cartridge marked the beginning of the rapid development of the center-fire cartridge. a. 1884 b. 1885 c. 1845 d. 1858 38. Characteristics which are determinable prior or before the manufacture of the firearm. These serve as basis to identify a certain a certain class or group of firearm. a. class characteristics b. individual characteristic c. group characteristics d. similar characteristics 39. Considered as a muzzle loading firearm. a. carbine b. shotgun c. rifle d. musket 40. Considered as the “strikers”. a. breechface b. extractor c. ejector d. firing pin 41. Consists of small lead balls or pellets. a. shot b. cartridge c. wad d. ammunition 42. Cutting tool which has a clasp-shape shape and only cuts one groove at a time. a. hook b. broach, gang c. broach, single d. button 43. Depressed portion caused by the lands. a. skidmarks b. slippage marks c. landmarks d. groovemarks 44. Describes motion of projectile after leaving the muzzle of the gun barrel. a. interior ballistics b. exterior ballistics c. terminal ballistics d. forensic ballistics 45. Designed a submachine gun in 1920 which was named after him. a. Carl Walther b. Oliver Winchester c. John Thompson d. Fedor Tokarev 46. Designed his rifle and demonstrated it before the King at Windsor resulting in orders for 100 rifles. a. Lt. Col. Patrick Ferguson b. Uziel Gal c. Mikhael Kalashnikov d. Benjamin Robins 47. Designed machinery for making colt firearms. a. John Mahlon Marlin b. James Wolfe Ripley c. Elisha King Root d. Eliphalet Remington

Review Notes & Evaluation in Police Photography, Personal Identification, Forensic Ballistics & Forensic Chemistry By MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim 48. Designed the Russian Service Rifle in 1891. a. Oscar Mossberge b. Kijiro Nambu c. John Mahlon Marlin d. Sergei Mossin 49. Developed a reliable small caliber automatic pistol in 1866. a. Carl Walther b. Oliver Winchester c. John Thompson d. Fedor Tokarev 50. Developed the hand-wranked machine gun. a. George Luger b. Johann Ulrich Hammerli c. Edmond Heckler d. R.J. Gatling 51. Developed the pinfire cartridge. a. Le Faucheux b. Flobert c. Alexander John Forsyth d. Samuel Colt 52. Developed weapons which have always been the epitome of Swiss precession engineering ability. a. George Luger b. Johann Ulrich Hammerli c. Edmond Heckler d. R.J. Gatling 53. Devices primarily designed for another purposes will have a gun mechanism incorporated in them. Also known as freakish device. a. zip guns b. gas guns c. traps d. knife pistols 54. Diameter of the rim is smaller than the body of the cartridge case. E.g. caliber 8mm x 59. a. semi-rimmed type b. rimless type c. rebated type d. rimmed type 55. Discovered percussion system. a. Le Faucheux b. Flobert c. Alexander John Forsyth d. Samuel Colt 56. Encountered by the bullet in flight. a. muzzle energy b. pull of gravity c. air resistance d. muzzle blast 57. Energy generated after leaving the firearm. a. muzzle energy b. terminal energy c. air resistance d. muzzle blast 58. Energy of the bullet a. muzzle energy b. terminal energy c. air resistance d. muzzle blast 59. Energy of the bullet a. terminal velocity b. terminal penetration c. terminal accuracy d. terminal energy 60. Englishman who was one of the first to state sound ballistics theories in his New Principles of Gunnery in 1742. a. Lt. Col. Patrick Ferguson b. Uziel Gal c. Mikhael Kalashnikov d. Benjamin Robins 61. Examiners make reports and testify in court regarding their reports. a. legal proceedings b. forensic ballistics c. field investigation d. technical examination 62. Father of the percussion ignition. a. John M. Browning b. Alexander John Forsyth c. Horace Smith d. Samuel Colt 63. Feeds cartridges, fires and ejects cartridge cases as long as the trigger is fully depressed and there are cartridges available in the feed system. a. submachine gun type b. semiautomatic type c. automatic action type d. machine gun type 64. Firearm in which a rotating cylinder successively places cartridges into position for firing. a. carbine b. rifle c. revolver d. pistol 65. Firearms that does not contain rifling. a. rifled arms b. artillery c. small arms d. smooth-bore firearms 66. Firearms that propel projectile less than one inch in diameter. a. rifled arms b. artillery c. small arms d. smooth-bore firearms 67. Five lands and five grooves, right hand twist and lands of equal width (5-R-G=L). a. Browning Type b. Colt Type c. Steyr Type d. Smith and Wesson Type 68. Following are the composition of black powder, EXCEPT a. potassium chlorate b. potassium nitrate c. charcoal d. sulphur 69. Following are the functions of cartridge cases, EXCEPT a. It holds the bullet, gunpowder and primer. b. It serves as a waterproof container for the gunpowder. c. It prevents the escape of gases to the rear. d. It serves to extract or eject the empty shell out of the gun. 70. Following are the principles of identification of shells, EXCEPT a. The breechface and striker of every single firearm leave microscopical and individualities of their own. b. No two barrels are microscopically identical as the surfaces of their bores all possess individual and characteristics markings of their own. c. The firearm leaves its “fingerprints” or “thumbmark” on every cartridge case which it fires. d. The imprint on all cartridge cases fired from the same weapon are always the same, those on cartridge cases fired from different weapons must always be different. 71. Following are within the field of interior ballistics, EXCEPT a. energy of the bullet b. firing pin hitting the primer c. pressure developed d. engraving on the cylindrical surface of the bullet 72. Founded the firearm company which bears his name. a. John Mahlon Marlin b. James Wolfe Ripley c. Elisha King Root d. Eliphalet Remington 73. Four lands and four grooves right-hand twist; narrow land and broad grooves (4-R-G3x). a. Steyr Type b. Colt Type c. Webley Type d. Army Type 74. Four lands, four grooves, right hand twist and lands or equal width (4-R-G=L) used in all earlier self-loading pistols. a. Browning Type b. Browning Type c. Steyr Type d. Smith and Wesson Type 75. Gives a muzzle velocity of over 2500 ft/sec. a. low power b. high power c. high intensity d. medium power 76. Gunpowder as a Propellant. The age of gunpowder began with its first use as a propellant. a. 1350 b. 1498 c. 1575 d. 1313 77. Gunpowder which gives off almost no smoke when burned. a. smokeless powder b. black powder c. explosive d. primer 78. Hand firearm in which a rotating cylinder successively places cartridges into position for firing. a. revolver b. pistol c. machine gun d. shotgun 79. Hand firearm usually applied to single shot and automatic loading. a. revolver b. sub-machine gun c. pistol d. shotgun 80. Hardened metal plug, called a button, with a rifled cross-section configuration. It is pushed or pulled through a drilled and reamed barrel so as to cold form the spiral grooves to the desired depth and twist. a. hook b. broach, gang c. broach, single d. button 81. He developed “bullet breech cap” which was in reality the first rimfire cartridge. a. Le Faucheux b. Flobert c. Alexander John Forsyth d. Samuel Colt 82. He did lasting design work in connection with 9mm Parabellum Cartridge. a. George Luger b. Johann Ulrich Hammerli c. Edmond Heckler d. R.J. Gatling

Review Notes & Evaluation in Police Photography, Personal Identification, Forensic Ballistics & Forensic Chemistry By MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim 83. He gave his name to a whole class of firearms. a. Samuel Colt b. Henry Derringer c. John C. Garand d. John M. Browning 84. He gave his name to whole class of firearms. a. John T. Thompson b. David Carbine William c. Henry Derringer d. Oliver F. Winchester 85. He invented Uzi submachine gun 1i the 1950s and used by the Israeli army for the first time during its Sinai campaign in 1956 and has become a mainstay of secret services from Jerusalem to Washington. a. Lt. Col. Patrick Ferguson b. Uziel Gal c. Mikhael Kalashnikov d. Benjamin Robins 86. He led the formation of a company named after him. a. Carl Walther b. Oliver Winchester c. John Thompson d. Fedor Tokarev 87. He patented the first practical revolver in which the cylinder rotated by cocking the hammer. a. Le Faucheux b. Flobert c. Alexander John Forsyth d. Samuel Colt 88. He was a famous Russian gun designer. a. Lt. Col. Patrick Ferguson b. Uziel Gal c. Mikhael Kalashnikov d. Benjamin Robins 89. He was the developer and designer of the AR15/M16 Rifle. a. Berthold Schwartz b. Eugene Stoner c. Sir Sydney Smith d. Mauser 90. If a bullet were to be initialed, which location is NOT suitable location for marking? a. ogive b. anterior portion c. peripheral d. base 91. If the bullet is badly damaged or disfigured, initials shall be placed at the a. base e b. anterior portion c. peripheral d. ogive 92. If you feel that you must fire a loaded gun to frighten someone, fire it straight ________________________ so that it will not bounce straight up into the air. a. in the direction of the person but make sure not to aim at him b. down into the ground c. up into the air d. back in order not to hit the person 93. In Europe and most countries other than the United States, the weight of bullets are given in: a. ounces b. milligrams c. grams d. grains 94. In firearm, an automatic and semi-automatic firearm design that directly utilizes the breech pressure exerted on the head of the cartridge cases to actuate the mechanism. a. ricochet b. blowback c. recoil d. full cock 95. In the United States, the weight of bullets are given in: a. ounces b. milligrams c. grams d. grains 96. Individual microscope placed upon a cartridge case by the chamber wall… a. breechface markings b. chamber marks c. extractor marks d. firing pin impression 97. Instrument used in marking bullets or shells recovered at the crime scene. a. marker b. pentel pen c. pencil d. stylus 98. Instrumental in making the revolver, a practical type of pistol. a. Samuel Colt b. Henry Derringer c. John C. Garand d. John M. Browning 99. It concerns mostly with the collection, marking, preservation, packing and transmission of firearms evidences. a. legal proceedings b. forensic ballistics c. field investigation d. technical examination 100.It is loaded with a single shot-gun cartridge, closed, fired and then deloaded by the shooter. a. auto-loading shotgun b. single-barreled shotgun c. double-barreled shotgun d. pump-action shotgun 101.It may be any type of small arm: long gun or pistol, smoothbore or rifle, muzzleloader or breechloader. Because of the time needed to reload (the fastest experts could reload a smooth-bore muzzle-loading musket in about fifteen seconds), these weapons were sometimes produced with two, three, four or more barrels; however, multiple-barreled weapons were never very popular. It was first introduced at the beginning of the eighteenth century. a. picklock musket b. doublelock musket c. matchlock musket d. flintlock musket 102.Made by the U.S. government for use in occupied countries of Europe during the recent war and fired the .45 cartridge, single shot and smooth bore. a. harpoons b. multi-barreled guns c. liberator d. flare guns 103.Made design of the service pistol of the Soviet forces. a. Carl Walther b. Oliver Winchester c. John Thompson d. Fedor Tokarev 104.Maker of the first known carbine. a. John T. Thompson b. David Carbine William c. Henry Derringer d. Oliver F. Winchester 105.Manufactured lever action rifle in the 1800s. a. Oscar Mossberge b. Kijiro Nambu c. John Mahlon Marlin d. Sergei Mossin 106.Manufactured the world’s first self-loading rifle. a. Samuel Colt b. Henry Derringer c. John C. Garand d. John M. Browning 107.Most commonly these marks are found on bullets fired from a revolver due to a poor alignment of the cylinder with the bore. a. chamber marks b. groovemarks c. shaving marks d. ejector marks 108.Negative impression of the breechface of the firearm found on the head of the cartridge case after firing. a. breechface markings b. chamber marks c. extractor marks d. firing pin impression 109.Non-adjustable rifling cutter which cuts all the grooves simultaneously; and is in a series of increasing dimensions until the desired groove depth is achieved. a. hook b. broach, gang c. broach, single d. button 110.One of the first rifle makers in the history of firearms. a. John Mahlon Marlin b. James Wolfe Ripley c. Elisha King Root d. Eliphalet Remington 111.One of the following is considered within the area of study of exterior ballistics. a. energy of the bullet b. effective range c. expansion of heated gases d. rotation of the bullet inside the barrel 112.One of the following is NOT part of the composition of primer. a. antimony sulfide b. fulminate of mercury c. potassium nitrate d. potassium chlorate

Review Notes & Evaluation in Police Photography, Personal Identification, Forensic Ballistics & Forensic Chemistry By MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim 113.One of the following is the correct percentage distribution of black powder. a. charcoal 75%, potassium chlorate 15%, sulphur 10% b. sulphur 75%, potassium nitrate 15%, charcoal 10% c. potassium nitrate 75%, charcoal 15%, sulphur 10% d. potassium chlorate 75%, charcoal 15%, sulphur 10% 114.One of the following statements regarding principles of identification of bullets is NOT true. a. The engravings on bullets fired from the same barrel will be different. b. No two barrels are microscopically identical as the surfaces of their bores all possess individual and characteristic markings of their own. c. When a bullet is fired from a rifled barrel, it becomes engraved by the riflings and this engraving will vary in its minute details with every individual bore. d. Every barrel leaves its thumbmark on every bullet which is fired through it, just as every breechface leaves its thumb mark on the base of every fired cartridge case. 115.One of the leading exponents, studying entrance and exit wounds, powder burns and powder “tattooing” on human skin and other medical phenomena associated with gun fires. a. Berthold Schwartz b. Eugene Stoner c. Sir Sydney Smith d. Mauser 116.Operates in the same manner as a slide action rifles, by means of a sliding lever under the barrel. a. auto-loading shotgun b. single-barreled shotgun c. double-barreled shotgun d. pump-action shotgun 117.Percussion system. Certain compounds detonated by a blow could be used to ignite the charge in a firearm, forming the basis for all later percussion and a cartridge development. a. 1835 b. 1836 c. 1845 d. 1807 118.Pinfire Cartridge. The pinfire cartridge was developed. This was probably the first self-exploding cartridge to come into general use. a. 1835 b. 1836 c. 1845 d. 1807 119.Pioneered the making of breech loading rifles. a. John M. Browning b. Alexander John Forsyth c. Horace Smith d. Samuel Colt 120.Pointed, flat-based bullets with a gliding metal jacket. The core is of pointed, boat-tailed shape and is made of hardened tungsten, chrome steel and has blackened tip. a. lead bullets b. jacketed bullets c. armor piercing bullets d. tracer bullets 121.Presentation of ballistics reports, firearms, bullets, cartridges cases and allied exhibits in court. a. legal proceedings b. forensic ballistics c. field investigation d. technical examination 122.Pressure upon the trigger both cocks and releases the hammer. a. double action b. automatic c. air rifle d. single action 123.Primarily used only in military combat and will seldom be encountered by the firearms technician. a. submachine gun type b. semiautomatic type c. automatic action type d. machine gun type 124.Produced the first practical revolvers. a. John M. Browning b. Alexander John Forsyth c. Horace Smith d. Samuel Colt 125.Produced upon a cartridge or cartridge case on the head, generally at or near the rim, from contact with the ejector. a. chamber marks b. groovemarks c. shaving marks d. ejector marks 126.Propel projectile more than one inch diameter. a. rifled arms b. artillery c. small arms d. smooth-bore firearms 127.PSI stands for a. penetration sequence information b. pressure speed ignition c. pounds per square inch d. percussion safety ignition 128.Raised on elevated portions cause by the grooves. a. skidmarks b. slippage marks c. landmarks d. groovemarks 129.Riflings. The first reference to rifled barrels happened around this year. Although its importance as an aid to accuracy was recognized by some, it took many years before rifling was generally used. a. 1350 b. 1498 c. 1575 d. 1313 130.Rim Cartridge. Bullet breech cap was developed and was in reality the first rimfire cartridge. a. 1835 b. 1836 c. 1845 d. 1807 131.Rim’s diameter is slightly greater than the diameter of the body of the cartridge case. E.g. caliber .25, .32 auto, super .38. a. semi-rimmed type b. rimless type c. rebated type d. rimmed type 132.Roman war machine which is a gigantic bow or catapult that hurls stones in killing enemies and will animals. a. boulette b. ballo c. ballista d. forensis 133.Seven lands and seven grooves, right hand twist; narrow lands and broad grooves (7-R-G3x). a. Steyr Type b. Colt Type c. Webley Type d. Army Type 134.Shall mean loaded shell for rifles, muskets, carbines, shotguns, revolvers, and pistol from which a bullet, ball, shot, shell or other missiles may be fired by means of gunpowder or other explosives. a. slug b. ammunition c. cartridge d. bullet 135.Six lands, six grooves, right hand twist, narrow lands and broad grooves. (6-R-G2x). a. Browning Type b. Colt Type c. Steyr Type d. Smith and Wesson Type 136.Small Arms. Gunpowder was first used only in cannons. It was not until the middle of the 14th century that portable hand firearms were introduced. These guns were ignited by handheld hotwire or light match. a. 1350 b. 1498 c. 1575 d. 1313 137.Smokeless powder is a mixture of a. potassium nitrate 60 parts, antimony sulfide 35 parts, nitrocellulose 5 parts b. potassium chlorate 60 parts, charcoal 35 parts, Vaseline 5 parts c. sulphur 60 parts, nitrocellulose 35 parts, fulminate of mercury 5 parts d. nitrocellulose 60 parts, nitroglycerine 35 parts, Vaseline 5 parts 138.Smokeless Powder. The first satisfactory smokeless powder was developed. a. 1884 b. 1885 c. 1845 d. 1858 139.Some may have a combination of several different gauges of shotguns, or a combination of shotgun barrels and rifle barrels. a. harpoons b. multi-barreled guns c. liberator d. flare guns 140.Spiral grooves in the bore designed to give a spin to the projectile for greater accuracy and carrying power. a. gauge b. rifling c. caliber d. bore 141.Started the production of a single-shot rifle that was adopted by Winchester. a. Samuel Colt b. Henry Derringer c. John C. Garand d. John M. Browning 142.Stimulated the development of the 1855 rifled Musket, the first firearm of its kind ever produced. a. John Mahlon Marlin b. James Wolfe Ripley c. Elisha King Root d. Eliphalet Remington

Review Notes & Evaluation in Police Photography, Personal Identification, Forensic Ballistics & Forensic Chemistry By MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim 143.Term used to indicate the bore diameter measured from two opposite land. a. gauge b. measurement c. rifling d. caliber 144.The actual pattern or curved path of the bullet in flight. a. penetration b. trajectory c. recoil d. range 145.The barrels may be side by side or they may be one over the other. Each barrel may have its own trigger. a. autoloading shotgun b. single-barreled shotgun c. double-barreled shotgun d. pump-action shotgun 146.The bore is cut longitudinally with a number of grooves. a. rifled arms b. artillery c. small arms d. smooth-bore firearms 147.The breechfaces of all firearms are finished off by a. machine cut b. hand filing and grinding c. machine cut and manual finishing d. natural erosion 148.The commonly used term for M16 after the name of the manufacturing company. a. Gatling b. Carbine c. Armalite d. Colt 149.The composition contained in the cavity burns fiercely on impact with a very hot flame which will quite reliably ignite anything that the bullet strikes. It has a slight blue color. a. incendiary bullets b. dum-dum bullets c. gas check bullets d. wad cutter bullet 150.The deflection of a projectile after impact. a. ricochet b. blowback c. recoil d. full cock 151.The depth of the bullet on target. a. terminal velocity b. terminal penetration c. terminal accuracy d. terminal energy 152.The diameter of the rim is greater than the diameter of the body of the cartridge case. E.g. caliber .38 special and caliber .22. a. semi-rimmed type b. rimless type c. rebated type d. rimmed type 153.The distance between the firearm and the target. a. penetration b. trajectory c. recoil d. range 154.The entry of the bullet on target. a. penetration b. trajectory c. recoil d. range 155.The firearm Caliber .32 is equivalent to a. 11 mm b. 9 mm c. 7.65 mm d. 7.63 mm 156.The first mechanism or "lock" invented to uncomplicate the firing of a hand-held firearm. This design removed the need to lower a lit match into the flash pan by hand and made it possible to have both hands free to keep a firm grip on the weapon at the moment of firing, and more importantly to keep both eyes on the target. It came into being about the end of the first quarter of the 15th century. a. picklock musket b. wheellock musket c. matchlock musket d. flintlock musket 157.The first practical revolver in which the cylinder rotated by cocking the hammer was patented. a. 1835 b. 1836 c. 1845 d. 1807 158.The following statements describe a bolt action type firearm, EXCEPT a. breech closure is cycled by an external level generally below the receiver b. breech closure is in line with the bore at all times, c. breech closure is manually reciprocated to load, d. breech closure is locked in place by breech bolt lugs and engaging abutments usually in the receiver 159.The grooving inside the barrels is known as a. boring b. reaming c. rifling d. drilling 160.The indentation in the primer of a center fire cartridge case or in the rim of a rimfire cartridge case caused when it is struck by the firing pin. a. breechface markings b. chamber marks c. extractor marks d. firing pin impression 161.The largest size of shot. a. shotshell b. buckshot c. pellet d. lead shot 162.The maker of high-quality .22 rifle, sporting rifles and pump action shotguns. a. Oscar Mossberge b. Kijiro Nambu c. John Mahlon Marlin d. Sergei Mossin 163.The marks left on a bullet by a gun barrel are different from those left by any other gun barrel. This fact is most useful in directly identifying the a. direction from which a shot was fired b. person who fired a particular gun c. bullet which caused a fatal wound d. gun from which a bullet was fired 164.The most powerful handgun in the world made in Israel. a. Caliber .380 Magnum b. Caliber .45 Magnum c. Caliber .50 Magnum d. Caliber .44 Magnum 165.The pin extends radically through the bead of the cartridge case into the primer. This type of cartridge is no longer being used. a. pin-fire cartridge b. rim-fire cartridge c. center-fire cartridge d. percussion 166.The position of the hammer or strike when the firearm is ready to fire. a. ricochet b. blowback c. recoil d. full cock 167.The primary constituent of smokeless gunpowder is a. potassium nitrate b. nitrocellulose c. nitroglycerin d. sulfur 168.The primer cap is forced into the middle portion of the head of the cartridge case. a. pin-fire cartridge b. rim-fire cartridge c. center-fire cartridge d. percussion 169.The priming mixture is placed in the cavity formed in the rim of the head of the cartridge case. a. pin-fire cartridge b. rim-fire cartridge c. center-fire cartridge d. percussion 170.The process of making spiral cuts into the bore to impart a spin on the bullet, assuring point in flight for better accuracy. a. rifling b. boring c. drilling d. reaming 171.The rearward movement of a firearm resulting from firing. a. ricochet b. blowback c. recoil d. full cock 172.The rim’s diameter is equal with the diameter of the body of the cartridge case. E.g. caliber 5.56 mm, .30, .9mm, .45. a. semi-rimmed type b. rimless type c. rebated type d. rimmed type 173.The science of firearm identification by means of the ammunition fired through them. a. interior ballistics b. exterior ballistics c. terminal ballistics d. forensic ballistics 174.The science that deals with the study of the motion of the projectile. a. ballistics b. firearms identification c. tool marks identification d. trace evidence identification 175.The size of the bullet grouping on the target. a. terminal velocity b. terminal penetration c. terminal accuracy d. terminal energy 176.The smallest pistol in the world is a. KOLIBRI b. KALIBRE c. KALIBER d. KOLIBRE 177.The sound created at the muzzle and of the barrel of the firearm after the explosion. a. muzzle energy b. terminal energy c. air resistance d. muzzle blast

Review Notes & Evaluation in Police Photography, Personal Identification, Forensic Ballistics & Forensic Chemistry By MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim 178.The Spanish government weapon development agency, based in Madrid. a. SIG b. Mauser c. Armalite d. CETME 179.The speed of the bullet. a. terminal velocity b. terminal penetration c. terminal accuracy d. terminal energy 180.The word MAGNUM originated in a. Brazil b. England c. France d. Israel 181.There are a number of tools using cartridges which are designed to drive stud, punch holes or cut tables. Such tools may be encountered in the investigation of an accident. a. harpoons b. tools c. cane guns d. gas guns 182.There is a protruding metal around the body of the cartridge case near the rim. a. semi-rimmed type b. rimless type c. rimmed type d. belted type 183.These are designed to be set in the woods and left where animals will encounter them. They may fire a bullet or a poison charge, depending on their construction. a. zip guns b. gas guns c. traps d. knife pistols 184.These are now known as hollow point bullets and soft point bullets. These were named after a place in India. a. incendiary bullets b. dum-dum bullets c. gas check bullets d. wad cutter bullet 185.These bullets are protected with small copper caps to prevent the melting of the base. These caps are especially used if bullets are intended to be fired at higher velocity. a. incendiary bullets b. dum-dum bullets c. gas check bullets d. wad cutter bullet 186.These bullets when fired, emit a bright red flame from their base, thereby showing the gunner by the trace of flame, the path as well as the striking point of the bullet, the flame continuing to burn and trace for about 600 yards. a. lead bullets b. jacketed bullets c. armor piercing bullets d. tracer bullets 187.These may be in any form, since the name has been applied to all homemade guns, great many of this class will be found to be exceedingly clever mechanisms and most effective weapons. a. zip guns b. gas guns c. traps d. knife pistols 188.These will be found in all shapes and sizes and are used for firing tear gas and other forms of disabling gases. a. zip guns b. gas guns c. traps d. knife pistols 189.They are used for automatic pistol ammunition and medium and high power rifle ammunition. a. lead bullets b. jacketed bullets c. armor piercing bullets d. tracer bullets 190.This is that portion of the firearm against which the cartridge case and the primer are forced backwards when a shell will be imprinted by the tool markings. a. breechface b. extractor c. ejector d. firing pin 191.This operation results in a longitudinally rough hole of uniform diameter from one end of the barrel to the other. a. rifling b. boring c. drilling d. reaming 192.This removes some of the scars and scratches left by the drilling operation. a. rifling b. boring c. drilling d. reaming 193.This is the same as auto-loading rifle in that the recoil action reloads the gun from the magazine without any effort on the art of the shooter. a. auto-loading shotguns b. single-barreled shotgun c. double-barreled shotgun d. pump-action shotgun 194.This type is loaded with more than one cartridge into the chamber when it is fired rather having to perform this operation by hand. a. single shot firearms b. repeating arms c. slide action type d. lever action type 195.Those characteristics which are determinable only after the manufacture of the firearm. They are characteristics whose existence is beyond the control of man and which have random distribution. Their existence in a firearm is brought about by the tools in their normal operation resulting through wear and tear, abuse, mutilations, corrosion, erosion and other fortuitous causes. a. class characteristics b. individual characteristic c. group characteristics d. similar characteristics 196.Those types of firearm that is designed to shoot only one shot. a. single shot firearms b. repeating arms c. slide action type d. lever action type 197.Tool having a series of cutting edges of slightly increasing height used to cut the spiral grooves in a barrel. a. hook b. broach, gang c. broach, single d. button 198.Tool which cuts two opposing grooves at a time. a. broach, gang b. scrape c. swage d. button 199.Toolmarks produced upon a cartridge or cartridge case from contact with the extractor. These are usually found on or just ahead of the rim. a. breechface markings b. chamber marks c. extractor marks d. firing pin impression 200.Treats of the motion of projectile while still inside the firearm. a. interior ballistics b. exterior ballistics terminal ballistics c. terminal ballistics d. forensic ballistics 201.Treats the effects of the impact of the bullet towards the target. a. interior ballistics b. exterior ballistics c. terminal ballistics d. forensic ballistics 202.Used in almost all revolver ammunition and in some low and medium power rifle cartridges. They are produced in automatic swedging machines from extruded wire containing the proper percentages of tin and antimony for hardening a. lead bullets b. jacketed bullets c. armor piercing bullets d. tracer bullets 203.Used in cases such as for sending signals and enabling to see enemies in the dark. a. harpoons b. multi-barreled guns c. liberator d. flare guns 204.Uses pistol size ammunition. It differs from a pistol in that it has a shoulder stock which may or may not fold but is designed to be fired by the use of both hands. a. submachine gun type b. semiautomatic type c. automatic action type d. machine gun type 205.Usually applies to single shot and automatic loading. a. carbine b. rifle c. revolver d. pistol 206.Weapon in which pressure upon the trigger releases the hammer that must be manually cocked. a. double action b. automatic c. air rifle d. single action 207.Weapon normally designed to be fired from the shoulder. a. carbine b. shotgun c. rifle d. musket 208.What is the significance on the part of a firearm examiner in knowing the various steps in the manufacture of a firearm? a. for him to satisfy the questions in the minds of those interested in the outcome of the case b. for him to explain the source or cause of the different markings which may be found on a firearm evidence which may be found

Review Notes & Evaluation in Police Photography, Personal Identification, Forensic Ballistics & Forensic Chemistry By MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim basis of his identification c. for him to make impression to the public the importance of firearm examination d. for him to provide strong basis in the conviction of the accused. 209.When it comes to fired shells, the best areas where the investigating officer can place his “marks” are as follows, EXCEPT a. base of the fired shells b. inside, near the open mouth c. outside, near the open mouth d. on the body of the shell 210.When the bullet enters the rifled bore from a stationary position and is forced abruptly into the rifling, its natural tendency is to go straight toward before encountering the regular rifling twist. a. skidmarks b. slippage marks c. landmarks d. groovemarks 211.When the mechanism is so arranged that it will fire continuously while the trigger is depressed. a. double action b. automatic c. air rifle d. single action 212.Which of the following is NOT particularly useful in determining whether a fired bullet could have been fired by a particular gun? a. rate of twist b. number of lands and grooves c. direction of twist d. the widths of either the lands or the grooves 213.Which of the following is the percentage distribution of the composition of a primer? a. antimony sulfide 45%, potassium chlorate 23%, fulminate of mercury 32% b. potassium chlorate 45%, antimony sulfide 23%, fulminate of mercury 32% c. potassium nitrate 45%, antimony sulfide 23%, fulminate of mercury 32% d. fulminate of mercury 45%, potassium nitrate 32%, antimony sulfide 23% 214.Wizard of modern firearms and pioneered the first breech loading single shot rifles. a. John M. Browning b. Alexander John Forsyth c. Horace Smith d. Samuel Colt
FORENSIC CHEMISTRY & TOXICOLOGY

1. Forensic Chemistry – branch of chemistry dealing w/ application of chemical principles in solving problems related to administration of justices. It is chemistry applied in elucidation of legal problems. BLOOD 2. Blood – circulating tissue of the body. 1 cc of normal blood: 5,000,000 red cells. 6 quarts of blood in man of average size. 3. Plasma – straw-yellow colored liquid. Takes place when blood to which OXALATE is added to prevent clotting is allowed to stand. 65%=plasma, 90% of plasma is water. 10% of solids in plasma=protein in nature & consists of albumen, several globulines & fibrinogen. 4. Erythrocytes – Red Blood Cells 5. Leucocytes – White Blood Cells 6. Thrombocytes – Platelets 7. Serum – straw-yellow colored liquid. Takes place when clotted blood is allowed to stand for sometime. 8. Serum vs Plasma – Serum differs from Plasma as it contains no fibrinogen since when blood clots, protein fibrinogen is changed to insoluble form called fibrin. 9. Hemoglobin - oxygen-transporting substance in blood: iron-containing protein in red blood cells that combines reversibly w/ oxygen and transports it from the lungs to body tissues. 10. Agglutination - BIOLOGY IMMUNOLOGY clumping of cells: formation of clumps of cells, for example,

red blood cells or microorganisms, in presence of particular antibodies agglutination 11. Agglutinin substance causing agglutination:

substance that causes cells to clump together, for example, antibody or lectin 12. Agglutinogen - antigen: antigen responsible for formation of specific agglutinin 13. Benzidine Test – detects blood in dilution of 1 to 300,000 parts. Positive result: BLUE COLOR. 14. Hydrogen Peroxide – Agua Oxigenada 15. GuaiacumTest (Van Deen’s, Day’s or Schonbein’s Test) – detects blood at dilution of 1:50,000 parts. Cannot detect very old stains. Positive result: BLUE COLOR 16. Phenolphthalein Test (Kastle-Meyer Test) – detects blood in dilution of 1:80,000 parts. Positive result: PERMANGANATE COLOR or PINK COLOR. 17. Leucomalachite Green Test – Positive result: MALACHITE GREEN W/ BLUISH-GREEN OR PEACOCK BLUE.

NOTE: 4 chemical tests for blood: based on fact that peroxidase present in haemoglobin acts as carrier of oxygen from hydrogen peroxide to active ingredients of reagents & produces characteristic colored compounds by oxidation.

Review Notes & Evaluation in Police Photography, Personal Identification, Forensic Ballistics & Forensic Chemistry By MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim 18. Hemastix Test – designed as urine dipstick test for blood, trip can be moistened w/ distilled water & placed in contact w/ suspect bloodstain. Positive result: GREEN COLOR. 19. Luminol Test – its reaction w/ blood results in production of light rather than color. By spraying luminal reagent onto suspect item, large areas can be quickly screened for presence of bloodstains. 20. Teichmann or Haemin Crystal Test – Confirmatory test for presence of blood. Positive result: DARK BROWN RHOMBIC CRYSTALS OF HAEMIN OR HAEMATIN CHLORIDE (arranged singly or in clusters). 21. Haemochromogen Crystal or Takayama Test – Confirmatory test for presence of blood. Positive result: LARGE RHOMBIC CRYSTALS OF A SALMONPINK COLOR (arranged in clusters, sheaves & other forms appear within one to six minutes). 22. Spectroscopic Examination – Most delicate & reliable test for presence of blood in both old & recent stains. Uses MICROSPECTROSCOPE1: direct vision spectroscope that fits into microscope tube in place of eyepiece. for Positive recent blood result: stain; OXYHAEMOGLOBIN 26. Flavins - helps give yellowish color to semen & cause it to fluoresce under violet lights. 27. Florence Test – Test for presence of semen. Positive result: FORMATION OF CHARACTERISTIC CRYSTALS OF CHOLOINE PERIODIDE (dark brown crystals, rhombic or needle-shaped occurring singly or in crossed or even grouped in clusters. 28. Barberio’s Test – Test for presence of semen. Positive reaction: CERTAIN CRYSTALS appearing as slender yellow-tinted rhomboid needles w/ obtuse angles, sometimes crossed & at other times appear as ovoid crystals. 29. Acid Phosphatase Test – Reagents used: a) SODIUM ALPHANAPHTHYLPHOSPHATE & FAST BLUE B DYE b) 4-Methyl Umbelliferyl 30. Aspermia – w/out sperm 31. Oligospermia – few sperm GUNPOWDER 32. Black powder – charcoal 15%, sulfur 10%, & potassium or sodium nitrate 75%. 33. Smokeless powder – cellulose nitrate or glycerol nitrate combined w/ cellulose nitrate & some stabilizers. One of types of smokeless powder are BALLISTITE (cellulose nitrate and glycerol nitrate, and Vaseline), AXITE (cellulose nitrate, glycerol nitrate, Vaseline, barium nitrate, & potassium nitrate), AMBERITE (cellulose nitrate, potassium nitrate, barium nitrate, wood meal, and Vaseline). 34. Stabilizer – Organic & inorganic compounds which are added to powder to stabilize side reactions & corresponding decomposition of other ingredients of powder. Ex: nitrates, biochromate, & oxalates. 35. Gunpowder residues – partially burned particles. 36. Dermal Nitrate Test – originated from Cuba when Dr. Gonzalo Iturrioz first used paraffin for collecting residues from discharged firearms. Other term is PARAFFIN-DIPHENYLAMINE indicated by presence TEST. of Nitrate blue is specks.

METHAEMOGLOBIN (converted oxyhaemoglobin owing to exposure to air & light) in old blood stains. 23. Precipitin Test – Test: whether blood is of human or animal. Principle: foreign protein or proteincontaining substance, when injected into animal produces antibodies in blood serum of that animal, which, when mixed with solution of that foreign protein will form PRECIPITATE. Protein thus introduced is called antigen & antibody capable of forming precipitate is called PRECIPITIN. Positive result: (GRAY) PRECIPITATION RING IN INTERFACE BETWEEN QUESTIONED STAIN & HUMAN ANTISERUM. 24. Karl Landsteiner – Discovered ABO system of blood grouping in 1900. SEMEN 25. Semen – (fresh ejaculate): viscid gelatinous, sticky character. Normal quantity in single ejaculation: 1.5 to 1.35 cc.

Diphenylamine is a.k.a. LUNGE’S REAGENT. 37. Greiss Test –chemical test to develop patterns of gunpowder residues around bullet holes. This involves transferring particles embedded on target surface to chemically treated gelatin-coated photographic paper.

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Instrument for studying spectra: an instrument for dispersing light, usually light in the visible range, into a spectrum in order to measure it. (Microsoft®

Review Notes & Evaluation in Police Photography, Personal Identification, Forensic Ballistics & Forensic Chemistry By MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim 38. Distance Determination –process of determining distance between firearm & target, usually based on distribution of powder patterns or spread of shot pattern. Three Zones of Distance: a. Muzzle of gun: held directly in contact w/ body or practically so. (CONTACT WOUNDS). b. Muzzle of gun: held from about 2 inches to 36 inches away. c. Muzzle of gun: held from 36 inches or more. 39. CONTACT WOUNDS – Damage (on cloth) is due more to flame & muzzle blast than to penetration of bullet. a. Gaping hole where fabric is badly torn, b. Blackened area surrounding bullet hole, c. Singeing of fibers at entrance, & d. Presence of partially burned powder residues around entrance hole. 40. Distance of 2 to 36 Inches: a. Smudging & powder tattooing – when gun is held from about 2 inches to maximum of 8 inches. Smoke & soot is deposited around the hole of entrance producing dirty, grimy appearance. Individual specks of tattooing around hole are visible w/ naked eye. 41. Distance of 36 Inches: partially burned & unburned powder particles are driven into surface around gunshot hole producing black coarsely peppered pattern called tattooing. 42. Indication of Suicide or Homicide – kick of gun causes smudge & powder tattooing to be deposited more on 1 side of hole than on other, & side of greatest deposit indicates side on which sights of gun were mounted. 43. Distance of More than 36 Inches – powder tattooing is seldom seen. Nitrate particles may be present. 44. Infrared Photograph of Gunshot Hole – This photograph may reveal smoke ring around bullet hole which may not be noticed specially is hole is heavily stained w/ blood or cloth is of black material. EXPLOSIVES 45. Explosion –rapid combustion, decomposition of gases, & consequent violent increase of pressure, usually causes a loud report. Sudden breaking apart,
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shattering or bursting in pieces by internal pressure, as that of gas or steam (pressure explosion). 46. Detonation – One resulting from practically instantaneous decomposition or combustion of unstable compounds such as nitroglycerine, TNT2 or mercury fulminate, as distinguished from explosions of black powder. 47. Explosive – Any substance that may cause explosion by its sudden decomposition or combustion. 48. Bomb – hollow projectile of iron generally spherical, containing explosive material w/c is fired by concussion or by time fuse. 49. Propellants/low explosives – combustible materials containing w/in themselves all oxygen needed for their combustion, w/c burn but do not explode, & function by producing gas w/c produces explosion. Ex. Black & Smokeless powder. 50. Primary explosives/initiators – explode or detonate when they are heated or subjected to shock. They do not burn; sometimes they do not even contain elements necessary for combustion. Materials themselves explode, & explosion results whether they are confined or not. Ex. Mercury Fulminate, Lead Azide, Lead Salts of Picric acid. 51. High explosives – detonate under influence of shock of explosion of primary explosive. They do not function by burning; in fact, not all of them are combustible, but most of them can be ignited by flame & in small amount generally burn tranquilly & can be extinguished easily. If heated to high temperature by external heat or by their own combustion, they sometimes explode. They differ from primary explosives in not being exploded readily by heat or by shock & generally in being more powerful. 52. Low Explosives vs High Explosives – Due to difference in explosion velocities between low & high explosives, difference in their effects are rather obvious –low explosives produce dull ‘boom’ & generally, ‘push’ type of damage, while high explosives detonate w/ sharp ‘crack’ & produce violent shattering type of damage localized at the site of the explosive, w/ intensity of disruptive or shattering damage diminishing rapidly w/ distance

Trinitrotoluene

Review Notes & Evaluation in Police Photography, Personal Identification, Forensic Ballistics & Forensic Chemistry By MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim from this point. Ex. TNT, dynamite, nitroglycerine, picric acid. HAIR IDENTIFICATION 53. Hair – appendage of skin w/c occurs everywhere on human body except on palms of hand & soles of feet. Generally long & stiff. Consists of ROOT, SHAFT & TIP. 54. Cuticle – outmost covering & consists of one layer of non-nucleated polygonal cells w/c overlap like scales of fish; free edges of cells are directed toward distal end of hair. 55. Cortex – & intermediate & thickest layer of shaft, & is composed of elongated, spindle-shaped fibrils w/c cohere; they contain pigment granules in varying proportions depending on type of hair. 56. Medulla – central canal of hair; it may be empty or may contain various sorts of cells, more or less pigmented. 57. Continuous Medulla – found in large number of animals 58. Interrupted Medulla – very often in humans, monkeys, & horses. 59. Micrometer – instrument attached to microscope & is used to measure diameter of hair. 60. Medullary Index – ratio of size of medulla to the diameter of shaft. 61. Human vs Animal Hairs Human Medulla Air network in fine grains. Cells in water. invisible Cells easily visible Air network in form of large or small sacks. Animal 62. Fuzz – Generally short, fine & at times curly and wooly. FIBER IDENTIFICATION 63. Cotton Fibers – Flattened, twisted fibers w/ thickened edges. Irregularly granulated cuticle. No transverse markings. Fibers show spiral twist. Fibers swell in solution of copper sulphate & sodium carbonate dissolved in ammonia. It is insoluble in strong sodium hydroxide but soluble in strong sulfuric acid & partially dissolved in hot strong hydrochloric acid. 64. Flax Fibers – Apex tapering to fine point. Transverse sections are polygonal and show small cavity. Fibers consist of cellulose & give blue or bluish-red color when treated w/ weak solution of potassium iodide saturated in iodine & sulfuric acid. Fibers w/c show transverse lines & are usually seen in group formation, dissolve in solution composed of copper sulphate & sodium carbonate in ammonia. 65. Hemp Fibers – Fibers show transverse lines & consist of cellulose. Large oval cavities are seen in transverse sections. End is usually blunt, & there is often tuft of hair at knots. Stains are bluish-red w/ phloroglucin, & yellow w/ both aniline sulphate & weak solution of potassium iodide saturated in iodine w/ sulfuric acid. 66. Abaca Fibers – Fibers are smooth w/ transverse or longitudinal markings. Cavities are large & uniform. Value of medullary index is lower than 0.5 Value of medullary index is higher than 0.5 Walls are lignified. Tips are fine points. 67. Jute Fibers – Are quite smooth w/out either longitudinal or transverse markings. Fibers have typical large cavities which are not uniform but vary w/ degree of contraction of walls of fibers w/c are lignified. Ends are blunt. Fibers are stained red w/ Fuzz medulla. w/out Fuzz w/ medulla. aniline sulphate, also w/ iodine & sulfuric acid. Pigment in form of very fine grains. Pigments in form of irregular grains – larger than human Looks muff like thick Cortex Looks like fairly thin hollow cylinder

without treatment

Review Notes & Evaluation in Police Photography, Personal Identification, Forensic Ballistics & Forensic Chemistry By MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim 68. Wool Fibers – These fibers can easily be distinguished from vegetable fibers since former show outer layer of flattened cells & imbricated margins. Interiors are composed of fibrous tissues but sometimes medulla is present. They do not dissolve in solution composed of copper sulphate, sodium carbonate & ammonia. Stain is yellow w/ iodine & sulfuric acid & also w/ picric acid. Do not dissolve in sulfuric acid. Smell of singeing on burning. 69. Silk Fibers – Test Ignition Test Manufactured silk is almost structureless, microscopically. Fiber’s stain is brown Vegetable Rapid combustion, end charred & break sharply; smell of burning wood; vapor turns blue litmus red. w/ iodine & sulfuric acid & yellow w/ picric acid. They dissolve slowly in mixture of copper sulphate, sodium carbonate & ammonia. 70. Linen Fibers – Fibers are straight & tapering to point. Cortical area shows transverse lines w/c frequently intersects, simulating jointed appearance. Medullary region shows thin dense line. They do not dissolve in concentrated sulfuric acid. If placed in 1% alcoholic solution of fuchsin & then in solution of ammonium hydroxide, they assume bright red color. 71. Vegetable Vs. Animal Fibers Animal Burn and fuse; smell of burnt hair, fused & globular; fume turns red litmus to blue.

No change in color Turn yellow

Cellulose – No change. Chemical Tests: Use of Concentrated Nitric Acid Wool & Silk – Yellow Picric Acid Test Cellulose Fibers – Turn Black

Cellulose Fibers - Black Million’s Reagent Test: Cellulose – Not Affected Soaked in Tannic Acid:

Wool & Silk – Turn Brown

Wool & Silk – No Change.

Wool and Silk – Dissolve Heated with 10% NaOH

SCIENTIFIC NAME OF CERTAIN DRUGS

72. Cocaine –Benzoyl Methyl Ecgonine 73. Coca Plant – Erythroxylon Coca Lamarch

Review Notes & Evaluation in Police Photography, Personal Identification, Forensic Ballistics & Forensic Chemistry By MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim 74. 75. 76. 77. Marijuana – Cannabis Sativa L. Opium – Papaver Somniferum Shabu – Methamphetamine Hydrochloride Ecstasy – Methylenedioxymethamphetamine TOXICOLOGY3 preparation made from crushed dried bodies of Spanish fly, used in past as aphrodisiac & to treat skin blisters) f. On Salivary Glands: Mercury g. On Liver: Phosphorus h. On Mucous Membrane: Arsenic i. On Heart: Digitalis j. On Blood Vessels: Ergot (fungus attacking cereals: disease of cereals caused by parasitic fungus that grows in dense black masses (sclerotia) in grains of ear. Latin name: Claviceps purpurea. Also called black bread mold. Fungal bodies used in medicine: dried sclerotia of ergot fungus that yield substances used in drugs to treat migraine & to induce uterine contractions in childbirth), Nitrites k. On Blood Cells: Snake venom l. Both Local & Remote: Poison may act at site of application & in some distant place. Ex. Carbolic acid is irritant to alimentary tract & also toxic when absorbed. Circumstances Affecting Action of Poison

Poison – anything other than physical agencies capable of destroying life, either by chemical action on tissues of living body, or by physiological action by absorption into living system.

Site of Action of Poison

1. Local Action – poison acting on skin or on mucous membrane or on any part of body where it is applied. Example: Sulfuric acid 2. Remote Action – poison acting remotely in any of following ways: a. By production of shock. Ex. Poisoning by strong acid. b. By absorption into blood & being carried to & organs they effect. Ex. Morphine is absorbed by blood & carried to brain & depresses it. c. By transmission thru nerves of local parts affected going to nerve centers & then reflected to organs on w/c they act. Site of Remote Actions of Different Poisons are:

a. On Brain: Narcotics, alcohols, cerebral stimulants like caffeine. b. On Cord: Strychnine (Poisonous plant product: bitter white poisonous alkaloid obtained from nux vomica & related plants, used as poison for rodents & medicinally as stimulant for central nervous system. Formula: C21H22N2O2 ) c. On Peripheral Nerves: Curare (plant resin causing paralysis: dark resin obtained from certain South American plants, used by indigenous hunters to poison their arrows & in medicine as muscle relaxant) d. On Alimentary Tract: Corrosives e. On Kidneys: Cantharides (INSECTS European beetle: green European blister beetle, used as source of stimulant & irritant cantharides. Latin name: Lytta esicatoriaCantharis vesicatoria Also called cantharis DRUGS toxic preparation used as aphrodisiac: toxic
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science of poisons: the scientific study of poisons, especially their effects on the body and their antidotes Microsoft® Encarta® Reference Library 2004. © 1993-2003 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

1. Method of Administration: Poisons may enter body in following ways: a. Orally – Except irritants & corrosives, poisons must be digested or absorbed in gastric or intestinal mucosa before producing effect. b. Hypodermically – Poison reaches blood stream without passing digestive organs. Available for such substances that are soluble in lymph & tissue juices. c. Intramuscularly – Absorption is faster than in & hypodermic method. d. Endodermically – poison may be rubbed into & absorbed through skin. e. By Rectum, Vagina or Bladder – Absorption through rectum is about twice as much as absorption thru mouth. f. By Lungs – Poison thru this route may be made of substance w/c can be transformed to gaseous state. 2. Idiosyncrasy: Some persons posses sensitivity to certain foods or drugs. Most common drugs are potassium iodide, arsenical preparations, aspirin & sulfas. As to foods, most common are fish, shrimps, eggs & oysters. 3. Age: There are substances w/c are considered poison for babies but wholesome for adults, while opposite is true for other substances. 4. Habit: Body may acquire tolerance to some drugs. Habit diminishes effect of certain poisons. Tobacco, alcohol, opium, barbiturates, arsenic are good examples of this. 5. Dose: Effect of drugs & poisons in body is usually proportional to dose taken. Ex. Alcohol, when taken in small dose, stimulates body reflexes & tone, while large amount depressed whole body. Fatal Dose: smallest dose known to cause death: not smallest amount w/c will certainly cause death.

Review Notes & Evaluation in Police Photography, Personal Identification, Forensic Ballistics & Forensic Chemistry By MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim 3. Compounds: a. Zinc Chloride b. Antimony Trichloride B. Irritants: 1. Non-metals 2. Salts of Metals 3. Vegetable Irritants: a. Castor oil b. Digitalis c. Belladonna8 d. Croton oil, etc. 4. Animal Irritants: a. Cantharides 5. Food Irritants C. Narcotics: 1. Somniferous Group: a. Opium b. Chloral9 c. Synthetic Hypnotics 2. Diliriant: a. Belladonna10 b. Hyoscyamus c. Stamonium d. Cocaine D. Depressants: 1. Neutral Depressant: Paralysis of spinal cord. a. Aconite b. Conium 2. Cerebral Depressants: Inhibiting brain functions. a. Hydrogen Cyanide b. Oil of Bitter Almond c. Laurel Water 3. Cardiac Depressants: a. Digitalis b. Strophanthus c. Camphor11
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Treatment of Patient Suffering from Acute Poisoning

1. Evacuation of the Stomach: a. Long rubber tube is introduced to mouth & allowed to reach stomach. Fluid must first be introduced into stomach to prevent tube to come in close contact w/ its wall. Fluid is withdrawn & introduced until traces of poison are removed. Procedure is contra-indicated in poisoning by corrosives on account of danger of tear or laceration of stomach wall. b. Administration of Emetics4 2. Neutralization of Poison that Remains in Stomach 3. Application of Physiological Antidotes5 4. Keep the Patient Alive by General Measures, While His Organs of Elimination Are Getting Rid of Poison. Treat Any Urgent & Dangerous Symptoms. 5. Eliminating Poison: Elimination of poison is aided by purgatives, sudorifics6, & diuretics7. Sweating may be encouraged by hot bath, warm packing, & injection w/ apomorphine.

CLASSIFICATION OF POISONS

Following are classifications of poisons based on manner of action & effect in body.

A. Corrosives: 1. Strong Acids: a. Sulfuric Acid b. Nitric Acid c. Hydrochloric Acid d. Carbolic Acid e. Oxalic Acid 2. Caustic Alkalies: a. Potassium Hydroxide b. Sodium Hydroxide c. Ammonia
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1. PLANTS bush w/ poisonous black berries: extremely poisonous Eurasian plant w/ drooping purplish flowers & small black berries. Latin name: Atropa belladonna Also called deadly nightshade U.K. term deadly nightshade 2. PHARMACOLOGY drug from belladonna: drug, for example, atropine or hyoscyamine, that is made from belladonna Microsoft® Encarta® Reference Library 2004. © 1993-2003 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.
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causing vomiting: causing a person or animal to vomit

Microsoft® Encarta® Reference Library 2004. © 1993-2003 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. 5 substance that counteracts poison: a substance that counteracts the effect of a poison or toxin Microsoft® Encarta® Reference Library 2004. © 1993-2003 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. 6 causing production of sweat: causing the production of sweat Microsoft® Encarta® Reference Library 2004. © 1993-2003 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. 7 causing increased urine output: causing increased flow of urine Microsoft® Encarta® Reference Library 2004. © 1993-2003 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Toxic chemical used in DDT: a colorless oily toxic liquid with a strong odor, used in making chloral hydrate and DDT. Formula: CCl3CHO Microsoft® Encarta® Reference Library 2004. © 19932003 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.
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PLANTS bush with poisonous black berries: an extremely poisonous Eurasian plant with drooping purplish flowers and small black berries. Latin name: Atropa belladonna Also called deadly nightshade U.K. term deadly nightshade PHARMACOLOGY drug from belladonna: a drug, for example, atropine or hyoscyamine, that is made from belladonna Microsoft® Encarta® Reference Library 2004. © 1993-2003 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.
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chemical compound with antiseptic properties: a strong-smelling compound, used in medicinal creams for its mild antiseptic and anti-itching properties, and to make celluloid, plastics, and explosives

Review Notes & Evaluation in Police Photography, Personal Identification, Forensic Ballistics & Forensic Chemistry By MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim E. Poisons w/c are Exito-Motor in Action: 1. Strychnine 2. Brucine 3. Thebaine F. Poisons and Irrespirable Gases: 1. Poisonous Gases a. Carbon Dioxide b. Carbon Monoxide c. Hydrogen Sulfide d. Arseniureted Hydrogen e. Carbon Disulfide 2. Irrespirable Gases a. Chlorine b. Benzene c. Hydrogen Cyanide G. Contact Poisons: 1. Vegetable Irritants 2. Animal Irritants 3. Chemical Irritants H. Vulnerants: 1. Nails 2. Broken Glasses 3. Dust Forensic Chemistry Division of the NBI made following classification based on Chemical Standpoint: A. Gaseous Poisons (Poisons Present in Gaseous State): Carbon dioxide; Carbon monoxide; Hydrocarbons; Hydrogen sulfide; Sulfur dioxide; Oxides of nitrogen (Nitrous oxide, Nitric acid & Nitrogen dioxide); war gases. B. Inorganic Poisons: 1. Corrosives (Poisons characterized principally by intense & destructive action – few organic corrosives are included in this group for sake of completeness): a. Acid; Mineral and Organic: Sulfuric acid; Hydrochloric acid; Nitric acid; Oxalic acid; Acetic acid. b. Alkaline Corrosives: Potassium hydroxide; Sodium hydroxide; Calcium oxide; Ammonium hydroxide. c. Halogens: Chlorine; Bromine; Iodine; Fluorine. d. Corrosive Metallic Salts: Silver; Zinc. e. Organic Corrosives: Phenol; Pyrogallol; Formaldehyde. 2. Metallic Poisons and Salts: (These chemicals are protoplasmic irritants, but their chief action is deleterious effect produced after absorption into system.) a. Heavy Metals: Phosphorus; Antimony; Arsenic; Bismuth; Mercury; Lead; Radioactive substances; Thallium; Gold; Osmium; Platinum; Nickel; Chromium; Tin; Vanadium. b. Inorganic Salts: Alum; Alkaline earths; Magnesium sulfate; Lithium salts; Potassium salts; Boric acid & borax; Tellurium; Sodium silicate. C. Organic Poisons: 1. Volatile Poisons (Volatile liquids or easily sublimated solids many of which are irritants; their chief action occurs after absorption): a. Alepathic Compounds: Methyl alcohol; Ehtyl alcohol; Fuel oil; Amyl alcohol; Tertiary or Dimethyl carbinol; acetaldehyde; Paraldehyde; Methyl chloride; Methyl bromide; Tribromoethanol; Ethyl chloride; Ethyl bromide; Ether; Chloroform; Bromoform; Chloral hydrate; Carbon tetrachloride; Tetrachlorethane; Amyl nitrite; Nitroglycerin; Carbon bisulfide; Hydrocyanic acid and the cyanides; Paraffin hydrocarbons. b. Atomic compounds: Benzene series; Essential oils. 2. Alkalodial Poisons: (These substances are toxic principles of plants which have characteristic action on some parts of central nervous system; they are well-defined group). a. Volatile Alkaloidal Poisons: Nicotine & tobacco; Conine & poison hemlock. b. Non-Volatile Alkaloids: Opium & morphine; Aconitum & aconitine; Atropine & related alkaloids; Epicac & emetine; Cocaine & allied alkaloids; Nux vomica & its alkaloids strychnine & Brucine; Physostigmine; Alkaloids of veratrum species; Gelsenium & its alkaloids; Cinchona & quinine; Pilocapus Jaborandi and polocarpine; Caffeine, Curare. 3. Non-Alkaloidal Poisons (conglomerate collection of other organic toxic substances, non-volatile & non-alkaloidal): a. Hypnotics: Alepathic series; aromatic series. b. Aromatic Compounds: Naphthol; Salicylic acid; Picric acid; Dinitrophenol; Trinitrotoluene; Acetanilid; Antipyrine; Atophan; & Cinchopen group. c. Glucosides: Digitalis, Strophanthus; Olenader; Hellebore; Gossypium; Locust; Scilla; Cannabis indica. d. Organic Purgatives: Purgative oils; anthracene group; Jalap; purgatives. e. Essentials Oils: Aspidium; Abortifacients; Oil of Chenopodium; Apiol; Affion; Turpentine. f. Picrotoxin Group: Picrotoxin; Water of hemlock. g. Miscellaneous Group: Taxus; Sparteine; Abrus; Laburum; Larkspur; Health family; Sntonin; Cantharides. D. Miscellaneous Poisons: (Associated w/ botulism; food poisoning; mushroom poisoning; snake venom poisoning). 1. Food Poisoning: Toxic substances in food; abnormal hypersensitivity to normal constituents of food. 2. Poisonous Plants.

Microsoft® Encarta® Reference Library 2004. © 1993-2003 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Review Notes & Evaluation in Police Photography, Personal Identification, Forensic Ballistics & Forensic Chemistry By MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim 3. Poisonous Animals & Their Poisons: Arachnids; Centipedes; Insects; Caterpillars; Vertebrates.
Test of Retention

4. Biological Products. 5. Ground Glass.

1. “Shabu” is chemically known as: a. methamphetamine HCL b. methamphetamine c. methyl amphetamine d. methyleneamine 2. A characteristic post-mortem symptom of carbon monoxide poisoning is a …. a. marked protuberance of the eyeballs b. pinkish lividity of all or part of the body c. waxy texture and appearance of the skin d. grotesque oir contorted position of the body 3. A dead body was found in a vacant lot, upon examination, the chemist noted a rotten egg odor exuding from the body. the gas is likely a. CHLORINE, b. HYDROGEN SULFIDE, c. AMMONIA, d. CARBON DIOXIDE 4. A detonation has a A. breaking effect B. pushing effect C. deteriorating effect D, shattering effect 5. A disorder produced by male organ which produces a semen with a very few count of sperm cells. a. vasectomy b. impotent c. oligospermia d. aspermia 6. A disorder produced by male organ which produces semen without sperm cells. a. oligospermia b. aspermia c. vasectomy d. impotency 7. A distinctive mark or design placed in the paper at the time of its manufacture by passing the paper under a machine – dandy roll. a. striation marks b. watermarks c. radial fracture d. concentric fracture 8. A disturbance produced by poison on that part with which the poison came into contact. a. Acute b. Local c. Remote d. Combined 9. A drop of blood which falls from a moving object or person is elongated and the splashes are found to be concentrated around one end of the stain. As a general rule, the splashes and the extension of the drop of blood indicates…. a. direction of movement b. route c. fresh blood d. dried stain 10. A drug obtained from the leaves of coca, a South American shrub. It is a central nervous system stimulant. a. marijuana b. shabu c. cocaine d. opiates 11. A forensic chemist analyzed the stain in the nightgown to be semen. However, no spermatozoa was found. What test was used by the chemist to confirm the presence of the semen? a. MICROSCOPIC, b. BARBERIO, c. FLORENCE, d. ULTRAVIOLET LIGHT 12. A gas with a rotten egg odor usually made by decaying body. a. Chloride b. Ammonia c. Carbon dioxide d. Hydrogen sulfide 13. A group of synthetic drugs that stimulate the central nervous system. a. stimulants b. depressants c. amphetamines d. hallucinogens 14. A man accused in a paternity case is Group A while the mother is Group B. The group of the child can be a. GROUP A, b. GROUP B, c. GROUP AB, d. ALL OF THE ABOVE 15. A man of average built would normally have how many quarts of blood? a. 6 quarts b. 7 quarts c. 8 quarts d. 9 quarts 16. A quality which is unique to one item or person. a. class characteristics b. identification c. individual characteristics d. comparison 17. A simple test for distinguishing a blood stain from their substances is the … a. benzidine test b. alphanaphthylamine test c. diphenylamine test d. hydrochloric test d. hydrochloric acid test 18. A specially shaped or patterned block of metal which is used to press or cut other metal into a particular shape. a. scraper b. syrupy c. die d. emery 19. A useful method of identifying or comparing certain substances, such as small glass particles found in connection with a hit-and-run case, is to measure the relative velocity of light through the substance. The instrument for doing this is the … a. microtome b. refractometer c. pycnometer d. x-ray diffraction camera 20. a. EXPERT WITNESS, b. ORDINARY WITNESS, c. INVESTIGATOR is the person allowed to give an opinion or conclusion on a given scientific evidence. 21. a. INFRARED, b. RADIOGRAPHIC, c. CHEMICAL TEST will reveal smoke ring around the bullet hole. 22. a. SPERMATOZOA, b. RED CELLS, c. SERUM confirms the presence of blood. 23. All of the following are accurate tests for the presence of alcohol in the human body EXCEPT one. a. blood test b. fecal test c. criminalistics d. harger breath test e. saliva test 24. An accidental fire may be due to a. SPONTANEOUS COMBUSTION, b. NATURAL EXPLOSION, c. LIGHTNING, d. OVERLOADED ELECTRICAL CIRCUIT

Review Notes & Evaluation in Police Photography, Personal Identification, Forensic Ballistics & Forensic Chemistry By MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim 25. An agency in the Philippines which is specially tasked to enforce drugs law. a. DEA b. PNP c. NAKTAF d. PDEA 26. An air pollutant reacts with the hemoglobin of the blood and reduces the amount of oxygen circulated to the body tissues; it may cause death by asphyxia. The pollutant is a. SULFUR DIOXIDE, b. NITROGEN DIOXIDE, c. CARBON DIOXIDE, d. CARBON MONOXIDE 27. An amateurish firesetter A. more effective combustible material B. more complex mixture C. uses so much fuel that traces are left behind for the investigator D. more difficult to obtain 28. An amateurish firesetter a. more effective combustible material b. more complex mixture c. uses so much fuel that traces are left behind for the investigator d. more difficult to obtain 29. An identifiable quality that is common to a group of objects. m. individual characteristics n. class characteristics o. identification p. comparison 30. An optical instrument that uses a lens or a combination of lenses to produce magnified images of small objects, especially of objects too small to be seen by the unaided eye. a. telescope b. microscope c. camera d. video camera 31. Analgesic or pain-killing substance that depresses vital body functions such as blood pressure, pulse rate, and breathing rate. The regular administration of narcotics will produce physical dependence. a. stimulants b. narcotic c. hallucinogens d. depressants 32. Any explosion that can occur only within a container or a vessel. A. Mechanical Explosion B. Chemical Explosion C. Nuclear Explosion D. Human Odor Explosion 33. Anywhere evidence may be located that will help explain the events. m. court n. police station o. crime scene p. hospital 34. Are articles and materials which are found in connection with an investigation and which aid in establishing the identity of the perpetrator. a. PHYSICAL EVIDENCE, b. TRUE EVIDENCE, c. QUESTIONED EVIDENCE, d. CIRCUMSTANTIAL EVIDENCE 35. Below are motives in the commission of arson. Which is the most frequently chosen motive? a. INTIMIDATION, b. PROFIT, c. REVENGE, d. CONCEAL ANOTHER CRIME 36. Blood is classified according to agglutinogen their cells contain which makes them liable to agglutination. What are those cells called? a. GRANULOCYTES, b. ERYTHROCYTES, c. THROMBOCYTES, d. LEUCOCYTES 37. Called the speed of detonation. A. low-order explosive B. high order explosive C. low explosive D. high explosive 38. Can occur in any industrial plant where combustible dusts are created or allowed to accumulate. A. BLVE B. Backdraft C. Dust Explosion D. Mechanical Explosion 39. Capacity of the paper for the transmission of light. a. accelerated aging test b. bursting strength test c. opacity examination d. microscopic examination. 40. Chemical substance extracted in 1964 that is largely responsible for the hallucinogenic properties of marijuana. Its discovery has allowed researchers to measure the potency of marijuana preparations and has permitted studies related to measuring the effect of marijuana’s potency on individuals. a. cannabis sativa b. hashish c. sensimella d. THC – Tetrahydrocannabinol 41. Chemical used to indicate the presence of semen by acid phosphatase. If stain is of semen, the color reaction is purple. a. Barberio’s reagent b. MUP c. Florence reagent d. Sodium Alphanaphthylphosphate and fast blue b dye 42. Color of semen. a. yellow b. white c. brown d. blue 43. Color reaction of opium and its derivatives when tested with Marquis Reagent. a. violet b. blue precipitate c. green to reddish brown d. yellow or green 44. Commonly referred to as “uppers” or “speed.” a. stimulants b. depressants c. amphetamines d. hallucinogens 45. Description of semen when viewed under microscope a. has tail b. has head c. has neck d. all 46. Evidences which change quickly such as skidmarks, the wounds and bruises will heal and disappear before the case comes to trial. Such evidence can be preserved by…. a. pickling method and introduced in court as evidence b. photography and introduced in court as evidence c. casting and molding and introduced in court as evidence d. all 47. Extracted from opium. For unknown reasons, most addicts prefer to use one of its derivatives. a. opiates b. morphine c. heroin d. codeine 48. Feel of semen in cloth. a. crusty b. starchy stiffness c. soft d. cotton-soft feel 49. Following are examples of mechanical explosions, except A. backdraft B. bursting of a fire hose C. Boiler Explosion D. Dynamite 50. For all impressions, such as tool marks, which of the following is a satisfactory reproduction medium. a. MODELING CLAY, b. NEGOCOLL, c. PUTTY, d. WOOD METAL

Review Notes & Evaluation in Police Photography, Personal Identification, Forensic Ballistics & Forensic Chemistry By MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim 51. Gunpowder residues may be determined by a. TAKAYAMA, b. DIPHENYLAMINE, c. FLORENCE TEST 52. Hemp, cotton, linen and ramie are fibers that are woven into clothing material. To what class of fibers do they belong? a. MINERAL, b. ANIMAL, c. ARTIFICIAL, d. VEGETABLE 53. Heroin gives yellow to green color reaction when tested with a. Marquis b. Duquenois-Levine c. Nitric Acid d. Dillie-Koppanyi 54. How cuticle looks like under a microscope. a. scales b. shingles c. blocks of wood d. hollow blocks 55. Identifying marks which are placed on physical evidence of the scene of a crime may consist of …. a. letter of the alphabet only b. any distinctive marks which is difficult to duplicate c. numbers only d. numbers and letters only 56. Image that is only perceived in the viewer’s brain and cannot be produced on a screen. a. virtual image b. real image c. imagination d. mirage 57. Image that is projected onto a motion picture screen. a. real image b. virtual image c. imagination d. mirage 58. In comparison with other methods of analysis used in police laboratory, the unique advantage of the spectrograph is that…. a. minute traces of substance can be analyzed b. it is relatively inexpensive to acquire and operate c. the sample is not destroyed in the analytical process d. it produces a permanent record of the analysis 59. In criminal investigation, metallurgy finds its most important application in a. BOMB AND EXPLOSION, b. RESOTRATION TAMPERED SERIAL NUMBER, c. THEFT AND ROBBERY, d. COUNTERFEIT ROBBERY 60. In one case, the color of smoke is a useful indication in determining the nature of the burning substance. If the fire gives off white smoke this could be a. BURNING PHOSPHOROUS, b. BURNING PETROLEUM, c. BURNING STRAW, d. BURNING NITRATED PLASTIC 61. In order to determine how a fire started, the investigator must have A. working knowledge of how to set fire B. set fire as an arsonist C. experimental knowledge of how to set fire D. actual firesetting exercises in laboratory 62. In the absorption of indirect technique of grouping blood stains, the red cells of the suspect agglutinated anti A serum but was negative to Anti B. a. GROUP, b. GROUP B, c. GROUP AB, d. GROUP O 63. In the investigation of a rape case, use of ultra-violet light is a useful method… a. only to establish whether certain stains are semen stains, after they have been located by some other method b. to locate stains, but not to establish whether they are semen stains c. both to locate stains and to establish whether they are semen stains d. neither for finding stains nor for determining their nature 64. Investigators occasionally encounter retrograde amnesia in persons they wish to interview or interrogate. Retrograde amnesia is a loss of memory that …. a. covers a period of time immediately preceding severe shock b. is a form of hysteria, in which the memory gradually returns as the victim calms down c. is feigned d. begins to affect the mind only after a considerable lapse of time following a severe shock 65. Is any agent which neutralizes, opposes or counteracts poison or its effect a. EMETIC, b. ALKALOID, c. ANTIDOTE, d. TETANIC 66. Is extremely used in reproducing evidence such as footprints and tire marks in dirt or mud … a. moulage b. casting c. cementing d. pickling 67. Is the technique of reproducing facsimile or physical evidence by the plaster moulds and the impression of which is made through the successive formation of a negative mould and positive cast … a. moulage b. casting c. cementing d. pickling 68. It is a straw yellow colored liquid, and comprises about 65% of the blood. a. Platelets b. Fibrin c. Leucocytes d. Plasma 69. It is easily ignited, will burn rapidly, and by itself gives off no detectable smoke. A. fuel oil B. kerosene gas C. alcohol D. gasoline 70. It is the oxygen carrier of the blood. a. Plasma b. Hemoglobin c. Erythrocytes d. Fibrin 71. It is the part of the hair which is referred to as a race determinant? a. cortex b. cuticle c. medulla d. shaft 72. It may be defined as the application of instruments and methods of physical science to the detection of crime. a. forensic chemistry b. instrumentation c. criminalistics d. all 73. Kind of ink is wherein the use of chemical bleaches is ineffective. a. Carbon b. Logwood c. Nigrosine d. Gallotanic 74. Knowing the species origin of blood found at the crime scene is an example of w. comparison x. identification y. controlling z. labeling

Review Notes & Evaluation in Police Photography, Personal Identification, Forensic Ballistics & Forensic Chemistry By MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim 75. Known as “The Comprehensive Dangerous Drugs Act of 2002.” a. RA 9165 b. RA 6975 c. RA 8551 d. RA 6425 76. Major component of glass. a. lime b. silica c. soda 77. Marking each piece of evidence for later identification, and wrapping and packing of the evidence to secure the evidence from damage, respectively. a. sufficiency of samples b. maintenance of individuality c. labeling and sealing d. standard for comparison 78. May be defined as the sum total application of all sciences in crime detection. a. forensic chemistry b. instrumentation c. criminalistics d. all 79. Medico-legal certified that the cause of death was taking in ground glass orally. Is this a case of poisoning? Why? a. YES, BECAUSE IT ENTERED THE BODY AND CAUSED DEATH, b. NO, BECAUSE IT DID NOT ACT CHEMICALLY, c. YES, BECAUSE IT IS ABSORBED BY THE BLOOD STREAM d. NO, BECAUSE THE COMPOSITION OF BLOOD IS INORGANIC 80. Mercury fulminate is an example of a. LOW, b. HIGH, c. PRIMARY 81. Occurs within the ATOM of an element and may be either nuclear fusion . . . . A. Mechanical Explosion B. Chemical Explosion C. Nuclear Explosion D. Human Odor Explosion 82. Oldest ink material known to man. a. logwood b. Nigrosine c. Carbon d. gallotanic 83. Oldest known explosive. a. black powder b. smokeless powder c. dynamite d. TNT 84. One of the characteristics of gasoline is that it can A. burn B. explode C. extinguish fire D. go unnoticed 85. One of the following is usually the best methods of chemical analysis of every minute quantities of an organic substance is analysis by … a. fluoroscopy b. spectrograph c. reagents d. electron microscope 86. One of the motives of this arson is one of the ingenious ways of committing for insurance profit is for a group of businessman to enter. A. insurance fraud B. incendiarism in industry C. revenge and spite fires D. Arson to cover another crime E. Sabotage and Radical Terrorism 87. Originally patented as an appetite suppressant and was later discovered to bring about feelings of happiness and relaxation. a. cocaine b. opium c. marijuana d. ecstasy 88. Otherwise known as “The Dangerous Drugs Act of 1972.” a. RA 9165 b. RA 6975 c. RA 8551 d. RA 6425 89. Placing hair found at the crime scene vis-à-vis hairs removed from a suspect’s head is a process of j. identification k. labeling l. comparison m. controlling 90. Plaster of paris is the most widely applicable material to make a cast particularly in outdoor scenes? Why? a. IT PROVIDES A DURABLE CAST, b. IT IS CAPABLE OF REPRODUCING FINE DETAILS, c. IT IS SIMPLE TO PREPARE, d. ALL OF THESE 91. Positive result in the preliminary examination for semen in Barberio’s test. a. Picric acid b. Spermine picrate c. Napthol diazonium d. Anthraquinous chloride 92. Preliminary test for blood is a. BARBERIO, b. BENZIDINE, c. PARAFFIN 93. Preliminary test for the presence of Marijuana. a. Marquis b. Duquenois-Levine c. Nitric Acid d. Dillie-Koppanyi 94. Referred to as the circulating tissue of the body. a. Semen b. Blood c. Cells d. Muscles 95. Refers to physical evidence whose origin is known, such as blood or hair from a suspect that can be compared to crime scene evidence. d. maintenance of individuality e. standard for comparison f. sufficiency of samples g. labeling and sealing 96. Reliable and easy way to test blood even when it is decomposed and stained with contamination. a. Benzidine test b. Van Deen’s test c. Phenolphthalein test d. Precipitin test 97. Scales of hair point toward. a. root b. shaft c. tip d. follicle 98. Scientific name for coca plant. a. cannabis sativa b. methamphetamine hydrochloride c. erythroxylon coca d. methyl benzoyl ecgonine 99. Scientific name for marijuana. a. cannabis sativa b. methamphetamine hydrochloride c. erythroxylon coca d. methyl benzoyl ecgonine 100. Sometimes even a small and normally harmless dose of a given substance can be a poison to some individuals. Why? a. BECAUSE IT IS READILY ABSORBED BY THE BLOOD, b. BECAUSE IT ACTED CHEMICALLY, c. BECAUSE IT CAUSED NOXIOUS EFFECT, d. BECAUSE OF IDIOSYNCRACY 101. Stage of blood examination wherein the actual proof that subject is definitely blood. a. Preliminary test b. Confirmatory test c. Precipitin test d. Blood typing and grouping 102. Striations, defects of manufacture and wear of a firearm are examples of j. comparison k. class characteristics l. individual characteristics m. identification

Review Notes & Evaluation in Police Photography, Personal Identification, Forensic Ballistics & Forensic Chemistry By MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim 103. Test to determine whether blood is of human origin or not. a. Preliminary test b. Confirmatory test c. Precipitin test d. Blood typing and grouping 104. Test used to indicate presence of cocaine. a. Nitric Acid b. KN c. Cobalt thiocyanate d. DillieKoppanyi 105. That the explosive being discussed, regardless of type, was totally used up by the explosion. A. low-order explosive B. high order explosive C. low explosive D. high explosive 106. That when the microscope is focused with one objective in position, the other objective can be rotated into place by revolving the nosepiece while the specimen remains very nearly in correct focus. a. parfocal b. diopter c. dust shield d. empty magnification 107. The application of chemical principles in the examination of evidence. a. Forensics b. Criminalistics c. Instrumentation d. Forensic Chemistry 108. The art of extracting and working in metals by the application of chemical and physical knowledge. a. petrography b. metallurgy c. metallography d. etching (serial number restoration) 109. The best method in comparative soil analysis. NO CHOICES Spectroscopic Examination 110. The best method of determining the presence of spermatozoa is by a. PHYSICAL, b. CHEMICAL, c. MICROSCOPIC EXAMINATION 111. The chief characteristics indicating the source or origin of paper is a. WIREMARK, b. WATERMARK, c. POSTMARK, d. COMPRESSION MARK 112. The common denominator that characterizes all types of repeated drug use is the creation of this type of dependence for continued use of the drug. a. physical dependence b. psychological dependence c. drug addiction d. drug dependence 113. The destructiveness of the fire may assure the perpetrator that no trace of the original crime will remain. A. insurance fraud B. incendiarism in industry C. revenge and spite fires D. Arson to cover another crime E. Sabotage and Radical Terrorism 114. The detection and identification of poisons is called…. a. chemistry b. bacteriology c. toxicology d. carbon monoxide 115. The determination of the approximate time of firing of the gun maybe done by a. MICROSCOPIC TEST, b. EXAMINING GUNPOWDER RESIDUE ON THE GUN, c. EXAMINING THE TARGET 116. The direction from which a blunt object has broken a piece of glass may be determined by examination of the fractured cross-sectional surfaces of the glass. In this case, the direction of the blow is indicated by …. a. the pattern of curved lines, level of angle of the fracture, and the position of flaking or chipping on the cross section b. convexity or concavity of the fractured surface c. the position of crystal structure deformations d. all 117. The fourth element of fire that explains continuous combustion. a. fuel b. uninhibited chain reaction c. heat d. oxygen 118. The impossible children of Group A father and O Group mother is Group a. A, b. O, c. none, 119. The intermediate layer of hair. a. cuticle b. cortex c. medulla 120. The investigator who collects physical evidence should take it to the laboratory by himself whenever this is possible, otherwise, he should obtain a receipt from each person to whom he gives or receives evidence. This statement is best applicable to…. a. chain of custody of evidence b. three tools in criminal investigation c. cardinal rules in criminal investigation d. to establish the guilt of the accused 121. The level of proof the evidence provides either to prove or to disprove that the defendant was the one who did the crime. a. probative value b. proof beyond reasonable doubt c. preponderance of evidence d. burden of proof 122. The most common motive of arson in Metro Manila A, sabotage B. for profit C. terrorism D. revenge 123. The most commonly used for determining intoxication of a motor vehicle driver is the …. a. blood test b. urine test c. breath test d. spinal fluid test 124. The most widely used illicit drug in the US today. The plant grows to a height of 5 to 15 feet and is characterized by an odd number of leaflets on each leaf. Normally, each leaf contains five to nine leaflets, all having serrated or saw-tooth edges. a. cocaine b. opium c. marijuana d. ecstasy 125. The nose can lose its ability to detect some odors after prolonged, intense exposures to them. A. olfactory fatigue B. gustatory fatigue C. sensory fatigue D. auditory fatigue 126. The number of times the image of an object is enlarged compared with the actual size of the object when seen by the unaided eye. a. empty magnification b. magnification c. parfocal d. univocal

Review Notes & Evaluation in Police Photography, Personal Identification, Forensic Ballistics & Forensic Chemistry By MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim 127. The primary reason that tissues of the human body are frequently destroyed even by a relative small fire is because of the a. high content of organic gases b. high aft content in the body wall c. high phosphorus content of the body d. human body is flammable 128. The process in reproducing physical evidence by plaster moulds. a. Casting b. Cementing c. Moulage d. Picking 129. The process of ascertaining whether two or more objects have a common origin. m. identification n. comparison o. labeling p. controlling 130. The process of determining a substance’s physical or chemical identity. m. comparison n. controlling o. identification p. labeling 131. The purpose to use a particular means to effect such result. A. purpose B. intent C. motive D. desire 132. The rapid oxidation of substances accompanied by generations of heat and light. a. decomposition b. combustion c. oxidation d. pyrolization 133. The ratio of the size of the medulla to the diameter of the hair. a. cortical index b. medullary index c. cuticular index d. follicular index 134. The scientific name of opium plant is: a. opium poppy plants b. papaver somniferum c. erythroxylon coca d. triple line 135. The scientific name for the active constituent covering the marijuana leaves: a. Cannabis Sativa L. b. Cannabis Indica c. Cannabis Americana d. Cannabin 136. The study of the identification and characterization of body fluids semen, blood, and saliva is called a. IMMUNOLOGY, b. SEROLOGY, c. POSOLOGY, d. PHARMACOLOGY 137. The sudden breaking apart or shattering into pieces brought about by internal pressure is a. COMBUSTION, b. EXPLOSION, c. SUBLIMATION 138. The team leader of crime scene investigation. s. medics t. investigator u. first officers on the scene v. the criminalist 139. The transmission of heat through a medium. a. conduction b. convection c. radiation 140. Their primary function is to save the life of the injured. w. investigator x. medics y. first officers on the scene z. criminalist 141. This drug gives red orange to yellow color reaction under Nitric Acid. a. Heroin b. Opium c. Morphine d. Cocaine 142. This simply means that each evidence must be packaged separately to prevent damage or contamination. j. sufficiency of samples k. labeling and sealing l. maintenance of individuality m. standard for comparison 143. This simply means that quantity of specimen must be adequate. m. sufficiency of samples n. labeling and sealing o. standard for comparison p. maintenance of individuality 144. This test is used to detect the presence of semen particularly in stained clothing. a. Microscopic test b. Barberio’s test c. Florence test d. Ultra-violet test 145. Those consist principally of special types of carefully ground and polished glasses. a. optical parts b. mechanical parts c. electrical parts 146. To determine definitely that the stain is blood, what test should be performed? a. BARBERIO’S TEST, b. FLORENCE TEST, c. PHENOLPHTHALEIN TEST, d. TAKAYAMA TEST 147. To know whether a paper is not easily torn, what test is utilized? a. Accelerated aging test b. Bursting strength test c. Opacity examination d. Microscopic examination 148. To say that .32 caliber Smith and Wesson revolvers have five lands and grooves twisting to the right is an example of d. comparison e. class characteristics f. individual characteristics g. identification 149. What does the law require in the sale of violent poisons? a. A LEDGER TO RECORD THE SALE, b. A PRESCRIPTION OF A PHYSICIAN, c. A LEDGER TO RECORD SALE AND A LABEL WITH SKULL AND BONES AND WORD POISON, d. A LABEL WITH SKULL AND CROSS BONES AND A PRESCRIPTION OF A PHYSICIAN 150. What is the best method of comparing samples of soil? a. MICROSCOPIC EXAMINATION, b. ULTRA-VIOLET LIGHT EXAMINATION, c. CHEMICAL EXAMINATION, d. DENSITY GRADIENT APPARATUS 151. What is the purpose of collecting and examining gunpowder residues on the target? a. TO DETERMINE THE POSITION OF THE GUNMAN WHEN HE FIRED AT THE TARGET, b. TO APPROXIMATE THE DISTANCE OF THE TARGET FROM THE MUZZLE OF THE GUN, c. TO ASCERTAIN THE DIRECTION OF THE WIND AT THE TIME OF THE FIRING, d. TO DETERMINE THE LENGTH OF THE BARREL OF THE GUN THAT WAS USED 152. What kind of ink that cannot be removed from a document by the action of chemical bleaching? a. LOGWOOD INK, b. NIGROSIN INK, c. GALLOTANIC INK, d. CARBON INK

Review Notes & Evaluation in Police Photography, Personal Identification, Forensic Ballistics & Forensic Chemistry By MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim 153. When a person is drunk, he is given strong, black coffee. What kind of antidote was given to the person? a. CHEMICAL, b. DEMULCANT, c. CATHARTIC, d. PHYSIOLOGICAL 154. When one needs to know whether the paper is not easily torn, the test applied is a. MICROSCOPIC EXAMINATION, b. CAPACITY EXAMINATION, c. ACCELERATED AGEING TEST, d. BURSTING STRENGTH TEST 155. When the gun is fired, the burnt powder and particles of molten metals are discharged and imbed themselves in the lower of the skin. The effect is known as a. SMUDGING, b. TATTOOING, c. SINGEING, d. SCORCHING 156. Where hair originates a. root b. shaft c. tip d. follicle 157. Which among the following is not an accurate test for the presence of alcohol in the human body. a. saliva test b. Harger breath test c. fecal test d. Drug test 158. Which of the following best describe animal fiber? a. IT IS COMPOSED OF PROTEIN, b. GIVES YELLOW FLUORESCENT UNDER ULTRAVIOLET LIGHT, c. IT BURNS FAST, d. IT HAS ACID LIKE ODOR WHEN BURNED 159. Which of the following drugs has low potential of developing psychological dependency? a. codeine b. barbiturates c. nicotine d. cocaine 160. Which of the following exhibits yellow fluorescence on exposure to ultra-violet light a. SEMEN, b. SALIVA, c. URINE, d. BLOOD 161. Which of the following factors affect the amount of gunpowder on the target? a. COMPOSITION OF GUNPOWDER, b. DIRECTION OF FIRING, c. CALIBER OF THE GUN, d. HUMIDITY 162. Which of the following ink is not oxidized after being deposited on paper? a. GALLOTANIC, b. LOGWOOD, c. NIGROSINE, d. COLORED WRITING 163. Why can some tampered serial numbers be restored by the use of etching solution, a. DUE TO DIFFERENCE IN THE KIND OF METAL, b. DUE TO DIFFERENCES IN MICROSTRUCTURE, c. DUE TO THE CONCENTRATION OF THE ETCHING SOLUTION, d. DUE TO THE STAMPING OF THE SERIAL NUMBER 164. Why is the crime of arson considered as personal crime? a. it can be committed without confronting the victim b. the victim and the arsonist knew each other c. the victim can provide the investigator both the motive and the suspect 165. That excites the user to action and losses his appetite. a. stimulants b. narcotic c. hallucinogens d. depressants 166. Made rather simply by reacting morphine with ACETIC ANHYDRIDE or ACETYL CHLORIDE. Heroin’s high solubility in water makes its street preparation for intravenous administration rather simple, for it is only by injection that heroin’s effects are almost instantaneously felt and with maximum sensitivity. a. opiates b. morphine c. heroin d. codeine 167. A sticky resin secreted by the plant. It can also be extracted from the plant by soaking in a solvent such as alcohol. On the illicit drug market, it usually appears in the form of compressed vegetation containing a high percentage of resin. a. cannabis sativa b. hashish c. sensimella d. THC 168. A diffusion of heat through a fluid by means of the flow of the hotter parts of the fluid to the colder parts. a. conduction b. convection c. radiation d. spontaneous combustion 169. An appendage of the skin. a. fiber b. hair c. warts d. mole 170. Branch of metallurgy which involves the study of the microstructures of metals and alloys. a. petrography b. metallurgy c. metallography d. etching (serial number restoration) 171. Chemical reagents are applied to small sections of the paper in order to determine the nature of constituents of fibers. a. burning test b. microscopic test c. chemical analysis d. fluorescence analysis 172. Composed of two compound microscopes combined into one unit. a. compound microscope b. stereoscopic microscope c. magnifying glass d. comparison microscope 173. Drugs which produce insensibility, stupor, melancholy or dullness of the mind with delusions. a. narcotics b. stimulants c. depressants d. hallucinogens 174. General description of human head hair in terms of medulla. a. interrupted b. fragmented c. intermittent d. continuous 175. It refers to the obscuring of writing by superimposing ink, pencil or other marking material. a. erasure b. obliterated writing c. indented writing d. contact writing 176. Light is directed up toward and through the specimen stage from an illuminator to the base. This is known as a. transmitted light b. incident light c. oblique light d. direct light 177. The core or center of hair. a. medulla b. cortex c. cuticle 178. The heat that is required of a substance before it will start to burn. a. temperature b. ignition temperature c. specific gravity d. specific heat

Review Notes & Evaluation in Police Photography, Personal Identification, Forensic Ballistics & Forensic Chemistry By MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim 179. The outside layer of hair. a. medulla b. cortex c. cuticle 180. This is done by building a little dam or retaining wall of modeling clay or paraffin around the area to be etched…. a. Charles A. Davis Method b. Retaining Wall Method c. Paraffin Diphenylamine Test d. Casting by Plaster of Paris 181. Used for viewing 3-dimensional objects. a. compound microscope b. stereoscopic microscope c. magnifying glass d. comparison microscope 182. A dark brown resin that is collected from the tops of potent Cannabis Sativa. a. marijuana b. hashish c. opium d. morphine 183. A hard grey metal, which is often ground to a powder that is stuck onto paper, cardboard, or cloth to make a tool for smoothing or polishing surfaces. a. scraper b. syrupy c. die d. emery 184. A supercooled liquid which possess high viscosity and rigidity. a. lime b. soda c. glass d. gel 185. Any effort to increase the total magnification beyond the limit will yield no additional detail. This is known as a. empty magnification b. depth of focus c. working distance d. field of view 186. Causes combustion when it is in contact with a sawdust or wood shavings. a. dust explosion b. mechanical explosion c. chemical explosion d. nuclear explosion 187. Determined instrumentally by the number of alternate folds it will stand before breaking. a. accelerated aging test b. bursting strength test c. opacity examination d. folding endurance 188. Helps give semen its characteristic color when viewed under UV light. a. flavins b. plasma c. serum d. hemoglobin 189. Odor of semen. a. chlorine b. alkaline c. pungent d. strong 190. The fluid produced by male sex organ. a. vaginal secretions b. anal fluids c. semen d. plasma 191. The process by which heat is transferred in straight lines from a source to a receiving materials without heating the intervening medium. a. radiation b. conduction c. convection d. spontaneous combustion 192. The rate of growth of scalp hair per day. a. 0.3 to 0.5 mm b. 3 to 5 mm c. .003 to .005 mm d. 30 to 50 mm 193. The revolving structure at the lower end of the body tube which bears the lower lenses. a. draw tube b. revolving nosepiece c. objective lenses d. eyepiece lenses 194. What does MUP stand for? a. sodium alphanaphthyl phosphate b. fast blue B dye c. Methelene Umbellica Phosphate d. 4-Methyl Umbelliferyl Phosphate 195. When the material burns in itself without the addition of outside source of heat. a. radiation b. conduction c. convection d. spontaneous combustion 196. Can occur in any industrial plant where combustible dusts are created or allowed to accumulate. a. BLVE b. Backdraft c. Dust Explosion d. Mechanical Explosion 197. Scientific name for cocaine. a. cannabis sativa b. methamphetamine hydrochloride c. erythroxylon coca d. methyl benzoyl ecgonine 198. Test used to indicate presence of cocaine. a. Nitric Acid b. KN c. Cobalt thiocyanate d. DillieKoppanyi 199. Very effective when use with water a. potassium permanganate b. calcium hypochloride c. metallic sodium d. potassium chlorate 200. Drugs that are not derived from opium or morphine. However, they have similar physiological effect on the body as the opium narcotics. a. opiates b. morphine c. heroin d. codeine 201. Produce a relaxing tranquility without impairment of high-thinking facilities or the inducement of sleep. a. alcohol b. barbiturates c. tranquilizers d. glue sniffing 202. A new smokable form of methamphetamine which is reported to be in heavy demand in some areas of the US. a. crack b. anabolic steroids c. ice d. methamphetamine 203. An example of volatile poison is a. alcohol b. alkaloids c. metals d. mercury 204. Arsenic, mercury and lead are examples of: a. metallic poisons b. volatile poisons c. onvolatile poisons d. organic poisons

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